WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclearwaste packaging materials

  1. Investigation of metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials for engineered barrier applications in nuclear-waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerman, R.E.

    1980-10-01

    An effort to develop licensable engineered barrier systems for the long-term (about 1000 yr) containment of nuclear wastes under conditions of deep continental geologic disposal has been underway at Pacific Northwest Laboratory since January 1979, under the auspices of the High-Level Waste Immobilization Program. In the present work, the barrier system comprises the hard or structural elements of the package: the canister, the overpack(s), and the hole sleeve. A number of candidate metallic, ceramic, and polymeric materials were put through mechanical, corrosion, and leaching screening tests to determine their potential usefulness in barrier-system applications. Materials demonstrating adequate properties in the screening tests will be subjected to more detailed property tests, and, eventually, cost/benefit analyses, to determine their ultimate applicability to barrier-system design concepts. The following materials were investigated: two titanium alloys of Grade 2 and Grade 12; 300 and 400 series stainless steels, Inconels, Hastelloy C-276, titanium, Zircoloy, copper-nickel alloys and cast irons; total of 14 ceramic materials, including two grades of alumina, plus graphite and basalt; and polymers such as polyamide-imide, polyarylene, polyimide, polyolefin, polyphenylene sulfide, polysulfone, fluoropolymer, epoxy, furan, silicone, and ethylene-propylene terpolymer (EPDM) rubber. The most promising candidates for further study and potential use in engineered barrier systems were found to be rubber, filled polyphenylene sulfide, fluoropolymer, and furan derivatives

  2. Microbial corrosion of metallic materials in a deep nuclear-waste repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoulil J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study summarises current knowledge on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The first part evaluates the general impact of microbial activity on corrosion mechanisms. Especially, the impact of microbial metabolism on the environment and the impact of biofilms on the surface of structure materials were evaluated. The next part focuses on microbial corrosion in a deep nuclear-waste repository. The study aims to suggest the development of the repository environment and in that respect the viability of bacteria, depending on the probable conditions of the environment, such as humidity of bentonite, pressure in compact bentonite, the impact of ionizing radiation, etc. The last part is aimed at possible techniques for microbial corrosion mechanism monitoring in the conditions of a deep repository. Namely, electrochemical and microscopic techniques were discussed.

  3. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste

  4. Design of a nuclear-waste package for emplacement in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, W.C.; Rothman, A.J.; Gregg, D.W.; Hockman, J.N.; Revelli, M.A.; Russell, E.W.; Schornhorst, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Design, modeling, and testing activities are under way at LLNL in the development of high level nuclear waste package designs. We discuss the geological characteristics affecting design, the 10CFR60 design requirements, conceptual designs, metals for containment barriers, economic analysis, thermal modeling, and performance modeling

  5. Edible packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjarasskul, Theeranun; Krochta, John M

    2010-01-01

    Research groups and the food and pharmaceutical industries recognize edible packaging as a useful alternative or addition to conventional packaging to reduce waste and to create novel applications for improving product stability, quality, safety, variety, and convenience for consumers. Recent studies have explored the ability of biopolymer-based food packaging materials to carry and control-release active compounds. As diverse edible packaging materials derived from various by-products or waste from food industry are being developed, the dry thermoplastic process is advancing rapidly as a feasible commercial edible packaging manufacturing process. The employment of nanocomposite concepts to edible packaging materials promises to improve barrier and mechanical properties and facilitate effective incorporation of bioactive ingredients and other designed functions. In addition to the need for a more fundamental understanding to enable design to desired specifications, edible packaging has to overcome challenges such as regulatory requirements, consumer acceptance, and scaling-up research concepts to commercial applications.

  6. Materials for advanced packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, CP

    2017-01-01

    This second edition continues to be the most comprehensive review on the developments in advanced electronic packaging technologies, with a focus on materials and processing. Recognized experts in the field contribute to 22 updated and new chapters that provide comprehensive coverage on various 3D package architectures, novel bonding and joining techniques, wire bonding, wafer thinning techniques, organic substrates, and novel approaches to make electrical interconnects between integrated circuit and substrates. Various chapters also address advances in several key packaging materials, including: Lead-free solders Flip chip underfills Epoxy molding compounds Conductive adhesives Die attach adhesives/films Thermal interface materials (TIMS) Materials for fabricating embedded passives including capacitors, inductors, and resistors Materials and processing aspects on wafer-level chip scale package (CSP) and MicroElectroMechanical system (MEMS) Contributors also review new and emerging technologies such as Light ...

  7. Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The photos show a few of the food products packaged in Alure, a metallized plastic material developed and manufactured by St. Regis Paper Company's Flexible Packaging Division, Dallas, Texas. The material incorporates a metallized film originally developed for space applications. Among the suppliers of the film to St. Regis is King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Ma'ssachusetts. Initially used by NASA as a signal-bouncing reflective coating for the Echo 1 communications satellite, the film was developed by a company later absorbed by King-Seeley. The metallized film was also used as insulating material for components of a number of other spacecraft. St. Regis developed Alure to meet a multiple packaging material need: good eye appeal, product protection for long periods and the ability to be used successfully on a wide variety of food packaging equipment. When the cost of aluminum foil skyrocketed, packagers sought substitute metallized materials but experiments with a number of them uncovered problems; some were too expensive, some did not adequately protect the product, some were difficult for the machinery to handle. Alure offers a solution. St. Regis created Alure by sandwiching the metallized film between layers of plastics. The resulting laminated metallized material has the superior eye appeal of foil but is less expensive and more easily machined. Alure effectively blocks out light, moisture and oxygen and therefore gives the packaged food long shelf life. A major packaging firm conducted its own tests of the material and confirmed the advantages of machinability and shelf life, adding that it runs faster on machines than materials used in the past and it decreases product waste; the net effect is increased productivity.

  8. Packaging based on polymeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two years the consumption of common in the developed countries world wide (high tonnage polymers for packaging has approached a value of 50 wt.%. In the same period more than 50% of the packaging units on the world market were made of polymeric materials despite the fact that polymeric materials present 17 wt.% of all packaging materials. The basic properties of polymeric materials and their environmental and economical advantages, providing them such a position among packaging materials, are presented in this article. Recycling methods, as well as the development trends of polymeric packaging materials are also presented.

  9. Hazardous materials package performance regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, N.A.; Glass, R.E.; McClure, J.D.; Finley, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The hazardous materials (hazmat) packaging development and certification process is currently defined by two different regulatory philosophies, one based on specification packagings and the other based on performance standards. With specification packagings, a packaging is constructed according to an agreed set of design specifications. In contrast, performance standards do not specify the packaging design; they specify performance standards that a packaging design must be able to pass before it can be certified for transport. The packaging can be designed according to individual needs as long as it meets these performance standards. Performance standards have been used nationally and internationally for about 40 years to certify radioactive materials (RAM) packagings. It is reasonable to state that for RAM transport, performance specifications have maintained transport safety. A committee of United Nation's experts recommended the performance standard philosophy as the preferred regulation method for hazmat packaging. Performance standards for hazmat packagings smaller than 118 gallons have been adopted in 49CFR178. Packagings for materials that are classified as toxic-by-inhalation must comply with the performance standards by October 1, 1993, and packagings for all other classes of hazardous materials covered must comply by October 1, 1996. For packages containing bulk (in excess of 188 gallons) quantities of materials that are extremely toxic by inhalation, there currently are no performance requirements. This paper discusses a Hazmat Packaging Performance Evaluation (HPPE) project to look at the subset of bulk packagings that are larger than 2000 gallons. The objectives of this project are the evaluate current hazmat specification packagings and develop supporting documentation for determining performance requirements for packagings in excess of 2000 gallons that transport hazardous materials that have been classified as extremely toxic by inhalation (METBI)

  10. Biodegradable packaging materials : case: PLA

    OpenAIRE

    Jama, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this bachelor thesis was to investigate the possibility of biodegradable packaging materials. Plastics and other non-degradable packaging materials have been used for many years and they have a negative impact on the environment since they do not degrade. Different research methods are used to get authentic results, which simplifies using biodegradable packaging materials. There were two biodegradability testing methods, which has been applied to this task:-, testing biode...

  11. 19 CFR 191.13 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging materials. 191.13 Section 191.13 Customs... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK General Provisions § 191.13 Packaging materials. (a) Imported packaging material... packaging material when used to package or repackage merchandise or articles exported or destroyed pursuant...

  12. Hazardous Material Packaging and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hypes, Philip A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-04

    This is a student training course. Some course objectives are to: recognize and use standard international and US customary units to describe activities and exposure rates associated with radioactive material; determine whether a quantity of a single radionuclide meets the definition of a class 7 (radioactive) material; determine, for a given single radionuclide, the shipping quantity activity limits per 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 173.435; determine the appropriate radioactive material hazard class proper shipping name for a given material; determine when a single radionuclide meets the DOT definition of a hazardous substance; determine the appropriate packaging required for a given radioactive material; identify the markings to be placed on a package of radioactive material; determine the label(s) to apply to a given radioactive material package; identify the entry requirements for radioactive material labels; determine the proper placement for radioactive material label(s); identify the shipping paper entry requirements for radioactive material; select the appropriate placards for a given radioactive material shipment or vehicle load; and identify allowable transport limits and unacceptable transport conditions for radioactive material.

  13. Package for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rossem, H.

    1983-01-01

    A holder for use with a labelled vial containing a radiopharmaceutical or other dangerous material is claimed. It comprises a hollow body with a closed bottom and an open top. There is at least one transparent portion through which the labelled vial may be inspected, and a holding means to secure the vial in the holder

  14. 9 CFR 381.144 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to health. All packaging materials must be safe for the intended use within the meaning of section..., from the packaging supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the... distinguishing brand name or code designation appearing on the packaging material shipping container; must...

