WorldWideScience

Sample records for nucleon transfer untersuchung

  1. Nucleon transfer between heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Oertzen, W.

    1984-02-01

    Nucleon transfer reactions between heavy nuclei are characterized by the classical behaviour of the scattering orbits. Thus semiclassical concepts are well suited for the description of these reactions. In the present contribution the characteristics of single and multinucleon transfer reactions at energies below and above the Coulomb barrier are shown for systems like Sn+Sn, Xe+U and Ni+Pb. The role of the pairing interaction in the transfer of nucleon pairs is illustrated. For strong transitions the coupling of channels and the absorption into more complicated channels is taken into account in a coupled channels calculation

  2. sdg Interacting boson model: two nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview of the sdg interacting boson model (sdg IBM) is given. The two examples: (i) spectroscopic properties (spectra, B(E2)s, B(E4)s etc) of the rotor-γ unstable transitional Os-Pt isotopes and (ii) the analytical formulation of two nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors and sum-rule quantities are described in detail. They demonstrate that sdg IBM can be employed for systematic description of spectroscopic properties of nuclei and that large number of analytical formulas, which facilitate rapid analysis of data and provide a clear insight into the underlying structures, can be derived using sdg IBM dynamical symmetries respectively. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transfer of two nucleons between projectile and target in a direct or peripheral reaction such as (p,t) or ( 16 O, 14 C) may occur in one-step or two-steps. These we refer to as simultaneous and sequential transfers, respectively. In the former, the interaction acts once and both nucleons are transferred. In the latter, the interaction acts once to transfer one nucleon, the system then propagates in one or more intermediate states and is followed by a second action of the interaction to transfer the second nucleon. This process may be symbolized for the above examples as (p,d;d,t) and ( 16 O, 15 N; 15 N, 14 C), implying the intermediate formation of a deuteron or the nucleus 15 N. (Of course, the intermediate system may exist in more than one state of excitation). For simplicity, the (t,p) reaction is chosen to illustrate the theory

  4. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the perturbative treatment of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer reactions with special regards to the DWBA. As examples the (t,p), (p,t), and (α,d) reactions are considered. (HSI)

  5. Relations between the simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    The transfer of two nucleons between projectile and target in a direct or peripheral reaction such as (p,t) or ( 16 O, 14 C) may occur in one-step or two-steps. These we refer to as simultaneous and sequential transfers, respectively. In the former, the interaction acts once and both nucleons are transferred. In the latter, the interaction acts once to transfer one nucleon, the system then propagates in one or more intermediate states and is followed by a second action of the interaction to transfer the second nucleon. This process may be symbolized for the examples as (p,d; d,t) and ( 16 O, 15 N; 15 N, 14 C), implying the intermediate formation of a deuteron or the nucleus 15 N. In terms of a perturbation theory expansion, such as the distorted-wave Born series, simultaneous transfer is possible in first order while sequential transfer requires second order. The nuclear forces are predominantly two-body in character; hence, in first-order only one of the two nucleons experiences an interaction. The possibility of finding that the other nucleon has also transferred arises only because its state within the projectile is not orthogonal to the state in the target into which it transfers. In the two-step process each nucleon is transferred under the direct influence of an interaction with the target. The one-step and two-step amplitudes are frequently comparable in magnitude for light-ion reactions while the two-step may dominate in reactions with heavy ions. Our purpose here is to gain some insight into the relationship between the two amplitudes by using a simple approximate form of the theory. For simplicity, we shall discuss a light-ion reaction and, to be specific, we choose the (t,p) reaction (or the inverse (p,t) reaction)

  6. Investigation of mass transfer phenomena in biofilm systems; Untersuchung von Stoffuebergangsphaenomenen in Biofilmsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waesche, S.; Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik; Horn, H. [Fachhochschule Magdeburg (Germany). Hydro- und Abfallchemie

    1999-07-01

    Substance transfer in the boundary layer bulk/biofilm can be only inadequately described by conventional model concepts. In such cases where the surface structure of a biofilm adapts to given hydraulic conditions, the substance transfer phenomena need to be studied in depth. In addition, the entire biofilm structure is much influenced both by substrate conditions and by hydrodynamic conditions during growth. With a view to quantifying these factors, biofilms were cultured under various substrate and hydrodynamic conditions in tube reactors with a diameter of 2.6 cm. For characterizing the cultured biofilms, biofilm density and substrate turnover measured as maximum mass transfer density were determined in each test series. Biofilm density (dry biomass/biofilm volume) was determined by gravimetry. Maximum mass transfer densities in biofilm were established in batch experiments with excess substrate. By means of oxygen microelectrodes, oxygen profiles in the biofilm were measured directly in the reactor. These measurements concerned biofilms of thicknesses ranging from 400 to 2000 {mu}m, where the biofilms did not yet exhibit erosion. (orig.) [German] Der Stoffuebergang in der Grenzschicht Bulk/Biofilm ist mit herkoemmlichen Modellvorstellungen nur ungenuegend beschreibbar. Eine sich an die aktuellen hydraulischen Bedingungen anpassende Oberflaechenstruktur des Biofilms erfordert eine intensive Untersuchung der Stoffuebergangsphaenomene in derartigen Systemen. Darueber hinaus wird die gesamte Biofilmstruktur sowohl von den Substratbedingungen als auch von den hydrodynamischen Bedingungen waehrend des Wachstums stark beeinflusst. Um diese Faktoren quantifizieren zu koennen, wurden Biofilme bei verschiedenen Substrat- und hydrodynamischen Bedingungen in Rohrreaktoren mit einem Durchmesser von 2,6 cm kultiviert. Zur Charakterisierung der kultivierten Biofilme wurde die Biofilmdichte und der Substratumsatz, gemessen als maximale Massestromdichte, bei jeder Versuchsreihe

  7. Nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, K.

    2018-03-01

    Transfer reactions are a valuable tool to study the single-particle structure of nuclei. At radioactive beam facilities transfer reactions have to be performed in inverse kinematics. This creates a number of experimental challenges, but it also has some advantages over normal kinematics measurements. An overview of the experimental and theoretical methods for transfer reactions, especially with radioactive beams, is presented. Recent experimental results and highlights on shell evolution in exotic nuclei are discussed.

  8. Multi-nucleon transfer reaions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction mechanisms of multinucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions such as O 16 , Ne 22 , Ar 40 , Ge 74 , Kr 84 and Xe 136 are discussed. As an example, the transfer reactions of Th 232 bombarded with O 16 , Ne 22 and Ar 40 ions are described. Some general features and a semiclassical picture of these reactions are presented. Cross sections, energy spectra and angular distributions are derived for the products of these reactions. The energy dependence of nucleon transfer cross sections in the interaction of Ge 74 with Th 232 is discussed. The importance of the study of multinucleon transfer reactions in the production of neutron-rich isotopes and transuranium elements is pointed out. (A.K.)

  9. Many-nucleon transfer reactions at the coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the many-nucleon transfer with heavy ion radiation near the coulomb barrier. The neutron-rich targets 76 Ge, sup(92,94,96)Zr and 100 Mo were thus irradiated with 32 S and 34 S radiation. By measuring the activity of the back-scattered light reaction products in the transfer, total cross sections were determined for the 3p, 4p, 3pn, 4pn, 3n, 4n and 6n transfer. Excitation functions for the 3p, 4p, 3pn and 4pn transfer were measured for the target-projectile combination 96 Zr- 32 S. Differential cross sections could be determined with 96 Zr and 100 Mo. The results were compared with various theoretical calculations. (orig./LH) [de

  10. Multi-nucleon transfer: a probe to investigate the reaction mechanism around the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Samit K.

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of multi-nucleon transfer mechanism offers valuable information on the pairing interactions that enhance the transfer of nucleon pairs across heavy ions involved in the reaction. These reactions are also a useful tool to study exotic nuclei far from the stability line, which can be explored with the new generation radioactive beam facility. In this talk, multi-nucleon transfer reaction mechanisms between heavy ions and their effect on the reaction dynamics around the coulomb barrier energies have been discussed. Experimental results will be presented with a semi classical description of multi nucleon transfer reaction calculation. One and two nucleon transfer cross sections reproduced using a quantum mechanical coupled channel calculations will also be discussed. A feasibility of investigation of multi-nucleon transfer mechanism to explore the pairing correlation at moderate spin states with radioactive beams will be discussed. (author)

  11. Properties of simultaneous and sequential two-nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, W.T.; Satchler, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Approximate forms of the first- and second-order distorted-wave Born amplitudes are used to study the overall structure, particularly the selection rules, of the amplitudes for simultaneous and sequential transfer of two nucleons. The role of the spin-state assumed for the intermediate deuterons in sequential (t, p) reactions is stressed. The similarity of one-step and two-step amplitudes for (α, d) reactions is exhibited, and the consequent absence of any obvious J-dependence in their interference is noted. (orig.)

  12. One-nucleon transfer reactions and the optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, F M; Ross, A; Titus, L J; Charity, R J; Dickhoff, W H; Mahzoon, M H; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-01-01

    We provide a summary of new developments in the area of direct reaction theory with a particular focus on one-nucleon transfer reactions. We provide a status of the methods available for describing (d,p) reactions. We discuss the effects of nonlocality in the optical potential in transfer reactions. The results of a purely phenomenological potential and the optical potential obtained from the dispersive optical model are compared; both point toward the importance of including nonlocality in transfer reactions explicitly. Given the large ambiguities associated with optical potentials, we discuss some new developments toward the quantification of this uncertainty. We conclude with some general comments and a brief account of new advances that are in the pipeline.

  13. Nuclear structure effects in multi-nucleon transfer and sequential fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, D.C.

    2001-01-01

    The role of the nuclear structure in multi-nucleon transfer and sequential fission reactions has been discussed. The recent results on multi-nucleon transfer and transfer induced fission reaction, have brought out many interesting features in understanding the reaction mechanism and collective dynamics of heavy ion reactions. The structure of the projectile nucleus has strong influence on the transfer of multi-nucleons and/or clusters from the projectile to the target. The mechanism of multi-nucleon transfer between two heavy nuclei is a complex process which has a strong dependence on the ground state Q-value of the reaction as well as on the number of transferred nucleons

  14. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  15. Production of actinide nuclei by multi-nucleon transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multi-nucleon transfers have increasingly allowed us to reach parts of the nuclear chart where regular compound nuclear reactions are prohibited. The interesting region of Ra and Rn, where a rich tapestry of nuclear structure manifests itself, is now accessible using this technique of deep inelastic scattering. In particular, these nuclei are predicted to lie at the onset of octupole deformation and the region is rich in examples of shape coexistence. There are several theoretical predictions of nuclear structure of these nuclei that have not been experimentally tested. Moreover, there is serious disagreement among these theories. We used a beam of {sup 136}Xe at 720 MeV from ATLAS on a target of {sup 232}Th to produce a range of Rn isotopes, with a mass from 220 to 224, and Ra isotopes with masses greater than 222. The beam energy, target and beam were selected carefully to enhance the cross-section for production of these nuclei and reduce the Doppler broadening of the gamma rays that were observed in the Argonne Notre Dame gamma-ray facility. The 12 germanium detectors of this array allowed the observation of gamma-gamma coincidences. The inner ball of 50 BGO detectors allowed us to record the multiplicity and sum-energy information for each event. The latter should permit us to determine the entry region in the products of the transfer reaction. We had four successful days of beam-time, when we collected in excess of 8 x 10{sup 7} events. Data analysis is in progress at the University of Liverpool. A complete set of spectroscopic information on the yrast structure of the many nuclei produced in this reaction is being extracted.

  16. Multiple nucleon transfer in damped nuclear collisions. [Lectures, mass charge, and linear and angular momentum transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J.

    1979-07-01

    This lecture discusses a theory for the transport of mass, charge, linear, and angular momentum and energy in damped nuclear collisions, as induced by multiple transfer of individual nucleons. 11 references.

  17. Super-multi-nucleon transfer observed in 60Ni+124Sn reaction slightly above the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasi, E.; Pravikoff, M.S.; Nolte, E.; Morinaga, H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of nucleon transfer near the Coulomb barrier through the produced radioactivities, we have studied the 60 Ni+ 124 Sn system, the residual activity measurements were done at three lab energies of 237, 247 and 258 MeV (Bsub(c)(lab) = 234 MeV). For the highest energy we measured also the angular distribution. In addition to activities corresponding to a few nucleon transfers and evaporation residues, a large number of radioactive nuclei was found, which could be attributed to another class of reaction mechanism. Here, we report on this new phenomenon, which might be due to a super-multi-nucleon transfer, on the basis of the measured angular and mass distributions

  18. Nucleon transfer reactions to rotational states induced by 206,208PB projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollersheim, H.J.; DeBoer, F.W.N.; Emling, H.; Grein, H.; Grosse, E.; Spreng, W.; Eckert, G.; Elze, Th.W.; Stelzer, K.; Lauterbach, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    In a systematic study of nucleon transfer reactions accompanied by Coulomb excitation the authors bombarded 152 Sm, 160 Gd and 232 Th with 206, 208 Pb beams at incident energies close to the Coulomb barrier. Particle-gamma coincidence techniques were used to identify excited states of reaction products populated through inelastic scattering and in nucleon transfer reactions. Large cross sections were observed for one- and two-neutron pick-up from 232 Th at an incident energy of 6.4 MeV/μ. The results are analyzed in the framework of semiclassical models

  19. Describing the nucleon electromagnetic form factors at high momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Desplanques, B.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic constituent-quark model. The emphasis is put on the reliability and accuracy of present day numerical methods used to solve the three-body problem. The high-q 2 behaviour of the form factors is determined by the form of the wave function at short distances and, due to the small absolute values that one deals with, an accurate solution is essential. Refs. 5, figs. 2 (author)

  20. Possibilities of production of neutron-rich Md isotopes in multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Myeong-Hwan; Lee, Young-Ouk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The possibilities of production of yet unknown neutron-rich isotopes of Md are explored in several multi-nucleon transfer reactions with actinide targets and stable and radioactive beams. The projectile-target combinations and bombarding energies are suggested to produce new neutron-rich isotopes of Md in future experiments. (orig.)

  1. L-dependence in the 6Li induced three nucleon transfer excitation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, L.; Linck, I.

    1980-01-01

    The three nucleon transfer reactions induced by 6 Li on 12 C were studied from 5 to 9 MeV/n. The bell-shaped energy variation is used to select cluster states of progressively higher angular momentum. A modification to the Brink semi-classical model equations is proposed in order to reproduce the observed features

  2. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU sdg (3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0 + states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author)

  3. Analytical expressions for two-nucleon transfer spectroscopic factors in sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Y.D.; Kota, V.K.B. (Physical Research Lab., Ahmedabad (India))

    1991-11-01

    Analytical expressions for two-nucleon (l = 0,2 and 4) transfer spectroscopic factors are derived in the SU{sub sdg}(3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model. In addition, large N (boson number) limit expressions for the ratio of summed l = 0 transfer strength to excited 0{sup +} states to that of ground state are derived in all the symmetry limits of the sdg model. Some comparisons with data are made. (author).

  4. Ambiguities in the description of nucleon transfer in deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworzecka, M.; Zielinska-Pfabe, M.; Griffin, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Here the authors discuss certain ambiguities which are in the description of (N,Z) evolution in heavy ion collisions by means of nucleon exchange models. Such descriptions have been formulated either in terms of Markovian Master (MM) equations (or its approximate version in the form of Fokker-Planck equation) in terms of transition rates per unit time, or in terms of Random Walk (RW) on the energy surface in terms of transition probabilities per nucleon exchanged. In a series of papers they have shown that the RW is the useful tool in studying probability distributions of particle numbers (protons and neutrons) as a function of energy loss. The authors purpose was to compare the implications of different (often competing) physical mechanisms for specific features of the (N-Z) distribution. One result of that analysis was that not all of the kinetic energy loss could be attributed to the nucleon transfer process assumed; rather, an additional step had to be allowed in the random walk in which no nucleon is transferred, but kinetic energy is lost nonetheless. Only then could the total width, σ/sub A/ 2 , of the (N-Z) distribution (as a function of energy loss) be made to conform with the experimental data. Conversely requiring this conformance yielded a specific value of the average relative probability for this additional non-transfer step

  5. Measurements of the nucleon form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andivahis, L.; Bosted, P.; Lung, A.; Arnold, R.; Keppel, C.; Rock, S.; Spengos, M.; Szalata, Z.; Tao, L.; Stuart, L.; Dietrich, F.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Chang, C.; Dodge, W.; Gearhart, R.; Kuhn, S.; Gomez, J.; Griffioen, K.; Hicks, R.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.; Rokni, S.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Swartz, K.; Petratos, G.; Sakumoto, W.

    1992-12-01

    New measurements of the electric G E (Q 2 ) and magnetic G M (Q 2 ) form factors of the nucleons are reported. The proton data cover the Q 2 range from 1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/c) 2 and the neutron data from 1.75 to 4.00 (GeV/c) 2 , more than doubling the range of previous data. Scaled by the dipole fit, G D (Q 2 ), the results for G Mp (Q 2 )/μ p G D (Q 2 ) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.92, while G Ep (Q 2 )/G D (Q 2 ) is consistent with unity. The preliminary results for Gm.(Q2)1 GD(Q2) consistent with unity, while F En 2 is consistent with zero at all values of Q 2 . Comparisons are made to QCD Sum Rule, diquark, constituent quark, and VMD models, none of which agree with all of the new data

  6. Large momentum transfer electron scattering from few-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1979-08-01

    A review is given of the experimental results from a series of measurements at SLAC of large momentum transfer (Q 2 > 20 fm -2 ) electron scattering at forward angles from nuclei with A less than or equal to 4. Theoretical interpretations of these data in terms of traditional nuclear physics models and in terms of quark constituent models are described. Some physics questions for future experiments are explored, and a preview of possible future measurements of magnetic structure functions of light nuclei at large Q 2 is given

  7. SU(6)-strong breaking: structure functions and small momentum transfer properties of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Pene, O.; Raynal, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A new approach in the study of the SU(6) symmetry breaking (in particular in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering) is presented. It is shown that there is a connection between deep inelastic and low momentum transfer or static properties of the nucleon, which extends much beyond the common SU(6) 56-assignments of the nucleon in both cases. This connection is provided by the realistic quark model (in which quarks are considered as real entities moving inside the hadron). Using this connection it is shown that the breaking of the prediction Fsub(2)sup(en)/Fsub(2)sup(ep)=2/3 is not truly related to chiral configuration mixings. An alternative solution, based on a true modification of the 56-assignment of the nucleon to a (56,L=0)+(70,L=0) mixing (called SU(6) strong mixing) is proposed. It is shown that the 'good' predictions of SU(6) are not much changed by this mixing. A complete description of the deep inelastic scattering including gluons and pairs is presented

  8. Technology transfer of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    Among the many beneficial applications of radiation and radioisotopes in industry which are now well established in advanced countries, the applications of nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry have great potential for developing Member States. The use of nucleonic on-stream analyzers in the coal industry has resulted in enormous technical and economic benefits in addition to minimization of environmental pollution. Large savings have also resulted from the use of such analyzers in the processing of other minerals. Nuclear borehole logging techniques have demonstrated great potential in oil and gas evaluation. Radiotracer investigations have led to process optimisation and trouble shooting in various stages in ore processing and metallurgy. Though the technical and economic benefits of applications of nuclear techniques in the mineral industry are well recognised, technology transfer in these areas has been hampered by a variety of factors. In order to review the status and trends in nuclear techniques and nucleonic control systems in the mineral industry and the problems and considerations in their technology transfer to developing Member States, the IAEA convened an Advisory Group Meeting in Bombay, India, 15-19 January 1990. The present publication is based on the 7 contributions presented at this meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Nucleon transfer reactions in D.W.B.A; Les reactions de transfert d'un nucleon dans la D.W.B.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B; Picard, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-08-01

    The DWBA for one nucleon transfer reaction is described as simply and completely as possible to show the possibilities and limits of this method. The extraction of spectroscopic factors is described in the appendix. (authors) [French] Le formalisme de la DWBA est decrit d'une maniere aussi simple et complete que possible pour mettre en evidence les possibilites et les limites de cette methode d'analyse des reactions de transfert. L'extraction des facteurs spectroscopiques est exposee en appendice. (auteurs)

  10. Study of actinides fission induced by multi-nucleon transfer reactions in inverse kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derkx, X.

    2010-10-01

    The study of actinide fission encounters two major issues. On one hand, measurements of the fission fragment distributions and the fission probabilities allow a better understanding of the fission process itself and the discrimination among the models of nuclear structure and dynamics. On the other hand, new measurements are required to improve nuclear data bases, which are a key component for the design of new generation reactors and radio-toxic waste incinerators. This thesis is in line with different French and American experimental projects using the surrogate method, i.e. transfer reactions leading to the same compound nuclei as in neutron irradiation, allowing the study of fission of actinides which are inaccessible by conventional techniques, whereas they are important for applications. The experiment is based on multi-nucleon transfer reactions between a 238 U beam and a 12 C target, using the inverse kinematics technique to measure, for each transfer channel, the complete isotopic distributions of the fission fragments with the VAMOS spectrometer. The work presented in this dissertation is focused on the identification of the transfer channels and their properties, as their angular distributions and the distributions of the associated excitation energy, using the SPIDER telescope to identify the target recoil nuclei. This work of an exploratory nature aims to generalize the surrogate method to heavy transfers and to measure, for the first time, the fission probabilities in inverse kinematics. The obtained results are compared with available direct kinematics and neutron irradiation measurements. (author)

  11. Nucleon transfer reactions in D.W.B.A; Les reactions de transfert d'un nucleon dans la D.W.B.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, B.; Picard, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-08-01

    The DWBA for one nucleon transfer reaction is described as simply and completely as possible to show the possibilities and limits of this method. The extraction of spectroscopic factors is described in the appendix. (authors) [French] Le formalisme de la DWBA est decrit d'une maniere aussi simple et complete que possible pour mettre en evidence les possibilites et les limites de cette methode d'analyse des reactions de transfert. L'extraction des facteurs spectroscopiques est exposee en appendice. (auteurs)

  12. Spectroscopic study of 228-234Th nuclei using multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amzal, N.; Butler, P.A.; Cann, K.J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, G.D.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Asztalos, S.; Clark, R.M.; Deleplanque, M.A.; Diamond, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Lees, I.Y.; Machiavelli, A.O.; MacLeod, R.W.; Stephens, F.S.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Smith, J.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Zhang, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Light-actinide nuclei in the octupole deformed region have been populated using multi-nucleon transfer from 232 Th. The energy level schemes of several thorium isotopes with A=228-234 have been extended up to I∼24ℎ and negative parity states have been observed for the first time in 234 Th. A systematic study of the difference in alignment between the positive- and negative-parity bands in thorium nuclei in this mass region shows that 228,230,234 Th behave like octupole vibrators, in contrast with 224,226 Th, which are octupole-deformed in character. An intrinsic electric dipole moment has been measured for the first time in 234 Th. The small value obtained is consistent with the vibrational description of this nucleus. (author)

  13. Few-body semiclassical approach to nucleon transfer and emission reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanov Renat A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-body semiclassical model is proposed to describe the nucleon transfer and emission reactions in a heavy-ion collision. In this model the two heavy particles, i.e. nuclear cores A1(ZA1, MA1 and A2(ZA2, MA2, move along classical trajectories R→1(t${{\\vec R}_1}\\left( t \\right$ and R→2(t${{\\vec R}_2}\\left( t \\right$ respectively, while the dynamics of the lighter neutron (n is considered from a quantum mechanical point of view. Here, Mi are the nucleon masses and Zi are the Coulomb charges of the heavy nuclei (i = 1, 2. A Faddeev-type semiclassical formulation using realistic paired nuclear-nuclear potentials is applied so that all three channels (elastic, rearrangement and break-up are described in a unified manner. In order to solve the time-dependent equations the Faddeev components of the total three-body wave-function are expanded in terms of the input and output channel target eigenfunctions. In the special case, when the nuclear cores are identical (A1 ≡ A2 and also the two-level approximation in the expansion over the target (subsystem functions is used, the time-dependent semiclassical Faddeev equations are resolved in an explicit way. To determine the realistic R→1(t${{\\vec R}_1}\\left( t \\right$ and R→2(t${{\\vec R}_2}\\left( t \\right$ trajectories of the nuclear cores, a self-consistent approach based on the Feynman path integral theory is applied.

  14. Potential and limitations of nucleon transfer experiments with radioactive beams at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Gund, C.; Cub, J.; Dietrich, A.; Hartlein, T.; Lenske, H.; Pansegrau, D.; Richter, A.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.

    2001-01-01

    As a tool for studying the structure of nuclei far off stability the technique of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy after low-energy single-nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive nuclear beams in inverse kinematics was investigated. Modules of the MINIBALL germanium array and a thin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) to be employed in future experiments at REX-ISOLDE were used in a test experiment performed with a stable $^{36}$S beam on deuteron and $^{9}$Be targets. It is demonstrated that the Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$ lines detected by the MINIBALL modules is considerably reduced by exploiting their segmentation, and that for beam intensities up to 10$^{6}$ particles/s the PPAC positioned around zero degrees with respect to the beam axis allows not only to significantly reduce the gamma background by requiring coincidences with the transfer products but also to control the beam and its intensity by single particle counting. The predicted large neutron pickup cross-sections of neut...

  15. Microscopic calculation of absolute values of two-nucleon transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potel, G.; Bayman, B. F.; Barranco, F.

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the greatest achievement of many-body physics in the fifties was that of providing the basis for a complete description and a thorough understanding of superconductivity in metals. At the basis of it one finds BCS theory and Josephson effect. The first recognized the central role played by the appearance of a macroscopic coherent field -usually viewed as a condensate of strongly overlapping Cooper pairs-, the quasiparticle vacuum. The second realized that a true gap is not essential for such a state of matter to exist, but rather a finite expectation value of the pair field. Consequently, the specific probe to study the superconducting state is Cooper pair tunneling. Important progress in the understanding of pairing in atomic nuclei may arise from the systematic study of two-particle transfer reactions. Although this subject of research started about the time of the BCS papers, the quantitative calculation of absolute cross sections taking properly into account the full non-locality of the Cooper pairs (correlation length much larger than nuclear dimensions) is still an open problem. We present in this talk the results obtained within a second order DWBA framework for two- nucleon transfer reactions around the Coulomb barrier induced both by heavy and light ions. The calculations were done using a computer code developed for this purpose including the sequential and simultaneous contributions to the process, with microscopic form factors which take into account the relevant structure aspects of the process, such as the nature of the single-particle wavefunctions, the spectroscopic factors, and the interaction potential responsible for the transfer. Reasonable agreement with the experimental absolute values of the differential cross section is obtained without any parameter adjustment (see Figure 1).(author)

  16. Three-nucleon transfer reactions and cluster structure in the A = 15 to A = 19 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    The ( 6 Li,t) and ( 6 Li, 3 He) reactions were studied on targets of 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, and 16 O at E/sub Li/ approx. = 44 MeV and theta/sub lab/ approx. = 15 0 . A preferential population of final states was exhibited in spectra for the A = 15 to A = 19 nuclei. The strong forward peaking of angular distributions in the 13 C( 6 Li,t) 16 O and 13 C( 6 Li, 3 He) 16 N reactions can be reproduced by DWBA calculations but not by the Hauser-Feshbach model. Such indications of a primarily direct mechanism at forward angles suggest use of these three-nucleon-transfer reactions to identify candidates for 3p-nh states. A comparison with other multinucleon transfer data, e.g., those from ( 7 Li,α) and ( 7 Li,t) reactions on 13 C and 15 N targets, further tests dominant particle-hole configurations. The relationship between ( 6 Li,t) and ( 6 Li, 3 He) spectra reveals analog states, notably T = 1, T/sub z/ = 0 levels at high excitation in 16 O. Nuclear theory is used to investigate the role of triton clustering in such structure. The 2N + L = 6 band predicted by a folded-potential model of 18 O = 15 N + t shows an underlying correspondence to the experimental levels in triton-transfer data. Triton spectroscopic factors calculated from the SU(3) shell model further suggest the broad influence of clustering phenomena in this mass region. Experimental evidence of systematic behavior in the triton binding energies of proposed p/sup -n/(sd) 3 configurations was found

  17. Evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy from the Coulomb-barrier to relativistic energies. - Two-center effects in nucleon transfer between nuclei. - Signatures of nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions at barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertzen, W. von; Voit, H.; Imanishi, B.

    1988-10-01

    This report contains a review article considering the evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy in heavy ion reactions and two theoretical articles concerning two-center effects in transfer reactions between heavy ions and the nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  18. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  19. The behavior of the slope of elastic nucleon scattering at small transfer momenta and recent U A 4/2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, S.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.; Selyugin, O.V.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the behavior of the slope of the nucleon-nucleon scattering and other parameters of the differential cross sections in the framework of the dynamic model are compared with the recent U A 4/2 data at small transfer momenta and at a centre-of-mass energy of 541 GeV. Predictions at superhigh energies are considered. (author.). 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  20. Study of multi nucleon transfer in "9","1"1Li + "2"0"8Pb reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodkumar, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most active areas of research with radioactive beams is the study of the fusion of weakly bound nuclei, such as the halo nuclei. The central issue is whether the fusion cross section will be enhanced due to the large nuclear size of the halo nucleus or whether fusion-limiting breakup of the weakly bound valence nucleons will lead to a decreased fusion cross section. The fusion of "9","1"1Li with "2"0"8Pb were reported. These measurements were carried out at TRIUMF, Canada. These measurements suggests at above barrier energies, fusion hindrance is taking place in the case of "1"1Li projectile. However, sub barrier fusion measurement need a lower energy measurement. These measurements also suggest need for further measurement of transfer and breakup channels in these reactions. So we suggest a measurement of multi nucleon transfer in the case of "9Li + "2"0"8Pb. Also, these measurement will be able to produce the same nuclei as suggested in the ISOLDE experiment by, where "2"1"2","2"1"4Pb and "2"0"8","2"1"0Hg nuclei for studying the spectroscopy of these nuclei. (author)

  1. Dynamical evolution of angular momentum in damped nuclear reactions. I. Accumulation of angular momentum by nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    An important goal in the theory of nuclear dynamics is to understand the observed transport phenomena in terms of the basic microscopic processes in the system. For this purpose a model was developed in which the dissipative mechanism responsible for the transport process is the transfer of nucleons between the two reacting nuclides. Until now, most efforts to confront that theory with data have concentrated on the evolution of the charge and mass distribution with energy loss, and overall good agreement has been obtained for a variety of features. While this success lends strong support to the theory, it is important to broaden the contact with experiment by considering also other aspects of the data. Therefore the authors have undertaken a comprehensive study of the angular momentum variables which represent six additional observables (three for each fragment spin) and thus provide a rich testing ground for the theory

  2. Treatment for the recoil effects of the multi-step heavy-ion nucleon transfers with the orthogonalized coupled-reaction-channel theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misono, S.; Imanishi, B.

    1997-02-01

    We have investigated recoil effects in heavy-ion reactions for the nucleon transfers, and the validity of the spatially local approximation for the non-local transfer interaction defined by the orthogonalized coupled-reaction-channel (OCRC) theory. This approximation makes it easier to treat multi-step transfer processes with the coupled channel method and makes it possible to define the nucleon molecular orbitals with the inclusion of the recoil effects. The transfer interaction is expanded in a power series of the momentum operator, and is approximated by the first order term, i.e., the spatially local term. The numerical calculation for the core-symmetric systems 12 C+ 13 C and 16 O+ 17 O with this approximation shows that the recoil effects are well included in the results at energies lower than a few MeV/nucleon. Furthermore, the OCRC formalism allows us even to employ the complete no-recoil approximation for the calculation of cross sections, even though it is not adequate to use this approximation in the distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) method. As to polarization, however, the no-recoil approximation is not good even in the OCRC formalism. We discuss the recoil effects on nucleon molecular-orbital states. It is shown that states of the covalent molecular orbitals of the valence (transferred) nucleon are little affected by the recoil effects, as already suggested by Korotky et al. in the full finite-range DWBA analysis of the transfer reaction, 13 C( 13 C, 12 C) 14 C. (author). 59 refs

  3. Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.; Avila, O.

    1986-04-01

    The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system 209 Bi(d,t) 208 Bi. (Author)

  4. Electromagnetic interactions of nucleons and nuclei at low energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.

    1994-01-01

    In these lectures I concentrate on the manifestation of subnuclear degrees of freedom in terms of meson and isobar degrees of freedom in electromagnetic processes where their presence usually is described in terms of so-called exchange or interaction currents. In Section 2 I first discuss the general properties of the electromagnetic interaction, the gauge conditions and low-energy theorems which follow from gauge invariance, the charge and current density operators for a non-relativistic system of nucleons and the Siegert theorem. In Section 3 I sketch the basic ideas and construction methods for the exchange current operators as effective operators and in Section 4 the model of nuclear isobar configurations introducing explicitly isobar degrees of freedom into the nuclear wave function. The general features of one- and two-photon processes are discussed in Section 5. First the expressions for the cross sections of photoabsorption and electron scattering are reviewed. As a specific but important example, I then discuss the two-body break-up of the deuteron since it permits the cleanest analysis and provides one of the best evidences for the presence of subnuclear degrees of freedom due to its simple two-body structure within the classical nuclear physics framework. This is a unique situation because in more complex nuclei the analysis is often hampered by presently still unavoidable approximations of the many-body problem. I furthermore discuss the role of meson exchange currents in the photonuclear TRK sum rule, in particular, I carefully analyse what determines the enhancement. This section ends with a brief discussion of elastic photon scattering with special emphasis on the low-energy theorem for the scattering amplitude and the sum rule relations for the low-energy parameters. (orig.)

  5. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, J.; Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c i † ) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM

  6. The one nucleon transfer operator in the microscopic IBM without NOA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barea, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, 4070386 Chile (Chile); Alonso, C.E.; Arias, J.M. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1065, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-10-07

    The mapping of the single fermion creation operator (c{sub i}{sup †}) onto the Interacting Boson–Fermion space (IBFM) is revisited within the Generalized Seniority scheme. In the original work the Number Operator Approximation (NOA) was used. Here the exact evaluation of the relevant terms using exact values for the fermion matrix elements in the Generalized Seniority scheme is worked out. This provides a new, improved, single particle transfer operator to be used in IBFM.

  7. Study of multi-nucleon transfer reactions in {sup 58,} {sup 64}Ni + {sup 207}Pb collisions at the velocity filter SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comas, V.F.; Heinz, S.; Ackermann, D.; Heredia, J.A.; Hessberger, F.P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hofmann, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Institut fuer Physik, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    We investigated multi-nucleon transfer reactions in collisions of {sup 58}Ni + {sup 207}Pb and {sup 64}Ni + {sup 207}Pb at Coulomb barrier energies. The new aspect is that we used a velocity filter (SHIP at GSI) for the separation of the heavy target-like transfer products from background events. The isotopic identification was performed via the {alpha} decay properties of the reaction products. The goal of the experiment was to study the characteristics of multi-nucleon transfer reactions in the region of heavy nuclei and the applicability of existing separation and detection techniques, which are usually used for identification of heavy fusion-evaporation residues, to heavy transfer products. This was motivated by recent theoretical results from macroscopic-microscopic models which suggest deep inelastic transfer reactions in heavy systems as a means to produce new neutron-rich isotopes in the region of N = 126 and in the region of superheavy nuclei. In this paper we present the isotopic yields, the excitation functions and the excitation energies of the heavy transfer products with Z > 82 as well as the influence of shell effects on the reaction products. The influence of the different neutron numbers of the projectiles is also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Nucleon quark structure and strong meson-nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The nucleon is considered as a three-quark system in virton-quark model. The main statistic properties of proton and neutron are calculated: magnetic moments, electromagnetic radii, G A /G V ratio in weak neutron decay. Strong meson-nucleon form factors which determine nucleon-nucleon potential are obtained as a function of squared transfer momentum of mesons. The results are compared with phenomenological form factors used for description of phases of NN-scattering in the one-boson-, exchange model

  9. One nucleon transfer reactions around $^{68}$Ni at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Blazhev, A A; Kruecken, R; Mertzimekis, T; Darby, I G; Lagogiannis, A; Habs, D; Diriken, J V J; Patronis, N

    2008-01-01

    We intend to investigate the single particle properties of the neutron-rich Ni isotopes in the mass region around $^{68}$Ni and at a later stage towards the doubly-magic $^{78}$Ni. As a first experiment we propose to study the single particle character of the ground and first excited states of $^{67}$Ni. This nucleus will be the projectile-like reaction product for the one-neutron transfer reaction. A $^{66}$Ni beam at 3A MeV delivered from REX-ISOLDE will be directed on a CD$_{2}$ target. Protons produced from the (d,p) reaction will be detected either in singles or in coincidence with ${\\gamma}$-rays recorded by the MINIBALL array. The particles will be detected by the newly-built Si position-sensitive barrel configuration. The objectives of this work are the unambiguous determination of the spins and parities of the first excited states of $^{67}$Ni and measurement of the relative spectroscopic factors of those states as well as of the ground state. The experimental results will be compared with those from...

  10. Study of one-nucleon transfer reactions with polarized deuterons of 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seichert, N.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the results of the study of (d vector,p), (d vector,t), and (d vector, 3 He) reactions at Esub(d)approx.=20 MeV on the target nuclei 16 O, 18 O, 28 Si, 36 Ar, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 54 Cr, 65 Cu, 90 Zr, 144 Sm, and 208 Pb in the framework of a DWBA analysis are presented. The collection of the results of the analysis over this wide mass range shall permit a survey, how well the conventional DWBA describes the measured angular distributions of dsigma/dΩ(theta) and iT 11 (theta). Furthermore in justified cases the contribution of higher order processes (inelastic transfer) are studied by means of a CCBA analysis. The spectroscopical possibilities given by the measurement of the analyzing power iT 11 (theta) are presented in detail on the example of the reaction 144 Sm (d vector,p) 145 Sm. The analysis of the tensor analyzing power T 21 (theta) in the framework of a finite range DWBA in the last part of the thesis permits quantitative statements about the D state amplitude in the relative wave function of the deuteron, the triton, and of 3 He. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Nucleon-nucleon scattering data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricky, J.; Lehar, F.

    1981-01-01

    The present review contains a compilation of p-p, n-n, n-p and p-n elastic scattering data, total cross sections for elastic and inelastic nucleon-nucleon processes as well as the slope parameters and the ratios of the real to the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude measured at all energies. The data are given in detailed tables with comments on each measurement. Summary tables, nucleon-nucleon kinematics formulae, transformation tables for kinematics, a detailed list of references and an author index complete the paper. (orig.)

  12. Nucleonic gauging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, A.

    1977-01-01

    The present position of nucleonic techniques for process measurements, is considered from the technical and cost viewpoints. Systems considered include level, density, thickness (including coating thickness), moisture, and sulphur in hydrocarbons gauges and also belt weighers. The advantages of such systems are discussed and the cost-benefit position considered. The combination of nucleonic measuring equipment with a microcomputer is examined. (U.K.)

  13. Sub-coulomb transfer method of a nucleon for measure orbital radii; Metodo de transferencia sub-coulombiana de un nucleon para medir radios orbitales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Murillo, G.; Ramirez, J.; Avila, O. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1986-04-15

    The neutron transfer method is revised to measure neutron orbital radii and possible interest systems to apply it are determined. Its were carried out DWBA preliminary calculations for the system {sup 209} Bi(d,t) {sup 208} Bi. (Author)

  14. Technical data on nucleonic gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    This nucleonic gauge manual and directory provides a reference database of nucleonic control systems available to potential users in the fields of exploration, exploitation and processing of natural resources and in the manufacturing industries. It starts with background information an the general principals of nucleonic gauges, followed by portable nuclear analysis systems (PNAS), computer tomography, cost-benefit on NCS (Nucleonic Control Systems) applications and trends and transfer of NCS technology. It continues with radiation protection and safety, discusses nucleonic gauges with low radioactivity sources and ends with typical models of nucleonic gauges. The basic principles of the most popular techniques are reviewed and reference data links to suppliers are provided. Information sheets on many typical commercial devices are also included. It will help end-users to select the most suitable alternative to solve a particular problem or to measure a certain parameter in a specific process

  15. Is the nucleon strange?

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M A; Zahed, I

    1989-01-01

    The issue of the strangeness content of the proton in relation to a large σ π N term is examined using the instanton-antiinstanton description of the QCD ground state. Modulo plausible assumptions, our results indicate no strangeness admixture in the nucleon state at zero momentum transfer.