  15. Transport packages for nuclear material and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations and responsibilities concerning the transport packages of nuclear materials and waste are given in the guide. The approval procedure, control of manufacturing, commissioning of the packaging and the control of use are specified. (13 refs.)

  16. Hanford Site radioactive hazardous materials packaging directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, T.L.

    1995-12-01

    The Hanford Site Radioactive Hazardous Materials Packaging Directory (RHMPD) provides information concerning packagings owned or routinely leased by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for offsite shipments or onsite transfers of hazardous materials. Specific information is provided for selected packagings including the following: general description; approval documents/specifications (Certificates of Compliance and Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging); technical information (drawing numbers and dimensions); approved contents; areas of operation; and general information. Packaging Operations ampersand Development (PO ampersand D) maintains the RHMPD and may be contacted for additional information or assistance in obtaining referenced documentation or assistance concerning packaging selection, availability, and usage

  17. Alternate Materials In Design Of Radioactive Material Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of design and testing of material and composites for use in radioactive material packages. These materials provide thermal protection and provide structural integrity and energy absorption to the package during normal and hypothetical accident condition events as required by Title 10 Part 71 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Testing of packages comprising these materials is summarized.

  18. Material Efficiency in Dutch Packaging Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; van Sluisveld, M.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Packaging materials are one of the largest contributors to municipal solid waste generation. In this paper, we evaluate the material impacts of packaging policy in The Netherlands, focusing on the role of material efficiency (or waste prevention). Since 1991, five different policies have been

  19. Package for transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The standard contains the definitions of 47 terms relevant to safety aspects in the transport of radioactive materials and a classification scheme of transport packagings for such materials. Alphabetical indexes are added in Bulgarian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian, Russian and Czech

  20. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  1. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... requirements for package formats used for long term preserved digital material, and using these requirements as the basis for analysing a range of package formats. The result of the concrete investigation is that the WARC format is the package format best suited for the listed requirements. Fulfilling...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  2. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  3. Completion of the radioactive materials packaging handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-01-01

    'The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance', which will serve as a replacement for the 'Cask Designers Guide'(1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US DOE and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials. Even though the Handbook is concerned with both small and large packagings, most of the emphasis is placed on large packagings that are capable of transporting fissile, radioactive sources (e.g. spent fuels). The safety analysis reports for packagings (SARPs) must address the widest range of technical topics in order to meet United States and/or international regulations, all of which are covered in the Handbook. One of the primary goals of the Handbook is to provide information which would guide designers of radioactive materials packages to make decisions that would most likely be acceptable to regulatory agencies during the approval process of the packaging. It was therefore important to find those authors who not only were experts in one or more of the areas that are addressed in a SARP, but who also had been exposed to the regulatory process or had operational experience dealing with a wide variety of package types. Twenty-five such people have contributed their time and talents to the development of this document, mostly on a volunteer basis

  4. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  5. 9 CFR 317.24 - Packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... packaging materials must be safe for their intended use within the meaning of section 409 of the Federal... supplier under whose brand name and firm name the material is marketed to the official establishment. The... additive regulations. The guaranty must identify the material, e.g., by the distinguishing brand name or...

  6. Completion of the Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1998-02-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging Handbook: Design, Operation and Maintenance, which will serve as a replacement for the Cask Designers Guide (Shappert, 1970), has now been completed and submitted to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) electronics publishing group for layout and printing; it is scheduled to be printed in late spring 1998. The Handbook, written by experts in their particular fields, is a compilation of technical chapters that address the design aspects of a package intended for transporting radioactive material in normal commerce; it was prepared under the direction of M. E. Wangler of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and is intended to provide a wealth of technical guidance that will give designers a better understanding of the regulatory approval process, preferences of regulators on specific aspects of package design, and the types of analyses that should be considered when designing a package to carry radioactive materials

  7. Provision of transport packaging for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The safe transport of radioactive materials is governed by various regulations based on International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations. This code of practice is a supplement to the regulations, its objects being (a) to advise designers of packaging on the technical features necessary to conform to the regulations, and (b) to outline the requirements for obtaining approval of package designs from the competent authority. (U.K.)

  8. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items. (DC)

  9. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The presentations made at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials are included. The purpose of the meeting was for the interchange of information on the technology and politics of radioactive material transportation. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual items

  10. Aqueous Corrosion Rates for Waste Package Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2004-10-08

    The purpose of this analysis, as directed by ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]), is to compile applicable corrosion data from the literature (journal articles, engineering documents, materials handbooks, or standards, and national laboratory reports), evaluate the quality of these data, and use these to perform statistical analyses and distributions for aqueous corrosion rates of waste package materials. The purpose of this report is not to describe the performance of engineered barriers for the TSPA-LA. Instead, the analysis provides simple statistics on aqueous corrosion rates of steels and alloys. These rates are limited by various aqueous parameters such as temperature (up to 100 C), water type (i.e., fresh versus saline), and pH. Corrosion data of materials at pH extremes (below 4 and above 9) are not included in this analysis, as materials commonly display different corrosion behaviors under these conditions. The exception is highly corrosion-resistant materials (Inconel Alloys) for which rate data from corrosion tests at a pH of approximately 3 were included. The waste package materials investigated are those from the long and short 5-DHLW waste packages, 2-MCO/2-DHLW waste package, and the 21-PWR commercial waste package. This analysis also contains rate data for some of the materials present inside the fuel canisters for the following fuel types: U-Mo (Fermi U-10%Mo), MOX (FFTF), Thorium Carbide and Th/U Carbide (Fort Saint Vrain [FSVR]), Th/U Oxide (Shippingport LWBR), U-metal (N Reactor), Intact U-Oxide (Shippingport PWR, Commercial), aluminum-based, and U-Zr-H (TRIGA). Analysis of corrosion rates for Alloy 22, spent nuclear fuel, defense high level waste (DHLW) glass, and Titanium Grade 7 can be found in other analysis or model reports.

  11. Silicone materials for LED packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Maneesh; Norris, Ann W.; Zarisfi, Afrooz; Alger, James S.; Windiate, Christopher C.

    2006-08-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from light emitting diode (LED) manufacturers for use as encapsulants and lenses for many high brightness LED (HB LED) devices. Currently silicones function in two key roles in HB LED devices, (1) as protective lenses and (2) stress relieving encapsulants for wire bond protection. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive as light path materials for high brightness HB LEDs include their high transparency in the UV-visible region, controlled refractive index (RI), stable thermo-mechanical properties, and tuneable modulus from soft gels to hard resins. This paper will describe recent developments in moldable silicone hard resin materials. Progress on cavity moldable and liquid injection moldable (LIM) silicone compositions for discreet components is described. Also, an example of liquid injection overmolding is presented.

  12. Reuse and recycling of radioactive material packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo; Zapparoli, Carlos Leonel; Barboza, Marycel Figols de

    2009-01-01

    Human development is directly linked to energy consumption. The political decisions (to this human development) result in economic, social and environmental aspects, whose magnitude should maintain the sustainability of every aspect for not to collapsing. The environmental aspect has been a target of research because of the excessive emission of gases which contributes to the greenhouse effect. The production processes emit gases due to the consumption of energy to get it, but it is necessary to maintain the environmental sustainability in order to minimize the contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases. The population control and the energetic efficiency are factors that contribute to the environmental sustainability. Besides them, the culture of consumption is another factor that, when applied to the reduction of emissions, also contributes to the sustainability of the environment. The reuse of materials is one of the sub-factors which contribute to the reduction of emissions. The Radiopharmacy Directory (DIRF) at IPEN-CNEN/SP, produces radiopharmaceuticals that are necessary to improve the Brazilian population's life quality. The radiopharmaceuticals are transported in packaging to the transport of radioactive material. These packages are considered non-biodegradable, because some metals, which make up these packages, pollute the environment. These packages have increased costs, in addition, because it must be approved in tests of integrity. The reuse of packaging in favorable situations to the same purpose is a way to help the environment degradation and costs reduction. The packaging reuse in unfavorable situations disobey rules or return logistics that become effective the transport back, but the consumption culture strengthening can change this situation. This paper describes IPEN's packaging, form and quantities distribution, and the packaging that comes back to be reused. (author)

  13. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) Bioplastic Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    exclusive of energy used in fermentation and melt processing) represents no net generation of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. PHA polymers are...Instruments respirometers were used to measure carbon dioxide evolution (mineralization) as a function of time. Glucose , a known biodegradable...thermoplastics such as polystyrene and polyolefins.1 Since the starting raw material (sugar) is photosynthesized from carbon dioxide and water, the polymer

  14. Chitosan films and blends for packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Lambertus A M; Knoop, Rutger J I; Kappen, Frans H J; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2015-02-13

    An increased interest for hygiene in everyday life as well as in food, feed and medical issues lead to a strong interest in films and blends to prevent the growth and accumulation of harmful bacteria. A growing trend is to use synthetic and natural antimicrobial polymers, to provide non-migratory and non-depleting protection agents for application in films, coatings and packaging. In food packaging, antimicrobial effects add up to the barrier properties of the materials, to increase the shelf life and product quality. Chitosan is a natural bioactive polysaccharide with intrinsic antimicrobial activity and, due to its exceptional physicochemical properties imparted by the polysaccharide backbone, has been recognized as a natural alternative to chemically synthesized antimicrobial polymers. This, associated with the increasing preference for biofunctional materials from renewable resources, resulted in a significant interest on the potential for application of chitosan in packaging materials. In this review we describe the latest developments of chitosan films and blends as packaging material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 49 CFR 173.36 - Hazardous materials in Large Packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... design. (1) Inner packaging closures. A Large Packaging containing liquid hazardous materials must be... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hazardous materials in Large Packagings. 173.36...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation...

  16. Materials Characterization Center state-of-the-art report on corrosion data pertaining to metallic barriers for nuclear-waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, M.D.

    1982-10-01

    A compilation of published corrosion data on metals that have been suggested as canisters and overpack materials is presented. The data were categorized according to the solutions used in testing and divided into two parts: high-ionic strength solutions (such as seawater and brine) and low-ionic-strength waters (such as basalt and tuff waters). This distinction was made primarily because of the general difference in aggressiveness of these solutions with respect to general corrosion. A considerable amount of data indicated that titanium alloys have acceptably low uniform corrosion rates in anticipated repository sites; the other possible corrosion failure modes for titanium alloys, such as stress corrosion cracking and delayed failure due to hydrogen, have not been sufficiently studied to make any similar conclusions about lifetime with respect to these particular degradation processes. Other data suggested that iron-base alloys are sufficiently resistant to corrosion in basalt and tuff waters, although the effects of radiation and radiation combined with elevated temperature have not been reported in enough detail to conclusively qualify iron-base alloys for any particular barrier thickness in regard to uniform corrosion rate. The effect of overpack size on corrosion rate has been given little attention. A review of long-term underground data indicated that temperature and accessibility to oxygen were too different for deep geologic repositories to make the underground corrosion data directly applicable. However, the characteristics of corrosion attack, statistical treatment of data, and kinetics of corrosion showed that corrosion proceeds in a systematic and predictable way.

  17. Development directions of packaging made from polymer materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available World packaging market achieves turnover of about $620 billion per year with one third of this amount being associated to packaging made from polymer materials. It is expected that this kind of packaging consumption will hold at least 3% of world packaging market share in the next five years and that it will surpass the consumption of all other materials used in the packaging production. This can be contributed to product quality, low production costs as well as significant investments made in the development of polymer materials, packaging technology and packaging. This paper presents some development directions for packaging made from polymer materials, such as: packaging in the protective atmosphere, the use of active and intelligent packaging, and the use of biopolymers and recycled polymers for packaging production that come into direct contact with the packed product.

  18. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Jixia Li

    2017-01-01

    With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid)/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its therm...

  19. Application of Green Environmentally Friendly Materials in Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixia Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With social development, requirements on the spiritual and material life have increased. However, some environmental issues appear, for example, in food packaging. Application of environment-friendly materials in food packaging has been more and more attractive. This study analyses the characteristics of degradable food packaging material and the existing problems, proposes the manufacturing of food packaging with poly(lactic acid/nanocrystalline cellulose composite material, tests its thermal and mechanical properties, and applies it to the design of food packaging. The results demonstrate that the thermal and mechanical properties of the material could satisfy the requirements of food packaging and that the material is applicable to the design of food packaging in the future. This work provides a reference for the application of green, environment-friendly materials in the design of food packaging.

  20. Types, production and assessment of biobased food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging performs an essential function, but packaging materials can have a negative impact on the environment. This book describes the latest advances in bio-based food packaging materials. Book provides a comprehensive review on bio-based, biodegradable and recycled materials and discusses t...

  1. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  2. Characterization of integrated circuit packaging materials

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Chapters in this volume address important characteristics of IC packages. Analytical techniques appropriate for IC package characterization are demonstrated through examples of the measurement of critical performance parameters and the analysis of key technological problems of IC packages. Issues are discussed which affect a variety of package types, including plastic surface-mount packages, hermetic packages, and advanced designs such as flip-chip, chip-on-board and multi-chip models.

  3. The effect of irradiation on packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Ionizing radiation, mainly in the form of γ-rays from the radioisotope cobalt 60, is being used increasingly for the inactivation of contaminants in cosmetic and toiletry preparations. The treatment is applied to the product in its final pack, and therefore, it is important to recognize that the properties of the packaging materials could be affected, particularly if high radiation doses are used. The stability of a wide range of materials is discussed. The nature and extent of chemical and physical changes in plastics very much depends on the presence of antioxidants and other additives, and on the environmental conditions during irradiation. Some useful information is available from research into the use of radiation for the preservation of food - many films and laminates have been cleared for use in the United States. The low radiation doses used for the control of contaminants in cosmetic products are quite unlikely to cause changes in packaging materials which will limit the use of the process, with the possible exception of the discolouration in glass. Certain radiation induced changes have been used to advantage, as for example with polyethylene, where the melting point can be elevated significantly following high radiation treatment. (author)

  4. The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and modified atmosphere on quality changes of dried apricot is shown in this paper. In our investigation, we used four different characteristic combinations of packaging materials with different barrier properties for packaging of dried apricot: ...

  5. Plasticizers effect on native biodegradable package materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozar, Onuc; Cioica, Nicolae; Coţa, Constantin; Nagy, Elena Mihaela; Fechete, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Changes in intensity of some IR and Raman bands suggest the plasticizing - antiplasticizing effects of water and glycerol contents and a small increase of amorphous/crystalline ratio, too. The nuclear magnetic relaxation data show that the amorphous/crystalline ratio depends on amylose/amylopectin mobility and also by the place of their polymer chain segments. Thus the distributions of spin-spin (T2) relaxation times and the shift toward higher values of some T2 characteristic peaks show that the increasing of water and glycerol content in the starch package materials lead to the more mobile amylose and amylopectin polymer chain segments and the prevalence of amorphous regions in the prepared native corn starch samples.

  6. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  7. Perceptions of the use of indigenous leaves as packaging materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although alternative food packaging materials are available, Ghanaians still use leaves to package some ready-to-eat cornmeal products. This study examines the perceptions of a representative community sample of 70 producers, 40 sellers and 120 consumers of ready-to-eat leaves-packaged cornmeal products in ...

  8. 75 FR 75157 - Importation of Wood Packaging Material From Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Material From Canada AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... remove the exemption that allows wood packaging material from Canada to enter the United States without... spread of pests via wood packaging material from Canada. DATES: We will consider all comments that we...

  9. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities

  10. Performance-oriented packagings for hazardous materials: Resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document provides recommendations to US Department of Energy (DOE) shippers regarding packaging that meet performance-oriented packaging requirements implemented by US Department of Transportation (DOT) in rulemaking HM-181 (December 21, 1990) and subsequent actions. The packaging described in this document are certified by their vendor to comply with requirements for Packing Group I, II, or III hazardous materials packaging. The intent of this document is to share information between DOE and contractors and at all DOE facilities.

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory.

  12. Safety analysis report for packages: packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalfant, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The 9965, 9966, 9967, and 9968 packages are designed for surface shipment of fissile and other radioactive materials where a high degree of containment (either single or double) is required. Provisions are made to add shielding material to the packaging as required. The package was physically tested to demonstrate that it meets the criteria specified in USDOE Order No. 5480.1, chapter III, dated 5/1/81, which invokes Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71), Packing and Transportation of Radioactive Material, and Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 100-179, Transportation. By restricting the maximum normal operating pressure of the packages to less than 7 kg/cm 2 (gauge) (99 to 54 psig), the packages will comply with Type B(U) regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, Safety Series No. 6, 1973 Revised Edition, and may be used for export and import shipments. These packages have been assessed for transport of up to 14.5 kilograms of uranium, excluding uranium-233, or 4.4 kilograms of plutonium metal, oxides, or scrap having a maximum radioactive decay energy of 30 watts. Specific maximum package contents are given. This quantity and the configuration of uranium or plutonium metal cannot be made critical by any combination of hydrogeneous reflection and moderation regardless of the condition of the package. For a uranium-233 shipment, a separate criticality evaluation for the specific package is required

  13. Effect of packaging materials on nutrients, phytochemicals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of packaging materials on nutrients, phytochemicals and sensory attributes of Moinmoin. R.A. Mustapha, G.A. Ogundahunsi, O.I. Olanrewaju, O.O. Bolajoko. Abstract. Objective: The effect of packaging materials on nutrients, phytochemicals and sensory attributes of moinmoin cooked and wrapped with nylon, banana, ...

  14. Consideration of radiation effects in the choice of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Requirements for food packaging materials include whether there is any interaction between the food and the package during or after the irradiation, and whether as a result of the irradiation, volatile or leachable substances are released from the pack into the food. The performance of cellulose-based materials and plastic films under irradiation are discussed

  15. Using computer technology to identify the appropriate radioactive materials packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, K.L.; Conan, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) database is designed to store and retrieve information on all non-classified packages certified for the transport of radioactive materials within the boundaries of the US. The information in RAMPAC is publicly available, and the database has been designed so that individuals without programming experience can search for and retrieve information using a menu-driven system. RAMPAC currently contains information on over 650 radioactive material shipping packages. Information is gathered from the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of transportation (DOT), and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). RAMPAC is the only tool available to radioactive material shippers that contains and reports packaging information from all three Federal Agencies. The DOT information includes package listings from Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, and Japan, which have DOT revalidations for their certificates of competent authority and are authorized for use within the US for import and export shipments only. RAMPAC was originally developed in 1981 by DOE as a research and development tool. In recent years, however, RAMPAC has proven to be highly useful to operational personnel. As packages become obsolete or materials to be transported change, shippers of radioactive materials must be able to determine if alternative packages exist before designing new packages. RAMPAC is designed to minimize the time required to make this determination, thus assisting the operational community in meeting their goals

  16. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages, Report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1990. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  17. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  18. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive-Materials Packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume I), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective December 31, 1982. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volumes 1 and 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  19. Effects of packaging materials on storage quality of peanut kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoji; Xing, Shengping; Xiong, Huiwei; Min, Hua; Zhu, Xuejing; He, Jialin; Mu, Honglei

    2018-01-01

    In order to obtain optimum packaging materials for peanut kernels, the effects of four types of packaging materials on peanut storage quality (coat color, acid value, germination rate, relative damage, and prevention of aflatoxin contamination) were examined. The results showed that packaging materials had a major influence on peanut storage quality indexes. The color of the peanut seed coat packaged in the polyester/aluminum/polyamide/polyethylene (PET/AL/PA/PE) composite film bag did not change significantly during the storage period. Color deterioration was slower with polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) packaging materials than with polyethylene (PE) film bags and was slower in PE bags than in the woven bags. The use of PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags maintained peanut quality and freshness for more than one year and both package types resulted in better germination rates. There were significant differences between the four types of packaging materials in terms of controlling insect pests. The peanuts packaged in the highly permeable woven bags suffered serious invasion from insect pests, while both PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags effectively prevented insect infection. Peanuts stored in PET/AL/PA/PE and PA/PE bags were also better at preventing and controlling aflatoxin contamination. PMID:29518085

  20. Towards a Generic Set of Packaging Material Key Figures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Roland; de Koeijer, Bjorn; de Lange, Jos

    Many companies consider the reduction of packaging material as a relevant development direction, either required by cost savings, supply chain efficiency, sustainability or substantiated by regulations (directive 94/62/EC). This aligns with an eco-efficient redundancy perspective on packaging.