  16. Search for proton emission in {sup 54}Ni and multi-nucleon transfer reactions in the actinide region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geibel, Kerstin

    2012-06-15

    The first part of the thesis presents the investigation of fusion-evaporation reactions in order to verify one-proton emission from the isomeric 10{sup +} state in the proton rich nucleus {sup 54}Ni. Between the years 2006 and 2009 a series of experimental studies were performed at the Tandem accelerator in the Institut fuer Kernphysik (IKP), University of Cologne. These experiments used fusion-evaporation reactions to populate {sup 54}Ni via the two-neutron-evaporation channel of the compound nucleus {sup 56}Ni. The cross section for the population of the ground state of {sup 54}Ni was predicted to be in orders of microbarn. This required special care with respect to the sensitivity of the experimental setup, which consisted of a double-sided silicon-strip detector (DSSSD), a neutron-detector array and HPGe detectors. In two experiments the excitation functions of the reactions ({sup 32}S+{sup 24}Mg) and ({sup 28}Si+{sup 28}Si) were determined to find the optimal experimental conditions for the population of {sup 54}Ni. A final experiment employed a {sup 28}Si beam at an energy of 70 MeV, impinging on a {sup 28}Si target. With a complex analysis it is possible to obtain a background-free energy spectrum of the DSSSD. An upper cross section limit for the population of the 10{sup +} state in {sup 54}Ni is established at σ({sup 54}Ni(10{sup +})) ≤ (13.9 ± 7.8) nbarn. In the second part of the thesis the population of actinide nuclei by multi-nucleon transfer reactions is investigated. Two experiments, performed in 2007 and 2008 at the CLARA-PRISMA setup at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, are analyzed with respect to the target-like reaction products. In both experiments {sup 238}U was used as target. A {sup 70}Zn beam with 460 MeV and a {sup 136}Xe beam with 926 MeV, respectively, impinged on the target, inducing transfer reactions. Kinematic correlations between the reaction partners are used to obtain information on the unobserved target-like reaction

  17. Five-nucleon simultaneous and sequential transfer in the 12C(11B,6Li)17O and 12C(d,7Li)7Be reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, M.; Magiera, A.; Rudy, Z.; Strzal/kowski, A.; Barna, R.; DAmico, V.; De Pasquale, D.; Italiano, A.; Licandro, M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the angular distributions of the 12 C( 11 B, 6 Li) 17 O reaction were performed at three energies of a 11 B beam: 28, 35, and 40 MeV. The results were analyzed in the frame of the exact finite range distorted wave Born approximation of the first and the second order assuming the simultaneous and sequential transfer of the neutron and the α particle. Such an analysis was also performed for previously measured angular distributions of the 12 C(d, 7 Li) 7 Be reaction at E lab = 78 MeV. In both reactions under investigation dominance was found of the simultaneous transfer of the α particle and the nucleon correlated to the 5 He ( 5 Li) cluster in the ground or the first excited state. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Charge-exchange breakup of the deuteron with the production of two protons and spin structure of the amplitude of the nucleon charge transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Lyuboshits, V.L.; Lyuboshits, V.V.; Piskunov, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the impulse approximation, the relation between the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron d + a → (pp) + b and the effective cross section of the charge transfer process n + a → p + b is discussed. In doing so, the effects of the proton identity (Fermi-statistics) and of the Coulomb and strong interactions of protons in the final state are taken into account. The distribution over relative momenta of the protons, produced in the charge-exchange process d + p → (pp) + n in the forward direction, is investigated. At the transfer momenta being close to zero the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron, colliding with the proton target, is determined only by the spin-flip part of the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n at the zero angle. It is shown that the study of the process d + p → (pp) + n in a beam of the polarized (aligned) deuterons allows one, in principle, to separate two spin-dependent terms in the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n, one of which does not conserve and the other one conserves the projection of the nucleon spin onto the direction of momentum at the transition of the neutron into the proton

  19. Radial excitations in nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the non-relativistic constituent quark model, the role of the radial excitations of the nucleon is studied within a resonating group approach of the nucleon-nucleon scattering. It is shown that, rather than the inclusion of new channels, it is important to include mixed-symmetry spin-isospin components in the nucleon wave function. It is also found that during the collision there is no significant deformation of the nucleon. (orig.)

  20. Experiments on multi-nucleon transfer reactions with the systems {sup 58,64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb at SHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandovich Comas Lijachev, Victor

    2012-07-01

    This work presents experimental results on multi-nucleon transfer reactions in the collision systems {sup 58}Ni+{sup 207}Pb and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb which were measured at the velocity filter SHIP at GSI. The reactions were performed at beam energies below and up to 10% above the Coulomb barrier. The work was motivated by theoretical predictions to apply multi-nucleon transfer reactions in heavy systems to synthesize new neutron-rich isotopes in the region of superheavy nuclei with Z>100 and in the region of the closed neutron shell N=126. The expected cross-sections for the production of these nuclei in transfer reactions are small and reach typically nanobarn and below. Therefore, efficient separation techniques have to be applied and the detection system must allow for the identification of single nuclei. A dedicated experimental setup to study such rare transfer products does not exist presently. But already existing facilities which are used for the synthesis of superheavy fusion products meet the requirements for the detection of rare reaction products. In this context, the velocity filter SHIP offers the possibility to separate heavy target-like transfer products from projectiles and projectile-like reaction products before they reach the detection system where the particles are identified by their alpha-decay properties. At SHIP, a cross-section limit of 10 pb can be reached at usual beam intensities. In the present work on collisions of {sup 58,64}Ni+{sup 207}Pb the influence of the projectile neutron number on the cross-sections, isotopic distributions and excitation energies of the transfer products was studied. Especially with the more neutron-rich {sup 64}Ni projectiles a transfer of up to seven protons and eight neutrons to the target nucleus was observed. The largest cross-sections for the most neutron-rich isotopes were reached at the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier. The transfer was accompanied by the full dissipation of the available

  1. Spin observables in nucleon-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The curse of inelastic nucleon scattering and charge exchange has always been the enormous complexity of the nucleon-nucleon (N-N) interaction. This complexity, however, can also be viewed as the ultimate promise of nucleons as probes of nuclear structure. Given an adequate theoretical basis, inelastic nucleon scattering is capable of providing information not obtainable with other probes. Recently a revolution of experimental technique has taken place that makes it desirable to re-examine the question of what physics is ultimately obtainable from inelastic nucleon scattering. It is now feasible to perform complete polarization transfer (PT) experiments for inelastic proton scattering with high efficiency and excellent energy resolution. Programs to measure PT obsevables are underway at several laboratories, and results are beginning to appear. Objectives of this presentation are to examine how such experiments are done, and what physics is presently obtained and may ultimately be learned from them

  2. Measurements of Polarization Transfers in Real Compton Scattering by a proton target at JLAB. A new source of information on the 3D shape of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanelli, Cristiano V. [Sapienza Univ. of Rome (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In this thesis work, results of the analysis of the polarization transfers measured in real Compton scattering (RCS) by the Collaboration E07-002 at the Je fferson Lab Hall-C are presented. The data were collected at large scattering angle (theta_cm = 70deg) and with a polarized incident photon beam at an average energy of 3.8 GeV. Such a kind of experiments allows one to understand more deeply the reaction mechanism, that involves a real photon, by extracting both Compton form factors and Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) (also relevant for possibly shedding light on the total angular momentum of the nucleon). The obtained results for the longitudinal and transverse polarization transfers K_LL and K_LT, are of crucial importance, since they confirm unambiguously the disagreement between experimental data and pQCD prediction, as it was found in E99-114 experiment, and favor the Handbag mechanism. The E99-114 and E07-002 results can contribute to attract new interest on the great yield of the Compton scattering by a nucleon target, as demonstrated by the recent approval of an experimental proposal submitted to the Jefferson Lab PAC 42 for a Wide-angle Compton Scattering experiment, at 8 and 10 GeV Photon Energies. The new experiments approved to run with the updated 12 GeV electron beam at JLab, are characterized by much higher luminosities, and a new GEM tracker is under development to tackle the challenging backgrounds. Within this context, we present a new multistep tracking algorithm, based on (i) a Neural Network (NN) designed for a fast and efficient association of the hits measured by the GEM detector which allows the track identification, and (ii) the application of both a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother to further improve the track reconstruction. The full procedure, i.e. NN and filtering, appears very promising, with high performances in terms of both association effciency and reconstruction accuracy, and these preliminary results will

  3. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-03-01

    This project involves five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon reseachers

  4. The 58606264Ni(p,α)55575961Co reactions and their description by the semi-microscopic model for three-nucleon transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, J.W.; Siemssen, R.H.; Werf, S.Y. van der; Woude, A. van der

    1979-01-01

    The (p,α) reaction on the even-A nickel isotopes has been studied at an incident proton energy of 30 MeV. Between 14 and 26 states, or groups of states, were analysed for each of the residual cobalt isotopes. For these transitions angular distributions were determined from thetasub(lab) = 7.5 0 to 70 0 . In all reactions the proton-hole states (0fsub(7/2), 1ssub(1/2) and 0dsub(3/2)) stand out in the spectra. Also, states formed by the weak-coupling of the proton-holes to excitations of the neutron core were seen. Differences in the relative strengths of the positive-parity hole states between the proton pickup and the (p,α) data can be explained by a semi-microscopic model for three-nucleon transfer. Also the strength distribution of the transitions to the lowest weak-coupling quintuplet is correctly predicted. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of non-zero coupled neutron pairs into the description of (p, α) reactions. Several T> states are observed in the 58 Ni(p, α) 55 Co reactions

  5. Nuclear spectroscopy of Ca and Sc isotopes from inelastic scattering and one-nucleon transfer reactions on a radioactive 41Ca target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vold, P.

    1978-04-01

    The structure of energy levels in 40 , 42 Ca and 42 Sc has been studied using inelastic proton scattering and one-nucleon stripping and pick-up transfer reactions on a 41 Ca target. Data has given the following information on the properties of the 41 Ca ground state wave function; i) the 41 Ca (g.s.) looks very much like an f (sub7/2) neutron coupled to the 40 Ca (g.s.) core. ii) The core-excited component of the 41 Ca (g.s.) is determined to be 10 or less. It was inferred that the main constituents of the spectroscopic strength leading to the (f(sub7/2)) 2 , (f(sub7/2)p(sub3/2))(subt=1) and (f(sub7/2)p(sub1/2))(subT=1) configurations have been identified. This was used to deduce the effective two-particle matrix elements for these configurations. The 42 Sc and 42 Ca data result in excellent agreement for the T=1 members of the (f(sub7/2)) 2 multiplet while the (f(sub7/2)p(sub3/2))(subT=1) matrix elements derived from the 42 Sc data are about 0.2 MeV more repulsive than those obtained from the 42 Ca data. The (f(sub7/2)d(sub3/2) -1 ) matrix elements derived from the present ( 3 He,α) data were compared to the corresponding values obtained from one-nucleon stripping to mass 34 nuclei. The two sets of matrix elements are in very good agreement. The 40 Ca values are also well reproduced by calculations using the modified surface delta interaction. The experimental spectroscopic factors to both the T=0 and T=1 states of the (f(sub7/2)) 2 multiplet are in remarkably good agreement with the predicted values of the coexistence model considering the simplicity of this model. (JIW)

  6. Investigation of the nucleon-nucleon tensor force in three-nucleon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clajus, M.; Egun, P.M.; Gruebler, W.; Hautle, P. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik); Slaus, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Vuaridel, B. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA) Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Sperisen, F. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA). Cyclotron Facility); Kretschmer, W.; Rauscher, A.; Schuster, W.; Weidmann, R.; Haller, M. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.)); Bruno, M.; Cannata, F.; D' Agostino, M. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Witala, H.; Cornelius, T.; Gloeckle, W. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.)); Schmelzbach, P.A. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1990-08-16

    Proton-deuteron elastic scattering has been investigated at E{sub p}=22.7 MeV by comparison of rigorous Faddeev calculations with experimental results. The observable most sensitive to the tensor force is the nucleon-nucleon polarization transfer coefficient K{sub y}sup(y'). The new angular distribution of K{sub y}sup(y') clearly favours the tensor force of the Bonn A potential, which is weaker than the one of the Paris potential. (orig.).

  7. Calculation of the nucleon structure function from the nucleon wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussar, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonic oscillator wave functions have played an historically important role in our understanding of the structure of the nucleon, most notably by providing insight into the mass spectra of the low-lying states. High energy scattering experiments are known to give us a picture of the nucleon wave function at high-momentum transfer and in a frame in which the nucleon is traveling fast. A simple model that crosses the twin bridges of momentum scale and Lorentz frame that separate the pictures of the nucleon wave function provided by the deep inelastic scattering data and by the oscillator model is presented.

  8. Measurements of differential cross-section ratios for single-nucleon transfer reaction pairs near A=25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, A J; Moise, T S [Trinity Coll., Hartford, CT (USA). Dept. of Physics; Champagne, A E [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics; Magnus, P V; Smith, M S [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.

    1991-06-10

    Differential cross sections for the (d,p), ({sup 3}He,d), ({alpha},t) and ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reactions involving seventy-one residual states in {sup 23}Na, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 25}Al, and {sup 27}Al have been measured at a forward angle with incident energies of 17.5, 20.2, and 34.8 MeV, respectively. The ratio of cross-section pairs involving formation of the same residual state is determined for forty-five cases where both the angular momentum transfer and single-particle spectroscopic strength have been previously established. These are compared to values calculated with conventional distorted-wave Born approximation analysis, and the utility of this technique for identifying some levels which are possible s- or p-wave resonances is demonstrated and discussed for states in the vicinity of proton thresholds. An application is made involving proton threshold states in {sup 27}Al. (orig.).

  9. One-nucleon transfer reactions induced by secondary beam of 11Be: study of the nuclear structure of the exotic nuclei 11Be and 10Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pita, S.

    2000-09-01

    The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei 11 Be and 10 Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using 11 Be secondary beams. The 11 Be(p,d) 10 Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The 10 Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0 + 1 and 2 + 1 , states in 10 Be were measured up to θ CM = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation 10 Be 2+ in the 11 Be gs wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the 11 Be(d, 3 He) 10 Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus 10 Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the 3 He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -S n = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p 1/2 shells in 10 Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the 11 Be(d,t) 10 Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the 11 Be(p,d) 10 Be reaction concerning the 11 Be gs structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility of studies of the shell properties of exotic nuclei using transfer reactions induced by radioactive beams and constitutes the beginning of a program

  10. Scattering by bound nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1984-10-01

    Scattering of a particle by bound nucleons is discussed. Effects of nucleons that are bound in a nucleus are taken as a structure function. The way how to calculate the structure function is given. (author)

  11. Three-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the role of three-nucleon forces in ab initio calculations of nuclear systems is investigated. The difference between genuine and induced many-nucleon forces is emphasized. Induced forces arise in the process of solving the nuclear many-body problem as technical intermediaries toward calculationally converged results. Genuine forces make up the Hamiltonian. They represent the chosen underlying dynamics. The hierarchy of contributions arising from genuine two-, three- and many-nucleon forces is discussed. Signals for the need of the inclusion of genuine three-nucleon forces are studied in nuclear systems, technically best under control, especially in three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems. Genuine three-nucleon forces are important for details in the description of some observables. Their contributions to observables are small on the scale set by two-nucleon forces. (author)

  12. Pionic background for nucleon-nucleon observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballot, J.L.; Robilotta, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    A method is presented that allows the unambiguous definition of the one pion exchange contribution to nucleon-nucleon scattering observables and then use it to determine those waves where values of phase shifts and mixing parameters may be understood as sums of pionic and non-pionic dynamical effects. This helps the assessment of the explicative power of the various existing phenomenological potentials and may eventually lead to ways of discriminating their effectiveness. (author) 16 refs.; 19 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Systematic study of multi-nucleon transfer reactions for 12C + 58Ni and 12C + 56Fe systems at ELab(12C) = 45 and 60 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.J.; Jha, V.; Biswas, D.C.; Parmar, A.; Mohanty, Biraja; Oswal, M.; Jhingan, Akhil; Nandi, T.

    2013-01-01

    With a motivation to understand the reaction mechanism aspects, systematic study of multi-nucleon transfer in different projectile + target combinations has been made. Data taken at the BARC-TIFR Pelletron - LINAC facility, Mumbai for the systems 18 O+ 206 Pb and 18 O+ 12 C both studied at an incident energy of E( 18 O) = 140.4 MeV are reported in different communications to this proceedings. The present communication reports the measurements for 58 Ni( 12 C, x) and 56 Fe( 12 C, x) at incident 12 C energies of E( 12 C) = 45 and 60 MeV carried out at the pelletron accelerator facility, IUAC, Delhi

  14. Isospin Mixing in the Nucleon and 4He and the Nucleon Strange Electric Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viviani, M.; Girlanda, L.; Kievsky, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.; Schiavilla, R.; Kubis, B.; Lewis, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4 He(e-vector,e ' ) 4 He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4 He. We examine this issue in the present Letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4 He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. A careful analysis of the model dependence in the resulting predictions for the nucleon and nuclear ISB contributions to the asymmetry is carried out. We conclude that, at the low momentum transfers of interest in recent measurements reported by the HAPPEX Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, these contributions are of comparable magnitude to those associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor

  15. Isospin mixing in the nucleon and He-4 and the nucleon strange electric form-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Viviani; R. Schiavilla; B. Kubis; R. Lewis; L. Girlanda; A. Kievsky; L.E. Marcucci; S. Rosati

    2007-01-01

    In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4 He((rvec e),e(prime)) 4 He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4 He. We examine this issue in the present letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4 He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. A careful analysis of the model dependence in the resulting predictions for the nucleon and nuclear ISB contributions to the asymmetry is carried out. We conclude that, at the low momentum transfers of interest in recent measurements reported by the HAPPEX collaboration at Jefferson Lab, these contributions are of comparable magnitude to those associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor

  16. Leitung und Kooperation in wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken Berlins - eine empirische Untersuchung

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit greift ein im bibliotheks- und IuK-wissenschaftlichen sowie im fachprofessionellen Diskurs bisher weitgehend vernachlässigtes, aber immer bedeutsameres Thema auf: das vertikale soziale Geschehen in der Arbeitsorganisation ?wissenschaftliche Bibliothek". Die Absicht der Untersuchung lag darin, einen Zusammenhang zwischen dem Interaktionsverhalten der Leitungspersonen einerseits und der Mobilisierung von Leistungs- und Innovationspotentialen bei den Mitarbeiterinnen und M...

  17. Excitation of Nucleon Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2001-01-01

    I discuss developments in the area of nucleon resonance excitation, both necessary and feasible, that would put our understanding of nucleon structure in the regime of strong QCD on a qualitatively new level. They involve the collection of high quality data in various channels, a more rigorous approach in the search for ''missing'' resonances, an effort to compute some critical quantities in nucleon resonance excitations from first principles, i.e. QCD, and a proposal focused to obtain an understanding of a fundamental quantity in nucleon structure

  18. Recent Studies of Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilad, Shalev

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are fundamental quantities in nucleon structure. As such, they have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally. Significant progress has been made with new measurements at Jlab, MAMI and MIT-Bates, with emphases on expanding the momentum-transfer range and on higher precision. In this paper, we describe the status of this field and present new results from measurements at both low and high momentum transfers. We also compare the experimental data to model predictions, and mention possible implications of the new results to other fields.

  19. mu. -nucleon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobretsov, Yu; Dolgoshein, B; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V

    1980-12-01

    The properties and formation are described of ..mu..-nucleon atoms, the Larmor method of muon spin precession is discussed and the experimental confirmation of the existence of ..mu..-nucleon atoms is shown. The prospects of their use are indicated.

  20. μ-nucleon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobretsov, Yu.; Dolgoshejn, B.; Kirillov-Ugryumov, V.

    1980-01-01

    The properties and formation are described of μ-nucleon atoms, the Larmor method of muon spin precession is discussed and the experimental confirmation of the existence of μ-nucleon atoms is shown. The prospects of their use are indicated. (J.P.)

  1. Nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.

    1978-01-01

    Here are presented 0 to 800 MeV nucleon-nucleon elastic and inelastic phase parameters derived by several groups: Arndt and Roper; Hoshizaki; Bugg; Bystricky, Lechanoine, and Lehar; and Bryan, Clark, and VerWest. Resonant-like behavior appears in the 1 D 2 and 3 F 3 states above the inelastic threshold in Hoshizaki's analysis but not in Arndt and Roper's. The np data are inadequate to permit determination of the I = O phase parameters above 600 MeV. 27 references

  2. Warming up a nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletsky, V.L.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of temperature dependence of nucleon mass is addressed by considering a retarded correlator of two currents with quantum numbers of a nucleon at finite temperature T π in the chiral limit. It is shown that at Euclidean momenta the leading one-loop corrections arise from direct interaction of thermal pions with the currents. A dispersive representation for the correlator shows that this interaction smears the nucleon pole over frequency interval with width ∼ T. This interaction does not change the exponential fall-off of the correlator in Euclidean space but gives an O(T 2 /F π 2 ) contribution to the pre-exponential factor. 11 refs. (author)

  3. From nuclei to nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.

    1978-03-01

    Some initial experiments in the intermediate energy region between 10 and 200 MeV/nucleon, which is largely unexplored and poorly understood is considered as regards some initial experiments in this energy region. Included are the emission of complex fragments, localization in heavy ion reactions, coincidence experiments between light and heavy fragments, and the emission of light particles in heavy ion collisions. Some initial results in the region between 20 and 100 MeV/nucleon are presented. 41 references

  4. Nucleon currents and frictional forces between highly excited nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, M.; Pi, M.; Vinas, X.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1983-01-01

    A finite temperature Thomas-Fermi method has been used to study the nucleon transfer between two hot slabs of symmetric nuclear matter. Special attention has been paid to temperature effects neglected in earlier calculations. As a result, closed and ready-to-use formulas for the exchange and transfer nucleon flux at zero relative momentum are given as a function of the temperature T. We also present a rather detailed discussion of thermal properties of the semi-infinite slabs

  5. Is nucleon deformed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1992-01-01

    The surprising answer to this question Is nucleon deformed? is : Yes. The evidence comes from a study of the quark model of the single nucleon and when it is found in a nucleus. It turns out that many of the long standing problems of the Naive Quark Model are taken care of if the nucleon is assumed to be deformed. Only one value of the parameter P D ∼1/4 (which specifies deformation) fits g A (the axial vector coupling constant) for all the semileptonic decay of baryons, the F/D ratio, the pion-nucleon-delta coupling constant fsub(πNΔ), the double delta coupling constant 1 fsub(πΔΔ), the Ml transition moment μΔN and g 1 p the spin structure function of proton 2 . All this gives strong hint that both neutron and proton are deformed. It is important to look for further signatures of this deformation. When this deformed nucleon finds itself in a nuclear medium its deformation decreases. So much that in a heavy nucleus the nucleons are actually spherical. We look into the Gamow-Teller strengths, magnetic moments and magnetic transition strengths in nuclei to study this property. (author). 15 refs

  6. Nucleon-nucleon scattering and different meson exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-10-01

    The iterative and noniterative diagrams with different meson exchange are investigated. The α, πβ and πγ meson exchange, (where α=π, rho, σ, ω, eta and delta; β=π, rho, σ and ω; γ=π and rho), are considered. These diagrams are taken to involve the nucleon-nucleon, the nucleon-isobar and the isobar-isobar intermediate states. The diagrams are calculated in momentum space following the noncovariant perturbation theory. The role of each of these diagrams is examined by calculating its contribution to the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The potential model is taken to include one-boson-exchange terms in addition to these diagrams. The nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts are described successfully showing the importance of tensor force. The contributions of the different parts are studied in the nucleon-nucleon scattering. (author)

  7. Excitations of the isobaric analog states T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60Zn (Tz=0), 60Cu (Tz=1) and 60Ni (Tz=2) by the two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions of 16O ions on 58Ni nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The isobaric analog states (IAS's) T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60 Zn (Tz=0), 60 Cu (Tz=1) and 60 Ni (Tz=2) were studied by the three types of two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions induced by the same beams 16 O and targets 58 Ni at an incident energy 80 MeV. The excitation energies of observed IAS's are in good fits with those calculated theoretically. The g'nd state 2 + , T=1 in 60 Cu may not be populated vy the ( 16 O, 14 N) reaction. The mutual excitation ( 16 O, 14 N * ) may be considered in the present population in 50 Cu. The isospin aspects of these reactions are quite prominent. All angular distributions of these IAS's have a forward peaked shape. Those of the O + states show a strongly oscillated pattern. Those of the 2 + states have no evidences of the clear oscillations. The similarities are observed between the angular distributions of IAS's. The EFR-DWBA calculations, in which the direct one-step cluster transferrs of two nucleons are assumed, reproduce reasonably the data points. The similarities between the heavy and the light ion induced two-nucleon stripping transfer reactions appear in both the reaction mechanisms and the spectroscopies of residual nuclei. The excitations of these IAS's will be an appearances of the single particle properties of transferred two-nucleons. (author)

  8. Jets in high energy nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1982-01-01

    From the experimental studies of high-energy hardon-nucleon and nucleon-nucleon collisions, by means of nuclear targets applied as detectors, it follows that particles are produced via intermediate objects created first in a 2 → 2 type endoergic reaction. These objects, called generons, decay in flight into finally observed particles and resonances after their lifetime tausub(g) > or approximately 10 - 22 s. The jet structure of the outcome in nucleon-nucleon collisions is a simple and indispensable consequence of this particle production mechanism. The picture of the jet structure in the collision outcome observed in the CMS of the colliding nucleons depends on the energy of these nUcleons. New particle production scheme is proposed, which can be tested experimentally; corresponding simple relations between characteristics of colliding nucleons and of produced jets are proposed for a testing

  9. Toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanhart, C.; Miller, G. A.; Myhrer, F.; Sato, T.; Kolck, U. van

    2001-01-01

    We develop a toy model for pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions that reproduces some of the features of the chiral Lagrangian calculations. We calculate the production amplitude and examine some common approximations

  10. Pion-nucleon vertex function with one nucleon off shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, T.; Rochus, P.

    1979-01-01

    The pion-nucleon vertex function with an off-mass-shell nucleon is obtained through sideways dispersion relations with the P 11 and S 11 pion-nucleon phase shifts as only input. Contrary to the recent calculation of Nutt and Shakin, we find that the proper and improper vertex functions behave quite differently, indicating the importance of the nucleon propagator dressing. In particular the proper vertex function is found to have two poles in the unphysical region

  11. A new form for the nucleon-nucleon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the internucleon force is considered. It is assumed that the nucleon-nucleon potential depends, in general, both on the distance ν and the angle theta. It is also assumed that the potential V(ν,ω) admits an analytic continuation into the complex ω-plane so that when ω=costheta is real it denotes the direction in which the potential is being determined. The analysis leads to a new parametryzation of the nucleon-nucleon potential

  12. Parity violation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the present status of our understanding of parity nonconservation (PNC) in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, and some of the difficulties inherent in nuclear tests of PNC. I also discuss the nucleon/nuclear anapole moment, the parity violating coupling of the photon, and its relation to the PNC NN interaction. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Nucleons in nuclei, however

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Mathiot, J.F.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Frascaria, R.; Gales, S.

    1990-01-01

    The topics presented at the 1989 Joliot-Curie Lectures are reported. Two main subjects were retained: a simplified description of the N-body motion of particles in the quasi-particle configuration; study of the dynamics of nuclear components which are not described by nucleons in their ground state. The following themes were presented: quasiparticles and the Green functions, relativistic aspects of the quasiparticle concept, the dimensions of nucleons in the nuclei and the EMC effect, quarks and gluons in the nuclei, the delta in the nuclei, the strangeness, quasiparticles far from the Fermi sea, diffusion of electrons, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis [fr

  14. Nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchaux, M.

    1992-11-01

    The present status of experimental measurements of the nucleon structure functions is reviewed. The results from nearly all deep inelastic experiments are in good mutual agreement. Principles of the analysis of these structure function data in the framework of QCD are described. The specific features of the perturbative QCD predictions are observed in the data. This provides quantitative tests of the validity of QCD as well as determinations of the various parton distributions in the nucleon and some of the most precise measurements of the strong coupling constant αs. The future of this field of experimental physics is sketched

  15. Medium corrections to nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1990-01-01

    The Bethe-Goldstone equations have been solved for both negative and positive energies to specify two nucleon G-matrices fully off of the energy shell. Medium correction effects of Pauli blocking and of the auxiliary potential are included in infinite matter systems characterized by fermi momenta in the range 0.5 fm -1 to 1.8 fm -1 . The Paris interaction is used as the starting potential in most calculations. Medium corrections are shown to be very significant over a large range of energies and densities. On the energy shell values of G-matrices vary markedly from those of free two nucleon (NN) t-matrices which have been solved by way of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation. Off of the energy shell, however, the free and medium corrected Kowalski-Noyes f-ratios rate are quite similar suggesting that a useful model of medium corrected G-matrices are appropriately scaled free NN t-matrices. The choice of auxiliary potential form is also shown to play a decisive role in the negative energy regime, especially when the saturation of nuclear matter is considered. 30 refs., 7 tabs., 7 figs

  16. The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1992-11-01

    With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state ι=ο and the other for the isotopic spin state ι=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or λλ system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp →λλ and pp→ ≡ ≡. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs

  17. Nucleon strangeness: present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Sapozhnikov, M G

    2010-01-01

    A review of experimental results for the measurement of the strange quark distributions in the nucleon, is given. Contributions of the strange quarks to the nucleon mass, electromagnetic form factors and spin, are discussed.

  18. Axial structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veronique Bernard; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Ulf-G Meissner

    2002-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental and theoretical understanding of the axial nucleon structure at low and moderate energies. Topics considered include (quasi)elastic (anti)neutrino-nucleon scattering, charged pion electroproduction off nucleons and ordinary as well as radiative muon capture on the proton.

  19. Lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windmolders, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the following topics are reviewed: 1. the structure functions measured in deep inelastic e-N, μ-N and ν-N scattering; 2. nuclear effects on the structure functions; 3. nuclear effects on the fragmentation functions; 4. the spin dependent structure functions and their interpretation in terms of nucleon constituents. (orig./HSI)

  20. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  1. Nucleon-nucleon correlations in dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alm, T.

    1993-02-01

    In this thesis new results on the problematics of the formation of nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclear matter could be presented. Starting from a general study of the two-particle problem in matter we studied the occurrence of a suprafluid phase (pair condensate of nucleons). The Gorkov decoupling by means of anomalous Green functions was generalized, so that also Cooper pairs with spin 1 (triplet pairing) can be described. A generalized gap equation resulted, which permits to determine the order parameters of the suprafluied phase in arbitrary channels of the nucleon-nucleon scattering states. This equation was solvd in the 1 S 0 -, in the 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and in the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 channel under application of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. The behaviour of the resulting gap parameters in the single channels was studied as function of density and temperature. (orig.) [de

  2. The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oers, W T.H.

    1992-11-01

    With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state {iota}={omicron} and the other for the isotopic spin state {iota}=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or {lambda}{lambda} system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp {yields}{lambda}{lambda} and pp{yields} {identical_to} {identical_to}. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Low-energy analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian.; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We employ the recently proposed infrared regularization scheme and show that the convergence of the chiral expansion is improved as compared to the heavy-fermion approach. We also discuss the inclusion of vector mesons and obtain an accurate description of all four-nucleon form factors for momentum transfer squared up to Q 2 ≅0.4 GeV 2

  4. Quenching of weak interactions in nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the one-body Fermi and Gamow-Teller charge-current and vector and axial-vector neutral-current nuclear matrix elements in nucleon matter at densities of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24 fm -3 and proton fractions ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The correlated states for nucleon matter are obtained by operating on Fermi-gas states by a symmetrized product of pair correlation operators determined from variational calculations with the Argonne-v18 and Urbana-IX two- and three-nucleon interactions. The squares of the charge- current matrix elements are found to be quenched by 20-25 % by the short-range correlations in nucleon matter. Most of the quenching is due to spin-isospin correlations induced by the pion exchange interactions which change the isospins and spins of the nucleons. A large part of it can be related to the probability for a spin-up proton quasiparticle to be a bare spin-up/down proton/neutron. Within the interval considered, the charge-current matrix elements do not have significant dependence on the matter density, proton fraction, and magnitudes of nucleon momenta; however, they do depend on momentum transfer. The neutral-current matrix elements have a significant dependence on the proton fraction. We also calculate the matrix elements of the nuclear Hamiltonian in the same correlated basis. These provide relatively mild effective interactions that give the variational energies in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The calculated two-nucleon effective interaction describes the spin-isospin susceptibilities of nuclear and neutron matter fairly accurately. However terms greater than or equal to three-body terms are necessary to reproduce the compressibility. Realistic calculations of weak interaction rates in nucleon matter can presumably be carried out using the effective operators and interactions studied here. All presented results use the simple two-body cluster approximation to calculate the correlated basis matrix elements. This allows for a clear

  5. Experimental determination of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction for p-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, J.B.; Aas, B.; Azizi, A.

    1982-01-01

    A complete measurement of the polarization transfer observables has been made for the first time in the (p,p') reaction at intermediate energies. Measurements are reported for the 12 C(p,p') 12 C reaction to the 1 + , T = 0(12.71 MeV) and 1 + , T = 1(15.11 MeV) states at 500 MeV at laboratory scattering angles of 3.5 0 , 5.5 0 , 7.5 0 , and 12.0 0 . Linear combinations of these observables are shown to exhibit a very selective dependence on the isoscalar and isovector spin-dependent components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. To the extent of the validity of the single collision approximation, these amplitudes are compared directly to the free nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at small momentum transfers

  6. Skyrme-model πNN form factor and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, G.; Machleidt, R.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the strong πNN form factor, which emerges from the Skyrme model, in the two-nucleon system using a one-boson-exchange (OBE) model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Deuteron properties and phase parameters of NN scattering are reproduced well. In contrast to the form factor of monopole shape that is traditionally used in OBE models, the Skyrme form factor leaves low-momentum transfers essentially unaffected while it suppresses the high-momentum region strongly. It turns out that this behavior is very appropriate for models of the NN interaction and makes it possible to use a soft pion form factor in the NN system. As a consequence, the πN and the NN systems can be described using the same πNN form factor, which is impossible with the monopole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. One-nucleon transfer reactions induced by secondary beam of {sup 11}Be: study of the nuclear structure of the exotic nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 10}Li; Reactions de transfert d'un nucleon induites par un faisceau secondaire de {sup 11}Be: etude de la structure des noyaux exotiques {sup 11}Be et {sup 10}Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pita, S

    2000-09-01

    The structure of the neutron rich light nuclei {sup 11}Be and {sup 10}Li has been investigated by means of one nucleon transfer reactions. The experiments have been carried out at GANIL in inverse kinematics using {sup 11}Be secondary beams. The {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction bas been studied at 35.3 MeV/u. The {sup 10}Be ejectiles were analyzed by the spectrometer SPEG, and coincident deuterons were detected in the position sensitive silicon detector CHARISSA. Transfer cross sections to 0{sup +}{sub 1} and 2{sup +}{sub 1}, states in {sup 10}Be were measured up to {theta}{sub CM} = 16 deg. and compared to DWBA and CRC predictions. The effects of neutron-cure couplings on reaction form factors have been studied by solving coupled equations in the framework of a vibrational model. It is shown that the rate of core excitation {sup 10}Be{sub 2+} in the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} wave function is overestimated by a standard analysis with form factors given by the usual Separation Energy prescription. The former model predicts a rate of core excitation of 16% and leads to theoretical cross sections which are in good agreement with the experimental data. The aim of the {sup 11}Be(d,{sup 3}He){sup 10}Li experiment, realized at 37 MeV/u, was to measure the distribution of the 2s neutron strength in the unbound nucleus {sup 10}Li. The energy spectrum was deduced from the {sup 3}He energy and angle measured by the silicon strip detector array MUST. An asymmetric peak is clearly observed near the threshold, with a maximum at -S{sub n} = 130 keV. This constitutes a direct proof of the inversion of 2s and 1p{sub 1/2} shells in {sup 10}Li, which was until now a controversial question in spite of many experimental efforts. On the other band the analysis of the {sup 11}Be(d,t){sup 10}Be reaction studied in the same experiment confirms the results obtained in the {sup 11}Be(p,d){sup 10}Be reaction concerning the {sup 11}Be{sub gs} structure. This work shows the interest and feasibility

  8. Deformed chiral nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, C E; Shepard, J R [Colorado Univ., Boulder (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1991-04-18

    We compute properties of the nucleon in a hybrid chiral model based on the linear {sigma}-model with quark degrees of freedom treated explicity. In contrast to previous calculations, we do not use the hedgehog ansatz. Instead we solve self-consistently for a state with well defined spin and isospin projections. We allow this state to be deformed and find that, although d- and g-state admixtures in the predominantly s-state single quark wave functions are not large, they have profound effects on many nucleon properties including magnetic moments and g{sub A}. Our best fit parameters provide excellent agreement with experiment but are much different from those determined in hedgehog calculations. (orig.).

  9. The multidimensional nucleon structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquini Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different kinds of parton distributions, which allow one to obtain a multidimensional picture of the internal structure of the nucleon. We use the concept of generalized transverse momentum dependent parton distributions and Wigner distributions, which combine the features of transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions and generalized parton distributions. We show examples of these functions within a phenomenological quark model, with focus on the role of the spin-spin and spin-orbit correlations of quarks.

  10. Nucleonic weighing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nucleonic weighing systems utilize the principle of the absorption or the scattering of nuclear radiation for a contactless measurement of the weight of material per unit length, the loading, of a conveyor. The load signal is processed in an electronic unit with a tachometer signal for the conveyor velocity to indicate the flow rate and the integrated flow of material. The different sources of error in nucleonic weighing using transmitted and forward scattered radiation are discussed, and the design of two nucleonic weighing systems is described. One is a conventional transmission gauge particularly suited for measuring rapid variation in belt loading due to a fast detection and linearizing unit. The other system consists of a forward scattering gauge, particularly suitable for measuring light inhomogeneous materials due to the linear relationship between the weight per unit area and the gauge response. Results from on-line trials with different materials are presented, and experiences from more than one year of operation for a batch weighing system for quick lime and a continuous weighing system for mineral wool are reported. (author)

  11. Quark bags, P-matrix and nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is an extended version of the talk given at IX European Conference on Few Body Problems in Physics, Tbilisi, 1984. It reviews recent developments of the quark compound bag (QCB) model including explicit examples of the QCB nucleon-nucleon potentials, description of the deuteron properties, calculation of the six quark admixture in the deuteron and applications to the three-nucleon system

  12. Phase variation of nucleon-nucleon amplitude for proton-12C elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yibing; Wang Shilai; Yin Gaofang

    2006-01-01

    Franco and Yin studied for α- 4 He, 3 He, 2 He, 1 He elastic-scattering by using the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer in the framework of Glauber multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy. The phase variation leads to large changes in the differential cross sections, and brings the Glauber theory into agreement with experimental data. Later Lombard and Maillet is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of Glauber theory, and found this phase to be actually important for the description of spin observables. Recently Wang Shilai and Deng Yibing et al studied for the p- 4 He elastic-scattering in the framework of KMT multiple scattering theory at intermediate energy, and found this phase lead to differential cross sections and polarization, which are in better agreement with experimental data. This paper is based on the suggestion by Franco and Yin that the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude should vary with momentum transfer. The proton elastic scattering on 12 C is studied in the KMT multiple scattering theory with microscopic momentum space first term optical potential. The Coulomb interactions are taken into account in our calculation. The theoretical calculation results show that the phase leads to differential cross section and polarization are in better agreement with experimental data. In conclusion this phase is actually important in the framework of KMT theory. (authors)

  13. Nucleon-nucleon momentum correlation function for light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y.G.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.; Wei, Y.B.; Yan, T.Z.

    2007-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon momentum correlation function have been presented for nuclear reactions with neutron-rich or proton-rich projectiles using a nuclear transport theory, namely Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics model. The relationship between the binding energy of projectiles and the strength of proton-neutron correlation function at small relative momentum has been explored, while proton-proton correlation function shows its sensitivity to the proton density distribution. Those results show that nucleon-nucleon correlation function is useful to reflect some features of the neutron- or proton-halo nuclei and therefore provide a potential tool for the studies of radioactive beam physics

  14. Coupled channels Marchenko inversion for nucleon-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhoff, H.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1994-01-01

    Marchenko inversion is used to determine local energy independent but channel dependent potential matrices from optimum sets of experimental phase shifts. 3 SD 1 and 3 PF 2 channels of nucleon-nucleon systems contain in their off-diagonal potential matrices explicitly the tensor force for T = 0 and 1 isospin. We obtain, together with single channels, complete sets of quantitative nucleon-nucleon potential results which are ready for application in nuclear structure and reaction analyses. The historic coupled channels inversion result of Newton and Fulton is revisited. (orig.)