  1. Procedures for picking up and receiving packages of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for licensees to comply with the provisions in 10 CFR Part 20, section 20.205, with respect to arrangements for receipt, pickup, and monitoring of packages containing radioactive material and with respect to reporting of packages which, on receipt, show evidence of leakage or excessive radiation levels. (U.S.)

  2. Standard Guide for Packaging Materials for Foods to Be Irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides a format to assist producers and users of food packaging materials in selecting materials that have the desirable characteristics for their intended use and comply with applicable standards or government authorizations. It outlines parameters that should be considered when selecting food-contact packaging materials intended for use during irradiation of prepackaged foods and it examines the criteria for fitness for their use. 1.2 This guide identifies known regulations and regulatory frameworks worldwide pertaining to packaging materials for holding foods during irradiation; but it does not address all regulatory issues associated with the selection and use of packaging materials for foods to be irradiated. It is the responsibility of the user of this guide to determine the pertinent regulatory issues in each country where foods are to be irradiated and where irradiated foods are distributed. 1.3 This guide does not address all of the food safety issues associated with the synergisti...

  3. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia's facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns

  4. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  5. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3), for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1992. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package-design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  6. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference. (DC)

  7. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1980-02-01

    Objective of the test is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low-level neutron fields. This document provides a fabrication record of the experiment

  8. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials: summary program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This document contains summaries or abstracts of reports presented at the Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials. Separate indexing has been performed on individual items presented at this conference

  9. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Milanović Spasenija D.; Pejić Biljana J.; Lazić Vera L.; Konstantinović Bojan B.; Blagojević Milan N.

    2017-01-01

    Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’...

  10. Applying and influence of polymer materials for packaging dairy beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Spasenija D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional food is positioned above the traditional, with the potential to improve human health. Thanks to very good physico-mechanical and barrier properties polymers became very popular in food industry as a packaging materials. Wild range of fermented dairy products could be packed in this packaging materials according to their’s inertness as well. Functional milk beverage was obtained from milk with 0,9% milk fat content by applying 10% v/v of kombucha’s inoculum cultivated on a black tea sweetened with sucrose. The beverage was packed in a different packaging materials: polyamid-polyethylen (PA/PE coextruded foil bags and polyprophylen (PP cups closed with aluminium (Al foil lids under atmospheric conditions (ATM. Beverages were storaged for 15 days at 4°C. The quality of kombucha inoculum, milk and obtained kombucha fermented milk beverage were analysed. Characterization of the packaging materials was done by investigating physico-mechanical, barrier and structural properties. The composition and changes in the headspace atmosphere, after production and during the storage, were analysed. The influence of packaging material properties and packaging conditions on the biochemical transformations of the milk’s components (the content of: lactose, L-lactic acid, D-galactose, ethanol, B1 and B2 vitamins influenced by kombucha starter were analysed as well. On the bases of the obtained results of characterisation of packaging materials, it can be concluded that PA/PE and PP materials are proper to be used for analysed beverage’s packaging. Also, there is no significant difference in content of components which were quantified, between analysed materials in correlation with the packed fermented milk beverage. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  13. Predicting Weight Change in Gari in Two Packaging Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An equation for predicting moisture loss or gain by gari grain packed in two types of materials was developed. From this, it may be possible to establish the storability of gari in these two packaging material. The equation took into account the permeabilities of the materials, which were determined experimentally. The validity ...

  14. CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K; Joseph Murphy, J

    2008-07-18

    Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding that was induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species used in the construction of the packaging, followed by polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. Fiberboard material, also used in the construction of the packaging induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV sealant, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water. In light of these corrosion mechanisms, the lead shielding was sheathed in a stainless steel liner to mitigate against corrosion.

  15. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  16. The development of a digital signal processing and plotting package to support testing of hazardous and radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwigsen, J.S.; Uncapher, W.L.; Arviso, M.; Lattier, C.N.; Hankinson, M.; Cannone, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Federal regulations allow package designers to use analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing to support certification of packages used to transport hazardous or radioactive materials. In recent years, many certified packages were subjected to a combination of analysis and testing. A major part of evaluating structural or thermal package response is the collection, reduction and presentation of instrumentation measurement data. Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, has developed a comprehensive analysis and plotting package (known as KAPP) that performs digital signal processing of both transient structural and thermal data integrated with a comprehensive plotting package designed to support radioactive material package testing

  17. Anticipated development in radioactive materials packaging and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.D.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Closing the light water reactor fuel cycle and the use of mixed oxide fuels will produce materials such as solidified high level waste, cladding hulls and plutonium from Pu recycle fuel that have not been transported extensively in the past. Changes in allowable gaseous emissions from fuel cycle facilities may require the collection and transportation of radioactive noble gases and tritium. Although all of these materials could be transported in existing radioactive material packaging, economic considerations will make it desirable to develop new packaging specifically designed for each material. Conceptual package designs for these materials are reviewed. Special Nuclear Material transportation safeguards are expected to have a significant impact on future fuel cycle transportation. This subject is reviewed briefly. Other factors that could affect fuel cycle transportation are also discussed. Development of new packaging for radioactive materials is not believed to require the development of new technologies. New package designs will be primarily an adaptation of existing technology to fit the changing needs of a growing nuclear power industry. 23 references

  18. Evaluation of disposable medical device packaging materials under ozone sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Roberto Luqueta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ozonization is an alternative sterilization process for heat-sensitive medical devices. However, the side effects of this process on packaging materials should be verified. Methods Four types of commercial disposable packaging for medical devices were evaluated after undergoing ozone sterilization: crepe paper sheet, non-woven fabric sheet (SMS, medical grade paper-plastic pouch and Tyvec©-plastic pouch. For each material, the gas penetration through the microbiological barrier was measured. Other packaging properties, such as chemical composition, color, tactile and mechanical resistance, were also evaluated after sterilization, by using characterization techniques, namely microbiological indicators, infrared spectroscopy, tensile test and optical microscopy. Results All commercial disposable packaging showed good ozone penetration. Crepe paper and SMS were chemically and mechanically modified by ozone, while Tyvec© only suffered mechanical modification. Paper-plastic pouch was the packaging material which just experienced an acceptable reduction in tensile resistance, showing no variations on chemical or visual properties. Conclusion The results suggest that medical grade paper-plastic pouch is the most appropriate disposable medical device packaging to be sterilized by ozone when compared to other materials.

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1) for Radioactive Materials Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  20. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12., it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  1. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), for NRC Approved Packages. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, is applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages; Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, and index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material using these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.393a and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them--that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  3. Quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has required for many years that quality assurance programs be established and implemented for the packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. This paper identifies various requirement principles and related actions involved in establishing effective quality assurance for packaging of radioactive and hazardous materials. A primary purpose of these quality assurance program activities is to provide assurance that the packaging and transportation of hazardous materials, which includes radioactive and fissile materials, are in conformance with appropriate governmental regulations. Applicable regulations include those issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Transportation (DOT), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). DOE Order 5700.6A establishes that quality assurance requirements are to be applied in accordance with national consensus standards where suitable ones are available. In the nuclear area, ANSI/ASME NQA-1 is the preferred standard

  4. Data package for the Turkey Point material interaction test capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogness, J.C.; Davis, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    Objective of the Materials Interaction Test (MIT) is to obtain interaction information on candidate package storage materials and geologies under prototypic temperatures in gamma and low level neutron fields. Compatibility, structural properties, and chemical transformations will be studied. The multiple test samples are contained within test capsules connected end-to-end to form a test train. Only passive instrumentation has been used to monitor temperatures and record neutron fluence. The test train contains seven capsules: three to test compatibility, two for structural tests, and two for chemical transformation studies. The materials tested are potential candidates for the spent fuel package canister and repository geologies

  5. Functions of Nano-Materials in Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Ray Chin Chong; Kwablah, Amegadze Paul Seyram; He, Jiating; Li, Xu

    Food packaging has been changing from bulky and rigid form in the past to different variation of lights and plastic packagings. Regardless of the changes, the packaging must be able to uphold its original function which is to serve as food containment as well as to protect the food from the external environment. Coupled with the increasing consumer’s awareness on food waste, higher standard of living, technological developments are underway to enhance the shelf-life of packed food as well as methods to provide indications of food packaging environment. There are many different indicators for food spoilage, but two commonly found gases in food packaging are oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen is the main mechanism for food spoilage, while carbon dioxide is often used in modified-atmosphere-packaging. There are also different methods of gas scavenging and/or sensing techniques based on different concepts in the literature. In this review, the focus will be on nano-materials, namely titanium dioxide, silica, zeolites and metal organic frameworks. This review is structured in a manner to highlight how each material can be used in both gas scavenging and/or indicators applications. The last part of the review focuses on the approach and some key considerations when integrating nano-materials into the plastic film.