  15. Semi-phenomenological model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, A.; Bagnoud, Y.

    1977-01-01

    A nucleon with isobars is used to elaborate a model of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at low energy (Esub(CM) 2 sub(r), the pion-nucleon renormalized coupling constant. The model establishes a very good coordination for deuteron and p-p scattering-polarization measurements ( 1 K 0 , 1 D 2 , 1 G 4 phase shifts), and permits the determination of f 2 sub(r) for every independent experimental value. For 21 such values, the mean value 2 sub(r)>=0.0785 with Δf 2 sub(r)=0.0024(3%) is obtained. (Auth.)

  16. On the sensitivity of nucleon-nucleon correlations to the form of short-range potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmitro, M.; Kvasil, J.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlation characteristics are calculated for several phenomenological and realistic strong potentials. The results show that a square-well potential reasonably well approximates the nucleon-nucleon interaction if one calculates the correlations between nucleons generated in a region with an r.m.s. radius larger than 1.5-2 fm. Vice versa, the correlations of nucleons emitted from a smaller generation region are sensitive to the form of the assumed nucleon-nucleon potential. (author)

  17. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in the presence of the electromagnetic field: Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, NNγ, is a fundamental process, which involves the strong and electromagnetic fields acting simultaneously. Since the electromagnetic interaction is well known, NNγ provides a calculable tool for comparing off-energy-shell effects from different two-nucleon potentials compared to experiment and also provides a simple testing ground, which is sensitive to meson-exchange-current contributions that are so important in electronuclear physics. Historically, experimental studies have focused on ppγ, with only a few measurements of npγ. The present workshop was organized primarily to investigate the interest in, the value of, and the feasibility of doing an npγ experiment using the neutron white source at LANL. An increasing amount of US nuclear physics dollars are being spent on electronuclear physics. npγ is a fundamental process with large meson-exchange currents. In the npγ calculations of Brown and Franklin, the meson-exchange contributions increase the cross section by a factor of roughly two and later the angular distribution of the emitted photon dramatically. The details of these calculated effects have never been verified experimentally, but the proper quantum-mechanical inclusion of meson-exchange contributions, using the methods of brown and Franklin, has proved to be essential in understanding the heavy-ion results. The understanding of the importance of such terms is extremely important inelectronuclear processes, such as are presently under investigation or being planned at Bates, SLAC, and CEBAF. Just one example is in the electrodisintegration of the deuteron, where meson-exchange contributions must be included properly before any conclusions about nuclear models, such as QCD versus meson-exchange potentials can be made

  18. Chiral symmetry and the nucleon--nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The nucleon--nucleon interaction is understood in terms of a dynamic model, the sigma model. The anti NN → ππ helicity amplitudes are assumed to be physical data, and the dynamical model must reproduce these data, more or less. 14 references

  19. Solitary wave exchange potential and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prema, K.; Raghavan, S.S.; Sekhar Raghavan

    1986-11-01

    Nucleon-nucleon interaction is studied using a phenomenological potential model called solitary wave exchange potential model. It is shown that this simple model reproduces the singlet and triplet scattering data and the deuteron parameters reasonably well. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  20. Investigation of the nucleon structure and the nucleon-nucleon interaction by electron-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    In this thesis results of measurements of the differential cross sections of the elastic and inelastic electron deuteron scattering are presented. The data were taken at several scattering angles and in the electron energy range of 150 MeV up to 320 MeV. The extracted form factors and structure functions are compared with theoretical results which are sensitive to details of nucleon structure and of the nucleon-nucleon forces. (FKS)

  1. Nucleon-nucleon forces in the quark compound bag model and few-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Role of quark-gluon degrees of freedom is discussed in nucleon-nucleon scattering at low and intermediate energies. It is shown that the existence of six-quark hags fixes the form of NN potential at small distances, which leads to the P-matrix satisfying the criterion of Jaffe and Low. The dynamical model of three-nucleon system is discussed taking into accoint the contribution of six-quark bags

  2. Potential energy surfaces for nucleon exchanging in dinuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Xu Hushan; Li Wenfei; Zuo Wei; Li Junqing; Wang Nan; Zhao Enguang

    2003-01-01

    The experimental measurements have provided the evidence that the suppression of fusion cross-section caused by quasi-fission is very important for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions. The potential energy surface due to the nucleon transfer in the collision process is the driven potential, which governs the nucleon transfer, so that governs the competition between the fusion and quasi-fission. The dinuclear system potential energy surface also gives the information about the optimum projectile-target combination, as well as the optimum excitation energy for the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei by heavy ion collisions

  3. Chemical behaviour of trivalent and pentavalent americium in saline NaCl-solutions. Studies of transferability of laboratory data to natural conditions. Interim report. Reported period: 1.2.1993-31.12.1993; Chemisches Verhalten von drei- und fuenfwertigem Americium in Salinen NaCl-Loesungen. Untersuchung der Uebertragbarkeit von Labordaten auf natuerliche Verhaeltnisse. Zwischenbericht. Berichtszeitraum 1.2.1993-31.12.1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runde, W; Kim, J I

    1994-09-15

    In order to clarify the chemical behaviour of Americium in saline aqueous systems relevant for final storage this study deals with the chemical reactions of trivalent and pentavalent Americium in NaCl-solutions under the influence of radiolysis from its own alpha radiation. The focus of the study was on investigating the geologically relevant reactions, such as hydrolysis or carbonate- and chloride complexing in solid-liquid equilibriums. Comprehensive measurements on solubility and spectroscopic studies in NaCl-solutions were carried out in a CO{sub 2}-free atmosphere and 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Identification and characterisation of the AM (III) and AM(V) solid phases were supplemented by structural research with the chemically analogue EU (III) and Np(V) compounds. The alpha-radiation induced radiolysis in saline NaCl solutions and the redox behaviour of Americium which was influenced thereby were spectroscopically quantified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Klaerung des chemischen Verhaltens von Americium in endlagerrelevanten salinen aquatischen Systemen befasst sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den chemischen Reaktionen des drei- und fuenfwertigen Americiums in NaCl-Loesungen unter dem Einfluss der Radiolyse durch die eigene {alpha}-Strahlung. Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung der geologisch relevanten Reaktionen, wie Hydrolyse sowie Carbonat- und Chloridkomplexierung in fest-fluessig Gleichgewichtssystemen. Hierzu wurden umfassende Loeslichkeitsmessungen und spektroskopische Untersuchungen in NaCl-Loesungen, sowohl unter CO{sub 2}-freier Atmosphaere als auch unter 10{sup -2} atm CO{sub 2}-Partialdruck, durchgefuehrt. Die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Am(III)- und Am(V)-Festphasen wurde ergaenzt durch strukturelle Untersuchungen mit den chemisch analogen Eu(III)- und Np(V)-Verbindungen. Die von der {alpha}-Strahlung induzierte Radiolyse in salinen NaCl-Loesungen und das dadurch beeinflusste Redoxverhalten von Americium

  4. Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon coupling constant and the nucleon-nucleon scattering length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Babenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Charge independence breaking (CIB in the pion-nucleon coupling constant and the nucleon-nucleon scattering length is considered on the basis of the Yukawa meson theory. CIB effect in these quantities is almost entirely explained by the mass difference between the charged and the neutral pions. Therewith charge splitting of the pion-nucleon coupling constant is almost the same as charge splitting of the pion mass. Calculated difference between the proton-proton and the neutron-proton scattering length in this case comprises ∼90% of the experimental value.

  5. Nucleon Resonance Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, Volker D.

    2016-07-25

    Recent results of meson photo-production at the existing electron machines with polarized real photon beams and the measurement of polarization observables of the final state baryons have provided high precision data that led to the discovery of new excited nucleon and $\\Delta$ states using multi-channel partial wave analyses procedures. The internal structure of several prominent excited states has been revealed employing meson electroproduction processes. On the theoretical front, lattice QCD is now predicting the baryon spectrum with very similar characteristics as the constituent quark model, and continuum QCD, such as is represented in the Dyson-Schwinger Equations approach and in light front relativistic quark models, describes the non-perturbative behavior of resonance excitations at photon virtuality of $Q^2 > 1.5GeV^2$. In this talk I discuss the need to continue a vigorous program of nucleon spectroscopy and the study of the internal structure of excited states as a way to reveal the effective degrees of freedom underlying the excited states and their dependence on the distance scale probed.

  6. Dressing the nucleon propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, S.; Gersten, A.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleon propagator in the ''nested bubbles'' approximation is analyzed. The approximation is built from the minimal set of diagrams which is needed to maintain the unitarity condition under two-pion production threshold in the two-nucleon Bethe--Salpeter equation. Recursive formulas for subsets of ''nested bubbles'' diagrams calculated in the framework of the pseudoscalar interaction are obtained by the use of dispersion relations. We prove that the sum of all the ''nested bubbles'' diverges. Moreover, the successive iterations are plagued with ghost poles. We prove that the first approximation--which is the so-called chain approximation--has ghost poles for any nonvanishing coupling constant. In an earlier paper we have shown that ghost poles lead to ghost cuts. These cuts are present in the ''nested bubbles.'' Ghost elimination procedures are discussed. Modifications of the ''nested bubbles'' approximation are introduced in order to obtain convergence and in order to eliminate the ghost poles and ghost cuts. In a similar way as in the Lee model, cutoff functions are introduced in order to eliminate the ghost poles. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the absence of ghost poles are formulated and analyzed. The spectral functions of the modified ''nested bubbles'' are analyzed and computed. Finally, we present a theorem, similar in its form to Levinson's theorem in scattering theory, which enables one to compute in a simple way the number of ghost poles

  7. Nucleon-antinucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dover, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of our understanding of the low energy nucleon-antinucleon (N anti N) interaction is reviewed. We compare several phenomenological models which fit the available N anti N cross section data. The more realistic of these models employ an annihilation potential W(r) which is spin, isospin and energy dependent. The microscopic origins for these dependences are discussed in terms of quark rearrangement and annihilation processes. It is argued that the study of N anti N annihilation offers a powerful means of studying quark dynamics at short distances. We also discuss how one may try to isolate coherent meson exchange contributions to the medium and long range part of the N anti N potential. These pieces of the N anti N interaction are calculable via the G-parity transformation from a model for the NN potential; their effects are predicted to be seen in N anti N spin observables, to be measured at LEAR. The possible existence of quasi-stable bound states or resonances of the anti N plus one or more nucleons is discussed, with emphasis on few-body systems. 42 references

  8. Nucleon-nucleon interaction and the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1985-01-01

    The NN phase shifts are calculated using the quark model with a QCD inspired quark-quark force. The short range part of the NN force is given by quark and gluon exchange. The long range part is described by π and σ-meson exchange. The data fitted in the model are five values connected with three quarks only: the nucleon mass, the Δ mass, the root mean square radius of the charge distribution of the proton including the pion cloud, the π-N and the σ-N coupling constant at zero momentum transfer. The 1 S and 3 S phase shifts are nicely reproduced. The short range repulsion is decisively influenced by the node in the [42] r relative wave function. Very important is the colour magnetic quark-quark force which enlarges the [42] r admixture. In the OBEP's the short range repulsion is connected with the exchange of the ω-meson. But to reproduce the short range repulsion one had to blow up the ω-N coupling constant by a factor 2 to 3 compared to flavour SU 3 . With quark and gluon exchange the best fit to the ω-N coupling constant lies close to the SU 3 flavour value. This fact strongly supports the notion that the real nature of the short range repulsion of the NN interaction have been found

  9. Few-nucleon systems (theory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwamb, M.

    2006-01-01

    An overview over present achievements and future challenges in the field of few-nucleon systems is presented. Special emphasis is laid on the construction of a unified approach to hadronic and electromagnetic reactions on few-nucleon systems, necessary for studying the borderline between quark-gluon and effective descriptions. (orig.) (orig.)

  10. Recoil of the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and axial form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabucar, D.; Picek, I.

    1984-03-01

    A recent method of boosting the bag is extended to the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and developed for the calculation of low-energy nucleon form factors. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the induced pseudoscalar form factor where both the inclusion of the pion field and the non-vanishing momentum transfer are necessary. (Auth.)

  11. Production of neutron-rich nuclei at 200 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, T.J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Ways that heavy ion accelerators have been used to produce neutron rich isotopes are discussed. These include: fusion-evaporation reactions; transfer reactions; deep-inelastic scattering; and heavy ion fragmentation. Experiments using beams of 40 Ar and 48 Ca at 205 MeV/nucleon and 212 MeV/nucleon respectively, are described

  12. Pion distribution in the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.-S.H.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented for calculating the pion wave function inside the nucleon. By assuming that all pions around a core of the nucleon are in the lowest eigenstate of the system, it is shown that both the bound state and πN scattering amplitude can be consistently described by an exactly soluble model defined in the subspace spanned by the core state and the physical πN state. The parameters of the model are determined by fitting the data of the nucleon mass, πNN coupling constant and low energy πN scattering phase shifts. The model predicts that the probability of finding the pion component inside the nucleon is about 20%. The calculated πNN form factor differs significantly from the conventional monopole form. The dynamical consequences of the differences are demonstrated in a calculation of electromagnetic production of pions from the nucleon and the deuteron. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nucleonic measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holben, B.C.; Bach, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A nucleonic measuring instrument is described wherein a housing contains a radiation source and has an aperture controlled by a shutter which is spring loaded to a closed position for confining and shielding the radiation and is movable by a motor to an open position for releasing the radiation, the motor being supplied with power through a heat sensitive element so that it is deenergized and the shutter closes in response to a predetermined high ambient temperature such as may be caused by a fire, and including an explosive blank cartridge positioned in relation to the shutter guide which explodes in response to a still higher ambient temperature, deforming the guide and thereby locking the shutter in the closed position. (auth)

  14. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  15. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-09-29

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  16. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the ππ, K anti K and the ρπ continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  17. Diquarks and nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkevich, A.D.; Savrin, V.I.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1982-01-01

    Formulae for structure functions of the deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are obtained through relativistic wave functions of systems composed of particles with spins 0, 1/2 and 1, 1/2. These wave functions are solutions of covariant two-particle single-time equations describing the nucleon as a system formed out of a quark and a diquark. Diquark is considered as a boson with the spin 0 and 1. The expressions for the nucleon structure functions are obtained by using the matrix elements of the current operator corresponding to the elastic scattering of the photon on a quark and on a diquark [ru

  18. The nucleon spin crisis bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1993-06-01

    When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q 2 and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in O(α s ), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarised structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author)

  19. The nucleon spin crisis bible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q 2 and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in 0(α s ), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarized structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author)

  20. Probing nuclear structure with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauge, E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this lecture is to show how nucleon scattering can be used to probe the structure of target nuclei, and how nucleon scattering observables can be interpreted in terms of nuclear structure using microscopic optical potentials. After a brief overview of the specificities of nucleon-nucleus scattering, and a quick reminder on scattering theory, the main part of this lecture is devoted to the construction of optical potentials in which the target nuclei structure information is folded with an effective interaction. Several examples of such microscopic optical model potentials are given. (author)

  1. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchange and prediction of the color van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the color nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulting nucleon-nucleon potential, using a quark-quark potential, agress well with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction leads to a color van der Waals potential much stronger than that implied by experiments

  2. Nucleon-nucleon interaction with quark exchanges and prediction to colour van der Waals potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1985-11-01

    The nucleon-nucleon interaction is considered by including the colour nucleon clusters. The nucleon-nucleon system is treated as a six-quark system. The obtained local potentials reduce the short-range repulsion. The resulted nucleon-nucleon potential by using a quark-quark potential well agrees with the central-force potentials. The phase shifts calculated by using these local potentials are in good agreement with those obtained from other methods. Introducing the quark-quark potential in the nucleon-nucleon interaction, leads to a colour van der Waals potential very strong compared with that predicted by experiments. (author)

  3. Nucleon-Nucleon Potentials and Computation of Scattering Phase Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhasaketan Bhoi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available By judicious exploitation of supersymmetry formalism of quantum mechanics higher partial wave nucleon-nucleon potentials are generated from its ground state interactions. The nuclear Hulthen potential and the corresponding ground state wave function with the parameters of Arnold and MacKellar are used as the starting point of our calculation. We compute the scattering phase shifts for our constructed potentials through Phase Function Method to examine the merit of our approach to the problem.

  4. Picture book of nucleon--nucleon scattering: amplitudes, models, double- and triple-spin observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, R.D.; Stevens, P.R.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive study of nucleon-nucleon scattering is presented with particular emphasis on the underlying amplitude structure. The five complex NN amplitudes are determined as a function of energy and momentum transfer from existing pp, anti pp, and np elastic scattering data and np and anti pp CHEX data. Some constraints determined from meson-baryon fits are imposed. The resulting amplitudes are used to make predictions of forthcoming double- and triple-spin measurements, and are also compared with the model amplitudes of Kane and Seidl. In addition, the usefulness of transversity amplitudes in NN scattering is discussed, the status of our present knowledge concerning them is examined, and model predictions of these amplitudes are displayed. The paper is presented in a ''picture book'' form so that the reader can get a good overview of NN scattering by studying the figures and reading the tables and figure captions

  5. New large-Nc relations among the nucleon and nucleon-to-Delta GPDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Vladimir Pascalutsa

    2006-01-01

    We establish relations which express the generalized parton distributions (GPDs) describing the N → Δ transition in terms of the nucleon GPDs. These relations are based on the known large-N c relation between the N → Δ electric quadrupole moment and the neutron charge radius, and a newly derived large-N c relation between the electric quadrupole (E2) and Coulomb quadrupole (C2) transitions. Namely, in the large-N c limit we find C2=E2. The resulting relations among the nucleon and N → Δ GPDs provide predictions for the N → Δ electromagnetic form factors which are found to be in very good agreement with experiment for moderate momentum transfers

  6. Nucleon decay in Soudan 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Soudan 2 detector is used to search for evidence of nucleon decay. Particular emphasis is put on searches for modes with multiple-charged particles in the final state, and for modes suggested by super-symmetric theories

  7. Modifications of nucleons in nuclei in quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    In inelastic electron scattering two scaling regions are observed in which the scattering is dominated by quasi-elastic scattering. For large momentum transfers, √Q 2 > 2 GeV/c, the scattering process is dominated by quasi-elastic scattering off quarks, whereas for √Q 2 ≅ 0.5 GeV/c the dominant contribution is quasi-elastic scattering off nucleons. This corresponds nicely to our first order picture of the nucleus consisting of nucleons, which in turn are composed of quarks. In the nucleon-scaling region, possible modifications of nucleon properties show up through a study of the Q 2 dependence and the relative strength of the transverse and longitudinal cross sections. Results of both inclusive (e,e') and exclusive (e,e'p) experiments in the quasi-elastic scattering region indeed show a behavior that could indicate modifications of intrinsic properties of individual nucleons in the nucleus, although the question remains if one has correctly disentangled the effects of the (long range) interactions between nucleons and those connected to the internal structure of nucleons. Even so, a simple (one-parameter) size rescaling for nucleons appears to be inconsistent with the data and also with some known conventional nuclear physics observables. Therefore the inclusion of two-nucleon correlations appears necessary in order to be able to understand the data. Such correlations can for instance be due to the effect of the Pauli principle on the quark level. (orig.)

  8. Hard breakup of two nucleons from the 3He nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsian, Misak M.; Granados, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a large angle photodisintegration of two nucleons from the 3 He nucleus within the framework of the hard rescattering model (HRM). In the HRM a quark of one nucleon knocked out by an incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with large relative momentum. Assuming the dominance of the quark-interchange mechanism in a hard nucleon-nucleon scattering, the HRM allows the expression of the amplitude of a two-nucleon breakup reaction through the convolution of photon-quark scattering, NN hard scattering amplitude, and nuclear spectral function, which can be calculated using a nonrelativistic 3 He wave function. The photon-quark scattering amplitude can be explicitly calculated in the high energy regime, whereas for NN scattering one uses the fit of the available experimental data. The HRM predicts several specific features for the hard breakup reaction. First, the cross section will approximately scale as s -11 . Second, the s 11 weighted cross section will have the shape of energy dependence similar to that of s 10 weighted NN elastic scattering cross section. Also one predicts an enhancement of the pp breakup relative to the pn breakup cross section as compared to the results from low energy kinematics. Another result is the prediction of different spectator momentum dependencies of pp and pn breakup cross sections. This is due to the fact that the same-helicity pp-component is strongly suppressed in the ground state wave function of 3 He. Because of this suppression the HRM predicts significantly different asymmetries for the cross section of polarization transfer NN breakup reactions for circularly polarized photons. For the pp breakup this asymmetry is predicted to be zero while for the pn it is close to (2/3).

  9. The nucleon-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    The Glauber model has the merit to connect directly the nucleon-nucleus elastic differential cross section with the nucleon-nucleon amplitude and nuclear densities. The general agreement between the 1 GeV proton elastic scattering differential cross sections calculated without adjustable parameter and the experimental data (from He 4 to Pb 208 ) is rather satisfactory up to 2. - 2.5 fm -1 momentum transfer. Although the 1 GeV proton elastic scattering experiments constitute at present one of the best method in determining neutron densities, it seems that self-consistent calculations bring the best knowledge of these densities. The model independent analysis performed with electron and proton scattering experiments show that the difference between neutron and proton r.m.s. radius cannot be determined better than 25-30% for Pb 208 [fr

  10. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.

    1994-01-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon

  11. Polarized lepton-nucleon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author provides a summary of the proposed and published statistical (systematic) uncertainties from the world experiments on nucleon spin structure function integrals. By the time these programs are complete, there will be a vast resource of data on nucleon spin structure functions. Each program has quite different experimental approaches regarding the beams, targets, and spectrometers thus ensuring systematically independent tests of the spin structure function measurements. Since the field of spin structure function measurements began, there has been a result appearing approximately every five years. With advances in polarized target technology and high polarization in virtually all of the lepton beams, results are now coming out each year; this is a true signature of the growth in the field. Hopefully, the experiments will provide a consistent picture of nucleon spin structure at their completion. In summary, there are still many open questions regarding the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Tests of QCD via the investigation of the Bjorken sum rule is a prime motivator for the field, and will continue with the next round of precision experiments. The question of the origin of spin is still a fundamental problem. Researchers hope is that high-energy probes using spin will shed light on this intriguing mystery, in addition to characterizing the spin structure of the nucleon.

  12. p-wave pion production from nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baru, V.; Epelbaum, E.; Haidenbauer, J.; Hanhart, C.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.; Lensky, V.; Meissner, U.-G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate p-wave pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions up to next-to-next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory. In particular, we show that it is possible to describe simultaneously the p-wave amplitudes in the pn→ppπ - , pp→pnπ + , pp→dπ + channels by adjusting a single low-energy constant accompanying the short-range operator that is available at this order. This study provides a nontrivial test of the applicability of chiral effective field theory to reactions of the type NN→NNπ.

  13. Inequalities and bounds for nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramandurai, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    The objective of this work is to derive model-independent inequalities and bounds for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering amplitudes based on well-established theoretical principles and symmetries. Two classes of methods are used: algebraic and variational. In the algebraic part, the author derives inequalities and bounds for NN amplitudes and observables using their mutual relations and x symmetries. In the variational part, he employs Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers to evaluate the bounds. He tests the predictions of a sample of proposed phase shifts at three different energies using the results obtained

  14. [Anja Wilhelmi. Lebensweltlen von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien] / Alexander Ewig

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ewig, Alexander, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Wilhelmi, Anja. Lebenswelten von Frauen der deutschen Oberschicht im Baltikum (1800-1939). Eine Untersuchung anhand von Autobiographien. (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, 10.) (Wiesbaden : HArrassowitz 2008)

  15. In-medium NN interactions and nucleon and meson masses studied with nucleon knockout reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Noro, T; Akiyoshi, H; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Hatanaka, K; Ihara, F; Ishikawa, T; Ito, M; Kawabata, M; Kawabata, T; Maeda, Y; Matsuoka, N; Morinobu, S; Nakamura, M; Obayashi, E; Okihana, A; Sagara, K; Sakaguchi, H; Takeda, H; Taki, T; Tamii, A; Tamura, K; Yamazaki, H; Yoshida, H; Yoshimura, M; Yosoi, M

    2000-01-01

    Spin observables have been measured for (p, 2p) reactions aiming at studying medium effects on NN interactions in nuclear field. Observed strong density-dependent reduction of the analyzing power is consistent with a model calculation where reduction of nucleon and meson masses are taken into account. On the other hand, calculations with g-matrices in the Shroedinger framework does not predict the reduction. The spin-transfer coefficients, which data are not reproduced by the model calculation, are found to be sensitive to reduction rate of each meson mass and have a possibility to test scaling lows in mass reductions.

  16. Pion electroproduction at threshold on the nucleon. Contribution to the measurement of the nucleon form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.A.

    1989-11-01

    A pion electroproduction experiment is discussed. The experiment is carried out at threshold on the proton, at the Saclay Linear Accelerator. The scattered electron and the produced pion are detected in coincidence. The aim of the investigation is to measure the nucleon axial form factor. Theoretical concepts and previous experiments are reviewed. The experimental set-up is described, in particular the new pion arm and the trigger simulation. The preliminary analysis of six kinematical points at the momentum transfer of two inverse fermis squared shows the feasibility of the experiment. The pions detection and their identification are satisfactory and allow measurements to be performed [fr

  17. The nucleon spin crisis bible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Close, F.E.

    1993-06-01

    When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q{sup 2} and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in O({alpha}{sub s}), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarised structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author).

  18. The hyperon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haidenbauer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results of two recent hyperon-nucleon interaction potentials, both developed by the Bonn-Juelich group, are presented that are derived either in the conventional meson-exchange picture or within leading order chiral effective field theory. The chiral potential consists of one-pseudoscalar-meson exchanges and non-derivative four-baryon contact terms. The most salient feature of the new meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon model is that the contributions in the scalar-isoscalar (σ) and vector-isovector (ρ) exchange channels are constrained by a microscopic model of correlated ππ and KK-bar exchange

  19. Induced Hyperon-Nucleon-Nucleon Interactions and the Hyperon Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Roland; Roth, Robert

    2016-10-28

    We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell hypernuclei including hyperon-nucleon-nucleon (YNN) contributions induced by a similarity renormalization group transformation of the initial hyperon-nucleon interaction. The transformation including the YNN terms conserves the spectrum of the Hamiltonian while drastically improving model-space convergence of the importance-truncated no-core model, allowing a precise extraction of binding and excitation energies. Results using a hyperon-nucleon interaction at leading order in chiral effective field theory for lower- to mid-p-shell hypernuclei show a good reproduction of experimental excitation energies while hyperon separation energies are typically overestimated. The induced YNN contributions are strongly repulsive and we show that they are related to a decoupling of the Σ hyperons from the hypernuclear system, i.e., a suppression of the Λ-Σ conversion terms in the Hamiltonian. This is linked to the so-called hyperon puzzle in neutron-star physics and provides a basic mechanism for the explanation of strong ΛNN three-baryon forces.

  20. Color oscillations of nucleons in a nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    Possibility of nucleus description as an object consisting of quarks and gluons is considered. A model of two-nucleon interaction in a nucleus is presented and analytical expressions for the nucleus nucleon ground state wave functions and also for nuclear nucleon structure functions are obtained. The carried out analysis shows that the suggested model permits to express the nucleus structure functions at quark level only by means of nucleon and Δ-isobaric degrees of freedom

  1. Studies of the nucleon-nucleus and the nucleon-nucleon interactions using polarized neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, R.L.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.

    1988-01-01

    The results o four scattering measurements using beams of polarized neutrons are described. Results for the analyzing power A y (θ) for elastic scattering of neutrons from protons and deuterons are compared to calculations based on the Paris and the Bonn nucleon-nucleon interactions. Deficiencies particularly in the Bonn model are indicated. A nucleon-nucleus potential is derived from σ(θ) and A y (θ) data for n + 28 Si and p + 28 Si and the Coulomb correction terms are derived according to two approaches. A Fourier-Bessel expansion is used to investigate the form factors of the terms of the n + 208 Pb potential which are necessary to describe σ(θ) and A y (θ) data from 6 to 10 MeV. The nature of the spin-orbit term is also presented. (author)

  2. Disconnected-Sea Quarks Contribution to Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir

    We present comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD estimates of strange quark magnetic moment GsM (0) = -0.064(14)(09) microN and the mean squared charge radius E = -0.0043(16)(14) fm2 are more precise than any existing experimental measurements and other lattice calculations. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is -0.022(11)(09) microN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is -0.019(05)(05) fm 2. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light-sea and strange quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 0.5 GeV2.

  3. Two-photon exchange in elastic electron-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, P.G.; Melnitchouk, W.; Tjon, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of two-photon exchange in unpolarized and polarized elastic electron-nucleon scattering is presented, taking particular account of nucleon finite size effects. Contributions from nucleon elastic intermediate states are found to have a strong angular dependence, which leads to a partial resolution of the discrepancy between the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G E /G M . The two-photon exchange contribution to the longitudinal polarization transfer P L is small, whereas the contribution to the transverse polarization transfer P T is enhanced at backward angles by several percent, increasing with Q 2 . This gives rise to a small, E /G M obtained from the polarization transfer ratio P T /P L at large Q 2 . We also compare the two-photon exchange effects with data on the ratio of e + p to e - p cross sections, which is predicted to be enhanced at backward angles. Finally, we evaluate the corrections to the form factors of the neutron and estimate the elastic intermediate state contribution to the 3 He form factors

  4. On the nucleon renormalization in many nucleon problems due to pionic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.; Sawicki, M.; Furui, Sadataka.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual problems of unified two-nucleon force models are discussed. The force models are based on the pion-nucleon vertex and attempt a description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction below and above pion threshold. The conceptual problems arise from the nucleon renormalization due to pionic degrees of freedom. Keeping channels with a single pion only no renormalization procedure can be given which is consistent in the one-nucleon and in the many-nucleon systems. The medium dependence of the one-pion exchange potential is illustrated. (author)

  5. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the non-linear spinor field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, W.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-antinucleon scattering cross sections are calculated in the frame of the functional quantum field theory by means of two different approximation methods: averaging by integration of indefinite integrals and pulse averaging. The results for nucleon-nucleon scattering are compared with experimental data, with calculations using a modified functional scalar product and with results in first order perturbation theory (V-A-coupling). As for elastic nucleon-antinucleon scattering, the S matrix is investigated for crossing symmetry. Scattering of 'nucleons' of different mass results in different cross sections even in the lowest-order approximation. (BJ) [de

  6. Calculations of nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    We present a method of calculating deep inelastic nucleon structure functions using bag model wavefunctions. Our method uses the Peierls - Yoccoz projection to form translation invariant bag states. We obtain the correct support for the structure functions and satisfy the positivity requirements for quark and anti-quark distribution functions. (orig.)

  7. Chiral perturbation theory with nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1991-09-01

    I review the constraints posed on the interactions of pions, nucleons and photons by the spontaneously broken chiral symmetry of QCD. The framework to perform these calculations, chiral perturbation theory, is briefly discussed in the meson sector. The method is a simultaneous expansion of the Greens functions in powers of external moments and quark masses around the massless case, the chiral limit. To perform this expansion, use is made of a phenomenological Lagrangian which encodes the Ward-identities and pertinent symmetries of QCD. The concept of chiral power counting is introduced. The main part of the lectures of consists in describing how to include baryons (nucleons) and how the chiral structure is modified by the fact that the nucleon mass in the chiral limit does not vanish. Particular emphasis is put on working out applications to show the strengths and limitations of the methods. Some processes which are discussed are threshold photopion production, low-energy compton scattering off nucleons, πN scattering and the σ-term. The implications of the broken chiral symmetry on the nuclear forces are briefly described. An alternative approach, in which the baryons are treated as very heavy fields, is touched upon

  8. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Santopinto, E.

    2008-01-01

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  9. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Santopinto, E. [INFN and Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)]. e-mail: bijker@nucleares.unam.mx

    2008-12-15

    The flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea is discussed in an unquenched quark model for baryons in which the effects of quark-antiquark pairs (uu, dd and ss) are taken into account in an explicit form. The inclusion of qq pairs leads automatically to an excess of d over u quarks in the proton, in agreement with experimental data. (Author)

  10. Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment consists of a 1.1 Kton fine grained iron tracking calorimeter. It has a very isotropic detection structure which along with its flexible trigger will allow detection of multiparticle and neutrino proton decay modes. The detector has now entered its construction stage

  11. Two-particle lepton-nucleon processes in the dual QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    The data on elastic and quasielastic lepton-nucleon scattering and on Δ 33 electro- and neutrino-production are analyzed in the dual approach based on finite-energy sum rules and QCD. A large class of two-particle lepton-nucleon processes at small and moderate momentum transfers 0.4 (GeV/c) 2 2 2 are described. It is shown that the data on these processes, used as an additional information, essentially decrease the ambiguity in determination of QCD parameters from analysis of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering

  12. Two-particle lepton--nucleon processes in the dual QCD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'kov, A.A.; Ivanov, Y.P.; Kovalenko, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Using a dual approach based on finite-energy sum rules and QCD, an analysis is made of data on elastic and quasielastic lepton--nucleon scattering and on the reactions of electron- and neutrino-induced production of the Δ 33 isobar. A description is obtained of a wide range of two-particle lepton--nucleon processes in the region of small and moderate momentum transfers 0.4 (GeV/c) 2 2 2 . It is shown that the use of data on these processes as additional information substantially reduces the ambiguity in the determination of the QCD parameters in the analysis of deep inelastic lepton--nucleon scattering

  13. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Koutsou, G.; Negele, J. W.; Tsapalis, A.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the isovector nucleon electromagnetic form factors in quenched and unquenched QCD on the lattice using Wilson fermions. In the quenched theory we use a lattice of spatial size 3 fm at β=6.0 enabling us to reach low momentum transfers and a lowest pion mass of about 400 MeV. In the unquenched theory we use two degenerate flavors of dynamical Wilson fermions on a lattice of spatial size 1.9 fm at β=5.6 and lowest pion mass of about 380 MeV enabling comparison with the results obtained in the quenched theory. that unquenching effects are small for the pion masses considered in this work. We compare our lattice results to the isovector part of the experimentally measured form factors

  14. Nucleon form factors. Probing the chiral limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important hints for the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experimentalists. For an intermediate range of momentum transfers the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet unaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with Nf=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at very small quark masses down to 340 MeV pion mass, where we start to probe the relevant quark mass region. (orig.)

  15. Nucleon form factors. Probing the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.; Horsley, R.

    2006-10-01

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important hints for the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experimentalists. For an intermediate range of momentum transfers the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet unaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with Nf=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at very small quark masses down to 340 MeV pion mass, where we start to probe the relevant quark mass region. (orig.)

  16. The effect of including tensor forces in nucleon-nucleon interaction on three-nucleon binding energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1986-01-01

    Separable two-body interactions are used in considering the three-nucleon problem. The nucleon-nucleon potentials are taken to include attraction and repulsion as well as tensor forces. The separable approximation is used in order to investigate the effect of the tensor forces. The separable expansion is introduced in the three-nucleon problem, by which the Faddeev equations are reduced to a well-behaved set of coupled integral equations. Numerical calculations are carried out for the obtained integral equations using potential functions of the Yamaguchi, Gaussian, Takabin, Mongan and Reid forms. The present calculated values of the binding energies of the 3 H and 3 He nuclei are in good agreement with the experimental values. The effect of including the tensor forces in the nucleon-nucleon interactions is found to improve the three-nucleon binding energy by about 4.490% to 8.324%. 37 refs., 2 tabs. (author)

  17. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-11-13

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a{sup 2}) discretization effects.

  18. Nucleon structure from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinter, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we compute within lattice QCD observables related to the structure of the nucleon. One part of this thesis is concerned with moments of parton distribution functions (PDFs). Those moments are essential elements for the understanding of nucleon structure and can be extracted from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering experiments. On the theoretical side they can be computed non-perturbatively by means of lattice QCD. However, since the time lattice calculations of moments of PDFs are available, there is a tension between these lattice calculations and the results from a global analysis of experimental data. We examine whether systematic effects are responsible for this tension, and study particularly intensively the effects of excited states by a dedicated high precision computation. Moreover, we carry out a first computation with four dynamical flavors. Another aspect of this thesis is a feasibility study of a lattice QCD computation of the scalar quark content of the nucleon, which is an important element in the cross-section of a heavy particle with the nucleon mediated by a scalar particle (e.g. Higgs particle) and can therefore have an impact on Dark Matter searches. Existing lattice QCD calculations of this quantity usually have a large error and thus a low significance for phenomenological applications. We use a variance-reduction technique for quark-disconnected diagrams to obtain a precise result. Furthermore, we introduce a new stochastic method for the calculation of connected 3-point correlation functions, which are needed to compute nucleon structure observables, as an alternative to the usual sequential propagator method. In an explorative study we check whether this new method is competitive to the standard one. We use Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist in all our calculations, such that all observables considered here have only O(a 2 ) discretization effects.

  19. High-Energy antipp and pp Elastic Scattering and Nucleon Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.M.; Innocente, V.; Fearnley, T.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1987-01-01

    High-energy antipp and pp elastic data from the CERN Collider and the ISR are analyzed in the nucleon valence core model. Diffraction is described by a profile function that incorporates crossing symmetry and saturation of Froissart-Martin bound. The model is found to provide a very satisfactory description of the elastic scattering over the whole range of energy and momentum transfer. Implications of the analysis on QCD models of nucleon structure are pointed out

  20. High-Energy antipp and pp Elastic Scattering and Nucleon Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M.M.; Innocente, V.; Fearnley, T.; Sanguinetti, G.

    1987-07-15

    High-energy antipp and pp elastic data from the CERN Collider and the ISR are analyzed in the nucleon valence core model. Diffraction is described by a profile function that incorporates crossing symmetry and saturation of Froissart-Martin bound. The model is found to provide a very satisfactory description of the elastic scattering over the whole range of energy and momentum transfer. Implications of the analysis on QCD models of nucleon structure are pointed out.

  1. Fusion reactor nucleonics: status and needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.; Engholm, B.A.; Dudziak, D.J.; Haight, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The national fusion technology effort has made a good start at addressing the basic nucleonics issues, but only a start. No fundamental nucleonics issues are seen as insurmountable barriers to the development of commercial fusion power. To date the fusion nucleonics effort has relied almost exclusively on other programs for nuclear data and codes. But as we progress through and beyond ETF type design studies the fusion program will need to support a broad based nucleonics effort including code development, sensitivity studies, integral experiments, data acquisition etc. It is clear that nucleonics issues are extremely important to fusion development and that we have only scratched the surface

  2. Why do nucleons cling. [Meson theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N [Hindu Coll., Delhi (India)

    1976-10-01

    The nature of the forces which bind nucleons together within the nucleus of an atom have been discussed in detail. The characteristic properties of the nucleons, such as spin, interaction range etc. and the meson theory of nuclear forces are described. The present researches indicate that the force between two nucleons in a many-nucleon system is not very different from the force between two free nucleons. Researches related to the origin of nuclear forces based on the meson theory are now mainly concerned with the role played by the heavier mesons and the two pion exchanges in the middle region around 0.7 fm. (10/sup -13/ cm).

  3. Nucleon Compton Scattering with Two Space-Like Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei Afanasev; I. Akushevich; N.P. Merenkov

    2002-01-01

    We calculate two-photon exchange effects for elastic electron-proton scattering at high momentum transfers. The corresponding nucleon Compton amplitude is defined by two space-like virtual photons that appear to have significant virtualities. We make predictions for (a) a single-spin beam asymmetry, and (b) a single-spin target asymmetry or recoil proton polarization caused by an unpolarized electron beam

  4. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Neck, D.; Waroquier, M.; Heyde, K.

    1997-01-01

    Coulomb Displacement Energies (CDE) are accurately known for a wide range of nuclear masses. Assuming isospin independence in the nuclear Hamiltonian, the CDE can in first instance be interpreted as the Coulomb interaction energy between the density of the excess neutrons and the proton charge density in the parent nucleus. However, when using reasonable mean-field models for the proton and neutron density one underestimates the CDE by about 8% on average. This discrepancy is known as the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly, and various explanations have been put forward in the past. In this work the role of nucleon-nucleon correlations are re-examined. Calculations for the pair density functions in various nuclei are presented. Preliminary results suggest that the modifications to the mean-field pair density functions cause an enhancement of the CDE in the order of 4%, which is rather A-independent. (author)

  5. Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )

  6. Coherent generation of mesons in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Takibaev, Z S; Zaitsev, K G

    1974-01-01

    The authors have at an experiment conducted at CERN searched for events of 0 four-prong type which satisfy coherent pion production. The 2-meter hydrogen bubble chamber at CERN was bombarded by 19.07 GeV protons. The cross-section for four final state particle events was 13.04 mb. the cross-section for the process pp to pp pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ was 1.1 mb and the cross section for coherent pion production was found to vary according to the criteria used between 0.044 mb. and 0.2 mb. Some theoretical work is given using the Glauber formalism in which it is assumed that the nucleon behaves like a nucleus and contains sub-particles. From the theory and data an upper limit of 10 is put on the number of subparticles in the nucleon. (9 refs).

  7. Nucleon-nucleon interaction in the soliton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.

    1985-01-01

    In the framework of the Soliton Bag Model introduced by Friedberg and Lee we treat S-wave nucleon-nucleon scattering. Our system consists of six quarks and the nontopological soliton field which represents an average colorfree interaction between the quarks and yields their (relative) confinement. The dynamical problem is treated by means of the Generator coordinate Method (GCM) where the total wave function is the weighted sum over static configurations of prescribed bag deformation. The static configurations needed for the GCM ansatz are generated starting from a potential well of prescribed deformation wherein we solve the Dirac equation for the quarks. The single particle quark orbitals are properly coupled with respect to orbital, color, spin, and isospin quantum numbers to form a totally antisymmetric 6-quark state. A mean field solution for the soliton field is then calculated and turned into a quantum mechanical state by a coherent state approximation. Since these static configurations are only to be seen as wave function generators for the GCM no selfconsistency between quark and soliton solution is enforced. With these configurations we then evaluate the norm and Hamiltonian kernels appearing in the GCM treatment. The Hill-Wheeler integral equation for the weight functions is transformed into a Schroedinger-type differential equation by an expansion into symmetric moments of up to second order. This equation is brought into a form where we can identify the interaction potential unambiguously. We find an intermediate range attraction of about 120 MeV and no attraction in the vicinity of the spherically symmetric shape of the system, in contradiction to the naive adiabatic potentials widely used in quark models for the nucleon-nucleon interaction up to now. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Two-body Dirac equations for nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Crater, Horace

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the nucleon-nucleon interaction by using the meson exchange model and the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics. This approach to the two-body problem has been successfully tested for QED and QCD relativistic bound states. An important question we wish to address is whether or not the two-body nucleon-nucleon scattering problem can be reasonably described in this approach as well. This test involves a number of related problems. First we must reduce our two-body Dirac equations exactly to a Schroedinger-like equation in such a way that allows us to use techniques to solve them already developed for Schroedinger-like systems in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. Related to this, we present a new derivation of Calogero's variable phase shift differential equation for coupled Schroedinger-like equations. Then we determine if the use of nine meson exchanges in our equations gives a reasonable fit to the experimental scattering phase shifts for n-p scattering. The data involve seven angular momentum states including the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 P 1 , 1 D 2 and the triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 , 3 S 1 , 3 D 1 . Two models that we have tested give us a fairly good fit. The parameters obtained by fitting the n-p experimental scattering phase shift give a fairly good prediction for most of the p-p experimental scattering phase shifts examined (for the singlet states 1 S 0 , 1 D 2 and triplet states 3 P 0 , 3 P 1 ). Thus the two-body Dirac equations of constraint dynamics present us with a fit that encourages the exploration of a more realistic model. We outline generalizations of the meson exchange model for invariant potentials that may possibly improve the fit

  9. Zur Konstruktion von ''Männlichkeit'' bei ''Ultras'' : eine empirische Untersuchung zur Fanszene in Bremen

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    ''Männliche'' Herrschaftsstrukturen sind innerhalb der gesamten Gesellschaft stark verbreitet. Dies spiegelt sich dementsprechend auch in Fußballfanszenen wider. Diese Arbeit untersucht daher die Konstruktion von Männlichkeit bei ''Ultras'', da diese mit ihrer starken Präsens und ihren aufwendigen Choreographien in Stadien großen Einfluss vor allem auf Jugendliche haben. Ziel der Untersuchung ist es, Mechanismen innerhalb der Fanszene aufzuzeigen um somit pädagogisch zu intervenieren, damit g...

  10. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung zur Klangfarbenwahmehmung von Vorschulkindern mit einem Klangmemory

    OpenAIRE

    Schellberg, Gabriele

    1998-01-01

    Im Unterschied zu anderen Bereichen der musikalischen Wahrnehmung gibt es zur Klangfarbenwahmehmung nur wenige Untersuchungen. Ein Grund dafür dürfte in den methodischen Schwierigkeiten liegen, die insbesondere bei der Untersuchung kleiner Kinder auftreten. Ein Klangfarbentest für Vorschulkinder existiert bislang nicht. Daher wurde nach mehreren Voruntersuchungen ein „Klangfarben-Memory“ als Methode entwickelt und bei Vorschulkindern eingesetzt. Die Ergebnisse dieser empirischen Studie werden...

  11. Potentiale und Barrieren der Nutzung des Mobile Payment aus Kundensicht: eine empirische Untersuchung

    OpenAIRE

    Haarstick, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Während sich das Zahlungsverfahren Mobile Payment seit einigen Jahren international mehr und mehr etabliert, fristet es entgegen jährlich wiederkehrender Erfolgsprognosen in Deutschland immer noch ein Nischendasein. Die vorliegende Untersuchung entstand im Rahmen einer Bachelorarbeit des Studiengangs der Betriebswirtschaftslehre an der Hochschule Hannover und beschäftigt sich mit den Potentialen und Barrieren der Nutzung des Mobile Payment aus Kundensicht, mit dem Ziel, die wesentlichen Fakto...

  12. Coloured quarks and the short range nucleon nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, J.E.F.T.

    1978-02-01

    The strong repulsive core that exists in the scattering of two nucleons is studied with the help of the Resonating Group Method (R.G.M.), where the Pauli Principle of fermion antisymmetry is taken explicitly into account. The quark-quark potential is described in terms of colour (long range confining potential) and hyperfine interactions alone. The mass differences N*(1688) - N(938) and Δ(1236) = N(938) are used to fit the two free constants of the assumed quark potential. It is shown that although the Pauli Principle does not exclude ab initio a S state of two nucleons, a strong repulsive potential is, nevertheless, found. Two cases are studied in detail: The Isosinglet case (neutron proton scattering) and the Isotriplet one (identical nucleons). Phase shifts for each case are presented and the obtained relative wave functions are found consistent with the observed experimental features for the repulsive potential. Some formal results concerning an important class of operators characteristic of the present R.G.M. calculations are also presented. (author)

  13. Induced hyperon-nucleon-nucleon interactions and the hyperon puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Roland; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong experimental and theoretical interest in determining the structure of hypernuclei and the effect of strangeness in strongly interacting many-body systems. Recently, we presented the first calculations of hypernuclei in the p shell from first principles. However, these calculations showed either slow convergence with respect to model-space size or, when the hyperon-nucleon potential is transformed via the Similarity Renormalization Group, strong induced three-body terms. By including these induced hyperon-nucleon-nucleon (YNN) terms explicitly, we get precise binding and excitation energies. We present first results for p-shell hypernuclei and discuss the origin of the YNN terms, which are mainly driven by the evolution of the Λ-Σ conversion terms. We find that they are tightly connected to the hyperon puzzle, a long-standing issue where the appearance of hyperons in models of neutron star matter lowers the predicted maximum neutron star mass below the bound set by the heaviest observed objects.

  14. Radical conservatism and nucleon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Unification of couplings, observation of neutrino masses in the expected range, and several other considerations confirm central implications of straightforward gauge unification based on SO(10) or a close relative and incorporating low-energy supersymmetry. The remaining outstanding consequence of this circle of ideas, yet to be observed, is nucleon instability. Clearly, we should aspire to be as specific as possible regarding the rate and form of such instability. I argue that not only esthetics, but also the observed precision of unification of couplings, favors an economical symmetry-breaking (Higgs) structure. Assuming this, one can exploit its constraints to build reasonably economical, overconstrained yet phenomenologically viable models of quark and lepton masses. Putting it all together, one arrives at reasonably concrete, hopeful expectations regarding nucleon decay. These expectations are neither ruled out by existing experiments, nor hopelessly inaccessible. Furthermore, the branching fractions can discriminate among different possibilities for physics at the unification scale

  15. anti K-nucleon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Ramesh

    1963-10-15

    Total scattering and absorption cross sections for anti K-nucleon collisions in I = 1, p3/2 - channel are given as functions of the two sets of energy dependent anti KN scattering parameters solutions, called solution A' and solution B'. These scattering parameters are obtained by linear interpolations between Watson's amplitudes around 400 MeV/c and the amplitude at the position of the pole in the anti KN scattering amplitude corresponding to the p3/2-wave 1385 MeV Y1-resonance with 50 MeV width. The zero-range expansion for p-wave anti K-nucleon phase shift and the scattering parameters of Watson's solution B are found to be in violation of the requirements of causality and of positive definiteness of transition probabilities. (auth)

  16. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  17. The structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueren, M.

    2001-01-01

    The spin and flavor structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons and nuclei is more complicated than expected in the original naive quark model. Recent results which show some of the key failures of the naive picture are summarized here with emphasis on recent results from the HERMES experiment. Some future options to study the quarks structure in exclusive processes in electroproduction, photoproduction and pp annihilation are presented. (orig.)

  18. Antinucleon-nucleon annihilation dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myhrer, F.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    The antinucleon-nucleon annihilation is predominantly described by a hot-fireball process where the many final quantum numbers are distributed in a statistical fashion. It is argued that caution must be used in employing the long-range meson-exchange forces to describe the protonium atomic states. The simplest processes of two final mesons do show puzzling behavior which might be a reflection of quark dynamics, but no guiding principles for these quark calculations have been established yet. (orig.)

  19. The effect of higher order different meson exchange nucleon-nucleon interactions on the three-nucleon binding energy coupling problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Faddeev equations of bound three-nucleon system are presented as a set of integral equations. To solve them, a sutable form of the nucleon-nucleon interactions is used: with the exchange of a scalar meson, a pseudoscalar meson and a massless vector meson. Higher orders of these different meson exchanges in the nucleon-nucleon interactions have been taken into account. With these nuclear forces and nucleon-nucleon interactions, the three-nucleon binding energy is calculated by solving the Faddeev integral equations. The obtained value of the three-nucleon binding energy is 8.441 MeV. The inclusion of the higher order terms of the different meson exchange in the nuclear nucleon-nucleon interaction is found to affect the three-nucleon binding by about 3.92%. 3 figs., 16 refs

  20. Probing of the isospin-dependent mean field and nucleon-nucleon cross section in a medium by nucleon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianye; Xing Yongzhong; Guo Wenjun

    2003-01-01

    We study the isospin effects of the mean field and two-body collision on the nucleon emissions at the intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions by using an isospin-dependent transport theory. The calculated results show that the nucleon emission number N n depends sensitively on the isospin effect of nucleon-nucleon cross section and weakly on the isospin-dependent mean field for neutron-poor system in higher beam energy region. In particular, the correlation between the medium correction of two-body collision and the momentum-dependent interaction enhances the dependence of nucleon emission number N n on the isospin effect of nucleon-nucleon cross section. On the contrary, the ratio of the neutron-proton ratio of the gas phase to the neutron-proton ratio of the liquid phase, i.e., the degree of isospin fractionation [(N/Z) gas ] b /[(N/Z) liq ] b depends sensitively on the isospin-dependent mean field and weakly on the isospin effect of two-body collision for neutron-rich system in the lower beam energy region. In this case, N n and [(N/Z) gas ] b /[(N/Z) liq ] b are the probes for extracting the information about the isospin-dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section in the medium and the isospin-dependent mean field, respectively

  1. The nucleon as a projected chiral soliton: vacuum and medium properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiolhais, M.; Alberto, P.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Christov, C.V.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia

    1990-01-01

    Nucleon properties and nucleon form factors are computed within the framework of the projected linear chiral soliton model. To this end the Gell-Mann - Levy lagrangian is solved by means of variational methods which include angular momentum and isospin projection with trial quark-boson Fock states in generalized hedgehog configurations. The consistency of the treatment is checked by the fulfillment of virial theorems such as Goldberger-Treiman relation. In general the q 2 dependence of the nucleon form factors are well described although some of their values at zero momentum transfer come out too large, namely for the axial- and πN N- form factors. Electromagnetic form factors for the N - Δ transition are also calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Medium effects on the nucleon properties are investigated combining the projected chiral soliton model with the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The latter is employed to compute the pion decay constant and the pion and sigma masses at finite medium density. These meson properties fix the parameters in the linear sigma model, which is then solved using the same variational methods as for the zero density. The nucleon mass shows a decrease of 17% and the proton radius an increase of 19% if the medium reaches nuclear matter density. The magnetic moments and g A are less affected by the medium. The nucleon electromagnetic form factors show remarkable changes at finite transfer numbers as well. (author)

  2. Nucleon-nucleon partial-wave analysis to 1100 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, R.A.; Hyslop, J.S. III; Roper, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Comprehensive analyses of nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering data below 1100 MeV laboratory kinetic energy are presented. The data base from which an energy-dependent solution and 22 single-energy solutions are obtained consists of 7223 pp and 5474 np data. A resonancelike structure is found to occur in the 1 D 2 , 3 F 3 , 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and 3 F 4 - 3 H 4 partial waves; this behavior is associated with poles in the complex energy plane. The pole positions and residues are obtained by analytic continuation of the ''production'' piece of the T matrix obtained in the energy-dependent solution. The new phases differ somewhat from previously published VPIandSU solutions, especially in I = 0 waves above 500 MeV, where np data are very sparse. The partial waves are, however, based upon a significantly larger data base and reflect correspondingly smaller errors. The full data base and solution files can be obtained through a computer scattering analysis interactive dial-in (SAID) system at VPIandSU, which also exists at many institutions around the world and which can be transferred to any site with a suitable computer system. The SAID system can be used to modify solutions, plan experiments, and obtain any of the multitude of predictions which derive from partial-wave analyses of the world data base

  3. On single nucleon wave functions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, Igal

    2011-01-01

    The strong and singular interaction between nucleons, makes the nuclear many body theory very complicated. Still, nuclei exhibit simple and regular features which are simply described by the shell model. Wave functions of individual nucleons may be considered just as model wave functions which bear little resemblance to the real ones. There is, however, experimental evidence for the reality of single nucleon wave functions. There is a simple method of constructing such wave functions for valence nucleons. It is shown that this method can be improved by considering the polarization of the core by the valence nucleon. This gives rise to some rearrangement energy which affects the single valence nucleon energy within the nucleus.

  4. Electromagnetic properties of the three-nucleon ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strueve, W.

    1985-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the three-nucleon ground state are calculated on the base of an exact solution of the Faddeev equations. In a Hilbert space of nucleons and a possible Δ-isobar the effects of a non-perturbative description of the Δ-isobar on the magnetic form factors are studied. Pure nucleonic current operators with two- and three-particle character can be described in the extended Hilbert space by simpler one-body operators. Additionally nonrelativistic meson-exchange corrections due to π and ρ exchange are calculated consistently with the requirements of current conservation. Further relativistic corrections are estimated on selected examples. The calculations yield a total magnetic contribution of the Δ-isobar which is smaller than hitherto assumed, a static approximation of the Δ propagation is proved as inadmissible and must be rejected. Together with the meson-exchange corrections a well agreement with the experimental data at low momentum transfers results. Especially the magnetic moments and magnetization radii can be explained. For higher momentum transfers the results show the importance of further corrections. The regard of selected relativistic corrections leads to a good description of the experimental magnetic form factors. Also by this way the position of the minimum and the height of the second maximum in the 3 He charge form factor can be explained. The comparison with the latest experimental results reveals furthermore unresolved problems in the description of the 3 H charge form factor. (orig.) [de

  5. Holographic estimate of the meson cloud contribution to nucleon axial form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, G.

    2018-04-01

    We use light-front holography to estimate the valence quark and the meson cloud contributions to the nucleon axial form factor. The free couplings of the holographic model are determined by the empirical data and by the information extracted from lattice QCD. The holographic model provides a good description of the empirical data when we consider a meson cloud mixture of about 30% in the physical nucleon state. The estimate of the valence quark contribution to the nucleon axial form factor compares well with the lattice QCD data for small pion masses. Our estimate of the meson cloud contribution to the nucleon axial form factor has a slower falloff with the square momentum transfer compared to typical estimates from quark models with meson cloud dressing.

  6. Database of Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Cross Sections by Stochastic Simulation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A database of nucleon-nucleon elastic differential and total cross sections will be generated by stochastic simulation of the quantum Liouville equation in the...

  7. Theoretical aspects of the nucleon-nucleon workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report concentrates on the inelastic NN system from 300 to 1500 MeV. Topics covered include the visibility of quark signals, dibaryons, the model dependence of predicted NN inelasticities, and a review of how well present conventional models compare with a rapidly expanding database. The general conclusion is that there is so far no clear evidence in the NN system at intermediate energies for unconventional dibaryon resonances. Short remarks are also made concerning one theoretical contribution on elastic scattering and on new experimental results for deuteron photo-disintegration and pion-nucleon charge exchange. 11 references

  8. Chiral nucleon-nucleon forces in nuclear structure calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraggio L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Realistic nuclear potentials, derived within chiral perturbation theory, are a major breakthrough in modern nuclear structure theory, since they provide a direct link between nuclear physics and its underlying theory, namely the QCD. As a matter of fact, chiral potentials are tailored on the low-energy regime of nuclear structure physics, and chiral perturbation theory provides on the same footing two-nucleon forces as well as many-body ones. This feature fits well with modern advances in ab-initio methods and realistic shell-model. Here, we will review recent nuclear structure calculations, based on realistic chiral potentials, for both finite nuclei and infinite nuclear matter.

  9. Influence of nucleon density distribution in nucleon emission probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Nandy, Maitreyee; Mohanty, A.K.; Sarkar, P.K.; Gambhir, Y.K.

    2014-01-01

    Different decay modes are observed in heavy ion reactions at low to intermediate energies. It is interesting to study total neutron emission in these reactions which may be contributed by all/many of these decay modes. In an attempt to understand the importance of mean field and the entrance channel angular momentum, we study their influence on the emission probability of nucleons in heavy ion reactions in this work. This study owes its significance to the fact that once population of different states are determined, emission probability governs the double differential neutron yield

  10. Nuclear friction calculated from nucleon currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Vinas, X.; Barranco, M.; La Rana, G.; Leray, S.; Lucas, R.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear friction can be connected to the number of nucleons exchanged between two interacting nuclei. The proximity scaling allows to reduce this problem to a calculation of the nucleon current between two semi infinite slabs of nuclear matter facing each other. In this paper we review the approximations and the results concerning this problem with a special emphasis on the physical ideas. Applications of nucleons currents to Fermi jets and to the calculation of a part of the imaginary potential are also discussed

  11. Nucleon-nucleon interaction of a chiral σ-ω model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukeng Su

    1994-01-01

    By using the imaginery time Green's function method, the nucleon-nucleon interaction of the chiral σ-ω model has been investigated under the one-loop approximation. The effective masses of the pion, σ-meson and ω-meson at finite temperature are given. We have found that the potential well of the nucleon-nucleon interaction becomes shallow as the temperature increases. At a critical temperature T c (70 MEV) the potential well disappears. (author)

  12. Current status of nucleonic gauges in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, J.; Carvalho, F.G.; Manteigas, J.; Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Neves, J.; Cruz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleonic gauges are largely used in Portugal industry, despite the fact that design and manufacturing of prototypes of nucleonic gauges is rather limited. The modernization of some industrial sectors (cement, paper and civil engineering) has enhanced applications of nucleonic gauges and has created local capability but new legislation tends to restrict further spread of them. The Institute of Nuclear Technology is the only applied research institution developing nucleonic gauges for moisture, thickness and density, and elemental analysis, as well as providing assistance in calibration, safe operation and maintenance of them. (author)

  13. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  14. The nucleon-nucleon potential in the chromodielectric soliton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koepf, W.; Wilets, L.; Pepin, S.; Stancu, F.

    1993-01-01

    The short- and medium-range parts of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are being studied in the framework of the chromodielectric soliton model. The model consists of current quarks, gluons in the abelian approximation, and a scalar σ field which simulates the nonabelian interactions of the gluons and governs the medium through the dielectric function κ(σ). Absolute color confinement is effected by the vanishing of the dielectric in vacuum; this also removes the troublesome van der Waals problem. The authors distinguish between spatial confinement, which arises from the self energy of the quarks in medium (excluding MFA contributions), and color confinement which is effected through OGE in the MFA (including the corresponding self energy contributions). The static (adiabatic) energies are computed as a function of deformation (generalized bag separation) in a constrained MFA. Six quark molecular-type wave functions in all important space-spin-isospin-color configurations are included. The gluon propagator is solved in the deformed dielectric medium. The resultant Hamiltonian matrix is diagonalized. Dynamics are handled in the Generator Coordinate Method, which leads to the Hill-Wheeler integral equation. In the present case, this yields a set of coupled equations corresponding to the various configurations. Although this can be approximated by a set of differential equations, they propose to solve the integral equations with some regularization scheme

  15. Counter terms for low momentum nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, Jason D.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Brown, G.E.; Bogner, Scott K.

    2004-01-01

    There is much current interest in treating low energy nuclear physics using the renormalization group (RG) and effective field theory (EFT). Inspired by this RG-EFT approach, we study a low-momentum nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, V low-k , obtained by integrating out the fast modes down to the scale Λ∼2 fm -1 . Since NN experiments can only determine the effective interaction in this low momentum region, our chief purpose is to find such an interaction for complex nuclei whose typical momenta lie below this scale. In this paper we find that V low-k can be highly satisfactorily accounted for by the counter terms corresponding to a short range effective interaction. The coefficients C n of the power series expansion ΣC n q n for the counter terms have been accurately determined, and results derived from several meson-exchange NN interaction models are compared. The counter terms are found to be important only for the S, P and D partial waves. Scaling behavior of the counter terms is studied. Finally we discuss the use of these methods for computing shell model matrix elements

  16. Nucleonic level control in industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Rao, S.S.; Nair, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper elicits the particular advantages of nucleonic level control methods in certain applications. The technique used is described briefly. Normal radioactive sources used and their selection for any application based on their characteristic emissions is explained. Level controller developed by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, is described including details regarding electronic circuitry and the radiation detector used. Its application in zinc powder plant to measure powder level in a hopper is described. Some of the typical applications of gamma-ray level controllers are mentioned. (auth.)

  17. Nucleon deformation from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of nucleon and Delta(1232) deformation is discussed through the evaluation of the N to Delta electromagnetic transition and Delta electromagnetic form factors in Lattice QCD. The momentum dependence of the form factors is studied using 2+1 staggered dynamical flavors at pion masses as low as 350 MeV and compared to results obtained in the Wilson quenched and two-flavor dynamical theory at similar pion masses. The measurement of small non-zero quadrupole amplitudes, in agreement to recent experiments, establishes the existence of deformation in the N and Delta states. (author)

  18. Insight into nucleon structure from generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.W. Negele; R.C. Brower; P. Dreher; R. Edwards; G. Fleming; Ph. Hagler; Th. Lippert; A.V.Pochinsky; D.B. Renner; D. Richards; K. Schilling; W. Schroers

    2004-01-01

    The lowest three moments of generalized parton distributions are calculated in full QCD and provide new insight into the behavior of nucleon electromagnetic form factors, the origin of the nucleon spin, and the transverse structure of the nucleon

  19. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  20. Spin of two-nucleon system and nucleon-antinucleon combination in the S-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranik, A.T.; El-Naghy, A.; Ramadan, S.

    1988-08-01

    The spin of the two nucleon combination was studied. It was found that the resultant combination could be treated as a boson with spin one or zero, and the spin one state is more stable than the spin zero state. In the case of nucleon-antinucleon combination the spin zero state is more stable than the spin one state. The approach succeeded in describing the general features of the nucleon-nucleon and nucleon antinucleon scattering and polarization. (author). 3 refs, 4 figs

  1. On the nucleon-nucleon potential obtained from non-linear coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghabaty, S.S.

    1975-07-01

    The static limit of a pseudoscalar symmetric meson theory of nuclear forces is examined. The Born-Oppenheimer potential is determined for the case of two very heavy nucleons exchanging pseudoscalar isovector pions with non-linear coupling. It is found that the non-linear terms induced by the γ 5 coupling are cancelled by the additional pion-nucleon coupling of the non-linear sigma model. The nucleon-nucleon potential thus obtained is the same as the Yukava potential except for strength at different separations between the two nucleons

  2. Nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.; Ross, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty two references are cited in this review of activation analysis(AA) for the period November 1977-November 1979. A special note is included covering changes taking place in the use of certain radiation measurement units. More of the cited references deal with new or expanded applications of AA rather than new equipment or new techniques

  3. The OZI rule and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1991-11-01

    The title of this lecture series raises two questions: (1) what is the OZI rule? (2) what is a nucleon. In the lectures both questions were addressed in parallel and the material moved back and forth between them. In a written version it seems more appropriate to treat the two question separately, begining with trying to understand the structure of the nucleon. Experimental evidence for the symmetry and quark structure of hadrons is reviewed with a historical introduction and updated by presenting constituent quark model relation for hadron masses and magnetic moments.Three definitions of the OZI rule are presented, all which forbid decay like φ->ρπ but making different selection rules for more complicate reactions. All suffer from the higer order paradox that a forbidden process can take place via two-step transition in which each step is allowed; e.g. φ-> KK-bar -> ρπ. No prescription is given for estimating the strength of forbidden processes. The role of cancellations between different higer order diagrams is discussed. (author)

  4. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for {sup 4}He.

  5. The axial polarizability of nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, M.; Figureau, A.

    1981-02-01

    The part of the static nuclear axial polarizability arising from the nucleonic excitations is derived from the low energy expansion of the πN amplitude. It is shown that the contribution of the Δ intermediate state, though dominant, does not saturate the nucleonic response. A similar effect, though more pronounced, is known to occur for the magnetic susceptibility

  6. On the electromagnetic polarisabilities of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun ar Rashid, A.M.

    1982-10-01

    The dynamic electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the nucleon are calculated taking the photon-nucleon resonance vertex-function ambiguity parameters into account. The annihilation channel in the Compton scattering amplitude is also evaluated from the chiral effective Lagrangian. It is found that the electric and magnetic polarisabilities of the proton are of the same order of magnitude. (author)

  7. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology. Progress report and renewal proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is outlined on five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction with the new dramatically altered ππ s-wave interaction and using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with significantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 MeV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly, and determining which phases are given by theory at which energies; (4) the introduction of our K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated and verified permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 0 to 1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon researchers (or anyone else) via Telenet dial-in and by means of a published compendium

  8. Low-energy pion double charge exchange and nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent measurements of pion double-charge exchange (DCX) at energies 20 to 70 MeV are providing a new means for studying nucleon-nucleon correlations in nuclei. At these energies the nucleus is relatively transparent, allowing simpler theoretical models to be used in interpreting the data and leading to a clearer picture. Also the contribution to DCX of sequential charge-exchange scattering through the intermediate analog state is suppressed near 50 MeV and transitions through non-analog intermediate states become very important. Recent theoretical studies by several groups have shown that while transitions through the analog route involve relatively long nucleon-nucleon distances, those through non-analog intermediate states obtain nearly half their strength from nucleon pairs with less than 1 fermi separation. Thus DCX near 50 MeV is an excellent way to study short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations. 31 refs., 29 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Physikochemische Untersuchung der Analyt – HKUST-1 Wechselwirkung unter Verwendung der inversen Gaschromatographie

    OpenAIRE

    Münch, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit hat neben der Untersuchung der Synthese über den Controlled SBU-Approach von HKUST-1, ein poröses Kupfertrimesat, die Abscheidung dieses Metal-Organic Frameworks in dünnen Quarzglaskapillaren mit einer Länge von 10 bis 30 m und Innendurchmessern zwischen 0,53 und 0,25 mm zum Thema. Diese Säulen werden zur gaschromatographischen Trennung wie auch zur Bestimmung physikochemischer Kenngrößen, die den Adsorptionsvorgang verschiedener Analyten auf der HKUST-1 Oberfläche besc...

  10. Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Witala, H. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    1998-07-20

    The current status of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle is reviewed. Applying tight constraints on the allowed deviations between calculated predictions and accepted values for relevant nucleon-nucleon observables reveals that energy independent correction factors applied to the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can not solve the puzzle. Furthermore, using the same constraints, charge-independence breaking in the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions can be ruled out as a possible tool to improve the agreement between three-nucleon calculations and data. The study of the energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle gives clear evidence that the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interaction obtained from phase-shift analyses and used in potential models are correct above about 25 MeV, i.e., the {sup 3}P{sub j} nucleon-nucleon interactions have to be modified only at lower energies in order to solve the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle, unless new three-nucleon forces can be found that account for the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle without destroying the beautiful agreement between rigorous three-nucleon calculations and a large body of accurate three-nucleon data. (orig.) 18 refs.

  12. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  13. Effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in the RPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, E.F.; Carlson, B.V.; Conti, C. de; Frederico, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the properties of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, in a infinite system of mesons and baryons , using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation. To derive the RHFB equations in a systematic fashion, we use Dyson's equation to sum to all orders the self-consistent tadpole and exchange contributions to the extended baryon Green's function (the Gorkov propagator). The meson propagator is computed as a sum over ring diagrams which consist in repeated insertions of the lowest-order proper polarization graph. The sum is the diagrammatic equivalent of the relativistic random phase approximation (RPA) that describes the well-known collective modes. In the nuclear medium, the σ and ω propagators are linked because of scalar-vector mixing, a density-dependent effect that generates a coupling between the Dyson's equation for the meson propagators. We use the dressed meson propagator to obtain the effective interaction and investigate its effect on the 1 S 0 pairing in nuclear matter. The effective interaction has title effect on the self-energy mean field, since the latter is dominated by the Hartree contribution, which is determined by the free meson propagators. The pairing field, however, is obtained from an exchange term, in which the effective interaction can play an important role. As the polarization corrections to the meson propagators tend to increase the σ-meson mass and decrease the ω-meson mass, they result in an effective interaction which is more repulsive than the bare one. We would expect this to result in a decrease in the 1 S 0 pairing, similar to that seen in nonrelativistic calculations. (author)

  14. Experiments on few-nucleon systems at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distler, M.O. . Author

    2008-01-01

    The experimental effort at the Mainz Microtron with respect to few-body physics is focused on a number of selected topics. The structure of 3 He has been studied in the reactions 3 He(ε, εn) and 3 He(ε, ε'p) with large (transversal) missing momenta and in quasi-elastic electron scattering. Experiments to determine the neutron electric form factor G en have been performed - a measurement at a four-momentum transfer Q 2 ∼ 1.5(GeV/c) 2 took place in July 2007. Electromagnetically induced two-nucleon knockout has been investigated in order to study the role of correlated nucleon-nucleon motion in the nucleus. Measurements of the (e,e' pn) reaction on 3 He and 16 O were performed for the first time. A triple-polarization experiment of type 3 He(ε, ε'p)d has been performed in August 2007, where, in addition, the spin of the knocked-out proton is analyzed. This measurement provides information on the spin-dependent momentum distribution of proton-deuteron clusters in the 3 He nucleus. By using this deuteron-tagging method spin-polarized 3 He might also serve as an effective polarized proton target for electron scattering experiments. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007. (author)

  15. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

  16. One-nucleon pickup reactions and compound-nuclear decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2018-05-01

    One-nucleon transfer reactions, long used as a tool to study the structure of nuclei, are potentially valuable for determining reaction cross sections indirectly. This is significant, as many reactions of interest to astrophysics and other applications involve short-lived isotopes and cannot be measured directly. We describe a procedure for obtaining constraints for calculations of neutron capture cross sections using observables from experiments with transfer reactions. As a first step toward demonstrating the method, we outline the theory developments used to properly describe the production of the compound nucleus 88Y* via the one-nucleon pickup reaction 89Y(p,d)88Y* and test the description with data from a recent experiment. We indicate how this development can be used to extract the unknown 87Y(n,γ) cross section from 89Y(p,dγ) data. The example illustrates a more generally applicable method for determining unknown cross sections via a combination of theory and transfer (or inelastic scattering) experiments.

  17. Photoproduction de Mesons sur le Nucleon aux Energies Intermediaire (in French) [Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, Michel [Univ. of Paris, Orsay (France)

    1996-12-13

    One object of this thesis is to propose a model taking account of low transfer reaction mechanisms for a series of photoproduction reactions on nucleons for photon energies ≳4 GeV. If our comprehension of processes with low transfers is correct, then extrapolating our model in the domain of large transfers and the comparison with data supplied will give us information on the domains in energy and transfers from which an interpretation of reactions in terms of the "soft" process ceases to be valid. In the domain of large transfers, only one approach in terms of "hard" process can then explain the data. We are interested in electromagnetic photoproduction reactions because the probe, firstly, interacts with the target via an exact and well known mechanism (described by the QED theory) and also eliminates the interaction phenomena in the initial state. No probe is as well known as the photon. The extraction of reaction mechanisms, amplitudes and coupling constants match is made easier than in the case of hadronic probes. The energy domain Eγ >4 GeV studied is particularly interesting because it is from this energy of incident photons that can be expected to achieve large enough pulse transfers to hope for emergence of hard processes and therefore see the cessation of validity of interpretation of hadron models. Also, resonance effects are minor and do not interfere with our interpretations. Experimentally, this area is widely unexplored and the new generation accelerators of a large duty cycle (CEBAF, MAMI, ESRF, ELF, ...) combined with 4π detectors will allow to precisely measure low cross sections reactions of a large transfer. We first study pion photoproduction reactions on nucleon because they are the most experimentally accessible reactions and many data of high energy and low transfers exist. This will require strong constraints on the model parameters of the numerous analyses performed previously. Then we'll move on to kaon photoproduction

  18. Study of the compressibility of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsch, P.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik]|[Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    A brief discussion of the theoretical and experimental situation in baryon spectroscopy is given. Then, the radial structure is discussed, related to the ground state form factors and the compressibility. The compressibility derived from experimental data is compared with results from different nucleon models. From the study of the Roper resonance in nuclei information on the dynamical radius of the nucleon can be obtained. Experiments have been performed on deuteron and {sup 12}C which show no shift of the Roper resonance in these systems. This indicates no sizeable `swelling` or `shrinking` of the nucleon in the nuclear medium. (K.A.). 25 refs.

  19. Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, Michael; Aoki, Sinya; Blum, Tom; Izubuchi, Taku; Ohki, Hiroshi; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.

  20. Learning about nucleon resonances with pion photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This chapter charts the discovery of nucleon resonances from pion-nucleon interactions. It was not until after the Albuquerque meeting in 1953 the experimentalists were able to persuade physicists about the existence of this phenomenon with the discovery of the P 33 resonance. The second and third resonances to be discovered, D 13 and F 15 , were seen as peaks in the total cross section for pion plus photoproduction, from 1956 onwards. Knowledge of pion-nucleon scattering has played an important role in the development of quark models. (UK)

  1. Where does the nucleon spin come from?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette; Karliner, M.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes current thinking on exactly how quarks form neutrons and protons, and where nucleon spin is derived. The European Muon Collaboration has recently shown that, contrary to previous thinking, little of the proton spin is carried by quarks, rather that virtual strange quarks in a sea contribute to nucleon spin. Thus a fundamental gap is revealed in our understanding of nucleon structure which is explored in this article, by looking at several ways of accounting for these surprising results using the ''axiaanomaly'' and the idea of gluon polarization. Future experiments already planned, on polarized scattering, should resolve the enigma of proton spin. (UK)

  2. In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.

    1997-01-01

    Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)

  3. Study of the compressibility of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    A brief discussion of the theoretical and experimental situation in baryon spectroscopy is given. Then, the radial structure is discussed, related to the ground state form factors and the compressibility. The compressibility derived from experimental data is compared with results from different nucleon models. From the study of the Roper resonance in nuclei information on the dynamical radius of the nucleon can be obtained. Experiments have been performed on deuteron and 12 C which show no shift of the Roper resonance in these systems. This indicates no sizeable 'swelling' or 'shrinking' of the nucleon in the nuclear medium. (K.A.)

  4. Computing nucleon EDM on a lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, Michael; Izubuchi, Taku

    2017-06-18

    I will discuss briefly recent changes in the methodology of computing the baryon EDM on a lattice. The associated correction substantially reduces presently existing lattice values for the proton and neutron theta-induced EDMs, so that even the most precise previous lattice results become consistent with zero. On one hand, this change removes previous disagreements between these lattice results and the phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM. On the other hand, the nucleon EDM becomes much harder to compute on a lattice. In addition, I will review the progress in computing quark chromo-EDM-induced nucleon EDM using chiral quark action.

  5. Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2005-11-28

    We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

  6. Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warkentin, Nikolaus

    2008-04-01

    In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Nucleon wave function from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warkentin, Nikolaus

    2008-04-15

    In this work we develop a systematic approach to calculate moments of leading-twist and next-to-leading twist baryon distribution amplitudes within lattice QCD. Using two flavours of dynamical clover fermions we determine low moments of nucleon distribution amplitudes as well as constants relevant for proton decay calculations in grand unified theories. The deviations of the leading-twist nucleon distribution amplitude from its asymptotic form, which we obtain, are less pronounced than sometimes claimed in the literature. The results are applied within the light cone sum rule approach to calculate nucleon form factors that are compared with recent experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Proton and neutron polarized targets for nucleon-nucleon experiments at SATURNE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Combet, M.; Sans, J.L.; Benda, B.; Chaumette, P.; Deregel, J.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Gaudron, C.; Lehar, F.; Janout, Z.; Khachaturov, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    A SATURNE polarized target has been used for nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering and transmission experiments for 15 years. The polarized proton target is a 70 cm 3 cartridge loaded with Pentanol-2. For polarized neutron target, two cartridges loaded with 6 LiD and 6 LiH are set in the refrigerator and can be quickly inserted in the beam. First experiments using 6 Li products in quasielastic pp or pn analyzing power measurements are compared with the same observables measured in a free nucleon-nucleon scattering using polarized proton targets. Angular distribution as a function of a kinematically conjugate angle and coplanarity in nucleon-nucleon scattering is shown for different targets. (author)

  9. Double Polarized Neutron-Proton Scattering and Meson-Exchange Nucleon-Nucleon Potential Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raichle, B.W.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Seely, M.L.; Walston, J.R.; Tornow, W.; Wilburn, W.S.; Raichle, B.W.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Seely, M.L.; Walston, J.R.; Tornow, W.; Wilburn, W.S.; Penttilae, S.I.; Hoffmann, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    We report on polarized beam - polarized target measurements of the spin-dependent neutron-proton total cross-section differences in longitudinal and transverse geometries (Δσ L and Δσ T , respectively) between E n =5 and 20MeV. Single-parameter phase-shift analyses were performed to extract the phase-shift mixing parameter var-epsilon 1 , which characterizes the strength of the nucleon-nucleon tensor interaction at low energies. Consistent with the trend of previous determinations at E n =25 and 50MeV, our values for var-epsilon 1 imply a stronger tensor force than predicted by meson-exchange nucleon-nucleon potential models and nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. The nucleon-nucleon correlations and the integral characteristics of the potential distributions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knyaz'kov, O.M.; Kukhtina, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    The integral characteristics of the potential distribution in nuclei, namely the volume integrals, moments and mean square radii are studied in the framework of the semimicroscopic approach to the interaction of low energy nucleons with nuclei on the base of the exchange nucleon-nucleon correlations and the density dependence of effective forces. The ratio of the normalized multipole moments of potential and matter distributions is investigated. The energy dependence of the integral characteristics is analyzed. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Double polarized neutron-proton scattering and nucleon-nucleon tensor force: An alternative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Walston, J.R.; Raichle, B.W.

    2002-01-01

    Previous neutron-proton total cross-section difference measurements Δσ L and Δσ T between E n =7.43 and 17.1 MeV have been analyzed in a new way that reduces experimental systematic uncertainties. The results obtained for the 3 S 1 - 3 D 1 mixing parameter ε 1 are very similar to the published values, substantiating the previous conclusion that the nucleon-nucleon tensor force at low energies is stronger than predicted by the Nijmegen partial-wave analysis and, therefore, by all the recent high-precision nucleon-nucleon potential models as well

  12. Pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.; Jeong, M.T.

    1989-08-01

    Electric dipole amplitudes of pion photoproduction on the nucleon at threshold have been calculated in the framework of the chiral bag model. Our results are in good agreement with the existing experimental data

  13. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeusser, O

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Polarized few-nucleon targets: new developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusser, O.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements in producing polarized few-nucleon targets for nuclear and particle physics experiments. The emphasis is on progress with polarized gas targets intended for experiments at electron and proton storage rings. (author) 54 refs., 1 tab

  15. Insights into nucleon structure from parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnitchouk, Wally [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We review recent progress in understanding the substructure of the nucleon from global QCD analysis of parton distribution functions (PDFs). New high-precision data onW-boson production in p ¯ p collisions have significantly reduced the uncertainty on the d=u PDF ratio at large values of x, indirectly constraining models of the medium modification of bound nucleons. Drell-Yan data from pp and pd scattering reveal new information on the d¯-u¯ asymmetry, clarifying the role of chiral symmetry breaking in the nucleon. In the strange sector, a new chiral SU(3) analysis finds a valence-like component of the strange-quark PDF, giving rise to a nontrivial s- ¯ s asymmetry at moderate x values. We also review recent analyses of charm in the nucleon, which have found conflicting indications of the size of the nonperturbative charm component.