  6. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  7. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  8. The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spown

    2012-08-15

    Aug 15, 2012 ... brown color intensity is regarded as an indicator of nonenzymatic darkening process. The goal of this research was to determine a quality packaging material that would optimally protect the product, by means of monitoring the packed dried apricots quality changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Chemicals.

  9. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  10. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  11. Quality assurance requirements for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.F.; MacDonald, C.E.; Doda, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the new quality assurance regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. These regulations became effective on October 18, 1977. Background information concerning these regulations and packaging and transportation history is included. The quality assurance program is described with indications of how it is composed of general (administrative) provisions which must meet the 18 quality assurance criteria and be approved by the NRC; specific provisions which appear in the DOT and NRC regulations and in the individual package design approval; and other specific procedures which are not required by regulations but which are necessary for the proper control of quality. The quality assurance program is to be developed using a graded approach for the application of pertinent criteria and optimizing the required degree of safety and control efforts involved in achieving this level of safety. The licensee-user is responsible for all phases of quality assurance for packaging activities including: design, manufacture, test, use, maintenance and repair. The package design phase is considered to be particularly important in producing adequate safety in operational activities concerning packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

  12. Analysis on the Industrial Design of Food Package and the Component of Hazardous Substance in the Packaging Material

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Wen Huang

    2015-01-01

    Transferring the hazardous chemicals contained in food packaging materials into food would threaten the health of consumers, therefore, the related laws and regulations and the detection method of hazardous substance have been established at home and abroad to ensure the safety to use the food packaging material. According to the analysis on the hazardous component in the food packaging, a set of detection methods for hazardous substance in the food packaging was established in the paper and ...

  13. Characteristics of meat packaging materials and their environmental suitability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela Z.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After functional phase, packaging becomes waste that is recycled or disposed of in landfills. Recently, numerus packages have been developed for assessing the packaging risk on the environment. We applied Gabi 4 Education software on polymer product packaging for meat products. The objective of first part of the paper was characterization of materials used for meat and meat products packaging in terms of mechanical and barrier properties. Results show that tested materials are able to keep protective atmosphere and contribute to the quality and sustainability of the product. Air permeability was 3.60 and 26.60 ml/m224h, and water vapor was 6.90 and 9.50 ml/m224h, respectively, for foils 1 and 2, as a result of different film composition. In second part, based on real data, Gabi 4 Education software is applied. The obtained results showed that organic compounds emissions have the highest impact on human health and the most damaging environmental impact observed was the emission of CO2.

  14. Nutritional response of Okra to various packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research is focused at determining the nutritional response of Okra when pickling is carried out using different antimicrobial liquids (vinegar, olive oil, and groundnut oil) and packaging materials (glass jar, plastic and stainless steel), as well as make a comparism when spices (garlic, ginger, mixture of garlic and ginger) ...

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  16. Packaging Research Outputs into Extension and Training Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result one primary objective of research to develop improved production systems and get the research results out to the user is not achieved. This paper describes the experiences and lessons learned in packaging research outputs into extension and training materials for use by extension workers and farmers under ...

  17. Quality assurance program description for shipping packages of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This quality assurance plan describes the quality assurance program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), for shipping packages of radioactive material. The purpose of this report is to describe how PNL will comply with the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 71, Appendix E. In compliance with the instructions from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the 18 criteria from Appendix E are covered

  18. predicting weight change in gari in two packaging materials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MIS

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... involved the microbial deterioration of gari stored in hessian and polythene bags, showed that the polythene bag gave a better result when gari was stored at moisture content of 11.2% wet basis. Mizrahi et al (1970) using dehydrated cabbage packed in two types of packaging materials predicted value.

  19. 49 CFR 173.428 - Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.428 Empty Class 7 (radioactive) materials packaging. A packaging which previously contained Class 7 (radioactive...

  20. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M.; Arnold, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE's cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials

  1. The radioactive materials packaging handbook: Design, operations, and maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappert, L.B.; Bowman, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Arnold, E.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    As part of its required activities in 1994, the US Department of Energy (DOE) made over 500,000 shipments. Of these shipments, approximately 4% were hazardous, and of these, slightly over 1% (over 6,400 shipments) were radioactive. Because of DOE`s cleanup activities, the total quantities and percentages of radioactive material (RAM) that must be moved from one site to another is expected to increase in the coming years, and these materials are likely to be different than those shipped in the past. Irradiated fuel will certainly be part of the mix as will RAM samples and waste. However, in many cases these materials will be of different shape and size and require a transport packaging having different shielding, thermal, and criticality avoidance characteristics than are currently available. This Handbook provides guidance on the design, testing, certification, and operation of packages for these materials.

  2. Advanced materials for thermal management of electronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xingcun Colin

    2011-01-01

    The need for advanced thermal management materials in electronic packaging has been widely recognized as thermal challenges become barriers to the electronic industry's ability to provide continued improvements in device and system performance. With increased performance requirements for smaller, more capable, and more efficient electronic power devices, systems ranging from active electronically scanned radar arrays to web servers all require components that can dissipate heat efficiently. This requires that the materials have high capability of dissipating heat and maintaining compatibility

  3. Packaging, carriage and dispatching fuel and radioactive materials, IAEA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need to bring fuel and other radioactive substances into a nuclear power plant and to send out irradiated or contaminated materials: spent fuel, activated equipment, used filters, resin and clothing, etc. gives rise to the question: How can these materials be transported safely and economically. The purpose of this paper is to answer that question by providing information on the regulatory requirements that have been developed for packaging, labelling and handling and on the containers which are being employed. (orig./RW)

  4. Packaging and transportation of radioactive materials (PATRAM '86)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In this volume the following aspects of packaging and transport of radioactive materials are represented as topics: Regulations, codes, standards, research, development, radiation protection, risk assessment, transport experience, transport planning, administrative issues, and emergency response. Road, rail, and maritime transport are considered. Spent fuels and radioactive waste are mentioned often as the materials being transported. Issues of particular interest to the field of safeguards are brought up

  5. Microsystem reliability: Polymer adhesive and coating materials for packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob

    design approach to development of reliable microsystem packaging mandatory. Diffusion of water is identified as the most important parameter or physical mechanism lowering microsystem reliability due to corrosion, delamination etc. This topic is therefore treated thoroughly by mathematical modeling......Polymer microsystem packaging materials have been characterized and failure analysis methods have been developed with the aim of gaining higher microsystem reliability. The importance of this work stems from the fact that microsystem sensors due to small size are very sensitive to the often very...

  6. Advances in photonics thermal management and packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, Carl

    2008-02-01

    Heat dissipation, thermal stresses, and cost are key packaging design issues for virtually all semiconductors, including photonic applications such as diode lasers, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solid state lighting, photovoltaics, displays, projectors, detectors, sensors and laser weapons. Heat dissipation and thermal stresses affect performance and reliability. Copper, aluminum and conventional polymeric printed circuit boards (PCBs) have high coefficients of thermal expansion, which can cause high thermal stresses. Most traditional low-coefficient-of-thermal-expansion (CTE) materials like tungsten/copper, which date from the mid 20 th century, have thermal conductivities that are no better than those of aluminum alloys, about 200 W/m-K. There are an increasing number of low-CTE materials with thermal conductivities ranging between that of copper (400 W/m-K) and 1700 W/m-K, and many other new low-CTE materials with lower thermal conductivities. An important benefit of low-CTE materials is that they allow use of hard solders. Some advanced materials are low cost. Others have the potential to be low cost in high-volume production. High-thermal-conductivity materials enable higher power levels, potentially reducing the number of required devices. Advanced thermal materials can constrain PCB CTE and greatly increase thermal conductivity. This paper reviews traditional packaging materials and advanced thermal management materials. The latter provide the packaging engineer with a greater range of options than in the past. Topics include properties, status, applications, cost, using advanced materials to fix manufacturing problems, and future directions, including composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes and other thermally conductive materials.

  7. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yong Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design requirements and development tendency of eco-packaging design by analyzing status and significance of eco-packaging design, combining with the development and main types of eco-packaging packaging materials, and based on the achievements acquired by eco-packaging and environmental protection materials. Meanwhile, the paper also reveals mutual dependence and mutual promotion of eco-packaging design and eco-packaging materials.

  8. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  9. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program

  10. Application of polymer nanocomposite materials in food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amra Odobašić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “nano” refers to nano particle size from 1 to 100 nanometers. The term "nanotechnology" was first introduced by Norio Taniguchi in 1974. Nanotechnology may be used to improve the taste and texture of food and for the production of packaging that maintain fresh product. The primary function of packaging is to maintain the quality and safety of products during transport and storage period, as well as to extend its viability by preventing unwanted effect agents such as microorganisms, chemical contaminants, oxygen, moisture and light. The aim of this paper is to point out the achievements of nanotechnology in terms of food packaging with an overview of polymers that are commonly used in food packaging, as well as strategies to improve the physical properties of polymers, including mechanical strength, thermal stability and barrier to gases. By studing of recently published literature, it was clear that nanomaterials such as nano polymers are trying to replace conventional materials in food packaging. Nanosensors can be used to prove the presence of contaminants, microtoxins and microorganisms in food.

  11. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  12. Materials, design and processing of air encapsulated MEMS packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nathan T.