  16. Nucleon parton distributions in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseeva, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Properties of the chiral expansion of nucleon light-cone operators have been studied. In the framework of the chiral perturbation theory we have demonstrated that convergency of the chiral expansion of nucleon parton distributions strongly depends on the value of the variable x. Three regions in x with essentially different analytical properties of the resulting chiral expansion for parton distributions were found. For each of the regions we have elaborated special power counting rules corresponding to the partial resummation of the chiral series. The nonlocal effective operators for the vector and the axial nucleon parton distributions have been constructed at the zeroth and the first chiral order. Using the derived nonlocal operators and the derived power counting rules we have obtained the second order expressions for the nucleon GPDs H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ), H(x,ξ,Δ 2 ),E(x,ξ,Δ 2 ) valid in the region x>or similar a 2 χ .

  17. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Carl E. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  18. Isovector couplings for nucleon charge-exchange reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, W.G.; Nakayama, K.; Franey, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The isovector parts of the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction are studied by examination of the reaction /sup 14/C(p,n) at intermediate energies near zero momentum transfer with use of recently developed G-matrix and free--t-matrix interactions. The spin-independent coupling (V/sub tau/) exhibits a strong energy and density dependence which, in the case of the G matrix based on the Bonn potential, significantly improves the agreement between calculated values of chemical bondV/sub σ//sub tau//V/sub tau/chemical bond 2 at q = 0 and those recently extracted from the reaction /sup 14/C

  19. The study of the cumulative effect in meson and nucleonic system production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentia, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relativistic nuclear reactions with protons (deuterons) 8.0 GeV/c in the limiting fraamentation region (4-momentum transfer Q >= 1 GeV), with the particle production energy exceeding the nucleon-nucleon kinematical limit, were studied. The data acqusition, processing and analysis methods are presented along with experimental results like enerqy, angular distributions and A-mass dependence, carried out on DISC-2 Spectrometer (Dubna). Scale invariance character of the meson production, tells about local, pointlike interactions, interpreted like violent quark collisions. The quark structure functions of nuclei was obtained, proving the existence of multiquark states in nuclei. (author)

  20. Qualitative treatment of three-nucleon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, V.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made at consistent qualitative treatment of the three-nucleon system. The approach used is based on the physical concept of effective three-nucleon long-range interaction resulting from the existence of the deuteron and the virtual singlet deuteron. Within the framework of the approach, a qualitative treatment of the triton properties, nucleon-deuteron scattering, and triton-disintegration reactions is carried out. The following topics are dealt with: the Phillips line, the triton D-wave admixture, the doublet effective range of the n-d scattering, the triton virtual state, the anomaly of the n-d elastic cross section near the three-body threshold, and the partial cross sections of the inelastic n-d scattering and of the triton photo- and electrodisintegration. The discussion of these topics includes the evaluation of three-nucleon parameters and the qualitative interpretation of experimental data and calculation results; some predictions are also made. The results of our analysis lead to the conclusion that the concept of effective three-nucleon long-range interaction can indeed serve as grounds for consistent qualitative treatment of the three-nucleon phenomena. (orig.)

  1. Electromagnetic structure of a bound nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of binding on the electromagnetic (e.m.) structure of a nucleon in a nucleus is examined by means of a model consisting of a single nucleon which is bound in a harmonic oscillator potential and also coupled to the pion field through the Chew-Low interaction. The 'two-pion contribution' to the e.m. structure is considered. This is the part which is probably most susceptible to the binding effect. By the binding effect it is meant the one which arises because the nucleon wave functions, in the intermediate state as well as in the initial and final states, are distorted by the potential in which the nucleon is bound. This may be compared to a similar correction to the impulse approximation for pion-nucleus scattering. Unlike the latter which is likely to be quite appreciable, the binding correction to the e.m. structure of the nucleon is found to be negligibly small. The so-called quenching effect due to the Pauli principle when there are other nucleons is also discussed [pt

  2. Three nucleon interaction and nuclear composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandharipande, V.R.

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses results of some of the calculations carried out by J. Carlson, I. Lagaris, J. Lomnitz-Adler, R.A. Smith, R.B. Wiringa and himself to study the three nucleon interaction. The group has attempted to calculate the wavefunctions and binding energies of 3 H, 3 He, 4 He and nuclear matter, with the variational method, from a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. Only nucleon degrees of freedom are retained in this Hamiltonian; the effects of other degrees of freedom are implicit in the two and three nucleon potentials. The author discusses further the calculations carried out, in collaboration with B. Friman, and R.B. Wiringa, to study the composition of nuclei. Nucleons interact by many processes including exchange of pions with or without excitation to isobar (Δ) states. Thus the nucleus contains pions being exchanged, and some nucleons in the Δ state. The group attempts to calculate the number and momentum distribution of these exchanged pions, and the fraction of time a nucleon in the nucleus is in the Δ state. 21 references, 4 figures

  3. Sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment and charge radius at the physical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir; Yang, Yi-Bo; Liang, Jian; Draper, Terrence; Liu, Keh-Fei; χ QCD Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report a comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment, charge radius, and the electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We adopt a model-independent extrapolation of the nucleon magnetic moment and the charge radius. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is μM(DI )=-0.022 (11 )(09 ) μN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is ⟨r2⟩E(DI ) =-0.019 (05 )(05 ) fm2 which is about 1 /3 of the difference between the ⟨rp2⟩E of electron-proton scattering and that of a muonic atom and so cannot be ignored in obtaining the proton charge radius in the lattice QCD calculation. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton mean square charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron mean square charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤Q2≤0.5 GeV2 .

  4. Effects of the d-state quarks on the nucleon electric form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Kong, K.J.; Cheon, I.T.

    1987-11-01

    Considering the d-orbital excitation of a quark in the bag, we calculate the nucleon electric form factors in the cloudy bag model. In these calculations, we have taken into account the πNN, πΔN and πγ form factors though neglecting the c.m. correction. It turns out that the neutron charge form factor is very sensitive to the d-state quark admixture in the overall region of the momentum transfer but the proton charge form factor remains unchanged. Taking the d-state quark admixture in the intermediate state baryons, we can obtain the nucleon rms radii in remarkable agreement with the experimental values. We also investigate the roles of Δ particles in the nucleon charge form factors. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs

  5. Bonner Prize Address: Measurements of the electromagnetic properties of nucleons and nuclei at short distance scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Arnold

    2000-04-01

    The talk will present the story of a series of experiments, beginning in 1973 and continuing today, that have measured the internal structure of nuclei and the nucleons using high energy beams of electrons and photons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. These experiments have probed nuclear and nucleon structure in the energy and momentum transfer region where the meson-nucleon description merges with the quark-gluon picture. The experiments have worked at the border between nuclear and particle physics, and were conducted by large collaborative teams. Some were carried out in the context of a special program, called NPAS (Nuclear Physics at SLAC). The early results from these measurements helped stimulate the ideas and helped train and motivate the physicists who went on to build the Jefferson Laboratory. A brief summary of some highlights from the early measurements and updates on recent results will be given.

  6. Untersuchung der Produktion charmhaltiger Mesonen in der Photon-Photon-Streuung mit dem OPAL-Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Patt, Jochen

    2001-01-01

    Die Produktion von Charm-Quarks in der Photon-Photon-Streuung wird ueber den Nachweis charmhaltiger Mesonen untersucht. Die Arbeit basiert auf den Daten, die mit dem OPAL-Detektor am Elektron-Positron-Speicherring LEP am CERN in Genf in den Jahren von 1989 bis 1998 aufgenommen worden sind. Anhand des Charmonium-Zustandes Chi(c2) wird die Resonanzproduktion von Charm-Quarks untersucht und die Zwei-Photon-Breite des Chi(c2)-Mesons wird gemessen. Geladene D*-Mesonen werden zur Untersuchung der offenen Produktion von Charm-Quarks benutzt. Der Anteil des direkten und des einfach-aufgeloesten Produktionsmechanismus, differentielle D*-Wirkungsquerschnitte, der totale Charm-Wirkungsquerschnitt sowie die Charm-Strukturfunktion des Photons werden bestimmt.

  7. Recent multinucleon transfer experiments with heavy ions at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.G.

    1975-04-01

    Recent research on multinucleon transfer using heavy ions is discussed with emphasis on two, three, and four nucleon transfer reactions. The presentation centers on the problem of obtaining information about clustering phenomena. (13 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  8. The nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of the boson exchange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niephaus, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was the description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a microscopically founded model. For this the description of the 2-nucleon problem by an interacting 2-nucleon-pion system was presented. The starting point of our description was a relativistic eigenvalue equation for the system of mesons and two baryons. The interaction of the baryons with the mesons was described by interaction Hamiltonians. By the elimination of antinucleon states by means of a unitary tansformation (Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation) the interaction Hamiltonians for nucleons could be generated for the field-theoretical Lagrangian densities. The Hamiltonians for resonant baryon states were obtained by means of a simplified procedure from the corresponding Lagrangian densities. Because the determination of Lagrangian densities is not unique, for the pion-nucleon coupling two alternative Lagrangian densities were allowed. For the interaction of positive-energy nucleonic states these two coupling yield nearly equal results; the production or annihilation of negative-energy nucleon states (antiparticles) the predictions however are very different. (orig./HSI) [de

  9. Covariant computation of e+e- production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglin, K.; Kapusta, J.; Gale, C.

    1989-01-01

    Electron-positron production differential cross sections in nucleon-nucleon collisions are calculated analytically via meson exchange with a realistic pseudovector coupling including strong interaction form factors. These results are compared with newly obtained data from the DLS at the BEVALAC of proton on beryllium. A comparison with the soft photon approximation is also made. (orig.)

  10. Survey of structures revealed in nucleon-nucleon scattering experiments and dibaryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, K.; Yokosawa, A.

    1979-01-01

    Structures appearing in various experimental data (particularly those with polarized beams) in nucleon-nucleon systems are reviewed. Evidence is presented for the existence of dibaryon resonances with an emphasis on a diproton resonance in 3 F 3 (J/sup P/ = 3 - ) state. 38 references

  11. Three-nucleon forces and their importance in three-nucleon sys- tems and heavier nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the past two decades, several laboratories have produced a large amount of data for cross sections, analyzing powers, and other spin observables from various reactions in the three-nucleon system. The experimental results are moderately described by only using the two-nucleon potentials

  12. Models of direct reactions and quantum pre-equilibrium for nucleon scattering on spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.

    2006-01-01

    When a nucleon collides with a target nucleus, several reactions may occur: elastic and inelastic scatterings, charge exchange... In order to describe these reactions, different models are involved: the direct reactions, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus models. Our goal is to study, within a quantum framework and without any adjustable parameter, the direct and pre-equilibrium reactions for nucleons scatterings off double closed-shell nuclei. We first consider direct reactions: we are studying nucleon scattering with the Melbourne G-matrix, which represents the interaction between the projectile and one target nucleon, and with random phase approximation (RPA) wave functions which describe all target states. This is a fully microscopic approach since no adjustable parameters are involved. A second part is dedicated to the study of nucleon inelastic scattering for large energy transfer which necessarily involves the pre-equilibrium mechanism. Several models have been developed in the past to deal with pre-equilibrium. They start from the Born expansion of the transition amplitude which is associated to the inelastic process and they use several approximations which have not yet been tested. We have achieved some comparisons between second order cross sections which have been calculated with and without these approximations. Our results allow us to criticize some of these approximations and give several directions to improve the quantum pre-equilibrium models. (author)

  13. Quark-diquark approximation of the three-quark structure of a nucleon and the NN phase shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The quark-diquark approximations of the three-quark structure of a nucleon are considered in the framework of the quark confinement model (QCM) based on definite concepts of the hadronization and quark confinement. The static nucleon characteristics (magnetic moments, ratio G A /G V and strong meson-nucleon coupling constants) are calculated. The behaviour of the electromagnetic and strong nucleon form factors is obtained at the low energy (0≤0 2 =-q 2 2 , where q is a transfer momentum). The one-boson exchange potential is constructed and the NN-phase-shifts are computed. Our results are compared with experiment and the Bonn potential model. 45 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Parity violation in nuclei: studies of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.B.

    1980-03-01

    The Weinberg-Salam Unified Model of weak and electromagnetic interactions has been very successful in explaining parity violation and neutral current effects in neutrino-nucleon, electron-nucleon and neutrino-electron interactions. A wide variety of nuclear physics parity violation experiments are in progress to measure effects of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction in few nucleon systems and certain heavier nuclei where enhancements are expected. The current status of these experiments will be reviewed, including details of an experiment at Chalk River to search for parity violation in the photodisintegration of deuterium and an extension of our previous measurements of parity mixing in 21 Ne. The interpretation of results in terms of basic models of the weak interaction will be discussed. (Auth)

  15. Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin,H.W.

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon {Sigma} and {Xi} axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g{sub {Sigma}{Sigma}} = 0.441(14) and g{sub {Xi}{Xi}} = -0.277(11).

  16. Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistant with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g_SigmaSigma = 0.441(14) and g_XiXi = -0.277(11).

  17. Molecular orbitals of nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1986-05-01

    A formalism for the dynamical treatment of the molecular orbitals of valence nucleons in nucleus-nucleus collisions at low bombarding energy is developed with the use of the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) method. The Coriolis coupling effects as well as the finite mass effects of the nucleon are taken into account in this model, of rotating molecular orbitals, RMO. First, the validity of the concept is examined from the view point of the multi-step processes in a standard CRC calculation for systems containing two identical [core] nuclei. The calculations show strong CRC effects particularly in the case where the mixing of different l-parity orbitals - called hybridization in atomic physics - occurs. Then, the RMO representation for active nucleons is applied to the same systems and compared to the CRC results. Its validity is investigated with respect to the radial motion (adiabaticity) and the rotation of the molecular axis (radial and rotational coupling). Characteristic molecular orbitals of covalent molecules appear as rotationally stable states (K = 1/2) with good adiabaticity. Using the RMO's we obtain a new interpretation of various scattering phenomena. Dynamically induced changes in the effective Q-values (or scaling of energies), dynamically induced moments of inertia and an dynamically induced effective (L · S) interaction are obtained as a result of the molecular orbital formation. Various experimental data on transfer and subbarrier fusion reactions are understood in terms of the RMO's and their adiabatic potentials. Landau-Zener transitions, which strongly depend on the total angular momentum of the system, definitely predict the observation of characteristic changes in the cross sections for the inelastic scattering 13 C( 12 C, 12 C) 13 C* (3.086 MeV, 1/2 + ) with the change of the bombarding energy. (author)

  18. The spin structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deur, A.

    2008-02-01

    This document describes the recent experimental results on the spin structure of the nucleon obtained with the electron accelerator Thomas Jefferson National Facility (Jefferson Lab), Virginia. We first discuss the goal of studying the nucleon spin structure and give the basis and phenomenology of high energy lepton scattering. Then, we discuss with some details a few sum rules concerning the spin structure of the nucleon. Those are important tools for studying the nucleon spin structure at Jefferson Lab. We then describe the present experimental situation and analyze the results. We have been able to determine an effective coupling constant for the strong interaction for any regime of quantum chromodynamics which proves that QCD is an approximately conformal theory. We conclude on the perspectives for this field of research, in particular with the 12 GeV energy upgrade of Jefferson Lab. The top priority will be the measurement of generalised parton distributions. The only issue that will stay misunderstood is the role of the very low x domain on the spin structure of the nucleon

  19. Light hypernuclei and hyperon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.; Gibson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Light Hypernuclei are a vital testing ground for our understanding of the Hyperon-Nucleon interaction. We have performed microscopic calculations of four and five-body hypernuclei using the Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon interactions. Our calculations include explicit Sigma degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom are quite important since, in contrast to the Δ - N mass difference of ∼ 300 MeV, the Σ resonance is only about 80 MeV above the Λ. In addition, although there is no one-pion-exchange in the ΛN diagonal channel, this longest-range term does contribute to the transition ΛN - ΣN interaction. Our variational calculations show that the A=4 spin 0 ground state binding energy is well reproduced by the Nijmegen HN integration, a one-boson exchange model fit to the available scattering data. The spin 1 excited state and the A=5 ground state are strongly underbound, however. We demonstrate the importance of the strong tensor terms of the Nijmegen model, particularly those in the transition channel, in obtaining this result. The limited data currently available for hyperon-nucleon scattering must be greatly improved in order to place reasonable constraints on the interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Light hypernuclei and hyperon-nucleon interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.; Gibson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Light Hypernuclei are a vital testing ground for our understanding of the Hyperon-Nucleon interaction. We have performed microscopic calculations of four and five-body hypernuclei using the Nijmegen nucleon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon interactions. Our calculations include explicit Sigma degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom are quite important since, in contrast to the {Delta} {minus} N mass difference of {approx} 300 MeV, the {Sigma} resonance is only about 80 MeV above the {Lambda}. In addition, although there is no one-pion-exchange in the {Lambda}N diagonal channel, this longest-range term does contribute to the transition {Lambda}N {minus} {Sigma}N interaction. Our variational calculations show that the A=4 spin 0 ground state binding energy is well reproduced by the Nijmegen HN integration, a one-boson exchange model fit to the available scattering data. The spin 1 excited state and the A=5 ground state are strongly underbound, however. We demonstrate the importance of the strong tensor terms of the Nijmegen model, particularly those in the transition channel, in obtaining this result. The limited data currently available for hyperon-nucleon scattering must be greatly improved in order to place reasonable constraints on the interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Coulomb effects in three-nucleon scattering versus charge-symmetry breaking in the 3P nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Walter, R.L.; Slaus, I.

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of data for neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron analyzing power A y for elastic scattering has become crucial for investigating charge-symmetry breaking in the 3 P nucleon-nucleon interactions. We extended this comparison down to 5 MeV and find that the relative difference between n-d and p-d scattering at the A y maximum near 120 degree increases with decreasing energy. By applying a straightforward Coulomb ''correction'' to the p-d data, we account for most of the difference, suggesting that the Coulomb force, rather than charge-symmetry breaking, is responsible for most of the observed difference

  2. Schreiben hat auch eine Stimme. Eine explorative Untersuchung über die Beziehung zwischen lautem Sprechen und Schreiben.

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmeier-Weidner, Yvonne (B. A.)

    2017-01-01

    Die Aufgabe in dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung der Beziehung zwischen lautem Sprechen und Schreiben im Schreibprozess. Grundlage ist die Annahme, dass beides zusammengehört und das Verbalisieren von Gedanken zum Schreiben, ob im Dialog oder im Selbstgespräch, selbiges positiv unterstützt. Dazu werden drei Studentinnen der Universität Paderborn, die an einem Abschlussarbeitenworkshop des Kompetenzzentrums Schreiben teilnahmen, durch ein fokussiertes Interview befragt. Diese Interviews werde...

  3. Die Wirkung von Work-Life Balance Initiativen auf das Mitarbeitercommitment: Eine empirische Untersuchung in der Unternehmensberatungsbranche

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Stephan; Ringlstetter, Max; Reindl, Cornelia U.; Stolz, Martin Lothar

    2010-01-01

    Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht die Wirkung von unternehmerischen Work-Life Balance Initiativen für die emotionale Bindung der Mitarbeiter zum Unternehmen, d. h. das organisationale Commitment von Mitarbeitern im Kontext der Unternehmensberatung. Dazu wurde eine Untersuchung mit insgesamt 275 Unternehmensberaterinnen und -beratern durchgeführt. Die Datenanalyse erfolgte anhand eines PLSStrukturgleichungsmodells (Partial-Least-Squares-Ansatz). Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass auch in ...

  4. Alpha-clustering in dilute nucleonic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsaki, Akihiro

    1999-01-01

    α-clusters are expected to come out here and there in nucleonic sea owing to energetic benefit as its density is diluted. We propose a precise treatment to elucidate α-clusterized process in nucleonic sea after the breakdown of the uniformness. In order to do this, an infinite number of nucleons are considered by taking account of both the Pauli exclusion principle and effective internucleon forces. This method is called a microscopic approach, which has been successful in an α-cluster structure in light nuclei. In particular, we shed light on overcoming difficulties in a static model within the microscopic framework. This improvement is verified by using the empirical value in Weizaecker's mass formula. (author)

  5. Phenomenological two-nucleon interaction operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagaris, I.E.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    We report a phenomenological two-nucleon interaction operator obtained by fitting the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts up to 425 MeV in S, P, D and F waves, and the deuteron properties. The operator has the standard eight potentials associated with the two-body operators 1, sigma 1 x sigma 2 , tau 1 x tau 2 , sigma 1 x sigma 2 tau 1 x tau 2 , S 12 , S 12 tau 1 x tau 2 , L x S and L x Stau 2 ; and six phenomenological potentials associated with operators L 2 , L 2 sigma 1 x sigma 2 , L 2 tau 1 x tau 2 , L 2 sigma 1 x sigma 2 tau 1 xtau 2 (L x S) 2 tau 1 x tau 2 . The six quadratic L terms are relatively weak, and are chosen in order to make many-body calculations with this operator simpler. (orig.)

  6. Internal spin structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Kuti, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the structure of the proton and neutron through deep inelastic scattering, initially with electrons but subsequently with muons and neutrinos as well, has played a central role in establishing the quark-parton theory of the composition of hadrons and of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One important aspect of these theoretical and experimental developments is the two spin-dependent structure functions, which are independent of the two spin-averaged structure functions and define the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Since both quarks and gluons possess spin and the forces between them are spin dependent, we can expect important information on these forces and on nucleon structure to be obtained through the study of the spindependent aspects of the nucleon wave function, as has been the case before in atomic and nuclear physics

  7. Composite nucleon approach to the deuteron problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.

    1975-01-01

    A composite model is suggested for the nucleons by assuming a long-range strong gluon force between a diquark boson B and a quark A. In the proton, A is trapped inside B in an oscillator potential; and in the neutron, A is on the surface of B in a hydrogenlike state. Nucleon form factors are obtained in agreement with experiments. The model contains a mechanism for a large effective mass of the quark A. When B is identified with π and A with μ, one can fix the gluon charge value and obtain the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron. The (μπ) atomic model for the nucleon can be used to construct the deuteron on a hydrogen molecule model. It leads to values for the binding energy, electric quadrupole moment, and form factors of the deuteron that are in agreement with experiments

  8. Real and imaginary part of the potential between two nuclei and the realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trefz, M.

    1985-01-01

    Starting from a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction (Reid soft-core) in the model of two infinitely extended confusing nuclear matter complex energy densities are calculated by means of a G matrix. By means of a generalized local-density approximation the results are transferred to finite nuclei. In the framework of the frozen-density approximation in the energy-density formalism a complex potential between two nuclei is calculated. The potential calculated so contains not the contribution of 1-particle-1-hole states to the optical potential. The contribution of these states is therefore calculated in the Feshbach formalism, respectively these states are explicitely regarded in coupled-channel calculations. The model is applied to light (for instance 12 C+ 12 C), medium heavy (for instance 48 Ca+ 48 Ca), and heavy (for instance 40 Ar+ 208 Pb) systems. Potentials for incident energies of 5-84 MeV per projectile nucleon are calculated. By means of these potentials differential cross sections and reaction cross sections are determined and compared with the experimental data. The energy dependence of the reaction cross section is discussed. It is shown that at higher energies (40 MeV/N) the differential cross sections can be quantitatively reproduced. For the reaction cross section in the whole energy range good agreement with the experiment is obtained. Contrarily to current theoretical models it is proved that at low energies the excitation of collective states yields a large contribution to the reaction cross section and therefore must not be neglected. (orig.) [de

  9. The quark model and the nature of the repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.; Fernandez, F.; Luebeck, G.; Shimizu, K.

    1982-01-01

    The nature of the repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon is studied in the quark model. The resonating group equation for nucleon-nucleon scattering is solved with the colour Fermi-Breit interaction including further a linear or quadratic confinement potential. It is shown that the colour magnetic interaction which is adjusted to the Δ-nucleon mass splitting favours the orbital symmetry and disfavours the completely symmetric orbital state. For the important orbital symmetry the relative S wave function between the two nucleons has to have a node. In the framework of the resonating group including the NN, ΔΔ and the hidden colour (CC) channels it is shown that this node produces a 3 S and 1 S phase shift which is identical to a hard core phase shift with a hard core radius γ 0 between 0.3 and 0.6 fm depending on the assumed root mean square radius of the quark part of the nucleon. (orig./HSI)

  10. Description of a nucleon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunatian, G.G.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear cloudy bag model, CBM, is generalized to describe a nucleon in nuclear matter at various densities ρ and temperatures T. The influence of the nuclear medium on the bag-nucleon in the framework of CBM is due to the modification of the equation describing the CBM pion field π. These changes are accounted for in the CBM by including in the CBM lagrangian the pion polarization operator π(ρ,T). The free pion propagator D is replaced in a nuclear medium by D(ρ,T). The changing of the pion field π and propagator D leads via the CBM equations to the modification of the bag size R and quark momentum p, determined simultaneously from these equations, and then to modifications of other bag-nucleon characteristics: the total energy E, r.m.s. radii, magnetic moment μ, polarizability α and so on, which all are expressed as the expectation values of the corresponding operators in the bag-nucleon state. The quantity π(ρ,T) was studied in the works whose results are used in this investigation. The nucleon size R in the nuclear matter at normal density ρ o and zero temperature decreases by 5% and the quarks momentum p also decreases, however, insignificantly, by 1-2%. On the other hand, the values of the r.m.s. radii increases by 15% for a proton and by 100% for a neutron. The author has also found that the polarizability of a nucleon in nuclear matter is roughly two times as much as in free space

  11. Evidence for pion absorption on four nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzehorz, B.; Backenstoss, G.; Dzemidzic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Furic, M.; Zagreb Univ.; Hoffart, A.; Petkovic, T.; Zagreb Univ.; Ullrich, H.; Weyer, H.J.; Weiser, D.; Wildi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental spectra from the coincident detection of three nucleons after the pion absorption in 4 He are displayed. The presence of a mechanism with four nucleons participating in the absorption process is made obvious. The total cross-sections for this absorption mode are: σ 4NA abs =(1.0±0.2)mb at T π =120 MeV and σ 4NA abs =(2.18± 0.65) mb at T π =210 MeV. (orig.)

  12. Effective lagrangian for Kaon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.C.B. de; Ferreira, E.M.

    1980-11-01

    A model for the Kaon-nucleon interaction is investigated, based on a lagrangian which includes the Yukawa interactions of hyperons, kaons and nucleons plus contact terms representing short range interactions in each isospin state. All diagrams up to fourth order are evaluated and the partial wave S matrix elements are unitarized through diagonal Pade approximants. The results of the calculations with this model give a good description of all experimental data on both I = O and I = 1 states of the KN system at low and intermediate energies. (Author) [pt

  13. Nuclear medium effects on the nucleon properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, A.

    1986-06-01

    The idea that the nuclear medium may modify the properties of the nucleon is not really a new one. But until these last few years the intrinsic properties of the nucleon such as its mass, baryonic or electromagnetic size, magnetic moments, were hardly suspected to be substantially modified by the nuclear environment. The question raised essentially from two categories of experimental investigations, in quite different kinematical regimes and it remains at the present time a controversal subject. In this paper I try to review the present status of experimental investigations and some of the recent theoretical developments relevant to this topic

  14. Diquark correlations from nucleon charge radii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Kwee, Herry J.; Lebed, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    We argue that precise measurements of charge and magnetic radii can meaningfully constrain diquark models of the nucleon. We construct properly symmetrized, nonrelativistic three-quark wave functions that interpolate between the limits of a pointlike diquark pair and no diquark correlation. We find that good fits to the data can be obtained for a wide range of diquark sizes, provided that the diquark wave functions are close to those that reduce to a purely scalar state in the pointlike limit. A modest improvement in the experimental uncertainties will render a fit to the charge radii a more telling diagnostic for the presence of spatially correlated quark pairs within the nucleon

  15. Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  16. Probing nuclear structure with nucleons; Sonder la structure nucleaire avec des nucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauge, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Service de Physique Nucl aire, 91 (France)

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this lecture is to show how nucleon scattering can be used to probe the structure of target nuclei, and how nucleon scattering observables can be interpreted in terms of nuclear structure using microscopic optical potentials. After a brief overview of the specificities of nucleon-nucleus scattering, and a quick reminder on scattering theory, the main part of this lecture is devoted to the construction of optical potentials in which the target nuclei structure information is folded with an effective interaction. Several examples of such microscopic optical model potentials are given. (author)

  17. The nucleon-nucleon spin-orbit interaction in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riska, D.O.; Dannbom, K.

    1987-01-01

    The spin-orbit and quadratic spin-orbit components of the nucleon-nucleon interaction are derived in the Skyrme model at the classical level. These interaction components arise from the orbital and rotational motion of the soliton fields that form the nucleons. The isospin dependent part of the spin-orbit interaction is similar to the corresponding component obtained from boson exchange mechanisms at long distances although at short distances it is weaker. The isospin independent spin-orbit component is however different from the prediction of boson exchange mechanisms and has the opposite sign. The quadratic spin-orbit interaction is weak and has only an isospin dependent component

  18. The Glauber approach in perturbative QCD: nucleon case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala Filho, A.L.; Pelotas Univ., RS; Ducaty, M.B. Gay; Levin, E.M.; Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst.,

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the shadowing corrections for the nucleon gluon distribution predicted from Glauber (Mueller) approach in perturbative QCD. This work is a digest for the nucleon case of the extended work prior presented by the authors

  19. Nucleon Form Factors Using Spin Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mark

    2002-01-01

    An overview of recent measurements of the neutron and proton electromagnetic form factors from double polarization experiments. Spin observables are sensitive to the product of nucleon form factor which allows access to the small nucleon electric form factors

  20. Electron scattering from nucleons and deuterons at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.

    1985-04-01

    Recent results from electron scattering of nucleons and deuterons are discussed. A tentative physics program for ELSA employing the polarized electron beams as well as the polarized nucleon and deuteron target facilities is outlined. (orig.)

  1. The interaction of LAMBDA and nucleon in the LAMBDA hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xingnan

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of lambda particle and nucleon is discussed from phenomenological point of view. The effective interactions between the lambda particle and the nucleon in the hypernuclei are also presented in this paper. The structure effect of the hypernuclei will make influence to the effective interaction between the lambda particle and the nucleon in the hypernucei. The spin-orbital coupling of lambda particle in the lambda hypernucleus is much smaller than the spin-orbital coupling of nucleon in nucleus

  2. Chiral symmetry and nucleon structure: Low energy aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, W.

    1989-01-01

    The symmetries and currents of QCD at low energy and long wavelength are realized in the form of mesons, rather than quarks and gluons. In this talk I summarize the merits, but also the limits, of chiral non-linear meson theories and their soliton solutions, in descriptions of nucleon structure and the nucleon-nucleon interaction. (orig.)

  3. Three-nucleon scattering by using chiral perturbation theory potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Three-nucleon scattering problems are studied by using two-nucleon and three-nucleon potentials derived from chiral perturbation theory. The three-nucleon term is shown to appear in the effective potential of the rank of next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). New three-nucleon forces are taken into consideration in addition to the conventional Fujita-Miyazawa (FM) type three-nucleon potential. Two-nucleon potential of the chiral perturbation theory is as precise as the conventional ones in low energy region. The FM type three-nucleon force which explains Sagara discrepancy in high energy region is introduced automatically. Concerning the Ay puzzle, the results seems to behave as if the puzzle has been solved at the level of NLO, but at the NNLO (without three-nucleon force) level the result is similar to the cases of conventional potential indicating the need of three-nucleon force. In contrast to the FM type three-nucleon force, five free parameters exist in the new D and E type three-nucleon forces introduced by the NNLO, but they are reduced to two independent parameters by antisymmetrization, which are found to be sensitive to the coupling energy of tritons and to the nd scattering length (spin doublet state). Parameters determined from them cannot give satisfactory answer to the A y puzzle. It seems, however, too hasty to conclude that A y puzzle cannot be solved by the chiral perturbation theory. (S. Funahashi)

  4. Microscopic nuclear structure with sub-nucleonic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, P.U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews microscopic theories of nuclear structure. The subject is discussed under the topic headings: microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons only; microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, isobars and mesons; and microscopic nuclear structure with nucleons, mesons and dibaryons. (U.K.)

  5. Comparative study of various methods of primary energy estimation in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, D.P.; Yugindro Singh, K.; Singh, S.

    1986-01-01

    The various available methods for the estimation of primary energy in nucleon-nucleon interactions have been examined by using the experimental data on angular distributions of shower particles from p-N interactions at two accelerator energies, 67 and 400 GeV. Three different groups of shower particle multiplicities have been considered for interactions at both energies. It is found that the different methods give quite different estimates of primary energy. Moreover, each method is found to give different values of energy according to the choice of multiplicity groups. It is concluded that the E ch method is relatively the better method among all the methods available, and that within this method, the consideration of the group of small multiplicities gives a much better result. The method also yields plausible estimates of inelasticity in high energy nucleon-nucleon interactions. (orig.)

  6. Off-energy-shell variations of two-nucleon transition matrix and three-nucleon problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stingl, M.; Sauer, P.U.

    1975-01-01

    For a schematic three-nucleon problem, approximate analytic expressions are derived for the functional derivatives of measurable three-particle quantities with respect to off-shell variations of the triplet-s two-nucleon transition matrix. Those quantities include neutron-deuteron scattering lengths, trinucleon binding energies, and the 3 He charge form-factor minimum; correlations between off-shell changes in the latter two are discussed. An indication is given how results of this kind may be to decide whether or not a given set of discrepancies between calculated and experimental three-nucleon observables can be reconciled in terms of off-shell variations of a nonretarded hermitean two-nucleon interaction. The treatment is not restricted to special classes of phase-shift equivalent potentials or phase-shift preserving transformations but instead makes use of a systematic parameterization of off-shell variations in terms of symmetric rational approximants of increasing order

  7. Consequences of the factorization hypothesis in nucleon-nucleon, $\\gamma p and \\gamma \\gamma$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M

    2002-01-01

    Using an eikonal structure for the scattering amplitude, factorization theorems for nucleon-nucleon, gamma p and gamma gamma scattering at high energies have been derived, using only some very general assumptions. Using a QCD-inspired eikonal analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering, we present here experimental confirmation for factorization of cross sections, nuclear slope parameters B and rho -values (ratio of real to imaginary portion of forward scattering amplitudes), showing that: 1) the three factorization theorems of Block and Kaidalov [2000] hold, 2) the additive quark model holds to approximately=1%, and 3) vector dominance holds to better than approximately=4%. Predictions for the total cross section, elastic cross section and other forward scattering parameters at the LHC (14 TeV) are given. (12 refs).

  8. The charge form factor of three-nucleon systems and the polarization of the bound nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.M.; Drechsel, D.; Arenhoevel, H.; Tornow, V.

    1979-01-01

    The discrepancy between theoretical calculations of the 3 He charge density and the results derived from elastic electron scattering may be due to the analysis of the experimental data in terms of spherical nucleons. A classical model with deformed nucleons gives qualitive agreement with experiment for an oblate quadrupole moment of -1.8 mb. Such a deformation of the bound nucleon can be described by the admixture of Δ(1232) and higher isobar components with spin >= 3/2. Since the admixture probabilities are small the dominant contributions stem from the transition quadrupole moments between free nucleon and isobar components. Taking into account the leading Δ(1232) components one can explain about half of the discrepancy. As this transition operator is isovector, the effects are opposite for 3 He and 3 H. (orig.)

  9. Lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, W.

    1993-12-01

    Recent theoretical developments in the field of inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are reviewed with emphasis on physics at HERA. Structure functions at small Bjorken-x are discussed in detail. Further topics are photoproduction of jets, the gluon densities in proton and photon, charm physics, electroweak processes and the search for new particles and interactions. (orig.)

  10. Spin structure of the nucleon and polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1994-09-01

    Recent experiments at CERN and SLAC have added new knowledge about the spin structure of the proton and the deuteron. A brief historical background is presented, the status of experiments is discussed, and progress in the understanding of the spin of the nucleon in the context of the quark parton model is summarized

  11. Scattering of vector mesons off nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.F.M.; Friman, B.; Wolf, G.

    2001-12-01

    We construct a relativistic and unitary approach to 'high' energy pion- and photon-nucleon reactions taking the πN, πΔ, ρN, ωN, ηN, K Λ, KΣ final states into account. Our scheme dynamically generates the s- and d-wave nucleon resonances N(1535), N(1650) and N(1520) and isobar resonances Δ(1620) and δ(1700) in terms of quasi-local interaction vertices. The description of photon-induced processes is based on a generalized vector-meson dominance assumption which directly relates the electromagnetic quasi-local 4-point interaction vertices to the corresponding vertices involving the ρ and ω fields. We obtain a satisfactory description of the elastic and inelastic pion- and photon-nucleon scattering data in the channels considered. The resulting s-wave ρ- and ω-nucleon scattering amplitudes are presented. Using these amplitudes we compute the leading density modification of the ρ and ω mass distributions in nuclear matter. We find a repulsive mass shift for the ω meson at small nuclear density but predict considerable strength in resonance-hole like ω-meson modes. Compared to previous calculations our result for the ρ-meson spectral function shows a significantly smaller in-medium effect. This reflects a not too large coupling strength of the N(1520) resonance to the ρN channel. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear data requirements for fusion reactor nucleonics are reviewed and the present status of data are assessed. The discussion is divided into broad categories dealing with data for Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), D-T Fusion Reactors, Alternate Fuel Cycles and the Evaluated Data Files that are available or would be available in the near future

  13. Nucleonic guages in Philippine industry: current applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedregosa, R.V.; Cayabo, L.B.; Leopando, L.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nucleonic gauges have been used in Philippine industries for more than thirty years. There are now close to 500 units being used to determine and/or control level, density, concentration, weight and other parameters. Gauges are found in the food, cement, mineral processing, steel, paper, cigarette, plastic and construction industries. (author)

  14. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  15. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon’s strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for 4 He.

  16. Nucleons II: cryopreservation and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H M; Delgado, N M

    2001-01-01

    The establishment of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) as a routine procedure in assisted fertilization has been used in the treatment of male infertility. The major technical problem that has arisen with the use of immotile sperm for ICSI has been differentiating between live and dead cells. Nucleons from human, pig, hamster, mouse, rat, and bull have been able to induce their chromatin decondensation by the action of heparin/GSH. Cryopreservation is deleterious to sperm function, killing more than 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Nucleon cryostorage was performed at 5 and -5 degrees C and analyzed for total area (mu2), perimeter (mu), width (mu), and length (mu), using Metamorph Imaging System software. On the other hand, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) is hydrolyzed by intracellular estereases to produce fluorescein, which exhibits green fluorescence when excited by blue light. This fact is a striking result since the presence of this metabolic activity opens the possibility to select the nucleons for ICSI. In the present study, the authors decided to search for a suitable metabolic test, which might reflect the metabolism and viability of these chromatin structures. This is a simple cryostorage technique that after months of cryopreservation, allow the use of nucleons for ICSI with suitable fertilization and pregnancies rates.

  17. Photonuclear studies in the few nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1975-02-01

    A brief review of photonuclear reactions in few nucleon systems is presented with comparison of theory with experiment. Discrepancies are examined and recent and current research aimed at resolving these problems are discussed. Emphasis is placed on two and three body photodisintegration. (33 figures) (U.S.)

  18. Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.

  19. Pion photoproduction in nucleons at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.A.B.R. de.

    1983-01-01

    A new semiphenomenological analysis of the multipoles for pion photoproduction from nucleons, in the region of the first π-N resonance is presented. Through an energy dependent model, multipoles with isospin 1/2 and 3/2 and total angular momentum J [pt

  20. Nucleon Spin Structure: Longitudinal and Transverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering (DIS) experiments have provided us with the most extensive information on the unpolarized and longitudinal polarized parton (quark and gluon) distributions in the nucleon. It has becoming clear that transverse spin and transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) study are crucial for a more complete understanding of the nucleon structure and the dynamics of the strong interaction. The transverse spin structure and the TMDs are the subject of increasingly intense theoretical and experimental study recently. With a high luminosity electron beam facility, JLab has played a major role in the worldwide effort to study both the longitudinal and transverse spin structure. Highlights of recent results will be presented. With 12-GeV energy upgrade, JLab will provide the most precise measurements in the valence quark region to close a chapter in longitudinal spin study. JLab will also perform a multi-dimensional mapping of the transverse spin structure and TMDs in the valence quark region through Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments, providing a 3-d partonic picture of the nucleon in momentum space and extracting the u and d quark tensor charges of the nucleon. The precision mapping of TMDs will also allow a detailed study of the quark orbital motion and its dynamics.