    This work uses a three-dimensional air cavity technology to improve the fabrication, and functionality of microelectronics devices, performance of on-board transmission lines, and packaging of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). The air cavity process makes use of the decomposition of a patterned sacrificial polymer followed by the diffusion of its by-products through a curing polymer overcoat to obtain the embedded air structure. Applications and research of air cavities have focused on simple designs that concentrate on the size and functionality of the particular device. However, a lack of guidelines for fabrication, materials used, and structural design has led to mechanical stability issues and processing refinements. This work investigates improved air gap cavities for use in MEMS packaging processes, resulting in fewer fabrication flaws and lower cost. The identification of new materials, such as novel photo-definable organic/inorganic hybrid polymers, was studied for increased strength and rigidity due to their glass-like structure. A novel epoxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) material was investigated and characterized for use as a photodefineable, permanent dielectrics with improved mechanical properties. The POSS material improved the air gap fabrication because it served as a high-selectivity etch mask for patterning sacrificial materials as well as a cavity overcoat material with improved rigidity. An investigation of overcoat thickness and decomposition kinetics provided a fundamental understanding of the properties that impart mechanical stability to cavities of different shape and volume. Metallization of the cavities was investigated so as to provide hermetic sealing and improved cavity strength. The improved air cavity, wafer-level packages were tested using resonator-type devices and chip-level lead frame packaging. The air cavity package was molded under traditional lead frame molding pressures and tested for mechanical

  13. Microstructural characterization of nuclear-waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Clarke, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Characterization of nuclear waste ceramics requires techniques possessing high spatial and x-ray resolution. XRD, SEM, electron microprobe, TEM and analytical EM techniques are applied to ceramic formulations designed to immobilize both commercial and defense-related reactor wastes. These materials are used to address the strengths and limitations of the techniques above. An iterative approach combining all these techniques is suggested. 16 figures, 2 tables

  14. Initial specifications for nuclear waste package external dimensions and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1983-09-01

    Initial specifications of external dimensions and materials for waste package conceptual designs are given for Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), Commercial High Level Waste (CHLW) and Spent Fuel (SF). The designs have been developed for use in a high-level waste repository sited in a tuff media in the unsaturated zone. Drawings for reference and alternative package conceptual designs are presented for each waste form for both vertical and horizontal emplacement configurations. Four metal alloys: 304L SS, 321 SS, 316L SS and Incoloy 825 are considered for the canister or overpack; 1020 carbon steel was selected for horizontal borehole liners, and a preliminary packing material selection is either compressed tuff or compressed tuff containing iron bearing smectite clay as a binder

  15. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  16. Composite material designs for lightweight space packaging structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Raluca CONDRUZ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on advanced material designs suitable for lightweight space packaging structures. During this study, several material designs were proposed, evaluated and in the end three packaging structures were designed, manufactured and validated through a test campaign. The material designs proposed consisted in hybrid laminates composed of a composite substrate and integrating metallic foils with high atomic number (Low Z - High Z - Low Z concept and metallic coatings to increase the structure’s protection against harsh space conditions. The packaging structure design selected was a 2U CubeSat. A FEM analysis was performed on two different designs which showed good mechanical resistance under static loads, and regarding the modal analysis, the natural vibration frequencies of the CubeSat were in the imposed limits (outside of the critical range of 1-125 Hz. To reproduce the dynamic environment encountered during launching stage, vibration tests were performed. The structures were validated through a test campaign (vibration tests and their first vibration mode overcomes 100 Hz, results predicted by the FEM analysis.

  17. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure

  18. Thermal interface material characterization for cryogenic electronic packaging solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A.; McCusker, K.; Van Dyke, J.; Isler, B.; Christiansen, M.

    2017-12-01

    As applications of superconducting logic technologies continue to grow, the need for efficient and reliable cryogenic packaging becomes crucial to development and testing. A trade study of materials was done to develop a practical understanding of the properties of interface materials around 4 K. While literature exists for varying interface tests, discrepancies are found in the reported performance of different materials and in the ranges of applied force in which they are optimal. In considering applications extending from top cooling a silicon chip to clamping a heat sink, a range of forces from approximately 44 N to approximately 445 N was chosen for testing different interface materials. For each range of forces a single material was identified to optimize the thermal conductance of the joint. Of the tested interfaces, indium foil clamped at approximately 445 N showed the highest thermal conductance. Results are presented from these characterizations and useful methodologies for efficient testing are defined.

  19. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-04-26

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures.

  20. Seismic safety in nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Seismic safety is one of the factors that must be considered in the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic media. This report reviews the data on damage to underground equipment and structures from earthquakes, the record of associated motions, and the conventional methods of seismic safety-analysis and engineering. Safety considerations may be divided into two classes: those during the operational life of a disposal facility, and those pertinent to the post-decommissioning life of the facility. Operational hazards may be mitigated by conventional construction practices and site selection criteria. Events that would materially affect the long-term integrity of a decommissioned facility appear to be highly unlikely and can be substantially avoided by conservative site selection and facility design. These events include substantial fault movement within the disposal facility and severe ground shaking in an earthquake epicentral region. Techniques need to be developed to address the question of long-term earthquake probability in relatively aseismic regions, and for discriminating between active and extinct faults in regions where earthquake activity does not result in surface ruptures

  1. Packaging materials for use in radiation processing of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragusin, M.; Rotaru, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    In radiation processing of food, the product often has to be prepackaged to prevent microbial recontamination during and after irradiation. The packaging material is exposed to radiation during radiation processing and radiation stability is a key consideration in the selection of packaging materials. The effects of ionizing radiation on many food packaging materials at the dose levels recommended for food precessing can be minimized by selecting appropriate radiation resistant materials. It is important to select materials in which chemicals formed as a result of the radiation treatment do not migrate and interact with the food, affecting its organoleptic and toxicological aspects. It is also important to select materials in which the physical properties are not altered to the extent they cannot resist damage during commercial production, shipment and storage. Radiation treatment of food may be classified broadly into two categories: 1. Processes requiring doses less than 10 kGy; 2. Processes requiring doses from 25 to 40 kGy for production of commercial sterility. In radiation processing of foods, gamma radiation from radioisotopes Co-60 and Cs-137 is most widely used because of its high penetrating power. Electron beam irradiation (E<10 MeV) and X-rays (E<5 MeV) can also be used for certain speciality food and packaging to the food. Because the public acceptance of irradiated foods is a major problem in marketing such products, we have developed in our laboratory an alternative techniques. These techniques are based on applying films on the surfaces of foods. The films are edible, i.e. they are an aqueous solution based on caseine, glycerine, poly-etilene-glycol (PEG), crosslinked by radiation processing. So, our techniques implies no longer the food irradiation but instead its isolation from the environmental biological attacks by means of edible films obtained by irradiation. The protective properties of films, as special humidity, oxygen and fat barriers, are

  2. 21 CFR 181.22 - Certain substances employed in the manufacture of food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... food-packaging materials. 181.22 Section 181.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... of food-packaging materials. Prior to the enactment of the food additives amendment to the Federal... manufacturing practice for food-packaging materials includes the restriction that the quantity of any of these...

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 1. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective September 14, 1983

  4. 75 FR 60333 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... determining whether a change in packaging configuration requires retesting as a new design or may be... delineating packaging types and performance testing in the U.S. Design and testing of packages that fall... and reconditioning where the packaging is not subject to performance requirements as a new design type...

  5. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, revision 1. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The directory contains a Summary Report of NRC approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, and index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory

  6. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600 0 C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles ( 2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000 0 C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500 0 C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO) 4 as the catalyst, C 2 H 2 as the carbon source gas, and H 2 as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530 0 C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 μm/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters

  7. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600/sup 0/C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles (<2mm) and newly developed screw-agitated coaters for larger particles (>2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000/sup 0/C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500/sup 0/C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO)/sub 4/ as the catalyst, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ as the carbon source gas, and H/sub 2/ as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530/sup 0/C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 ..mu..m/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters.

  8. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1). This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 1

  9. The innovative application studty on eco-packaging design and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Cui Yong Min; Ren Xin Guang

    2016-01-01

    The paper solves the increasingly deteriorate environmental problems by positively exploring how to utilize and develop eco-packaging design reasonably. The paper explores an effective method that combines eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, hoping to define the sustainable development road of packaging design. The paper is centered on the design application of eco-packaging and environmental protection materials, applies and analyzes the method to obtain innovative design r...

  10. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: debora_hara@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fiore, Marina [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais. Escola Politecnica

    2015-07-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  12. Thermal expansion model for multiphase electronic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, B.E.; Warren, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Control of thermal expansion is often necessary in the design and selection of electronic packages. In some instances, it is desirable to have a coefficient of thermal expansion intermediate between values readily attainable with single or two phase materials. The addition of a third phase in the form of fillers, whiskers, or fibers can be used to attain intermediate expansions. To help design the thermal expansion of multiphase materials for specific applications, a closed form model has been developed that accurately predicts the effective elastic properties of isotropic filled materials and transversely isotropic lamina. Properties of filled matrix materials are used as inputs to the lamina model to obtain the composite elastic properties as a function of the volume fraction of each phase. Hybrid composites with two or more fiber types are easily handled with this model. This paper reports that results for glass, quartz, and Kevlar fibers with beta-eucryptite filled polymer matrices show good agreement with experimental results for X, Y, and Z thermal expansion coefficients

  13. Materials selection for a transport packaging of Mo-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Debora H.S.; Lucchesi, Raquel F.; Mancini, Victor A.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Fiore, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive isotopes used in nuclear medicine for more accurate diagnosis and treatment of diseases or dysfunctions. Currently, the most important radionuclide for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes is technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), a product of the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). The aim of this work was the materials selection that can enable the manufacture of a package for Mo-99 transport with the aid of CES EduPack program and the methodology developed by Ashby. The ESTAR program was used to check the occurrence of Bremsstrahlung and the XCOM program was used to calculate the attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation from some of the selected materials for the shield; after, the thickness required for radiation shielding was calculated. From the results, the materials selected as potential candidates for the manufacture of the shielding were the tungsten alloys. Related to the thermal insulation and the impact protection, woods, plywoods and particle boards stand out. With regard to internal and external coatings, the selected materials focus on groups of steels and nickel alloys. (author)

  14. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer an...

  15. Food packaging materials and radiation processing of food: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1989-01-01

    Food is usually packaged to prevent microbial contamination and spoilage. Ionizing radiation can be applied to food-packaging materials in two ways: (i) sterilization of packaging materials for aseptic packaging, and (ii) radiation processing of prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, a sterile package is filled with a sterile product in a microbiologically controlled environment. In irradiation of prepackaged food, the food and the packaging material are irradiated simultaneously. For both applications, the radiation stability of the packaging material is a key consideration if the technology is to be used successfully. To demonstrate the radiation stability of the packaging material, it must be shown that irradiation does not significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the material. The irradiated material must protect the food from environmental contamination while maintaining its organoleptic and toxicological properties. Single-layer plastics cannot meet the requirements of either application. Multilayered structures produced by coextrusion would likely satisfy the demands of radiation processing prepackaged food. In aseptic packaging, the package is irradiated prior to filling, making demands on toxicological safety less stringent. Therefore, multilayered structures produced by coextrusion, lamination or co-injection moulding could satisfy the requirements. (author)

  16. Polymers and paper as packaging materials of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of γ-irradiation on synthetic polymers and paper used as packaging materials for irradiated food have been studied by NMR. Polystyrene, polybutadiene and some copolymers were studied before and after the γ-irradiation treatment and in the presence or absence of antioxidants and stabilisers. In the absence of additives, the effect of γ-irradiation on polystyrene is negligible even irradiating at high doses. In turn, the role of antioxidants and stabilisers is crucial in polybutadiene and butadiene-containing copolymers. Wood pulp paper was also studied by NMR. Preliminary measurements on γ-irradiated wood pulp sheets show a shortening in the T 2 relaxation time component due to the bound water, i.e. some of the bound water is lost. (author)

  17. 75 FR 5375 - Hazardous Material; Miscellaneous Packaging Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... whether a change in packaging configuration requires retesting as a new design or may be considered a... Control No. 2137-0572. This final rule is designed primarily to enhance safety, clarify specific packaging... whether a change in packaging configuration requires retesting as a new design or may be considered a...

  18. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 1, Revision 17: Report of NRC approved packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  19. Development of antimicrobial active packaging materials based on gluten proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Heincke, Diana; Martínez, Inmaculada; Partal, Pedro; Guerrero, Antonio; Gallegos, Críspulo

    2016-08-01

    The incorporation of natural biocide agents into protein-based bioplastics, a source of biodegradable polymeric materials, manufactured by a thermo-mechanical method is a way to contribute to a sustainable food packaging industry. This study assesses the antimicrobial activity of 10 different biocides incorporated into wheat gluten-based bioplastics. The effect that formulation, processing, and further thermal treatments exert on the thermo-mechanical properties, water absorption characteristics and rheological behaviour of these materials is also studied. Bioplastics containing six of the 10 examined bioactive agents have demonstrated suitable antimicrobial activity at 37 °C after their incorporation into the bioplastic. Moreover, the essential oils are able to create an antimicrobial atmosphere within a Petri dish. Depending on the selected biocide, its addition may alter the bioplastics protein network in a different extent, which leads to materials exhibiting less water uptake and different rheological and thermo-mechanical behaviours. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Regulatory and extra-regulatory testing to demonstrate radioactive material packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    Packages for the transportation of radioactive material must meet performance criteria to assure safety and environmental protection. The stringency of the performance criteria is based on the degree of hazard of the material being transported. Type B packages are used for transporting large quantities of radioisotopes (in terms of A 2 quantities). These packages have the most stringent performance criteria. Material with less than an A 2 quantity are transported in Type A packages. These packages have less stringent performance criteria. Transportation of LSA and SCO materials must be in open-quotes strong-tightclose quotes packages. The performance requirements for the latter packages are even less stringent. All of these package types provide a high level of safety for the material being transported. In this paper, regulatory tests that are used to demonstrate this safety will be described. The responses of various packages to these tests will be shown. In addition, the response of packages to extra-regulatory tests will be discussed. The results of these tests will be used to demonstrate the high level of safety provided to workers, the public, and the environment by packages used for the transportation of radioactive material

  1. Radioactive Materials Packaging (RAMPAC) Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR). RAMTEMP users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyron-Hopko, A.K.; Driscoll, K.L.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the potential user with RadioActive Materials PACkaging (RAMPAC), Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR), and RAMTEMP databases. RAMTEMP is a minor image of RAMPAC. This reference document will enable the user to access and obtain reports from databases while in an interactive mode. This manual will be revised as necessary to reflect enhancements made to the system

  2. Characterization of shock-absorbing material for packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001 Brazil has been participating in a regional effort with other Latin American countries which operate research reactors to improve its capability in the management of spent fuel elements from these reactors. One of the options considered is the long-term dry storage of the spent fuel in a dual purpose cask, i.e., a package for the transport and storage of radioactive material. In the scope of an IAEA-sponsored project, a cask was designed and a half-scale model for test was built. The cask consists of a sturdy cylindrical body provided with internal cavity to accommodate a basket holding the spent fuel elements, a double lid system, and external impact limiters. The cask is provided with top and bottom impact limiters, which are structures made of an external stainless steel skin and an energy-absorbing filling material. The filling material chosen was the wood composite denominated Oriented Strand Board (OSB), which is an engineered, mat-formed panel product made of strands, flakes or wafers sliced from small diameter, round wood logs and bonded with a binder under heat and pressure. The characterization of this material was carried in the scope of the cask project at the CDTN's laboratories. The tests conducted were the quasi-static compression, impact, shear-bending and edgewise shear tests. The compression, shear-bending and edgewise shear tests were carried out in a standard compression test machine and the impact test at a drop test tower equipped with a sturdy base and a drop weight. The main parameters of the material, like the Young and shear moduli, as well as the static and dynamic stress-strain curves and the specific energy absorbed, were determined during the test campaign. (author)

  3. 10 CFR 71.55 - General requirements for fissile material packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... material package designs to be transported by air: (1) The package must be designed and constructed, and... specified in § 71.73 (“Hypothetical accident conditions”), the package would be subcritical. For this...) Following the tests specified in § 71.73 (“Hypothetical accident conditions”), there is no physical contact...

  4. Nuclear materials stabilization and packaging end-of-year status report, April 1--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rink, N.A.; Aguino, V.T.

    1997-02-01

    This report documents progress on the Los Alamos Nuclear Materials Stabilization and Packaging projects for the third and fourth quarters of fiscal year 1996. It covers development and production activities for the Plutonium Packaging project, the Plutonium Recovery and Stabilization project, and the Uranium Recovery and Stabilization project. In addition, it reports on quality assurance activities for the Plutonium Packaging project

  5. 10 CFR 71.59 - Standards for arrays of fissile material packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standards for arrays of fissile material packages. 71.59 Section 71.59 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE.... The value of the CSI may be zero provided that an unlimited number of packages are subcritical, such...

  6. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and Corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Sections 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  7. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Summary report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  8. Development of a impact limiter for radioactive material transport packages - characterization of the polymeric material used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    Impact limiters are sacrificial components widely used to protect radioactive waste packages against damages arising from falls, fires and collisions with protruding objects. Several materials have been used as impact limiter filling: wood, aluminum honeycomb, and metallic or polymeric foams. Besides, hollow structures are also used as shock absorbers, either as a single shell or as a tube array. One of the most popular materials among package designers is rigid polyurethane foam, owing to its toughness, workability, low specific weight, low costs and commercial availability. In Brazil, a foam developed using the polymer extracted from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) is being studied as a potential impact limiter filling. For a better performance of this material, it is necessary to minimize the impact limiter dimensions without compromising the package safety. For this, a detailed knowledge of the foam physical and mechanical properties is essential. A relatively vast amount of data about regular polymeric foams can be found in the literature and in foreign manufacturers brochures, but no data has been published about the properties of the castor oil foam. This paper presents data gathered in an ongoing research program aiming at the development of a Type-B packaging. Foam samples were submitted to uniaxial static compression tests and to hydrostatic tests. The results obtained reveal that the castor oil foam has a mechanical behavior similar to that of regular foams, with good property reproducibility and homogeneity. (author)

  9. Package

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is duty of the seller to pack the goods in a manner which assures their safe arrival and enables their handling in transit and at the place of destination. The problem of packing is relevant in two main respects. First of all the buyer is in certain circumstances entitled to refuse acceptance of the goods if they are not properly packed. Second, the package is relevant to calculation of price and freight based on weight. In the case of export trade, the package should conform to the legislation in the country of destination. The impact of package on environment is regulated by environment protection regulation of Republic if Serbia.

  10. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Hailu, M.; Seyoum Workneh, T.; Belew, D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with t...

  11. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1987. This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  12. Safety analysis report: packages. LP-12 tritium package (packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-12) within an aluminum vessel and surrounded by 3.9 in.-thick Celotex insulation in a steel drum. Information is presented on the packaging design, evaluation of the structural, thermal, containment, shielding, and criticality characteristics of the package, procedures for loading, unloading, transporting, and testing the LP-12, and quality assurance requirements. (U.S.)

  13. Safety analysis report: packages. LP-50 tritium package (packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.

    1975-04-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) sealed within an aluminum vessel and surrounded by a minimum of 4-in. thick Celotex insulation in a steel drum. The structural, thermal, containment, shielding, and criticality safety aspects of this package are evaluated. Procedures for loading and unloading, empty cask transport, acceptance testing and maintenance, and quality assurance requirements for the LP-50 package are described in detail. (U.S.)