  1. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  2. Nucleon-nucleon interactions via Lattice QCD: Methodology. HAL QCD approach to extract hadronic interactions in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sinya

    2013-07-01

    We review the potential method in lattice QCD, which has recently been proposed to extract nucleon-nucleon interactions via numerical simulations. We focus on the methodology of this approach by emphasizing the strategy of the potential method, the theoretical foundation behind it, and special numerical techniques. We compare the potential method with the standard finite volume method in lattice QCD, in order to make pros and cons of the approach clear. We also present several numerical results for nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  3. Nucleon-nucleon scattering in the functional quantum theory of the nonlinear spinor field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegele, G.

    1979-01-01

    The author calculates the S matrix for the elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering in the lowest approximation using the quantum theory of nonlinear spinor fields with special emphasis to the ghost configuration of this theory. Introducing a general scalar product a new functional channel calculus is considered. From the results the R and T matrix elements and the differential and integral cross sections are derived. (HSI)

  4. Single nucleon-nucleon collision model for subthreshold pion production in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, V.; Di Toro, M.; Bonasera, A.

    1985-01-01

    We show that inclusive experimental data on subthreshold pion production in 12 C + 12 C and 16 O + 12 C collisions can be reproduced using a first chance Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) collision mechanism. Pauli blocking effects are extremely important while π-resorption can be safely neglected for these light systems. We apply our method at various beam energies. The possible importance of collective dynamical effects around the physical threshold is finally suggested

  5. Statistical properties of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for non-nucleon-emission and nucleon-emission processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, A.; Horiuchi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Statistical properties of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) are classical in the case of nucleon-emission processes, while they are quantum mechanical for the processes without nucleon emission. In order to understand this situation, we first clarify that there coexist mutually opposite two statistics in the AMD framework: One is the classical statistics of the motion of wave packet centroids and the other is the quantum statistics of the motion of wave packets which is described by the AMD wave function. We prove the classical statistics of wave packet centroids by using the framework of the microcanonical ensemble of the nuclear system with a realistic effective two-nucleon interaction. We show that the relation between the classical statistics of wave packet centroids and the quantum statistics of wave packets can be obtained by taking into account the effects of the wave packet spread. This relation clarifies how the quantum statistics of wave packets emerges from the classical statistics of wave packet centroids. It is emphasized that the temperature of the classical statistics of wave packet centroids is different from the temperature of the quantum statistics of wave packets. We then explain that the statistical properties of AMD for nucleon-emission processes are classical because nucleon-emission processes in AMD are described by the motion of wave packet centroids. We further show that when we improve the description of the nucleon-emission process so as to take into account the momentum fluctuation due to the wave packet spread, the AMD statistical properties for nucleon-emission processes change drastically into quantum statistics. Our study of nucleon-emission processes can be conversely regarded as giving another kind of proof of the fact that the statistics of wave packets is quantum mechanical while that of wave packet centroids is classical. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Effect of two-pion exchange in nucleon-nucleon scattering in high partial waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun ar Rashid, A.M.; Chaudhury, T.K.

    1983-01-01

    The work of Brown and Durso (Phys. Lett. 35B, 120 (1971)) on the soft-pion determination of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction is extended by using the most general form of the ΔNπ interaction which involves an arbitrary parameter Z. It is shown that both the annihilation channel helicity amplitude fsub(+)sup((O))(t) as well as peripheral proton-proton scattering phase shifts seem to favour Z=1/2. (author)

  7. Pion-nucleon vertex function with an off-shell nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.T.; Shakin, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A model calculation for the π-N vertex function is presented in the case in which there is a single off-mass-shell nucleon and a (nearly) on-mass-shell pion. Very strong effects due to the P 11 resonance at 1470 MeV are found. A simple parametrization of the vertex function is prvided in the case that at least one nucleon is on its mass shell. (Auth.)

  8. Helicity and isospin asymmetries in the electroproduction of nucleon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-10-01

    We investigate the helicity asymmetries and isospin ratios of ratiative transition amplitudes for nucleon resonances electroproduced off proton and neutron targets at momentum transfers of Q 2 ≤3 GeV 2 . Calculations were done in the framework of a relativized constituent quark model which includes many-body effects due to the quark interaction potential and to a relativistic treatment of the center-of-mass motion of the three quark system. We find significant deviations from the predictions of the nonrelativistic quark models and the SU(6) W algebraic approach based on the single quark transition hypothesis. Our calculated relativistic corrections lead to an overall better agreement with the experimental data. The question if some of the low-lying P-wave baryons are of hermaphrodite nature is briefly discussed. Finally we analyse the electroexcitation of the missing [20,1 + ] P-wave resonances. (orig.)

  9. SANE Of Jefferson Lab: Spin Asymmetries on the Nucleon Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmidouch, Abdellah

    2011-01-01

    The Spin Asymmetry on the Nucleon Experiment (SANE) at Jefferson Lab measures proton spin observables A 1 p , A 2 p and structure functions g 1 p and g 2 p over a broad range of Bjorken scaling variable x from 0.3 to 0.8, for four-momentum transfers ranging from 2.5 GeV 2 to 6.5 GeV 2 . Inclusive double spin asymmetries were measured by scattering 4.7 and 5.9-GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam off a polarized solid NH 3 target, in both parallel and near-perpendicular configuration. Scattered electrons were detected using a novel non-magnetic detector array with 194-msr acceptance. This paper presents the physics motivation for the experiment, the detector performance, and the latest status of the ongoing data analysis.

  10. A separable approach to the Bethe-Salpeter equation and its application to nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Froehlich, J.; Zingl, H.F.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved in closed form with the help of a four dimensional separable 'potential'. For possible applications to three-nucleon investigations the authors have fitted all nucleon-nucleon S-wave phase shifts in a sufficient way by this method; in addition they also present an example for a P-wave. (Auth.)

  11. The nucleon-nucleon interaction from a realistic pseudoscalar-vector chiral lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, N.; Meissner, U.G.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the static nucleon-nucleon potential in the framework of a non-linear chiral meson theory. The model includes pions as well as the vector mesons ρ and ω. All parameters are fixed in the meson sector and predictions about the nucleon-nucleon interaction follow without adjusting any parameters. We use an S-matrix approach to calculate correlated two-pion exchange between two solitons. The most prominent feature of this two-pion exchange is that it leads very natural to attraction in the scalar-isoscalar channel. We also discuss the effect of πp correlations on the central potential, and present the spectral function related to the correlated two-pion exchange. Furthermore, we study the form factors of the nucleon sources related to the two-pion exchange and find that they are of dipole type with typical cutoff scales Λ D ≅ 700 MeV. We also discuss the destructive interference of π- and ρ-exchange in the isovector tensor potential. Altogether, we present a unified treatment of meson exchange phenomenology based on a serious model of the nucleon. Finally, we point out the limitations of the model and discuss some further applications. (orig.)

  12. Investigation of the conjectured nucleon deformation at low momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparveris, N.F.; Georgakopoulos, S.; Karabarbounis, A.; Papanicolas, C.N.; Stiliaris, E.; Alarcon, R.; Six, E.; Bernstein, A.M.; Bertozzi, W.; Casagrande, F.; Dow, K.; Farkondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Kowalski, S.; Milner, R.; Nakagawa, I.; Sirca, S.; Stave, S.; Tsentalovich, G.; Tschalaer, C.

    2005-01-01

    We report new precise H(e,e ' p)π 0 measurements at the Δ(1232) resonance at Q 2 =0.127 (GeV/c) 2 obtained at the MIT-Bates out-of-plane scattering facility which are particularly sensitive to the transverse electric amplitude (E2) of the γ * N→Δ transition. The new data have been analyzed together with those of earlier measurements to yield precise quadrupole to dipole amplitude ratios: Re(E 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-2.3±0.3 stat+syst ±0.6 model )% and Re(S 1+ 3/2 /M 1+ 3/2 )=(-6.1±0.2 stat+syst ±0.5 model )% for M 1+ 3/2 =(41.4±0.3 stat+syst ±0.4 model )(10 -3 /m π + ). The derived amplitudes give credence to the conjecture of deformation in hadrons favoring, at low Q 2 , the dominance of mesonic effects.

  13. Gamma spectroscopy of multiple nucleon transfer reactions in Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, Z.W.; Mayer, R.H.; Fornal, B.; Nisius, D.T.; Bearden, I.G.; Daly, P.J.; Broda, R.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1992-01-01

    The decay of (πh 11/2 ) n yrast isomers was studied in a series of proton-rich N = 82 isotones culminating in determination of B(E2) values in 153 Lu and 154 Hf. In the N = 82 isotones however, it seems unlikely that the measurements could be extended beyond 154 Hf (n = 8). The opportunity to investigate the (h 11/2 ) n ) isomers across the whole h 11/2 subshell exists, at least in principle, in Sn isotopes where the counterpart νh 11/2 subshell is being filled with neutrons starting at 116 Sn. Before our measurements were initiated, the (νh 11/2 ) n 10 + isomers were known to exist in 116, 118, 120 Sn, where the νh 11/2 subshell begins to fill, and in 128,130 Sn at the other end. Important information, however, was missing about the 10 + isomers in 122,124,126 Sn where the long lifetimes are expected. The υ = 3 (h 11/2 ) isomers in odd tin isomers for A ≥ 119 were also not identified. A serious experimental difficulty in populating high spin states in heavier Sn isotopes is that they are not accessible by fusion-evaporation reactions. We decided to search for these missing tin isotopes among the products of heavy ion reactions on 122,124 Sn targets. Using this approach we were able to identify the isomeric decays and measure the lifetimes of the (νh 11/2 n ) υ = 2 isomeric states in 122,124 Sn. In odd tin isotopes we identified new I = 19/2 + yrast isomers in 119,121,123 Sn and measured their lifetimes. In addition (νh 11/2 ) n υ = 3, I = 27/2 - isomers in 119,121 Sn were observed for the first time

  14. The current status of nucleonic gauge activity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liye Zhou

    2000-01-01

    The nucleonic gauge technology in China is in full development. The nucleonic gauges are widely used, mainly in metallurgy, coal, cement and rubber industries. The simple first generation of nucleonic gauge is locally designed and manufactured in industrial scale by many institutions and enterprises. The local market is large and far from being saturated. The quality and reliability of nucleonic gauges and their integration into the control system are still concern. Research and development is going on to improve the quality and to design and produce second generation of multibeam and multienergy nucleonic gauges. (author)

  15. Nucleon deep-inelastic structure functions in a quark model with factorizability assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linkevich, A.D.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    Formula for structure functions of deep-inelastic electron scattering on nucleon is derived. For this purpose the dynamic model of factorizing quark amplitudes is used. It has been found that with increase of Q 2 transferred pulse square at great values of x kinemastic variable the decrease of structure function values is observed. At x single values the increase of structure function values is found. The comparison With experimental data shows a good agreement of the model with experiment

  16. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  17. Fission from Fe and Nb reactions with heavy targets at 50--100 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Fowler, M.M.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.N.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L.; Chan, Y.D.; Dacal, A.; Harmon, A.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Cross sections, parallel and perpendicular momentum transfers, charge loss, and velocity systematics are presented for fission following reactions of Fe and Nb projectiles at 50--100 MeV/nucleon on targets of Ta, Au, and Th. Data are compared to simple models for peripheral heavy ion collisions

  18. Four-nucleon system with Δ-isobar excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deltuva, A.; Fonseca, A.C.; Sauer, P.U.

    2008-01-01

    The four-nucleon bound state and scattering below three-body breakup threshold are described based on the realistic coupled-channel potential CD Bonn+Δ which allows the excitation of a single nucleon to a Δ isobar. The Coulomb repulsion between protons is included. In the four-nucleon system the two-baryon coupled-channel potential yields effective two-, three- and four-nucleon forces, mediated by the Δ isobar and consistent with each other and with the underlying two-nucleon force. The effect of the four-nucleon force on the studied observables is much smaller than the effect of the three-nucleon force. The inclusion of the Δ isobar is unable to resolve the existing discrepancies with the experimental data

  19. Nucleon-nucleon theory and phenomenology. Progress report and renewal proposal, June 1, 1981-May 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signell, P.

    1981-01-01

    This project has involved five inter-related subprojects: (1) derivation of the intermediate range nucleon-nucleon interaction using a new method that utilizes much shorter and simpler analytic continuation through the unphysical region that lies between the πN and ππ physical regions of the N anti N → ππ amplitude (with signifantly improved accuracy for the nucleon-nucleon interaction); (2) construction of a short range phenomenological potential that, with the theoretical part mentioned above, gives a precise fit to the nucleon-nucleon data and is parameterized for easy use in nucleon calculations; (3) phase shift analyses of the world data below 400 MeV, especially the large amount of very precise data below 20 meV and the new data near 55 MeV that have never been analyzed properly; (4) the introduction of a K-matrix formulation of the Optimal Polynomial Expansion in order to accelerate convergence of the partial wave series at LAMPF energies; and (5) setting up of a cooperatively evaluated permanent nucleon-nucleon data bank in the 1-1200 MeV range that can be used by all nucleon-nucleon researchers

  20. Low-energy analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors[12.39.Fe; 13.40.Gp; 14.20.Dh; Nucleon electromagnetic form factors; Chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian. E-mail: b.kubis@fz-juelich.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. E-mail: Ulf-G.Meissner@fz-juelich.de

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We employ the recently proposed infrared regularization scheme and show that the convergence of the chiral expansion is improved as compared to the heavy-fermion approach. We also discuss the inclusion of vector mesons and obtain an accurate description of all four-nucleon form factors for momentum transfer squared up to Q{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.4 GeV{sup 2}.

  1. From nucleons to quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    Nuclear Physics has now evolved from the study of the many nucleon problem, to the study of the interplay of the degrees of freedom of such a complex system and the internal degrees of freedom of each of its hadronic constituents. Extensive studies of electronuclear reactions have allowed us to disentangle the basic mechanisms of the interaction between two baryons in a nucleus. The pion exchange mechanism, which dominates at large distance has been singled out. The NΔ interaction, which enter the description of the intermediate range part, has been studied. Evidences for effects due to the quark structure of the nucleon have been found. They involve the short distance structure of the nucleus

  2. Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Ai, L.; Kaufmann, W.B.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of low-energy charged pion-nucleon data from recent π ± p experiments is presented. From the scattering lengths and the Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule we find a value of the pion-nucleon coupling constant of f 2 =0.0756±0.0007. We also find, contrary to most previous analyses, that the scattering volumes for the P 31 and P 13 partial waves are equal, within errors, corresponding to a symmetry found in the Hamiltonian of many theories. For the potential models used, the amplitudes are extrapolated into the subthreshold region to estimate the value of the Σ term. Off-shell amplitudes are also provided. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  3. Lectures on the soliton theory of nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, G.

    1984-04-01

    In these lectures we describe models in which the pion field or, more precisely, the chiral fields, are responsible for the binding of quarks in the nucleon. Such bound states in which the quarks constitute a source for the chiral fields, which, in turn, bind the quarks to each other, are called solitons. The starting point for such theories or models are chiral invariant lagrangians. They are not derived from QCD. The Skyrme lagrangian is simpler in that it involves only chiral fields and no quarks. However it may be understood as an effective lagrangian from which the quark degrees of freedom have been integrated out. It is not yet clear to what extent various models are equivalent. The description of the nucleon in these lectures may be viewed as an extension of the T.D. Lee solitons so as to include the pionic degree of freedom

  4. Investigation of incomplete linear momentum transfer in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1986-07-01

    At intermediate energies, heavy ion central collisions lead to the incomplete fusion of the incident nuclei while part of the initial linear momentum is carried away by fast light particles. Experiments were performed with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles bombarding heavy targets. Results obtained with 30 MeV per nucleon neon and 20 MeV per nucleon argon beams are in good agreement with an empirical law established with lighter projectiles. On the contrary, 35 and 44 MeV per nucleon argon projectiles do not follow the same law and fission fragments progressively disappear. A simple model explains the evolution of the amount of transferred linear momentum versus incident energy. The disappearance of the fusion products of the composite system observed with argon projectiles beyond 35 MeV per nucleon is explained by a limitation of the excitation energy per nucleon which can be deposited in a nucleus. The limit is evaluated from nucleon binding energy in nuclei and probability to emit clusters and is in good agreement with experimental data. Because of the coupling between intrinsic motion of nucleons and relative motion of nuclei, some nucleons have a kinetic energy high enough to be emitted: a theoretical model is proposed which rather well fits the data concerning fast nucleons but cannot explain the measured amounts of transferred linear momentum. This is attributed to the existence of other mechanisms [fr

  5. Personal history of nucleon polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, O.

    1984-09-01

    The history of nucleon scattering experiments is reviewed, starting with the observation of large proton polarizations in scattering from light elements such as carbon, and ending with the acceleration of polarized proton beams in high-energy synchrotrons. Special mention is made about significant contributions made by C.L. Oxley, L. Wolfenstein, R.D. Tripp, T. Ypsilantis, A. Abragam, M. Borghini, T. Niinikoski, Froissart, Stora, A.D. Krisch, and L.G. Ratner

  6. Pion-nucleon scattering and isospin violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meissner, U.G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses low-energy pion-nucleon scattering in the framework of chiral perturbation theory. It is argued that using this theoretical method one is able to match the in some cases impressive experimental accuracy (for the low partial waves). It is also shown how strong and electromagnetic isospin violation can be treated simultaneously. Some first results for neutral pion scattering and the σ-term are given. Copyright (1999) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd

  7. Antiquark distributions in pion and nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakelian, G.G.; Boreskov, K.G.; Kaidalov, A.B.

    1980-01-01

    Relation between the antiquark distributions in pion and nucleon, based on the π-exchange hypothesis, is derived. The antiquark distributions in proton are calculated with the data on the valence antiquark distribution in pion as input. Results of the calculation agree with the experimental data. The role of the peripheral mechanism in formulation of the initial conditions for the chromodynamical evolution equations is discussed

  8. Electromagnetic interactions with nuclei and nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, S.T.; Sealock, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: general LEGS work; photodisintegration of the deuteron; progress towards other experiments; LEGS instrumentation; major LEGS software projects; NaI detector system; nucleon detector system; waveshifting fibers; EGN prototype detector for CEBAF; photon beam facility at CEBAF; delta electroproduction in nuclei; quasielastic scattering and excitation of the Delta by 4 He(e,e'); and quasielastic scattering at high Q 2

  9. Nucleon-deuteron low energy parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zankel, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1983-01-01

    Momentum space Fadeev equations are solved for nucleon-deuteron scattering and effective range parameters are calculated. A reverse trend is found in the two spin states by 4 asub(nd) 4 asub(pd) and 2 asub(pd) 2 asub(nd) which is in agreement with a configuration space calculation, but in conflict with all existing experiments. The Coulomb contributions to the effective range are small in quartet but sizeable in doublet scattering. (Author)

  10. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.; Horsley, R.

    2007-10-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors continue to be of major interest for experimentalists and phenomenologists alike. They provide important insights into the structure of nuclear matter. For a range of interesting momenta they can be calculated on the lattice. The limiting factor continues to be the value of the pion mass. We present the latest results of the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with two dynamical, non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  11. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors continue to be of major interest for experimentalists and phenomenologists alike. They provide important insights into the structure of nuclear matter. For a range of interesting momenta they can be calculated on the lattice. The limiting factor continues to be the value of the pion mass. We present the latest results of the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with two dynamical, non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  12. Parity violation in two-nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.-P., E-mail: cpliu@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Department of Physics (China)

    2013-03-15

    Nuclear few-body systems become attractive avenues for the study of low-energy parity violation because experiments start to meet the precision requirements and theoretical calculations can be performed reliably. In this talk, an attempt of parametrizing low-energy parity-violating observables by the Danilov parameters will be introduced. Analyses of two-nucleon observables, based on the modern phenomenological potentials or the one of effective field theory, will be discussed.

  13. Use of a finite range nucleon-nucleon interaction in the continuum shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faes, Jean-Baptiste

    2007-01-01

    The unification of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions was always a great challenge of nuclear physics. The extreme complexity of finite quantum systems lead in the past to a separate development of the nuclear structure and the nuclear reactions. A unified description of structure and reactions is possible within the continuum shell model. All previous applications of this model used the zero-range residual interaction and the finite depth local potential to generate the single-particle basis. In the thesis, we have presented an extension of the continuum shell model for finite-range nucleon-nucleon interaction and an arbitrary number of nucleons in the scattering continuum. The great advantage of the present formulation is the same two-body interaction used both to generate the single-particle basis and to describe couplings to the continuum states. This formulation opens a possibility for an ab initio continuum shell model studies with the same nucleon-nucleon interaction generating the nuclear mean field, the configuration mixing and the coupling to the scattering continuum. First realistic applications of the above model has been shown for spectra of "1"7F and "1"7O, and elastic phase-shifts in the reaction "1"6O(p, p)"1"6O. (author)

  14. Few-Nucleon Research at TUNL: Probing Two- and Three-Nucleon Interactions with Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, C. R.; Tornow, W.; Witała, H.

    2016-03-01

    The central goal of few-nucleon research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is to perform measurements that contribute to advancing ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. The program aims include evaluating theoretical treatments of few-nucleon reaction dynamics through strategically comparing theory predictions to data, determining properties of the neutron-neutron interaction that are not accessible in two-nucleon reactions, and searching for evidence of longrange features of three-nucleon interactions, e.g., spin and isospin dependence. This paper will review studies of three- and four-nucleon systems at TUNL conducted using unpolarized and polarized neutron beams. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions performed by groups at TUNL over the last six years are described in comparison with theory predictions. The results are discussed in the context of the program goals stated above. Measurements of vector analyzing powers for elastic scattering in A=3 and A=4 systems, differential cross sections for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and neutrondeuteron breakup in several final-state configurations are described. The findings from these studies and plans for the coming three years are presented in the context of worldwide activities in this front, in particular, research presented in this session.

  15. One-boson-exchange approach to dilepton production in nucleon-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haglin, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    The author calculates energy-dependent nucleon-nucleon elastic cross sections and electron-positron pair production differential cross sections for the processes pp → pp, np → np, and pp → ppe + e - , np → npe + e - at laboratory kinetic energies in the 1-5 GeV range. These calculations will be based on a one-boson-exchange (π, ρ, ω, σ, δ, η) approximation to the nucleon-nucleon scattering problem. Strong form factors are included in a manner which preserves gauge invariance. He finds excellent results as compared with data for the total elastic cross sections. The calculate differential elastic cross sections show only qualitative agreement with data. For dilepton production in n-p scattering the model overestimates the number of pairs as compared with proton on beryllium data. For the p-p case he finds the tensor coupling of the ρ to the nucleons to be clearly dominant. Data do not yet exist for the p-p case at these energies: the author predicts them

  16. Few-Nucleon Research at TUNL: Probing Two- and Three-Nucleon Interactions with Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The central goal of few-nucleon research at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL is to perform measurements that contribute to advancing ab-initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. The program aims include evaluating theoretical treatments of few-nucleon reaction dynamics through strategically comparing theory predictions to data, determining properties of the neutron-neutron interaction that are not accessible in two-nucleon reactions, and searching for evidence of longrange features of three-nucleon interactions, e.g., spin and isospin dependence. This paper will review studies of three- and four-nucleon systems at TUNL conducted using unpolarized and polarized neutron beams. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions performed by groups at TUNL over the last six years are described in comparison with theory predictions. The results are discussed in the context of the program goals stated above. Measurements of vector analyzing powers for elastic scattering in A=3 and A=4 systems, differential cross sections for neutron-deuteron elastic scattering and neutrondeuteron breakup in several final-state configurations are described. The findings from these studies and plans for the coming three years are presented in the context of worldwide activities in this front, in particular, research presented in this session.

  17. A chiral quark model of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakamatsu, M.; Yoshiki, H.

    1991-01-01

    The baryon-number-one extended solution of a chiral quark lagrangian is obtained in the stationary-phase approximation with full inclusion of the sea-quark degrees of freedom. The collective quantization method is then applied to this static solution to obtain the nucleon (and Δ) state with the definite spin and isospin. A fundamental quantity appearing in this quantization procedure is the moment of inertia of the soliton system. We evaluate this quantity without recourse to the derivative expansion, by performing the necessary double sum over all the positive- and negative-energy quark orbitals in the mean field potential. Closed formulas are-derived for the nucleon (and Δ) matrix elements of arbitrary quark bilinear operators. These formulas are then used for calculating various nucleon observables in a nonperturbative manner with inclusion of the sea-quark effects. An especially interesting observable is the spin expectation value of the proton related to the recent EMC experiment. We derive the proton spin sum rule, and then explicitly evaluate the detailed contents of this sum rule. The proton spin analysis is shown to be particularly useful for clarifying the underlying dynamical content of the Skyrme model at quark level, thereby providing us with valuable information about its utility and limitation. (orig.)

  18. Constructional requirements and classification of nucleonic gauges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, M.L.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, E.L.C.; Caldas, G.H.F., E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: gcaldas@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    There are several hundred of nucleonic gauges installed in at least 500 industrial facilities in Brazil. In recent years, several standards have been issued by different international committees in order to specify requirements for the design of nucleonic gauges taking into account issues related to radiological protection. The aspects of design and manufacturing of these devices using radioactive sources should be treated as an important feature to an adequate safety approach during the whole operational life, mainly taking into account the extreme conditions of the places where the devices are installed. Thus, the agreement with these standards should be included as part of the equipment specification to the licensing process, however, most nucleonic gauges were installed in the period prior to the issuance of these international standards. In this work was studied the performance of shielding design taking into account international standards concerning the constructional requirements and classification of gauges. In view of the specific operational conditions found at reference facilities, the measurements obtained will be used for validation of a Monte Carlo code based on GEANT4 to allow extrapolations for other operational conditions. The results obtained in this study can enable the establishment of a safety indicator tool to industrial facilities, taking into account different designs, so that this additional parameter can be used to determine and to optimize the frequency of regulatory inspections. (author)

  19. Constructional requirements and classification of nucleonic gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, M.L.L.; Gomes, R.S.; Costa, E.L.C.; Caldas, G.H.F.; Thomé, Z.D.

    2017-01-01

    There are several hundred of nucleonic gauges installed in at least 500 industrial facilities in Brazil. In recent years, several standards have been issued by different international committees in order to specify requirements for the design of nucleonic gauges taking into account issues related to radiological protection. The aspects of design and manufacturing of these devices using radioactive sources should be treated as an important feature to an adequate safety approach during the whole operational life, mainly taking into account the extreme conditions of the places where the devices are installed. Thus, the agreement with these standards should be included as part of the equipment specification to the licensing process, however, most nucleonic gauges were installed in the period prior to the issuance of these international standards. In this work was studied the performance of shielding design taking into account international standards concerning the constructional requirements and classification of gauges. In view of the specific operational conditions found at reference facilities, the measurements obtained will be used for validation of a Monte Carlo code based on GEANT4 to allow extrapolations for other operational conditions. The results obtained in this study can enable the establishment of a safety indicator tool to industrial facilities, taking into account different designs, so that this additional parameter can be used to determine and to optimize the frequency of regulatory inspections. (author)

  20. Do phase-shift analyses and nucleon-nucleon potential models yield the wrong 3Pj phase shifts at low energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Witala, H.; Kievsky, A.

    1998-01-01

    The 4 P J waves in nucleon-deuteron scattering were analyzed using proton-deuteron and neutron-deuteron data at E N =3 MeV. New sets of nucleon-nucleon 3 P j phase shifts were obtained that may lead to a better understanding of the long-standing A y (θ) puzzle in nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering. However, these sets of 3 P j phase shifts are quite different from the ones determined from both global phase-shift analyses of nucleon-nucleon data and nucleon-nucleon potential models. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  1. Investigation of a matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems; Untersuchung eines Matrixumrichters fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklebe, Andreas

    2009-05-22

    Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit einem drei- zu zweiphasigen Matrixumrichter zur Speisung von kontaktlosen Energieuebertragungssystemen. Aufbauend auf einer Darlegung relevanter Untersuchungen zur Thematik werden zunaechst moegliche Resonanzanordnungen fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme untersucht. Die Betrachtung wichtiger elektrischer Parameter zeigt neben den Unterschieden der einzelnen Anordnungen auch, dass fuer eine auf den speisenden Umrichter fokussierte Untersuchung eine einfache Modellierung der drei untersuchten Resonanzanordnungen mit Hilfe eines Reihenschwingkreises moeglich ist. Als Konsequenz ergibt sich die Schlussfolgerung, dass sich die erzielten Ergebnisse auch fuer den Matrixumrichter mit anderen serienresonanten Lasten anwenden lassen. Der zweite Teil der Arbeit ist der Untersuchung des Matrixumrichters gewidmet. Basierend auf einer theoretischen Beschreibung wird die Kombination von hochfrequenten Steuerverfahren - wie z.B. der Blocktaktung - und niederfrequenten Pulsmustern zur Stellung des Oberschwingungsgehalts der Netzstroeme vorgestellt. Die Aehnlichkeit des Umrichters zu einem konventionellen Wechselrichter in H-Brueckenschaltung ermoeglicht anschliessend eine Betrachtung der Kommutierung und die Ableitung notwendiger Schaltzustaende. Diese sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass zu jedem Zeitpunkt genau eine bidirektionale Verbindung vom Eingangssystem zu jeder Ausgangsphase besteht. Die Funktionsweise der Kommutierung wie auch des gesamten Umrichters wird in einem ersten Schritt simulativ belegt. Dabei wird auch das dynamische Schaltverhalten der Leistungshalbleiter beruecksichtigt. Anschliessend werden an einem Laboraufbau aufgenommene Messergebnisse vorgestellt und mit den theoretischen Ergebnissen verglichen. Der Laboraufbau besteht aus dem Leistungsteil des Matrixumrichters mit Eingangsfiltern und modularen Gate-Treibern, einem DSP/FPGA-Steuerungssystem und einem kontaktlosen Energieuebertragungssystem mit sekundaerseitigem Gleichrichter

  2. Nucleon exchange and heat partition in 74Ge + 165Ho collision at energy 8.5 MeV/A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planeta, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the distinctive features of damped heavy-ion reactions is the rapid conversion of relative kinetic energy into heat during the lifetime of the dinuclear system formed in the collision. Of particular interest in this regard are the questions: how heat, or excitation energy, is partitioned between the reaction partners; how heat partition depends on nucleon transfer. Damped collisions at energies near or just above the barrier have been generally interpreted in terms of transport models which account for energy dissipation in terms of nucleon exchange between the projectile-like (PLF) and target-like fragments. Thus, in this context statistical nucleon exchange is the mechanism for heating of the system. Transport model calculation have met considerable success in accounting for the major features of damped collisions, for example, energy dissipation and angular distributions. Nonetheless, many important uncertainties remain

  3. Study of the baryon-baryon interaction in nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, M.

    1993-01-01

    After the definition of the Hamiltonian in general form by meson production and absorption the transition to operators pursued, which connect only spaces with definite meson numbers. In this approximation first the self-energy of a single baryon was calculated in its full energy and momentum dependence. Then the formal expressions for the T matrices of nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering were derived. The essential components of these expressions are the baryon-baryon T matrix ant transition amplitudes from pion-deuteron channels to baryon-baryon states. The central chapter dealt with the calculation of the baryon-baryon interaction for the general form of the vertices, with the solution of the binding problem and the baryon-baryon T matrix. Finally followed the results on the nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering. For this first the transition amplitudes from pion-deuteron states to intermediate baryon-baryon states and the Born graphs of the pion-deuteron scattering had to be calculated. After some remarks to the transition from partial-wave decomposed T matrices to scattering observables an extensive representation of the total, partial, and differential cross sections and a series of spin observables (analyzing powers and spin correlations) for the elastic proton-proton, neutron-proton, and pion-deuteron scattering as well for the fusion reaction pp→πd and the breakup reaction πd→pp follows. Thereby the energies reached from the nucleon-nucleon respectively pion-deuteron threshold up to 100 MeV above the delta resonance

  4. Testing and modification of a simple flow turbine; Messtechnische Untersuchung und Modifikation einer einfachen Durchstroemturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentner, C. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen; Fischer, G. [SKAT, St. Gallen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    A study conducted at the IHS had the aim to obtain basic information on whether it is possible to build flow turbines following the free jet principle that are on a par with, or superior to, the conventional design, especially in terms of performance and the efficiency curve. Several inflow contours with a ventilated free jet and a conventional flow turbine were studied. The direct comparison of these variants revealed a slightly enhanced peak load efficiency and a very distinct superiority of the free jet contour during partial load. But the efficiency of all variants failed to attain the values claimed by commercial manufacturers. As compared to the initial contour, peak load efficiency was enhanced by 5 per cent. During partial load, the variants studied showed a distinct superiority of the free jet concept over the contour of conventional flow turbines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am IHS wurde eine Untersuchung mit dem Ziel durchgefuehrt, grundlegende Aussagen zu gewinnen, ob Durchstroemturbinen mit dem Freistrahlprinzip gebaut werden koennen, die dem konventionellen Design, vor allem in bezug auf Leistungsausbeute und Wirkungsgradverlauf, gleichwertig oder ueberlegen sind. Es wurden mehrere Anstroemkonturen mit belueftetem Freistrahl und einer konventionellen Durchstroemturbine untersucht. Der direkte Vergleich der am Institut untersuchten Varianten ergab bei etwas hoeherem Spitzenwirkungsgrad sehr deutliche Vorteile der Freistrahlkontur im Teillastbereich. Das Wirkungsgradniveau aller Varianten lag jedoch unter den Werten, die von kommerziellen Herstellern veroeffentlicht werden. Gegenueber der Ausgangskontur wurde im Spitzenwirkungsgrad eine Verbesserung von 5% erreicht. Im Teillastbereich ergibt sich fuer die hier untersuchten Varianten eine deutliche Ueberlegenheit der Freistrahlkonzeption ueber die Kontur konventioneller Durchstroemturbinen. (orig.)

  5. High energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays at mountain altitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Raymond Félix

    The diffusion equations describing the unidimensional propagation of .the high energy nucleonic component of cosmic rays throughout the atmosphere are sol"V'ed under two assumptions: (l) The nucleon-nucleon collisions are described according to Fermi's therlnOdynamical model involving completely inelastic pion and.nucleon-antinucleon pair production. (2) A somewhat opposite assumption is made assuming partially elastic collisions without nucleon-anti.nucleon pair production. Due to the present inaccuracy of experiments, we are able to derive only tentati v.e conclusions. The values computed under both hypotheses for the absorption mean free path and the charged to neutral particles ratio are found in acceptable ranges when compared to experimental data. The diffeential energy spectrum at a given depth is always found steeper than the primary, and steeper than indicated by experimental values if the primary is taken proportional to the 2.5 inverse power of energy.

  6. A Bayesian analysis of the nucleon QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Keisuke; Gubler, Philipp; Oka, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    QCD sum rules of the nucleon channel are reanalyzed, using the maximum-entropy method (MEM). This new approach, based on the Bayesian probability theory, does not restrict the spectral function to the usual ''pole + continuum'' form, allowing a more flexible investigation of the nucleon spectral function. Making use of this flexibility, we are able to investigate the spectral functions of various interpolating fields, finding that the nucleon ground state mainly couples to an operator containing a scalar diquark. Moreover, we formulate the Gaussian sum rule for the nucleon channel and find that it is more suitable for the MEM analysis to extract the nucleon pole in the region of its experimental value, while the Borel sum rule does not contain enough information to clearly separate the nucleon pole from the continuum. (orig.)

  7. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion

  8. K-nucleon scattering and the cloudy bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B. K.

    1986-10-01

    The cloudy bag model (CBM) has been applied with considerable success to low energy meson-nucleon scattering. In this talk I will describe in particular calculations for kaon-nucleon and antikaon-nucleon scattering. The main emphasis will be on s-waves with special attention paid to the antikaon-nucleon system in the isospin zero channel where the Λ(1405) is important. In the CBM the Λ(1405) is an antikaon-nucleon bound state and I show that this interpretation is consistent with the antikaon-nucleon scattering in the region of the Λ(1670) and Λ(1800) although ambiguities in the phase shift analysis prevent a definite conclusion.

  9. Effective pion--nucleon interaction in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Liu, L.C.; Nutt, W.; Shakin, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss the modification of the interaction between a pion and a nucleon in the presence of an infinite medium of nucleons (nuclear matter). The theory presented here is covariant and is relevant to the calculation of the pion--nucleus optical potential. The specific effects considered are the modifications of the nucleon propagator due to the Pauli principle and the modification of the pion and nucleon propagators due to collisions with nucleons of the medium. We also discuss in detail the pion self-energy in the medium, paying close attention to off-shell effects. These latter effects are particularly important because of the rapid variation with energy of the fundamental pion--nucleon interaction. Numerical results are presented, the main feature being the appearance of a significant damping width for the (3, 3) resonance

  10. Spin symmetry in the Dirac sea derived from the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shihang; Liang, Haozhao; Meng, Jie; Ring, Peter; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2018-06-01

    The spin symmetry in the Dirac sea has been investigated with relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock theory using the bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. Taking the nucleus 16O as an example and comparing the theoretical results with the data, the definition of the single-particle potential in the Dirac sea is studied in detail. It is found that if the single-particle states in the Dirac sea are treated as occupied states, the ground state properties are in better agreement with experimental data. Moreover, in this case, the spin symmetry in the Dirac sea is better conserved and it is more consistent with the findings using phenomenological relativistic density functionals.

  11. NN → NN π: the new frontier in nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silbar, R.R.

    1986-01-01

    The torch in nucleon-nucleon scattering has been passed to experimental and theoretical studies of pion production. Comparing two unitary models shows that most of the structures predicted for spin observables in NN → NNπ are model independent and roughly in agreement with the data. The contribution of rho- exchange is small, indicating the reaction is largely ''peripheral''. The energy dependence of these isobar models is smooth. The largely unstudied reactions producing neutral and negatively-charged pions show richer structure than positively-charged pion production. 6 refs

  12. Effective nucleon-nucleon t matrix in the (p,2p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Y.; Kanayama, N.; Wakasugi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The cross sections and the analyzing powers for the /sup 40/Ca(p-arrow-right,2p) reactions at E/sub p/ = 76.1, 101.3, and 200 MeV are calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is shown that the calculated individual contributions of the central, spin-orbit, and tensor parts in the Love-Franey interaction to the cross sections and the analyzing powers strongly depend on the incident proton energies. The spectroscopic factors extracted are consistent with the other reaction studies

  13. Proton induced nucleon knockout from 40Ca in the Dirac impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, O.V.; Cooper, E.D.

    1989-12-01

    The (p,2p) reaction on 40 Ca at incident proton energies of 200 and 300 MeV is examined within a Dirac distorted wave impulse approximation. The relativistic Love-Franey t-matrix is evaluated at the nucleon-nucleon laboratory energy (as defined within the plane wave approximation), rather than the nucleon-nucleus laboratory energy. Particular attention is paid to the sensitivity of the calculated cross sections and analyzing powers to the properties of the bound states employed. It is found that the analyzing powers depend very little on the bound state properties, while the cross sections depend significantly only on the rms radii of the bound state wave functions. A major success of the model is its ability to fit the cross section data over a particular range of momentum transfers at both 200 and 300 MeV with the same bound state potential. Outside this momentum transfer range, the predicted cross sections are too low. The calculated analyzing powers agree well with the data at 200 MeV, but disagree with the data at 300 MeV. Values for the rms radii of the 1D 3/2 and 1D 5/2 states in 40 Ca are derived from the requirement that the peak positions of the calculated cross sections at 300 MeV agree with the empirical peak positions. Some preliminary results are also reported for neutron knockout from 40 Ca at 150 MeV

  14. Coplanarity of two-proton emissions in 400 MeV/nucleon Ne + NaF, Pb reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanihata, Isao.

    1984-10-01

    Two-proton coincidence spectra have been measured in a wide kinematical range for 20 Ne + NaF and 20 Ne + Pb collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. Coplanar-type correlations show different feature between Ne + NaF and Ne + Pb target reactions. A strong in-plane correlation, which correspond to quasi-elastic scatterings (QES) of nucleons, was observed in wide angular range (15 to 90 0 ) in NaF target collisions. Angular distributions of QES were reproduced reasonably well by a single nucleon-nucleon scattering model. Enhancement of the QES at momentum transfer around t = 2 - 3m/sub π/, which is predicted as an indication of pionic instability, was not observed. In Ne + Pb collisions, an azimuthally asymmetric emission of particles with respect to the beam axis were implied by the anti-coplanar correlation. A new type of coplanar correlation between the emission angle and the momentum suggests a back-to-back emission of projectile and target nucleons. 8 references, 8 figures

  15. QCD sum rule for nucleon in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.; Sarkar, Sourav

    2010-01-01

    We consider the two-point function of nucleon current in nuclear matter and write a QCD sum rule to analyse the residue of the nucleon pole as a function of nuclear density. The nucleon self-energy needed for the sum rule is taken as input from calculations using phenomenological N N potential. Our result shows a decrease in the residue with increasing nuclear density, as is known to be the case with similar quantities. (orig.)

  16. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.; Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper draws the concept of nucleon form factors further to consider the electromagnetic aspect based on the magnetic moment of the nucleon. These are seen as valid physical interpretations of form factors in electron-nucleon interactions. A linear combination of two functions, associated with charge radius, is derived, which agreed well with experimental results. The paper also expands the specific form to include relativistic cases and consider appropriate frames of reference. (UK)

  17. Nucleon structure functions, resonance form factors, and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovsky, V.V.; Struminsky, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of nucleon structure functions in the resonance region is explored. For form factors that describe resonance production, expressions are obtained that are dependent on the photon virtuality Q 2 , which have a correct threshold behavior, and which take into account available experimental data on resonance decay. Resonance contributions to nucleon structure functions are calculated. The resulting expressions are used to investigate quark-hadron duality in electron-nucleon scattering by taking the example of the structure function F 2

  18. Portable nucleonics instrument design: The PortaCAT example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.; Pohl, P.; Hutchinson, E.

    2000-01-01

    Portable nucleonic gauges prototypes are designed and manufactured in New Zealand for niche applications. Considerable development in hardware and software provide new opportunity in design of relatively low cost portable nucleonic gauges. In this paper are illustrated principles, and specific factors to be consider when designing portable nucleonic instrumentation, using an example called PortaCAT, which is a portable computed tomography scanner designed for imaging wooden power poles. (author)

  19. Nucleon quark distributions in a covariant quark-diquark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia) and Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: icloet@physics.adelaide.edu.au; Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)]. E-mail: awthomas@jlab.org

    2005-08-18

    Spin-dependent and spin-independent quark light-cone momentum distributions and structure functions are calculated for the nucleon. We utilize a modified Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in which confinement is simulated by eliminating unphysical thresholds for nucleon decay into quarks. The nucleon bound state is obtained by solving the Faddeev equation in the quark-diquark approximation, where both scalar and axial-vector diquark channels are included. We find excellent agreement between our model results and empirical data.

  20. Conflicting coupling of unpaired nucleons in odd-odd nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.A.; Levon, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Phenomenological approach is described, using it, energy spectra of odd-odd nucleus collective bands based on conflicting state of unpaired nucleons can be calculated. It is ascertained that in a conflicting bond unpaired nucleon acts as a spectator, i.e. energy spectra of collective bands in odd-odd nuclei are similar to the spectra of collective bands in heighbouring odd nuclei, which are based on the state of a strongly bound nucleon is included in the conflicting configuration

  1. On the possibility of observing experimentally diabolic pair transfer in rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F; Donangelo, R; Nikam, R S; Ring, P

    1987-06-25

    We investigate the cross section for two-nucleon transfer reactions to rotational states by heavy projectiles. In particular we study the influence of the recently predicted unexpected behavior of the diabolic pair transfer amplitude. Dramatic reduction of the probabilities for two-nucleon transfer in connection with inelastic Coulomb excitation are found in the angular momentum region, where the pair transfer matrix element changes its sign.

  2. Calculations of electromagnetic nucleon form factors and electroexcitation amplitudes of isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper, we present numerical results for electroproduction amplitudes of proton resonances and electromagnetic nucleon form factors calculated in a relativized quark model. Interactions with both transversely and longitudinally polarized virtual photons were considered. Contributions of the different effects included in our approach have been analysed through a sample comparison with the available data. We also discuss the validity of the usual single-quark transition ansatz and possible parametrizations of the potential acting between the constituent quarks of the baryon. Impressive agreement is obtained with the nucleon form factor data up to squared momentum transfers of 2.5 GeV 2 , but still some problems remain with the Δ(1232) and higher resonances. (orig.)

  3. Microscopic nucleon spectral function for finite nuclei featuring two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations: The model versus ab initio calculations for three-nucleon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi degli Atti, Claudio; Mezzetti, Chiara Benedetta; Morita, Hiko

    2017-04-01

    Background: Two-nucleon (2 N ) short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei have been recently thoroughly investigated, both theoretically and experimentally and the study of three-nucleon (3 N ) SRC, which could provide important information on short-range hadronic structure, is underway. Novel theoretical ideas concerning 2 N and 3 N SRC are put forward in the present paper. Purpose: The general features of a microscopic one-nucleon spectral function which includes the effects of both 2 N and 3 N SRC and its comparison with ab initio spectral functions of the three-nucleon systems are illustrated. Methods: A microscopic and parameter-free one-nucleon spectral function expressed in terms of a convolution integral involving ab initio relative and center-of-mass (c.m.) momentum distributions of a 2 N pair and aimed at describing two- and three-nucleon short-range correlations, is obtained by using: (i) the two-nucleon momentum distributions obtained within ab initio approaches based upon nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Argonne family; (ii) the exact relation between one- and two-nucleon momentum distributions; (iii) the fundamental property of factorization of the nuclear wave function at short internucleon ranges. Results: The comparison between the ab initio spectral function of 3He and the one based upon the convolution integral shows that when the latter contains only two-nucleon short-range correlations the removal energy location of the peaks and the region around them exhibited by the ab initio spectral function are correctly predicted, unlike the case of the high and low removal energy tails; the inclusion of the effects of three-nucleon correlations brings the convolution model spectral function in much better agreement with the ab initio one; it is also found that whereas the three-nucleon short-range correlations dominate the high energy removal energy tail of the spectral function, their effects on the one-nucleon momentum distribution are almost one

  4. Three-nucleon problem with phase equivalent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pushkash, O.M.; Shapoval, D.V.; Simenog, I.V.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of the t-matrix off-shell variations with nonlocal phase equivalent N-N potentials on the three-nucleon parameters is studied. The variations, which lower or increase the tritium binding energy, are revealed. We show that under certain conditions, the three-nucleon low-energy observables are almost insensitive to the high energy behaviour of the negative parts of the scattering phase shifts. The inverse problem method is applied to reconstruct simple S-wave potentials which to provide a unified description of the two-nucleon and low-energy three-nucleon data. 22 refs.; 6 figs. (author)

  5. Equidistant structure and effective nucleon mass in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Hirokazu.

    1981-11-01

    The effective nucleon mass of the Equidistant Multi-Layer Structure (EMULS) is discussed self-consistently. In the density region where the Fermi gas state in nuclear matter is unstable against the density fluctuation, the EMULS gives lower binding energy. It is, however, shown that such a structure with an ordinary nucleon mass collapses due to too strong attraction. We point out that such a collapse can be avoided by taking account of an effective nucleon mass affected by the localization of nucleons. (author)

  6. Forward pion-nucleon charge exchange reaction and Regge constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fei; Sibirtsev, A.; Krewald, S.; Hanhart, C.; Haidenbauer, J.; Meibner, U.-G.

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent study of pion-nucleon charge exchange amplitudes above 2 GeV. We analyze the forward pion-nucleon charge exchange reaction data in a Regge model and compare the resulting amplitudes with those from the Karlsruhe-Helsinki and George-Washington-University partial-wave analyses. We explore possible high-energy constraints for theoretical baryon resonance analyses in the energy region above 2 GeV. Our results show that for the pion-nucleon charge exchange reaction, the appropriate energy region for matching meson-nucleon dynamics to diffractive scattering should be around 3 GeV for the helicity flip amplitude. (authors)

  7. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A.A.Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1984-10-01

    A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which includes the study of both local and non-local potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. A critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation is made. (author)

  8. Hyperon-nucleon interaction in the quark cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, U.; Zhang Zongye; Braeuer, K.; Faessler, A.; Khadkikar, S.B.; Luebeck, G.

    1988-01-01

    The lambda-nucleon and sigma-nucleon interaction is described in the nonrelativistic quark cluster model. The SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking due to the different quark masses is taken into account, i.e. different wavefunctions for the light (up, down) and heavy (strange) quarks are used in flavor and orbital space. The six-quark wavefunction is fully antisymmetrized. The model hamiltonian contains gluon exchange, pseudoscalar meson exchange and a phenomenological σ-meson exchange. The six-quark scattering problem is solved within the resonating group method. The experimental lambda-nucleon and sigma-nucleon cross sections are well reproduced. (orig.)

  9. Complete Set of Deuteron Analyzing Powers for dp Elastic Scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon and Three Nucleon Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu Y.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of a complete set of deuteron analyzing powers (iT11, T20, T21, T22 for elastic deuteron–proton scattering at 250 MeV/nucleon have been performed with polarized deuteron beams at RIKEN RI Beam Factory. The obtained data are compared with the Faddeev calculations based on the modern nucleon–nucleon forces together with the Tucson-Melbourne’99, and UrbanaIX three nucleon forces.

  10. Collective multipole excitations based on correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, N.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Hergert, H.; Roth, R.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate collective multipole excitations for closed shell nuclei from 16 O to 208 Pb using correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions in the framework of the random phase approximation (RPA). The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations a re treated explicitly within the Unitary Correlation Operator Method (UCOM), which provides a phase-shift equivalent correlated interaction VUCOM adapted to simple uncorrelated Hilbert spaces. The same unitary transformation that defines the correlated interaction is used to derive correlated transition operators. Using VUCOM we solve the Hartree-Fock problem and employ the single-particle states as starting point for the RPA. By construction, the UCOM-RPA is fully self-consistent, i.e. the same correlated nucleon-nucleon interact ion is used in calculations of the HF ground state and in the residual RPA interaction. Consequently, the spurious state associated with the center-of-mass motion is properly removed and the sum-rules are exhausted within ±3%. The UCOM-RPA scheme results in a collective character of giant monopole, dipole, and quadrupole resonances in closed-shell nuclei across the nuclear chart. For the isoscalar giant monopole resonance, the resonance energies are in agreement with experiment hinting at a reasonable compressibility. However, in the 1 - and 2 + channels the resonance energies are overestimated due to missing long-range correlations and three-body contributions. (orig.)

  11. Relativistic one-boson-exchange model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Van Orden, J.W.; Holinde, K.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon data below 300-MeV laboratory energy are described by a manifestly covariant wave equation in which one of the intermediate nucleons is restricted to its mass shell. Antisymmetrization of the kernel yields an equation in which the two nucleons are treated in an exactly symmetric manner, and in which all amplitudes satisfy the Pauli principle exactly. The kernel is modeled by the sum of one boson exchanges, and four models, all of which fit the data very well (χ 2 congruent 3 per data point) are discussed. Two models require the exchange of only the π, σ, ρ, and ω, but also require an admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, while two other models restrict the pion coupling to pure γ 5 γ μ , but require the exchange of six mesons, including the η, and a light scalar-isovector meson referred to as σ 1 . Deuteron wave functions resulting from these models are obtained. The singularities and relativistic effects which are a part of this approach are discussed, and a complete development of the theory is presented

  12. Three-Body Antikaon-Nucleon Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shevchenko, Nina V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2017), č. článku UNSP 6. ISSN 0177-7963 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04301S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : three-body * antikaon-nucleon * K p interactions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atom ic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atom s and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 0.877, year: 2016

  13. Electron scattering and few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1983-08-01

    Recent result obtained by electron scattering in the few-nucleon systems (A 3 He charge and magnetic form factors are discussed. New theoretical results indicate that three body forces improve considerably the saturation properties of 3 He, 4 He and nuclear matter, but are not able to reconcile experiment and theory for the charge form factors of 3 He and 4 He. Calculations of meson exchange effects with different theoretical approaches bring the theory into reasonable agreement with the experimental charge and magnetic form factor fo 3 He. Recent results of the measurements of the two and three body break-up of 3 He are discussed

  14. Nucleon structure study by virtual compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthot, J.; Bertin, P.Y.; Breton, V.; Fonvielle, H.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Quemener, G.; Ravel, O.; Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Boeglin, W.U.; Boehm, R.; Distler, M.; Edelhoff, R.; Friedrich, J.; Geiges, R.; Jennewein, P.; Kahrau, M.; Korn, M.; Kramer, H.; Krygier, K.W.; Kunde, V.; Liesenfeld, A.; Merle, K.; Neuhausen, R.; Offermann, E.A.J.M.; Pospischil, T.; Rosner, G.; Sauer, P.; Schmieden, H.; Schardt, S.; Tamas, G.; Wagner, A.; Walcher, T.; Wolf, S.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to study nucleon structure by Virtual Compton Scattering using the reaction p(e,e'p)γ with the MAMI facility. We will detect the scattered electron and the recoil proton in coincidence in the high resolution spectrometers of the hall A1. Compton events will be separated from the other channels (principally π 0 production) by missing-mass reconstruction. We plan to investigate this reaction near threshold. Our goal is to measure new electromagnetic observables which generalize the usual magnetic and electric polarizabilities. (authors). 9 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Perspectives of lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisele, F.

    1987-01-01

    Present day lepton-nucleon scattering experiments will find a continuation at the HERA e-p collider in the near future. HERA experiments will be complementary and in concurrence to other colliders (e/sup +/e/sup -/, p-barp) which will work in a similar energy range at a similar time. HERA has a rewarding unique program of ''standard'' physics. If new physics should show up in the new energy domain, HERA will be an excellent machine to help reveiling its structure. Depending on luck and time scale, HERA offers also the chance of original discoveries in fields where it is unique

  16. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-05-07

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.).

  17. Experimental study of the nucleon spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmaath, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    After introducing the theoretical framework, which includes DIS, the Quark Parton Model (QPM) and QCD, we describe the implementation of the experiment. The SMC uses a beam of 190 GeV naturally polarized muons, scattering off nucleons in a large cryogenic target containing protons or deuterons that are polarized through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP). The target material is located in two cells in a row, with opposite polarizations. Every 5 hours the polarizations of both cells are reversed. The target polarization is measured by an NMR system. The polarization of the beam is measured in a polarimeter, located downstream of the main experimental setup. (orig.)

  18. Nucleon structure and properties of dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Pethick, C.J.; Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL

    1988-01-01

    We consider the properties of dense matter in a framework of the Skyrme soliton model and the chiral bag model. The influence of the nucleon structure on the equation of state of dense matter is emphasized. We find that in both models the energy per unit volume is proportional to n 4/3 , n being the baryon number density. We discuss the properties of neutron stars with a derived equation of state. The role of many-body effects is investigated. The effect of including higher order terms in the chiral lagrangian is examined. The phase transition to quark matter is studied. 29 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  19. Relativistic origin of three-nucleon force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, H.; Parke, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the manifestly covariant cluster-dynamical formalism recently proposed by Haberzettl, the three-body forces entering three-nucleon equations are discussed. It is shown that there exist additional contributions to the (nonrelativistic) three-body force, not taken into account in the usual treatments, arising from the proper nonrelativistic limits of higher-order meson-exchange Feynman diagrams. Using the Paris potential, a five-channel triton bound-state calculation results in additional binding of about 0.6 MeV due to this new mechanism. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Determination of the 3Pj phase shifts from nucleon-nucleon data: a critical evaluation and a surprising result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, T.; Tornow, W.

    1999-01-01

    It Is shown that the 3 P j neutron-proton (proton-proton) phase shifts cannot be determined to less than ± 100 % (± 20 %) uncertainty at low energies (∼ 10 MeV), even if high-accuracy nucleon-nucleon data were to become available for currently inaccessible observables. For a more accurate determination, appropriate theoretical constraints have to be invoked, but their accuracy can be judged only from the comparison of rigorous three-nucleon continuum calculations with particular three-nucleon observables. (author)

  1. Nucleon resonance production in electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtarov, A.I.; Sadykhov, F.S.; Vasil'ev, O.A.; Abdullaev, S.K.; Mustafaev, V.Z.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigation into nucleon resonance production (NR) in the ep → eNsup(*)(eNsup(*)γ) and eantie → antipNsup(*)(antipNsup(*)γ) processes, where Nsup(*) is a nucleon resonance of the 3/2 or 5/2 spin are presented. The calculation of the NR structure functions with the mass M and 3/2 or 5/2 spin is carried out. The Δ(1236), N(1688) and Δ(2160) NR production was observed in the ep → eNsup(*) and eantie → antipNsup(*) processes. For the ep-interaction the energy dependence of the NR production differential cross section at the electron scattering angle THETA = 6 dea and the angular dependence of the longitudinal polarization degree of the scattered electrons at the electron energy of 6 GeV are presented. The energy dependence of the total cross section of the NR production for eantie → antipNsup(*) is obtained. The ep → eNsup(*)γ radiative electron scattering on a proton is investigated only in case of the Δ(1236)NR production. The dependence of the effective cross section of the Δ(1236) radiative production process on THETA for the energies of an incident and scattered electron of 6 and 2.5 GeV, respectively, and the dependence of the cross section on the scattered electron energy at the initial energy of 6 GeV and THETA = 15 deg are presented

  2. The spin structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.M.

    2005-02-01

    The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*ΔΣ + Δg + L q + L g where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and L q and L g are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The ΔΣ contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization Δg/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)

  3. Chiral model for nucleon and delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birse, M.C.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a model of the nucleon and delta based on the idea that strong QCD forces on length scales approx.0.2--1 fm result in hidden chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry and that there is a separation of roles between these forces which are also responsible for binding quarks in hadrons and the forces which produce absolute confinement. This leads us to study a linear sigma model describing the interactions of quarks, sigma mesons, and pions. We have solved this model in the semiclassical (mean-field) approximation for the hedgehog baryon state. We refer to this solution as a chiral soliton. In the semiclassical approximation the hedgehog state is a linear combination of N and Δ. We project this state onto states of good spin and isospin to calculate matrix elements of various operators in these states. Our results are in reasonable agreement with the observed properties of the nucleon. The mesonic contributions to g/sub A/ and sigma(πN) are about two to three times too large, suggesting the need for quantum corrections

  4. Structure functions of nucleons and nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Wolfgang; Ito, Takuya [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Kanagawa (Japan); Cloet, Ian [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Thomas, Anthony [Jefferson Lab., Newport News, VA (United States); Yazaki, Koichi [RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    We use an effective chiral quark theory to calculate the quark distributions and structure functions of nucleons and nuclei. The description of the single nucleon is based on the Faddeev framework, and nuclear systems are described in the mean field approximation. Particular amphasis is put on the prediction of the polarized EMC effect in nuclei, and on applications to deep inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering. Concerning the polarized EMC effect, we discuss the quenching of the quark spin sum in nuclei and its implications for the spin dependent nuclear structure functions, and present results for several nuclei where an experimental observation is feasible. Concerning the case of deep inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, we estimate the effect of medium modifications of the quark distribution functions on the measured cross sections, and discuss an interesting resolution of the so called NuTeV anomaly. Finally, we discuss extensions of our model to describe fragmentation functions for semi-inclusive processes. The connection between our effective quark model description and the jet model of Field and Feynman is discussed.

  5. Hypernuclei and hyperon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuo

    1994-01-01

    The properties of baryon many-body systems which contain nucleons and hyperons with strangeness link closely to the underlying hyperon(Y)-nucleon(N) and YY interactions. It is very convenient to derive effective interactions in nuclear media from those in free space. The G-matrix gives a good starting point for such approach. It is possible and important to explore the properties of YN and YY interactions, and test their theoretical models by analyzing hypernuclear phenomena. In this work, the G-matrix interaction of the baryon pair in a nuclear matter was derived. The coupling effect between different baryon channels is renormalized into the G-matrix. The density dependence of the resultant G-matrix originates from the repulsive core singularity, the tensor force and also the coupling between different baryon channels. For the application to various hypernuclear problems, it is convenient to construct effective local potentials which simulate the G-matrices. Those are parameterized in a three-range Gaussian form. The parameters are determined so as to simulate the calculated G-matrices. The effective interactions are called YNG-ND, NF, NS, JA and JB. The data on ΛN, ΣN, ΛΛ and ΣN interactions are given. (K.I.)

  6. Differential diagnostics of the musculoskeletal system in sports medicine; Differenzialdiagnostische Untersuchung in der Sportmedizin des Bewegungsapparats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehrer, S. [Donau-Universitaet Krems, Department fuer Klinische Medizin und Biotechnologie, Zentrum fuer Regenerative Medizin, Krems (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    sowie die Untersuchung unter Einschluss funktioneller Tests stehen wie immer am Anfang der diagnostischen Strategie; wobei der Verletzungsmechanismus und das sportspezifische Belastungsmuster beruecksichtigt werden muessen. Regionale Inspektions-, Palpations- und Testbefunde der verletzten Struktur weisen auf eine Verdachtsdiagnose hin, die durch bildgebende Verfahren bestaetigt oder auch widerlegt werden kann. Durch den effizienten Einsatz bildgebender Methoden kann dann rasch die entsprechende Therapie eingeleitet werden. Die Sonographie gibt hier, aufgrund ihrer raschen Verfuegbarkeit, vor allem im Bereich von Muskeln, Sehnen und Baendern u. U. wertvolle Hinweise. Die nativradiologische Abklaerung im Bereich des Knochens muss oft durch Zielaufnahmen ergaenzt werden. Die MRT stellt im Bereich der Gelenkverletzungen den Goldstandard dar, wobei eine exakte differenzialdiagnostische Fragestellung hilfreich ist, das Untersuchungsprotokoll entsprechend durchzufuehren, um die fraglich pathologischen Strukturen moeglichst klar darzustellen. (orig.)

  7. Interacting boson model with surface delta interaction between nucleons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, C.; Moszkowski, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The surface delta interaction is used as an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction to investigate the structure and interaction of the bosons in the interacting boson model. The authors have obtained analytical expressions for the coefficients of a multipole expansion of the neutron-boson proton-boson interaction for the case of degenerate orbits

  8. Nucleon self-energy in the relativistic Brueckner theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waindzoch, T; Fuchs, C; Faessler, A [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany)

    1998-06-01

    The self-energy of the nucleon in nuclear matter is calculated in the relativistic Brueckner theory. We solve the Thompson equation for the two nucleon scattering in the medium using different Bonn potentials. The self-energy has a rather strong momentum dependence while the equation of state compares well with previous calculations. (orig.)

  9. Contribution of nucleonic degrees of freedom to the EMC effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisovich, V.V.; Sarantsev, A.V.; Starodubskii, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    The dispersion-integration method has been used to calculate the contribution of nucleonic degrees of freedom to the EMC effect. The structure of the amplitude of deep inelastic scattering is discussed for a nucleus with spin one half. The question of the functional form of the structure function of a nucleon off the mass shell is discussed

  10. Examination of the strangeness contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, XS; Timmermans, RGE; Sun, WM; Zong, HS; Wang, F

    We examine the nucleon strangeness magnetic moment mu(s) with a lowest order meson cloud model. We observe that (1) strangeness in the nucleon is a natural requirement of the empirical relation mu(p)/mu(n)similar or equal to-3/2, which favors an SU(3) octet meson cloud instead of merely the SU(2)

  11. Three-nucleon forces and the trinucleon bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Frois, B.

    1986-04-01

    A summary of the bound-state working group session of the ''International Symposium on the Three-Body Force in the Three-Nucleon System'' is presented. The experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces has centered on two ground state properties: the tritium binding energy and the trinucleon form factors. Both are discussed

  12. On contribution of instantons to nucleon sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.; Kochelev, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of instantons to nucleon QCD sum rules is obtained. It is shown that this contribution does provide stabilization of the sum rules and leads to formation of a nucleon as a bound state of quarks in the instanton field. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  13. Nucleon color oscillations in nuclei and the EMC-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of the EMC-effect is discussed. It is shown that the existence of long-range six-quark clusters in nuclei allows to understand why the nucleon structure function in a nucleus differs from that of a free nucleon

  14. An approach to the structure function for nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Ming

    1986-01-01

    The structure function for nucleon is discussed by using the method given in a previous paper. The formula are compared with the experimental data from low Q 2 to high Q 2 . The results show that the way that the structure function for nucleon can be obtained from the hadronic wavefunction is a possible approach of investigating structure functions for hadron

  15. Nucleon self-energy in the relativistic Brueckner theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waindzoch, T.; Fuchs, C.; Faessler, A.

    1998-01-01

    The self-energy of the nucleon in nuclear matter is calculated in the relativistic Brueckner theory. We solve the Thompson equation for the two nucleon scattering in the medium using different Bonn potentials. The self-energy has a rather strong momentum dependence while the equation of state compares well with previous calculations. (orig.)

  16. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisano, Junji; Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  17. Elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and breakup with chiral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała Henryk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on three-nucleon (3N elastic scattering and breakup below the pion production threshold are discussed. The large discrepancies found between a theory based on numerical solutions of 3N Faddeev equations with standard nucleon-nucleon (NN potentials only and data point to the need for three-nucleon forces (3NF’s. This notion is supported by the fact that another possible reason for the discrepancies in elastic nucleon-deuteron (Nd scattering, relativistic effects, turned out to be small. Results for a new generation of chiral NN forces (up to N4LO together with theoretical truncation errors are shown. They support conclusions obtained with standard NN potentials

  18. Superfluidity of nuclei and the nucleon--phonon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskii, S.G.; Luk'yanovich, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Lehmann expansion for the exact one-particle Green function in a system with superfluidity is obtained. Expressions for the correlation function and mass operator are derived with allowance for a retarded nucleon--phonon interaction. Within the scope of the formalism developed, equations for the superfluidity of nuclei allowing for quasiparticle fragmentation effects are derived. It is concluded that the retarded nucleon--phonon interaction in the particle--particle channel causes a decrease of the fragmentation of the one-particle force in the vicinity of the Fermi surface. It is shown that inclusion of a nonretarded vacuum interaction of two nucleons and of a retarded interaction due to the exchange between two nucleons of low-lying highly collectivized quadrupole phonons is sufficient to provide the necessary scale of attraction in the description of pair correlations of nucleons in nuclei with developed superfluidity

  19. Roy–Steiner-equation analysis of pion–nucleon scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meißner U.-G.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy pion–nucleon scattering is relevant for many areas in nuclear and hadronic physics, ranging from the scalar couplings of the nucleon to the long-range part of two-pion-exchange potentials and three-nucleon forces in Chiral Effective Field Theory. In this talk, we show how the fruitful combination of dispersion-theoretical methods, in particular in the form of Roy–Steiner equations, with modern high-precision data on hadronic atoms allows one to determine the pion–nucleon scattering amplitudes at low energies with unprecedented accuracy. Special attention will be paid to the extraction of the pion–nucleon σ-term, and we discuss in detail the current tension with recent lattice results, as well as the determination of the low-energy constants of chiral perturbation theory.c

  20. Pauli blocking and medium effects in nucleon knockout reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; De Conti, C.

    2010-01-01

    We study medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections and their influence on the nucleon knockout reactions. Using the eikonal approximation, we compare the results obtained with free NN cross sections with those obtained with a purely geometrical treatment of Pauli blocking and with NN obtained with more elaborated Dirac-Bruecker methods. The medium effects are parametrized in terms of the baryon density. We focus on symmetric nuclear matter, although the geometrical Pauli blocking also allows for the treatment of asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that medium effects can change the nucleon knockout cross sections and momentum distributions up to 10% in the energy range E lab =50-300 MeV/nucleon. The effect is more evident in reactions involving halo nuclei.

  1. Roy-Steiner-equation analysis of pion-nucleon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, U.-G.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.

    2017-03-01

    Low-energy pion-nucleon scattering is relevant for many areas in nuclear and hadronic physics, ranging from the scalar couplings of the nucleon to the long-range part of two-pion-exchange potentials and three-nucleon forces in Chiral Effective Field Theory. In this talk, we show how the fruitful combination of dispersion-theoretical methods, in particular in the form of Roy-Steiner equations, with modern high-precision data on hadronic atoms allows one to determine the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes at low energies with unprecedented accuracy. Special attention will be paid to the extraction of the pion-nucleon σ-term, and we discuss in detail the current tension with recent lattice results, as well as the determination of the low-energy constants of chiral perturbation theory.

  2. Quark cluster model in the three-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1986-11-01

    The quark cluster model is used to investigate the structure of the three-nucleon systems. The nucleon-nucleon interaction is proposed considering the colour-nucleon clusters and incorporating the quark degrees of freedom. The quark-quark potential in the quark compound bag model agrees with the central force potentials. The confinement potential reduces the short-range repulsion. The colour van der Waals force is determined. Then, the probability of quark clusters in the three-nucleon bound state systems are numerically calculated using realistic nuclear wave functions. The results of the present calculations show that quarks cluster themselves in three-quark systems building the quark cluster model for the trinucleon system. (author)

  3. Nucleon electric dipole moments in high-scale supersymmetric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisano, Junji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe (KMI),Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8584 (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Kuramoto, Wataru; Kuwahara, Takumi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-11-12

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of electron and nucleons are promising probes of the new physics. In generic high-scale supersymmetric (SUSY) scenarios such as models based on mixture of the anomaly and gauge mediations, gluino has an additional contribution to the nucleon EDMs. In this paper, we studied the effect of the CP-violating gluon Weinberg operator induced by the gluino chromoelectric dipole moment in the high-scale SUSY scenarios, and we evaluated the nucleon and electron EDMs in the scenarios. We found that in the generic high-scale SUSY models, the nucleon EDMs may receive the sizable contribution from the Weinberg operator. Thus, it is important to compare the nucleon EDMs with the electron one in order to discriminate among the high-scale SUSY models.

  4. Nucleon-nucleon correlations and multiquark cluster effects in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simula, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1994-04-01

    Semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton scattering off nuclei is investigated assuming that virtual boson absorption occurs on a hadronic cluster which can be either a two-nucleon correlated pair or a six-quark bag. The differences in the energy distribution of nucleons produced in backward and forward directions are analyzed both at x<1 and x>1.

  5. P-odd effects observed in the reactions with neutrons and isospin structure of weak nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smotritskij, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Application of resonance phase for two quasi-stationary states with similar spin and unlike parity is shown to enable to coordinate the experimentally observed signed dependence of P-odd effects in neutron reactions with the theory. The developed approach enables to obtain information on isospin structure of a weak nucleon-nucleon interaction [ru

  6. Asymmetry measurements in nucleon--nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS to Fermilab energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakosawa, A.

    1977-01-01

    Results of various asymmetry measurements in nucleon-nucleon scattering with polarized beams and targets at ZGS energies are presented. A possible direct-channel resonance in the pp system is discussed. Most of the discussion above ZGS energies are aimed at future measurements

  7. Charge dependence and charge asymmetry in the nucleon-nucleon interaction due to processes involving Δ's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    The charge dependence and charge asymmetry of the nucleon-nucleon force arising from the exchange of a pion and a photon with the excitation of a nucleon resonance [Δ(1236)] is calculated. This charge dependence and asymmetry is studied through its effects on the 1 S nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths. The complexity of the calculation forces the use of approximations. The calculation is performed first with a pole approximation for the resonance and a second time with a Chew-Low description of the resonance. Both calculations neglect nuclear recoil. Estimates of this effect are made. The changes in the scattering lengths are small ( +- / 2 = 1.0225 G/sub π 0 / 2 will explain the proton-neutron scattering length

  8. Advances in Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering Experiments and Their Theoretical Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekteshi, Sadik; Kabashi, Skender; Kamishi, Burim

    2007-01-01

    An overview of critical analysis of the experimental data obtained from nucleon-nucleon scattering is given and investigated in this work. Comparison of the experimental data with results of recent partial wave analysis of Nijmegen group, VPI/GWU and Saclay is given. Potentials of Nijmegen, Bonn and Argonne group are discussed. Experimental data which lead to the break of charge symmetry, to the break of the charge independence and to the determination of the off-shell tensor force, are particularly emphasized. Disagreements which exist between theoretical calculations related to the contribution of particular mechanism in different reactions are pointed out. In this relation, still open problems to be solved and measurement that should be undertaken in the future are identified, as well

  9. Flavor asymmetry of the nucleon sea and the five-quark components of the nucleons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Chen; Peng, Jen-Chieh

    2011-06-24

    The existence of the five-quark Fock states for the intrinsic charm quark in the nucleons was suggested some time ago, but conclusive evidence is still lacking. We generalize the previous theoretical approach to the light-quark sector and study possible experimental signatures for such five-quark states. In particular, we compare the d-ū and ū + d-s-s data with the calculations based on the five-quark Fock states. The qualitative agreement between the data and the calculations is interpreted as evidence for the existence of the intrinsic light-quark sea in the nucleons. The probabilities for the |uuduū and |uuddd Fock states are also extracted.

  10. Compound-nuclear tests of time reversal invariance in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Pandey, A.; Smith, J.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for the effects of time-reversal noninvariance (TRNI) in complex systems is reviewed. Applied to the compound-nuclear data for energy-level, width and cross-section fluctuations (the latter for detailed-balance pairs of reactions proceeding through the compound nucleus) this gives bounds on multiparticle TRNI Hamiltonian matrix elements. Using a fluctuation-free form of statistical spectroscopy the results are reduced to bounds on α, the relative magnitude of the TRNI nucleon-nucleon interaction. The level and width analyses for heavy nuclei gave α ≤ 2 x 10 -3 at high (∼99%) statistical confidence; preliminary calculations for detailed balance with 24 Mg(α,p) 27 Al and its inverse gives α ≤ 4 x 10 -3 at the same high confidence, but ≤0.2 x 10 -3 at 80% confidence. Suggestions are made about experiments which should yield sharper bounds. 28 refs., 1 tab

  11. Interactions of 100 MeV/nucleon 40Ar with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fragments produced in the interactions of 100 MeV/nucleon 40 Ar projectiles with a uranium target have been measured at energies from 10 to 130 MeV/nucleon at angles from 10 0 to 170 0 . Nuclei with charge 5 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 10 were observed. The data can roughly be divided into two groups, corresponding to central and peripheral collisions. The central collision data can be fit with a thermal model that uses two recoiling sources. The source velocities are consistent with the predictions of the fireball and target explosion models, but the source temperatures inferred from the data are higher than one would expect on the basis of energy and momentum conservation. These results are similar to those obtained in previous studies at beam energies of 400 and 500 MeV/nucleon. The data also follow the pattern of the universal curve of invariant cross section vs momentum observed at higher beam energies by Price et al. The projectile fragmentation data are also fit by two thermal sources. There are indications that the observed temperatures are higher than one would expect on the basis of other projectile fragmentation studies. The projectile fragmentation data are studied in terms of a simple friction model. Order of magnitude estimates show that the data may be consistent with the model, but further development, calculation and experimentation are necessary to check the validity of the model at this beam energy. A preliminary investigation is made of the possibility that the projectile may pick up one or more target nucleons before it fragments. This process leads to widening of the distributions at large momentum transfers. From this broad survey we find that much of the spectrum can be described by falling exponentials in energy in the emitting frames. We conclude that the observed spectrum is due to nonthermal sources as the temperatures derived from the slopes of the exponentials are greater than those we predict

  12. N → Δ (1232) electromagnetic transition form factor and pion-nucleon dynamics at moderate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurewicz, A.

    1980-01-01

    The dependence of the electromagnetic N → Δ (1232) transition form factor G/sup asterisk//sub M/(q 2 ) on q 2 , the four-momentum transfer squared, has been calculated with the use of relativistic dispersion relations supplemented with some dynamical assumptions. In the first place, they regard the phase of the magnetic dipole amplitude of electroproduction of pions on nucleons in the p 33 final state beyond the region of elastic unitarity. Namely, over the range from the lowest inelastic threshold up to 1780 MeV pion-nucleon c.m. energy, the phase in question has been identified with the real part of the respective phase shift of pion-nucleon scattering. Secondly, contributions to the dispersion integral from the higher energy region have been neglected. Finally, the polynomial ambiguity which appears in the problem has been fixed by requiring that the foregoing amplitude of electroproduction vanishes, independently of q 2 , at the upper end of the integration interval as defined above. These assumptions which preserve unitarity were shown previously to lead to very good results when applied to the calculation of the multipole amplitudes M/sup() 3/2/ 1 /sub +/ and E/sup() 3/2/ 1 /sub +/ of photopion production on nucleons in the Δ (1232) region. Now it is also shown that G/sup asterisk//sub M/(q 2 ) calculated in that fashion follows remarkably well the data over the whole range 0 2 2 currently covered by quantitative experimental studies. Some speculation concerning a possible dynamical rooting of the foregoing assumptions is presented

  13. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleson, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    We are applying for a three-year grant from the US Department of Energy to New Mexico State University to continue its support of our work on experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies, which has been carried out in collaboration with groups from various laboratories and universities. The nucleon-nucleon work is aimed at making measurements that will contribute to a determination of the isospin-zero amplitudes, as well as continuing our investigations of evidence for dibaryon resonances. It is based at the LAMPF accelerator in Los Alamos, New Mexico. Current and planned experiments include measurements of total cross-section differences in pure spin states and of spin parameters in neutron-proton scattering. The pion-nucleus work is aimed at improving our understanding both of the nature of the pion-nucleus interaction and of nuclear structure. It consists of two programs, one based at LAMPF and one based principally at the SIN laboratory in Switzerland. The LAMPF-based work involves studies of large-angle scattering, double-charge-exchange scattering, including measurements at a new energy range above 300 MeV, and a new program of experiments with polarized nuclear targets. The SIN-based work involves studies of quasielastic scattering and absorption, including experiments with a new large-acceptance detector system planned for construction there. We are requesting support to continue the LAMPF-based work at its current level and to expand the SIN-based work to allow for increased involvement in experiments with the new detector system. 57 refs

  14. One-Boson Approach to Dilepton Production in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglin, Kevin Lee

    1990-01-01

    We calculate energy dependent nucleon-nucleon total elastic cross sections and invariant mass dependent electron-positron pair production differential cross sections for the processes pp to pp, np to np and pp to ppe ^+e^-, pn to pne^+e ^- at laboratory kinetic energies in the 1-5 GeV range. These calculations will be based on relativistic quantum field theory in the one-boson-exchange (pi,rho,omega,sigma,delta, eta) approximation to the nucleon-nucleon scattering problem. There are several independent Feynman diagrams for each process--twenty-five for the case np to npe^+e^ - and forty-eight for the case pp to ppe^+e^- --which, for evaluation, require taking the trace of as many as ten gamma matrices and evaluating an angular integral of a quotient of polynomial functions of initial and final energies, particle masses, coupling constants and so on. These mathematical operations are carried out with the aid of the following algebraic manipulators: for the trace operations we use REDUCE 3.3 on the VAX at the ACS facility and for testing the angular integration algorithms we use MAPLE on the Cray-2 at the Minnesota Supercomputer Institute. Finally, we use Cray-2 Fortran for the resulting numerical substitutions. Gauge invariance is strictly observed while including strong and electromagnetic form factors. The numerical results for these calculations are compared with existing data from the Particle Data Group Booklet and compared with recently released data from the Dilepton Spectrometer (DLS) at the Bevalac of proton on Beryllium. For the latter comparison, the spectrometer's finite acceptance function is introduced before a rapidity and transverse momentum integration.

  15. Production of wrong sign muons in neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onipchuk, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution is considered introduced by the quasipartonic mechanism to production of muons with a wrong sign in ν μ (ν-bar μ )N collisions. The ratios of muon production cross sections in the processes ν μ (ν-bar μ )N → μ + (μ - ) + ... to the inclusive cross sections have been calculated. Comparison to neutrino-nucleon data is made. The x and y distributions and mean kinematical characteristics of the scattered neutrinos are found

  16. Inelastic electron scattering from a moving nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, S.E. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Griffioen, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The authors propose to measure inelastically scattered electrons in coincidence with spectator protons emitted backwards relative to the virtual photon direction in the reaction d(e, e{prime}p{sub s})X. In a simple spectator model, the backward proton has equal and opposite momentum to the neutron before it is struck, allowing the authors to study the dependence on kinematics and off-shell behaviour of the electron-nucleon inelastic cross section. If the photon couples to a quark in a 6-quark bag, a different dependence of the cross section on the kinematic variables (x, Q{sup 2}, and p{sub s}) can be observed. This proposed experiment requires large acceptance and beam energies above 6 GeV. It is ideally suited for the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS).

  17. Structure and spin of the nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian H.

    2014-03-01

    Great progress has been made since then in measurements of different Single Spin Asymmetries (SSAs in semi-inclusive and hard exclusive processes providing access to TMDs and GPDs, respectively. Facilities world-wide involved in studies of the 3D structure of nucleon include HERMES, COMPASS, BELLE, BaBar, Halls A, B, and C at JLab, and PHENIX and STAR at RHIC (BNL. TMD studies in the Drell-Yan process are also becoming an important part of the program of hadron scattering experiments. Studies of TMDs are also among the main driving forces of the JLab 12-GeV upgrade project, several of the forward upgrade proposals of STAR and PHENIX at RHIC, and future facilities, such as the Electron Ion Collider (EIC, FAIR in Germany, and NICA in Russia. In this contribution we present an overview of the latest developments in studies of parton distributions and discuss newly released results, ongoing activities, as well as some future measurements.

  18. Parity nonconservation in two-nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The observation of a violation of the parity symmetry in two-nucleon systems implies the presence of a weak hadronic force. The positive effect reported by Lobashov et al. in the reaction np → dγ, for the circular polarization of the gamma ray, would imply a large value for the parity nonconserving (PNC) amplitude. A transmission experiment has been undertaken for 15-MeV longitudinally polarized protons on hydrogen. A transmission experiment for 6-GeV polarized protons on Be and on H 2 O is in progress at the ZGS at Argonne National Laboratory. The current results of the latter two experiments are summarized, and the relation to theoretical calculations is discussed. (2 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  19. Jet structure in lepton-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazoe, T.; Morii, T.

    1980-01-01

    Materialization processes are studied in lepton-nucleon scattering on the assumption that all incoming and outgoing hadrons have a localized space-time structure described in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) amplitude. It is shown on the basis of loop diagrams that a coordination of strongly Lorentz contracted BS amplitudes has a key role in deriving two-jet structure. The formalism manifests two distinct models, depending on the parameters which represent the ranges of a BS amplitude. One is a strongly ordered cascade model which is in accordance with a naive quark cascade model. The other is an uncorrelated jet model which corresponds to an uncorrelated Monte Carlo calculation and it fails to be described as a cascade process. The former model predicts an equal spacing momentum distribution in rapidity space. The latter predicts symmetrical distributions in Feynman x-space. Several observable quantities are presented to discriminate between these two models. (orig.)

  20. Nucleon multiplicities after pion absorption in 160

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, R.

    1989-01-01

    The experiment described in this thesis concerns a simultaneous measurement of two- and higher-fold coincidences following positive and negative pion absorption in 16 0. The detected particles are protons, neutrons and deuterons. The detection and analysis of charged particles is discussed. The incident pion energy was 65 MeV, thus well below the delta resonance. The low pion energy was 65 MeV, thus well below the delta resonance. The low pion energy ensures that contributions of initial state interactions, i.e. pion-nucleon scattering preceding absorption, are minimized. The following reaction channels were selected and analyzed: π + ,pp), (π + ,pd). Evidence for quasifree reaction precessed has been investigated by comparing the data with phase-space calculations incorporating the geometry of the experimental setup. (author). 36 refs.; 1 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Nucleon-nucleon optical model for energies to 3 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, A.; Von Geramb, H.V.; University of Melbourne, VIC; Amos, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Several nucleon-nucleon potentials, Paris, Nijmegen, Argonne, and those derived by quantum inversion, which describe the NN interaction for T Lab ≤ 300 MeV are extended in their range of application as NN optical models. Extensions are made in r-space using complex separable potentials definable with a wide range of form factor options including those of boundary condition models. We use the latest phase shift analyses SP00 (FA00, WI00) of Arndt et al. from 300 MeV to 3 GeV to determine these extensions. The imaginary parts of the optical model interactions account for loss of flux into direct or resonant production processes. The optical potential approach is of particular value as it permits one to visualize fusion, and subsequent fission, of nucleons when T Lab > 2 GeV. We do so by calculating the scattering wave functions to specify the energy and radial dependences of flux losses and of probability distributions. Furthermore, half-off the energy shell t-matrices are presented as they are readily deduced with this approach. Such t-matrices are required for studies of few- and many-body nuclear reactions

  2. Chiral pion dynamics for spherical nucleon bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vento, V.; Rho, M.; Nyman, E.M.; Jun, J.H.; Brown, G.E.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1980-01-01

    A chirally symmetric quark-bag model for the nucleon is obtained by introducing an explicit, classical, pion field exterior to the bag. The coupling at the bag surface is determined by the requirement of a conserved axial-vector current. The pion field satisfies equations of motion corresponding to the non-linear sigma-model. We study on this paper the simplified case where the bag and the pion field are spherically symmetric. Corrections due to gluon exchange between the quarks are ignored along with other interactions which split the N- and Δ-masses. The equations of motion for the pion field are solved and we find a substantial pion pressure at the bag surface, along with an attractive contribution to the nucleon self-energy. The total energy of the system, bag plus meson cloud, turns out to be approximately Msub(n)c 2 for a wide range of bag radii, from 1.5 fm down to about 0.5 fm. Introduction of a form factor for the pion would extend the range of possible radii to even smaller values. We propose that the bag with the smallest allowed radius be identified with the 'little bag' discussed before. One surprising result of the paper is that as long as one restricts to spherically symmetric bags, restoring chiral symmetry to the bag model makes the axial-vector current coupling constant gsub(A) to be always too large compared with the experimental value for any bag radius, suggesting a deviation from spherical symmetry for the intrinsic bag wave functions of the 'ground-state' hadrons. (orig.)

  3. The spin structure of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J.M

    2005-02-15

    The nucleon is a spin 1/2 particle. This spin can be decomposed into the contributions of its constituents: 1/2 equals 1/2*{delta}{sigma} + {delta}g + L{sub q} + L{sub g} where the first term is the contribution from the spin of the quarks, the second term is the contribution from the spin of the gluons and L{sub q} and L{sub g} are the orbital momentum of the quark and the gluon respectively. The {delta}{sigma} contribution of the spin of quarks can be studied through polarized deep inelastic scattering (DIS). We introduce DIS and the so-called parton model and then turn to the case of polarized DIS in the inclusive and semi-inclusive cases. We also discuss how a third parton distribution, called transversity, appears together with the unpolarized and the longitudinally polarized (or helicity) ones. We show how the longitudinally polarized gluon distribution can be measured. Then we focus on the SMC and COMPASS experiments performed at CERN. SMC confirmed a previous result by showing that the contribution of the spin of the quark to the spin of the nucleon was small. SMC also performed a measurement on the deuterium in order to test, for the first time, the Bjorker sum rules, which is a fundamental prediction of quantum chromodynamics. The COMPASS experiment started collecting data in 2002. Its main objectives are the gluon polarization {delta}g/g and the so-called transversity. (A.C.)

  4. Nucleon Polarisabilities and Effective Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesshammer, Harald W.

    2017-09-01

    Low-energy Compton scattering probes the nucleon's two-photon response to electric and magnetic fields at fixed photon frequency and multipolarity. It tests the symmetries and strengths of the interactions between constituents, and with photons. For convenience, this energy-dependent information is often compressed into the two scalar dipole polarisabilities αE 1 and βM 1 at zero photon energy. These are fundamental quantities, and important for the proton charge radius puzzle and the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Combined with emerging lattice QCD computations, they provide stringent tests for our understanding of hadron structure. Extractions of the proton and neutron polarisabilities from all published elastic data below 300 MeV in Chiral Effective Field Theory with explicit Δ (1232) are now available. This talk emphasises χEFT as natural bridge between lattice QCD and ongoing or approved efforts at HI γS, MAMI and MAX-lab. Chiral lattice extrapolations from mπ > 200 MeV to the physical point compare well to lattice computations. Combining χEFT with high-intensity experiments with polarised targets and polarised beams will extract not only scalar polarisabilities, but in particular the four so-far poorly explored spin-polarisabilities. These parametrise the stiffness of the spin in external electro-magnetic fields (nucleonic bi-refringence/Faraday effect). New chiral predictions for proton, deuteron and 3He observables show intriguing sensitivities on spin and neutron polarisabilities. Data consistency and a model-independent quantification of residual theory uncertainties by Bayesian analysis are also discussed. Proton-neutron differences explore the interplay between chiral symmetry breaking and short-distance Physics. Finally, I address their impact on the neutron-proton mass difference, big-bang nucleosynthesis, and their relevance for anthropic arguments. Supported in part by DOE DE-SC0015393 and George Washington University.

  5. Photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon at intermediate energies; Photoproduction de mesons sur le nucleon aux energies intermediaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidal, M

    1997-01-01

    In this work a model is proposed to simulate the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons ('PI' and K) on the nucleon at high energy. This model is based on the exchange of mesonic or baryonic Regge trajectories, it is gauge invariant and it uses a Feynman diagram formalism inspired from isobaric models. The measurements concerning the following reactions {gamma}p {yields} n{pi}{sup +}, {gamma}n {yields} p{pi}{sup -}, {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0} and {gamma}n {yields} n{pi}{sup 0} are reviewed and the new model is confronted to the experimental results. The model gives a reasonable and coherent description of these 4 reactions. The model has also been applied to the photoproduction of strange mesons and of {lambda} and {sigma} baryons and has been extrapolated at low energy to the threshold of the reaction, the model matches the results even up to E{sub {gamma}} = 2 GeV for differential cross-sections and recoil polarization. An attempt has been made to associate a Regge based description, which is valid with low transfers, with perturbative quantum chromodynamics which is valid with high transfers. The model relies on the saturation of trajectories in the high transfer region and on the counting laws that give the right variation of the cross-section. It seems that a model based on linear trajectories can be reliable up to 4 GeV. The domain of high transfer has been too little investigated to provide enough experimental data to validate the model. An experiment whose purpose is to study the photoproduction of {phi} at high transfer, is proposed. This experiment requires an accelerator with high useful cycle because of the smallness of the expected cross-section. The CEBAF (continuous electron beam accelerator facility) as well as the CLAS 4{pi} detector is presented. The study of {gamma}p {yields} p{phi} and {gamma}p {yields} K{lambda}{sup *} (1520) requires the discrimination of kaons from pions so the measurement of 180 ps as time resolution allows the

  6. Proceedings of the workshop on two-nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Masaaki; Namiki, Mikio; Fukawa, Mineo; Masaike, Akira

    1980-08-01

    The workshop on two nucleon system started its works four years ago to promote the experiment project on nucleon-nucleon system in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics by the close cooperation of experimenters and theorists. In particular, several proposals have been made about the experiments using the polarized targets of hydrogen and deuterium, the spectrometers of large solid angle and others, and the investigation into them have been forwarded. It was decided to publish the results of the fourth meeting held in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics on October 19 and 20, 1979, as the interim report, summarizing the contents. Some of the initial objectives have not been realized yet, but the data have been produced gradually from the experiments in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, and are contributing to various analyses. This report is composed of the physics of nucleon-nucleon systems and anti-nucleon-nucleon systems, the results of experiments and the projects corresponding to them, and the hypothetic round-table talk on the points which this workshop considers as problematic and the views of outside researchers on the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. Finally, the materials distributed at the time of the meeting are added for reference as the appendix. Some numerical values are mutually different, but adjustment was not made. (Kako, I.)

  7. Nucleon-pair approximation to the nuclear shell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.M., E-mail: ymzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Arima, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Musashi Gakuen, 1-26-1 Toyotamakami Nerima-ku, Tokyo 176-8533 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Atomic nuclei are complex systems of nucleons–protons and neutrons. Nucleons interact with each other via an attractive and short-range force. This feature of the interaction leads to a pattern of dominantly monopole and quadrupole correlations between like particles (i.e., proton–proton and neutron–neutron correlations) in low-lying states of atomic nuclei. As a consequence, among dozens or even hundreds of possible types of nucleon pairs, very few nucleon pairs such as proton and neutron pairs with spin zero, two (in some cases spin four), and occasionally isoscalar spin-aligned proton–neutron pairs, play important roles in low-energy nuclear structure. The nucleon-pair approximation therefore provides us with an efficient truncation scheme of the full shell model configurations which are otherwise too large to handle for medium and heavy nuclei in foreseeable future. Furthermore, the nucleon-pair approximation leads to simple pictures in physics, as the dimension of nucleon-pair subspace is always small. The present paper aims at a sound review of its history, formulation, validity, applications, as well as its link to previous approaches, with the focus on the new developments in the last two decades. The applicability of the nucleon-pair approximation and numerical calculations of low-lying states for realistic atomic nuclei are demonstrated with examples. Applications of pair approximations to other problems are also discussed.

  8. The two-nucleon system above pion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poepping, H.; Sauer, P.U.; Zhang Xizhen

    1987-01-01

    A force model is presented for the description of the two-nucleon system below and above pion threshold and its coupled inelastic channels with one pion. It uses Δ-isobar and pion degrees of freedom in addition to the nucleonic one. The force model is based on a hamiltonian approach within the framework of noncovariant quantum mechanics. It extends the traditional approach with purely nucleonic potentials in isospin-triplet partial waves. It is constructed to remain valid up to 500 MeV c.m. energy. The characteristics of the force model is its mechanism for pion production and pion absorption which is mediated by the Δ-isobar. Even without any fit of phenomenological parameters the force model is able to account for the experimental data of elastic nucleon-nucleon scattering' of the inelastic reactions pp ↔ π + d and of elastic pion-deuteron scattering with satisfactory accuracy. No need for the introduction of dibaryon degrees of freedom has been found yet. The force model is a realistic one in the two-nucleon system. In many-nucleon systems it forms the unifying basis for a microscopic description of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions at low and intermediate energies. (orig.)

  9. Nucleon decay in a realistic SO(10) SUSY GUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, V.; Raby, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate neutron and proton decay rates and branching ratios in a predictive SO(10) SUSY GUT which agrees well with low energy data. We show that the nucleon lifetimes are consistent with the experimental bounds. The nucleon decay rates are calculated using all one-loop chargino and gluino-dressed diagrams regardless of their chiral structure. We show that the four-fermion operator C jk (u R d jR )(d kL ν τL ), commonly neglected in previous nucleon decay calculations, not only contributes significantly to nucleon decay, but, for many values of the initial GUT parameters and for large tanβ, actually dominates the decay rate. As a consequence, we find that τ p /τ n is often substantially larger than the prediction obtained in small tanβ models. We also find that gluino-dressed diagrams, often neglected in nucleon decay calculations, contribute significantly to nucleon decay. In addition we find that the branching ratios obtained from this realistic SO(10) SUSY GUT differ significantly from the predictions obtained from open-quotes genericclose quotes SU(5) SUSY GUT close-quote s. Thus, nucleon decay branching ratios, when observed, can be used to test theories of fermion masses. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Technical description of the test section SUCOT to investigate a water/steam two-phase flow; Technische Beschreibung der Testanlage SUCOT zur Untersuchung Wasser/Wasserdampf Zweiphasenstroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubner, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Knebel, J.U.

    2002-02-01

    Within the POOLTHY Project of the European Union (Euratom Fourth Framework Programme contract FJ4J-CT95-0003) an active/passive concept (SUCO-Programme) was investigated which controls the heat removal after a potential core melt-down accident in an evolutionary light water reactor by spreading and stabilising the core melt in the reactor sump and flooding the melt with sump water from above. The experiments were performed in the test facility SUCOT which was designed and erected at the Institute for Nuclear and Energy Technologies (IKET). The report gives an overview on the SUCO-Programme and the scaling analysis, which was applied to design the test facility SUCOT. A detailed technical description of the test facility SUCOT is given, in which the natural circulation driven two-phase flow within the reactor sump and relevant phenomena such as flow boiling, disperse bubbly flow with and without mass transfer, and geysering are investigated. The major components of the test facility, the three-loop system and the instrumentation are described. Finally, a perspective for future application of the gained knowledge is given. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des POOLTHY Projekts der Europaeischen Union (Euratom Fourth Framework Programme Kennzeichen FJ4J-CT95-0003) wurde ein aktiv/passives Konzept (SUCO-Programm) zur Beherrschung der Nachwaermeabfuhr nach einem potenziellen Kernschmelzunfall in einem evolutionaeren Leichtwasserreaktor untersucht. Das Konzept sieht eine stabile Ausbreitung der Kernschmelze im Reaktorsumpf und deren Kuehlung von oben mit Sumpfwasser vor. Die experimentellen Arbeiten wurden in der dafuer entwickelten und am Institut fuer Kern- und Energietechnik (IKET) gebauten Testanlage SUCOT durchgefuehrt. Der Bericht gibt einen Ueberblick ueber das SUCO-Programm und die Aehnlichkeitsskalierung, die zur Auslegung der Testanlage SUCOT verwendet wurde. Es wird eine detaillierte technische Beschreibung der Testanlage SUCOT gegeben, die zur Untersuchung der durch

  11. Semi-classical precompound decay models for heavy ion reactions of 10-100 MeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The hybrid and Boltzmann master equation, which predict heavy ion precompound decay phenomena, are investigated. These are both semi-classical approaches. The physical concepts of these two models are discussed, and their numerical formulations are summarized. Their success in reproducing experimentally measured (HI,n) spectra and in estimating limits on beam momentum transfer due to the precompound nucleon emission cascade are summarized. Results of calculations for subthreshold pion production are presented and compared with experimental yields. 19 refs., 5 figs

  12. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-07-25

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  13. General aspects of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and nuclear matter properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plohl, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is at first the investigation of model independent properties of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the vacuum concerning the relativistic structure and the implications for nuclear matter properties. Relativistic and non-relativistic meson-exchange potentials, phenomenological potentials s well as potentials based on effective field theory (EFT) are therefore mapped on a relativistic operator basis given by the Clifford Algebra. This allows to compare the various approaches at the level of covariant amplitudes where a remarkable agreement is found. Furthermore, the relativistic self-energy is determined in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation. The appearance of a scalar and vector field of several hundred MeV magnitude is a general feature of relativistic descriptions of nuclear matter. Within QCD sum rules these fields arise due to the density dependence of chiral condensates. We find that independent of the applied NN interaction large scalar and vector fields are generated when the symmetries of the Lorentz group are restored. In the framework of chiral EFT (chEFT) it is shown, that these fields are generated by short-range next-to-leading order (NLO) contact terms, which are connected to the spin-orbit interaction. To estimate the effect arising from NN correlations the equation of state of nuclear and neutron matter is calculated in the Brueckner-HF (BHF) approximation applying chEFT. Although, as expected, a clear over-binding is found (at NLO a saturating behavior is observed), the symmetry energy shows realistic properties when compared to phenomenological potentials (within the same approximation) and other approaches. The investigation of the pion mass dependence within chEFT at NLO shows that the magnitude of the scalar and vector fields persists in the chiral limit - nuclear matter is still bound. In contrast to the case of a pion mass larger than the physical one the binding energy and saturation density are

  14. Internal Spin Structure of the Nucleon in Polarized Deep Inelastic Muon-Nucleon Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wislicki, W.

    1998-01-01

    We present the study of the internal spin structure of the nucleon in spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering of muons on nucleons. The data were taken by the NA47 experiment of the Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) on the high energy muon beam at CERN. The experiment used the polarized proton and deuteron targets. The structure function g 1 p (x) and g 1 d (x) were determined from the asymmetries of the spin-dependent event rates in the range of 0.003 2 >=10 GeV 2 . Using the first moments of these structure functions an agreement with the Bjorken sum rule prediction was found within one standard deviation. The first moments of g 1 (x), for both proton and deuteron, are smaller than the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule prediction. This disagreement can be interpreted in terms of negative polarization of the strange sea in the nucleon. The singlet part of the axial current matrix element can be interpreted as an overall spin carried by quarks in the nucleon. Its value is significantly smaller than nucleon spin. Semi-inclusive asymmetries of yields of positive and negative hadrons produced on both targets were also measured and analysed in term of quark-parton model, together with inclusive asymmetries. From this analysis the quark spin distributions were determined, separately for valence u and d quarks and for non-strange sea quarks. Valence u quarks are positively polarized and their polarization increases with x. Valence d quarks are negatively polarized and their polarization does not exhibit any x-dependence. The non-strange sea is unpolarized in the whole measured range of x. The first moments of the valance quark spin distributions were found consistent with the values obtained from weak decay constants F and D and their second moments are consistent with lattice QCD calculations. In the QCD analysis of the world data the first moment of the gluon spin distribution was found with a large error. Also, a search for a non-perturbative anomaly at high x was done on the world

  15. Some new applications of nucleonic gauges in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorkov, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Russia has been a big producer of nucleonic gauges for many years. There are still some institutions that design and manufacture nucleonic gauges for industry, like level gauges, density gauges and thickness gauges. Industrial demands for NCS (especially after the Chernobyl accident) have been decreasing. Examples of recent development are given in this paper. Substantial improvements in the hardware, source and detectors system, are being undertaken. The potential for new applications is large, also, there is a good capability of local researchers for increasing the quality and quantity of nucleonic gauges in industry to meet local needs and to compete better in the international scale and market. (author)

  16. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  17. Pseudoscalar form factors in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Mawatari, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the pseudoscalar transition form factors of nucleon for quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering via the charged current interactions. Although the pseudoscalar form factors play an important role for the τ production in neutrino-nucleon scattering, these are not known well. In this Letter, we examine their effects in quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production and find that the cross section, Q 2 distribution, and spin polarization of the produced τ ± leptons are quite sensitive to the pseudoscalar form factors

  18. Remarks on the pion–nucleon σ-term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, Martin, E-mail: mhofer@uw.edu [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States); Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Meißner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, JARA-HPC, and JARA-FAME, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-09-10

    The pion–nucleon σ-term can be stringently constrained by the combination of analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry with phenomenological information on the pion–nucleon scattering lengths. Recently, lattice calculations at the physical point have been reported that find lower values by about 3σ with respect to the phenomenological determination. We point out that a lattice measurement of the pion–nucleon scattering lengths could help resolve the situation by testing the values extracted from spectroscopy measurements in pionic atoms.

  19. Remarks on the pion–nucleon σ-term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hoferichter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pion–nucleon σ-term can be stringently constrained by the combination of analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry with phenomenological information on the pion–nucleon scattering lengths. Recently, lattice calculations at the physical point have been reported that find lower values by about 3σ with respect to the phenomenological determination. We point out that a lattice measurement of the pion–nucleon scattering lengths could help resolve the situation by testing the values extracted from spectroscopy measurements in pionic atoms.

  20. Remarks on the pion-nucleon σ-term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Ruiz de Elvira, Jacobo; Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2016-09-01

    The pion-nucleon σ-term can be stringently constrained by the combination of analyticity, unitarity, and crossing symmetry with phenomenological information on the pion-nucleon scattering lengths. Recently, lattice calculations at the physical point have been reported that find lower values by about 3σ with respect to the phenomenological determination. We point out that a lattice measurement of the pion-nucleon scattering lengths could help resolve the situation by testing the values extracted from spectroscopy measurements in pionic atoms.

  1. Spin-dependent parton distributions in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2005-04-15

    Spin-dependent quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for a nucleon in the nuclear medium. We utilize a modified NJL model where the nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state. Scalar and vector mean fields are incorporated in the nuclear medium and these fields couple to the confined quarks in the nucleon. The effect of these fields on the spin-dependent distributions and consequently the axial charges is investigated. Our results for the 'spin-dependent EMC effect' are also discussed.

  2. Elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few nucleon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensky, V.

    2007-09-29

    In the present work, we are studying elastic and inelastic pion reactions on few-body systems within the framework of chiral effective theory. We consider two specific reactions involving pions on few-nucleon systems, namely pion production in nucleon-nucleon collisions, and incoherent pion photoproduction on the deuteron. These two reactions are closely related to the issue of dispersive and absorptive corrections to the pion-deuteron scattering length, which we also consider in our analysis. The incoherent pion photoproduction is also considered as the possible source for a high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length. (orig.)

  3. Results on nucleon structure functions in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1979-01-01

    Gluon bremsstrahlung processes inside the nucleon are investigated using the standard renormalization-group analysis. A new method of inverting the moments is applied which leads to analytic results for the parton distributions near x = 1 and x = 0. The nucleon is considered as a bound state of three quarks subsequently ''renormalized'' by gluon bremsstrahlung and quark-antiquark pair production. An ''unrenormalized'' valance quark distribution peaked at x = 1/3, with a width related to the nucleon radius, leads to good agreement with deep-inelastic data. However, the gluon distribution obtained seems too steep near x = 0

  4. Understanding nucleon structure using lattice simulations. Recent progress on three different structural observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroers, W.

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the discussion of three key results of nucleon structure calculations on the lattice. These three results are the quark contribution to the nucleon spin, J q , the nucleon-Δ transition form factors, and the nucleon axial coupling, g A . The importance for phenomenology and experiment is discussed and the requirements for future simulations are pointed out. (orig.)

  5. Correlation between observable of four nucleon system in two-body model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlette, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The four nucleon system with effective nucleon-trinucleon interaction for s waves in states of spin Y = 0 and isospin Y = 0, is studied. The correlations between four nucleon systemn and scattering wavelength, binding energies and, coulomb energy of four nucleons are investigated by N/D method considering only the excited state. (M.C.K.)

  6. Einfluss des Alltagskontextes auf den Prozess einer Ernährungsverhaltensmodifikation : eine qualitative Untersuchung von Personen mit erhöhten Cholesterinwerten

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrandt, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Das erkenntnisleitende Forschungsinteresse gilt einer umfassenden Betrachtung ernährungsbezogenen Handelns in den drei Alltagsbereichen „Haushalt/Familie“, „Arbeitsplatz/Kollegen“ und „Freizeit/Freunde“ mit dem Ziel, individuell erlebte Bedingungen und Faktoren einer Ernährungsverhaltensmodifikation herauszuarbeiten. In die Untersuchung sind Personen mit einer Fettstoffwechselstörung eingeschlossen worden, die sich in verschiedenen Stadien einer Gesundheitsverhaltensmodifikation befinden. ...

  7. Untersuchung des Funktionsumfangs und der fachlichen Grundlagen des LAMBDA Tools (Examination of the functional scope and the technical basics of the LAMBDA- Tools)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Untersuchung des Funktionsumfangs und der fachlichen Grundlagen des LAMBDA -Tools (Examination of the functional scope and the technical basics of the... LAMBDA -Tools) 6. AUTHOR(S) Jan-Malte Lef3mann 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT .NUMBER UNIBW 9...planning, health care and environmental protection. Machine assi sted translation. 14. SUBJECT TERMS UNIBW, German, LAMBDA -Tools, functional scope 17

  8. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, R. T.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C. R.; Trotter, D. E. Gonzalez; Roper, C. D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H. R.; Walter, R. L.; Weisel, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power Ay(theta) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at En = 12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model s...

  9. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.T. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Tornow, W. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)], E-mail: tornow@tunl.duke.edu; Howell, C.R.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H.R.; Walter, R.L. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Department of Physics, Penn State Altoona, Altoona, PA 16601 (United States)

    2008-02-21

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power A{sub y}({theta}) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at E{sub n}=12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model study.

  10. Neutron-proton analyzing power at 12 MeV and inconsistencies in parametrizations of nucleon-nucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.T.; Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Roper, C.D.; Salinas, F.; Setze, H.R.; Walter, R.L.; Weisel, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the most accurate and complete data set for the analyzing power A y (θ) in neutron-proton scattering. The experimental data were corrected for the effects of multiple scattering, both in the center detector and in the neutron detectors. The final data at E n =12.0 MeV deviate considerably from the predictions of nucleon-nucleon phase-shift analyses and potential models. The impact of the new data on the value of the charged pion-nucleon coupling constant is discussed in a model study

  11. Nucleon swelling and the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epele, L.N.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Fanchiotti, H.; Mendez Galain, R.

    1987-01-01

    A previously proposed explanation of the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly based on the nucleon swelling inside a nuclei is reanalyzed. We found a clear incompatibility beetween this proposal and the experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Towards a lattice calculation of the nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Ilgenfritz, M.; Perlt, H.; Rakow, P.; Schierholz, G.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH; Schiller, A.

    1994-12-01

    We have initiated a programme to compute the lower moments of the unpolarised and polarised deep inelastic structure functions of the nucleon in the quenched approxiation. We review our progress to date. (orig.)

  13. Bridge between bound state and reaction effective nucleon–nucleon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y R WAGHMARE. Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India ... Effective nucleon–nucleon interactions; heavy-ion reactions; microscopic approach; fu- sion reactions. .... [2] M K Pal, private communication. [3] S Godre and ...

  14. Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  15. Dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Ditsche, C.; Kubis, B.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the recently proposed Roy-Steiner equations for pion-nucleon ( πN) scattering [1], we derive a system of coupled integral equations for the π π to overline N N and overline K K to overline N N S-waves. These equations take the form of a two-channel Muskhelishvili-Omnès problem, whose solution in the presence of a finite matching point is discussed. We use these results to update the dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon fully including overline K K intermediate states. In particular, we determine the correction {Δ_{σ }} = σ ( {2M_{π }^2} ) - {σ_{{π N}}} , which is needed for the extraction of the pion-nucleon σ term from πN scattering, as a function of pion-nucleon subthreshold parameters and the πN coupling constant.

  16. Isospin breaking in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, Martin [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kubis, Bastian [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: kubis@itkp.uni-bonn.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik (Theorie), Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-06

    We analyze isospin breaking through quark mass differences and virtual photons in the pion-nucleon scattering lengths in all physical channels in the framework of covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  17. Hyperon-nucleon interactions - a chiral effective field theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Haidenbauer, J.; Meissner, U.G.

    2006-01-01

    We construct the leading order hyperon–nucleon potential in chiral effective field theory. We show that a good description of the available data is possible and discuss briefly further improvements of this scheme

  18. Structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem (University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)

    1982-06-26

    The phenomenological expressions for the structure functions in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering are proposed and are shown to satisfy the experimental data as well as a number of sum rules.

  19. Study of single-nucleon spectroscopic characteristics in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhusupova, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    Single-nucleon characteristics of 1 p-shell nuclei are investigated in the thesis. These characteristics are necessary for describing nuclear processes leaded to separation of target nuclei or to addition of one nucleon to it. Multi-particle shell model and three-body cluster model (for 6 L i and 9 Be) are used. It is shown that shell model explains well spectroscopic S-factors for stripping and pick-up reactions of nucleon. Three body α2 N-model reproduces well S-factors and momentum distribution extracted from (e, e p) reactions for separation of proton from ground state of 6 L i nucleus accompanied by appearance of ground and high exited states of 5 He nucleolus. The classification and explanation for small value nucleon partial widths for high lying states for odd nuclei 1 p-shell with isospin T=3/2 are given. (author)

  20. All the states of the nucleon. Nucleon spectroscopy through the production of mesons; Le nucleon dans tous ses etats. Etude de la spectroscopie du nucleon via la photoproduction de mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebreyend, D

    2006-10-15

    The photoproduction of mesons on the nucleon gives a direct access to its spectroscopy and is a promising way for the study of the structure of the nucleon. The GRAAL experiment uses a tagged and polarized photon beam produced through the Compton diffusion of laser photons on the electrons circulating in the ESRF storage ring. The combination of this photon beam and an efficient detection system has allowed a series of measurements concerning the photoproduction of light mesons on the proton and on the neutron. The first 4 chapters are dedicated to the nucleon spectroscopy: the nucleon models and their consequences on the excited levels are recalled, the experimental technique used is described and the difficulties due to the extraction of relevant data are presented. Highly accurate measurements of cross-sections, {sigma} asymmetry beams and resonance parameters have been performed. The last part is dedicated to the principle of the measurement of the electric dipole momentum of the neutron. (A.C.)

  1. Transverse momentum distributions inside the nucleon from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musch, Bernhard Ulrich

    2009-05-29

    Nucleons, i.e., protons and neutrons, are composed of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), part of the standard model of particle physics. This work applies lattice QCD to compute quark momentum distributions in the nucleon. The calculations make use of lattice data generated on supercomputers that has already been successfully employed in lattice studies of spatial quark distributions (''nucleon tomography''). In order to be able to analyze transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions, this thesis explores a novel approach based on non-local operators. One interesting observation is that the transverse momentum dependent density of polarized quarks in a polarized nucleon is visibly deformed. A more elaborate operator geometry is required to enable a quantitative comparison to high energy scattering experiments. First steps in this direction are encouraging. (orig.)

  2. Relativistic generalizations of simple pion-nucleon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic, partial wave N/D dispersion theory is developed for low energy pion-nucleon elastic scattering. The theory is simplified by treating crossing symmetry only to lowest order in the inverse nucleon mass. The coupling of elastic scattering to inelastic channels is included by taking the necessary inelasticity from experimental data. Three models are examined: pseudoscalar coupling of pions and nucleons, pseudovector coupling, and a model in which all intermediate antinucleons are projected out of the amplitude. The phase shifts in the dominant P 33 channel are quantitatively reproduced for P/sub lab/ 33 phase shifts. Thus a model of the pion-nucleon interaction which does not include antinucleon degrees of freedom is found to be unphysical

  3. Deep inelastic lepton scattering from nucleons and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.

    1986-02-01

    A pedagogical review is presented of results obtained from inclusive deep inelastic scattering of leptons from nucleons and nuclei, with particular emphasis on open questions to be explored in future experiments

  4. Antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the CERN-SPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadija, K.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.

    1996-01-01

    A model for antiproton production in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon, based on the wounded nucleon model is developed. The predictions are compared to published nucleon-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus data. The results suggest the presence of similar antiproton production processes in nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions near midrapidity. (orig.)

  5. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the transition mechanism between molecular orbitals in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Misono, S.; von Oertzen, W.; Voit, H.

    1988-08-01

    The molecular orbitals of the nucleon(s) in nucleus-nucleus collisions are dynamically defined as a linear combination of nucleon single-particle orbits (LCNO) in a rotating frame by using the coupled-reaction-channel (CRC) theory. Nucleon molecular orbitals and the promotions of nucleon, - especially due to the Landau-Zener radial coupling are discussed with the method above mentioned. (author)

  6. Nucleon in nuclei from quasi-elastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, A.

    1987-04-01

    One challenging problem in modern nuclear physics is to understand how the internal structure of the nucleon interferes with the dynamics of nucleons in a nucleus. The purpose of this paper is to review the present status of data in quasi-elastic electron scattering, to connect them with recent theoretical developments and to outline some future directions of research not accessible to present electron facilities

  7. Nucleonic gauges in the Australian mining and exploration industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.

    2000-01-01

    On-line and in-situ nucleonic analysis systems have found widespread application in the Australian metalliferous mineral and coal industries. The rapid and reliable response of these systems has led to improved exploration and better control of mining and mineral processing. This paper reviews both types of nucleonic control system (on-line and in-situ) available in Australian exploration and mining market. (author)

  8. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-01-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The Pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade processes of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is taken into account accordingly. (author)

  9. The swelling of nucleons in nuclei and the Roper resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions where some swelling of the nucleon occurs, and, in particular the relation of this effect with the attractive character of the force acting on it, are studied. It is found that short range repulsive correlations can turn the swelling into a shrinking, in spite of a globally attractive interaction, whereas repulsive velocity dependent forces can lead to some swelling. The role of the Roper resonance in this nucleon change of size is considered in some detail

  10. [Measurements of observables of pion-nucleon reactions]. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the progress of the research of pion reactions. These include (1) a study to measure observables in the pion-nucleon system in the momentum interval 400 to 700 MeV/c, (2) differential cross section measurements at low energy for pion-nucleon charge exchange, and (3) elastic and inelastic scattering of π +- on 3 H and 3 He. Individual experiments will be indexed separately

  11. A no extensive statistical model for the nucleon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisan, Luis A.; Mirez, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We studied an application of nonextensive thermodynamics to describe the structure function of nucleon, in a model where the usual Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein energy distribution were replaced by the equivalent functions of the q-statistical. The parameters of the model are given by an effective temperature T, the q parameter (from Tsallis statistics), and two chemical potentials given by the corresponding up (u) and down (d) quark normalization in the nucleon.

  12. Nucleon exchange and excitation energy division in damped collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, V.E.; Planeta, R.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Zhou, S.H.; Breuer, H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we will examine both the dependence of nucleon exchange on target-projectile properties and the question of temperature equilibration and heat partition during scission. Primary emphasis will be placed on the results of a recent study of the 74 Ge + 165 Ho system, which allows us to address these two questions simultaneously. The results can thus be directly compared with the predictions of the nucleon-exchange model. (author)

  13. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-05-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)

  14. Calculations on nucleon-deuteron scattering with realistic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolk, C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out how the three-nucleon observables are affected by details of the two-nucleon force. The theory of the perturbational treatment of the Faddeev equations for the three-particle transition matrix, for both elastic and breakup scattering is dealt with. Some details of the numerical treatment are discussed, results for the elastic and breakup scattering presented and conclusions drawn. (C.F.)

  15. Experimental studies of nucleon-nucleon and pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear and particle physics carried out by New Mexico State University in 1988--91. Most of these studies have involved investigations of neutron-proton and pion-nucleus interactions. The neutron-proton research is part of a program of studies of interactions between polarized nucleons that we have been involved with for more than ten years. Its purpose has been to help complete the determination of the full set of ten complex nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at energies up to 800 MeV, as well as to continue investigating the possibility of the existence of dibaryon resonances. The give complex isospin-one amplitudes have been fairly well determined, partly as a result of this work. Our work in this period has involved measurements and analysis of data on elastic scattering and total cross sections for polarized neutrons on polarized protons. The pion-nucleus research continues our studies of this interaction in regions where it has not been well explored. One set of experiments includes studies of pion elastic and double-charge-exchange scattering at energies between 300 and 550 MeV, where our data is unique. Another involves elastic and single-charge-exchange scattering of pions from polarized nuclear targets, a new field of research which will give the first extensive set of information on spin-dependent pion-nucleus amplitudes. Still another involves the first set of detailed studies of the kinematic correlations among particles emitted following pion absorption in nuclei

  16. Mean free paths and in-medium scattering cross sections of energetic nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter within the relativistic impulse approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    The mean free paths and in-medium scattering cross sections of energetic nucleons in neutron-rich nucleonic matter are investigated using the nucleon optical potential obtained within the relativistic impulse approximation with the empirical nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes and the nuclear densities obtained in the relativistic mean-field model. It is found that the isospin-splitting of nucleon mean free paths, sensitive to the imaginary part of the symmetry potential, changes its sign at certain high kinetic energy. The in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections are analytically and numerically demonstrated to be essentially independent of the isospin asymmetry of the medium and increase linearly with density in the high-energy region where the relativistic impulse approximation is applicable

  17. Charge dependence of the pion-nucleon coupling constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Babenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Yukawa potential we study the pion-nucleon coupling constants for the neutral and charged pions assuming that nuclear forces at low energies are mainly determined by the exchange of virtual pions. We obtain the charged pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling constant f2π± = 0.0804(7 by making the use of experimental low-energy scattering parameters for the singlet pp- and np-scattering, and also by use of the neutral pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling constant f2π0 = 0.0749(7. Corresponding value of the charged pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling constant g2π0 / 4π = 14.55(13 is also determined. This calculated value of the charged pseudoscalar pion-nucleon coupling constant is in fully agreement with the experimental constant g2π0 / 4π = 14.52(26 obtained by the Uppsala Neutron Research Group. Our results show considerable charge splitting of the pion-nucleon coupling constant.

  18. Scattering integral equations and four nucleon problem. Four nucleon bound states and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narodetskij, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Existing results from the application of integral equation technique four-nucleon bound states and scattering are reviewed. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear and elementary introduction in the integral equation method and to demonstrate its usefulness in physical applications. Developments in the actual numerical solutions of Faddeev-Yakubovsky type equations are such that a detailed comparison can be made with experiment. Bound state calculations indicate that a nonrelativistic description with pairwise nuclear forces does not suffice and additional degrees of freedom are noted [ru

  19. Attractive component in the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the Skyrme model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, E.M.; Riska, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    The spin- and isospin-independent part of the nulceon-nucleon interaction in the Skyrme model is shown to contain a weak attractive intermediate-range term in addition to the well-known short-range repulsion. The attraction is a consequence of the rotational degree of freedom of a skyrmion in the presence of the field of another one, and can be thought of as an enhancement of the moment of inertia of each skyrmion. While the attractive term is dominant at large distances it is not sufficiently strong for nuclear binding. (orig.)

  20. Production of wrong-sign muons in neutrino-nucleon and antineutrino-nucleon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onipchuk, A.B.; Choban, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the contribution of the quasiparton mechanism to the production of wrong-sign muons in ν/sub μ/(nu-bar/sub μ/)N collisions. We obtain the ratios of the production cross sections of muons in the processes ν/sub μ/(nu-bar/sub μ/)N→μ + (μ - )+... and the inclusive cross sections, and compare them with experiment in the case of neutrino-nucleon interactions. We find the x and y distributions and the average kinematical characteristics of the scattered neutrino