  14. Safety analysis report; packages LP-50 tritium package. (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, A.A.; McCarthy, P.G.; Edl, J.W.; Chalfant, G.G.

    1975-05-01

    Elemental tritium is shipped at low pressure in a stainless steel container (LP-50) surrounded by an aluminum vessel and Celotex insulation at least 4 in. thick in a steel drum. The total weight of the package is 260 lbs maximum. The various components that constitute the package are described and are shown in 7 figures. The safety analysis includes: structural evaluations; thermal evaluations; containment; operating procedures; acceptance tests and maintenance program; and design review

  15. SOR/89-426, Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    These Regulations of 24 August 1989 amend the Transport Packaging of Radioactive Materials Regulations by clarifying the text and specifying certain requirements. In particular certain definitions have been replaced, namely those of ''Fissile Class III package'' and ''Special form radioactive material''. Also, this latter material may not be carried without a certificate attesting that it meets the requirements of the Regulations. (NEA)

  16. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive-Materials Packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume I), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective December 31, 1982. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volumes 1 and 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  17. Regulatory and performance tests of packages for transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Chihiro

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of nuclear tests conducted in our institute, including (1) fireproof and pressure tests of an enriched UF 6 transport package, (2) drop, thermal, and pressure tests of a natural UF 6 transport package, (3) drop, thermal, submerge tests of a spent fuel transport cask, and (4) drop, thermal, and submerge tests of a returned high level vitrified waste transport cask. These tests proved that the transport packages meet IAEA's transport requirements with sufficient margins for the safety. (author)

  18. Effect of packaging materials on weight loss and nutrient quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potatoes from two genotypes, 'KEMB 10\\' and 'Yanshu\\' were recharged for 14 hours and packaged in perforated polyethylene bags (0.02 mm), Kraft paper bags (0.025 mm) and nylon gunnysacks, with roots placed on open plate as control. The packages were then stored at prevailing ambient conditions (23 ± 2 oC, ...

  19. Technique of stowing packages containing radioactive materials during maritime transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, G.; Chevalier, G.; Tomachevsky, E.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Mont Louis accident (August 25, 1984 - North Sea), in which uraniumhexafluoride packages were involved, alarmed a large number of European competent authorities, including the Commission of European Communities. The latter sponsored in 1986-1987 a bibliographic data collection to obtain a first view on the problem. (C.E.C contracts n degree 86-B-7015-11-004-17 and 86-B-7015-11-005-17). The collected data supply the necessary basis for further work, aiming to increase the safety of transporting radioactive material by ship. The study collected the different deceleration values, used by the transport companies and defined the accident conditions to be considered. This work can serve as a basis for later research to end with the proposal of a code of good practice for stowing. The research-work has been carried out jointly by C.E.A.-France, I.P.S.N. at Fontenay-aux-Roses and by Transnubel S.A. Brussels Belgium. The preliminary research included two main tasks: a statistical analysis, a bibliographic study of ship accidents

  20. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  1. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  2. The users' tendency to different packaging materials regarding to the type of product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Brozović

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important role of packaging is protecting a product, but also stimulating purchasing decision. Products on store shelfs can often be found packaged in different materials, even when they are of the same net weight. This study investigated how different packaging materials affect purchasing decision. The aim was to evaluate the user's tendency towards a particular packaging material in relation to its functionality and environmental protection. Test samples were three common powder products: instant coffee, cocoa and sugar. Respondents’ task was to select one of the following packaging materials: glass, tin and composite material for coffee; rigid and flexible plastics for cocoa and sugar. The results showed that the user's tendency towards packaging material is influenced by packaging functionality. In addition, technical (protection, recyclability and ergonomic (presence of the lid, easy to dose and reusability attributes have found to be essential criteria for the choice of packaging. Furthermore, this study showed that customers are ecologically aware since they tend to re-use the packaging, thus enhancing environmental care.

  3. Approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document specifies the detailed provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to rail transport for packages and packaging, test procedures for radioactive materials, information concerning the preparation of radioactive materials and the operation of tanks and container wagons. The Approved Requirements came into force on 1 September 1996 and are legally binding. (UK)

  4. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: international regulations; materials, fracture toughness of ferritic steels; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF 6 packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; radiation risk experience; emergency response; structural modeling and testing; transportation system planning; institutional issues and public response; packaging systems; thermal analysis and testing; systems analysis; structural analyses; quality assurance; packaging and transportation systems; physical protection; criticality and shielding; transportation operations and experience; standards; shock absorber technology; and information and training for regulatory compliance. Individual summaries are title listed

  5. PATRAM '83: 7th International Symposium on Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials, summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papers were presented at the following sessions: international regulations; materials, fracture toughness of ferritic steels; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF6 packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; radiation risk experience; emergency response; structural modeling and testing; transportation system planning; institutional issues and public response; packaging systems; thermal analysis and testing; systems analysis; structural analyses; quality assurance; packaging and transportation systems; physical protection; criticality and shielding; transportation operations and experience; standards; shock absorber technology; and information and training for regulatory compliance. Individual summaries are title listed.

  6. Safety analysis report: packages 238Pu oxide shipping cask (packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.; Gates, A.A.

    1975-06-01

    Plutonium-238 (as PuO 2 powder) is shipped in triple-container stainless steel shipping casks in compliance with ERDA Manual Chapter 0529 (ERDAM 0529), Safety Standards for the Packaging of Fissile and Other Radioactive Materials. (U.S.)

  7. Packaging material and flexible medical tubing containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A packaging material or flexible medical tubing containing a modified graphite oxide material, which is a thermally exfoliated graphite oxide with a surface area of from about 300 m.sup.2/g to 2600 m.sup.2/g.

  8. Information technologies and software packages for education of specialists in materials science [In Russian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, V.; Ryaboshuk, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents methodological materials, interactive text-books and software packages developed and extensively used for education of specialists in materials science. These virtual laboratories for education and research are equipped with tutorials and software environment for modeling complex

  9. Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Moya, J.L.; McClure, J.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Golliher, K.G.

    1992-01-01

    A new design concept for a Type B transport packaging for transporting plutonium and uranium has been developed by the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The new design came about following a review of current packagings, projected future transportation needs, and current and future regulatory requirements. United States packaging, regulations specified in Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations Parts 173.416 and 173.417 (for fissile materials) offer parallel paths under the heading of authorized Type B packages for the transport of greater than A 1 or A 2 quantities of radioactive material. These pathways are for certified Type B packagings and specification packagings. Consequently, a review was made of both type B and specification packages. A request for comment has been issued by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for proposed changes to Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. These regulations may therefore change in the near future. The principle proposed regulation change that would affect this type of package is the addition of a dynamic crush requirement for certain packagings. The US Department of Transportation (DOT) may also re-evaluate the specifications in 49 CFR that authorize the fabrication and use of specification packagings. Therefore, packaging, options were considered that will meet expected new regulations and provide shipment capability for the US Department of Energy well into the future

  10. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 14: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  11. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  12. Renewable fibers and bio-based materials for packaging applications - A review of recent developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Caisa; Bras, Julien; Mondragon, Inaki

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the state-of-the-art of material derived from the forest sector with respect to its potential for use in the packaging industry. Some innovative approaches are highlighted. The aim is to cover recent developments and key challenges for successful introduction of renewable...... materials in the packaging market. The covered subjects are renewable fibers and bio-based polymers for use in bioplastics or as coatings for paper-based packaging materials. Current market sizes and forecasts are also presented. Competitive mechanical, thermal, and barrier properties along with material...

  13. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton(reg s ign) GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton(reg s ign) GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date

  14. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: summary report of NRC approved quality-assurance programs for radioactive-material packages. Volume 3, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  15. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages. Volume 3, Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volumes 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use of transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  16. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Summary report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive material packages. Volume 3, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  17. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design and shipment of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The authorization of packages and shipments of radioactive materials are issued in the form of certificates by the national competent authority of the IAEA Member State in which the package is designed or from which a shipment originates, and may be validated or endorsed by the corresponding authority of other Member States as the need arises. This directory summarizes in tabular form the key information on existing package approval certificates contained in PACKTRAM database. 5 tabs

  18. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-10-01

    This volume contains all Certificates of Compliance for radioactive material packages effective September 14, 1979. Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory.

  19. Dynamic analysis to establish normal shock and vibration of radioactive material shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    A computer model, CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator) was developed to provide input data for a broad range of radioactive material package-tiedown structural assessments. CARDS simulates the dynamic behavior of shipping packages and their transporters during normal transport conditions. The model will be used to identify parameters which significantly affect the normal shock and vibration environments which, in turn, provide the basis for determining the forces transmitted to the packages

  20. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  1. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved Quality Assurance programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved Quality Assurance programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Comments to make future revisions of this directory more useful are invited and should be directed to the Spent Fuel Project Office, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  4. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.

  5. Stowing of radioactive materials package during land transport. Third phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Jolys, J.C.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1984-01-01

    Phase 3 of this study is mainly experimental. The study is based on the work performed during 2 former studies: phase 1: definition and analysis of reference accidental conditions, and phase 2: selection of some reference accidents and computation of the deceleration forces. The main goal of the study is to draw up a reference document, giving some guidances for the stowing of packages on conveyances for land transportation. The third phase includes four frontal impact tests. The reference package used is a French IL-37 container weighing about 1.3 t. The first test was performed using a truck, loaded with two IL-37 containers and launched at a speed of 50 km/h against a fixed obstacle. The deceleration curve the behaviour of each package and the behaviour of stowing systems are compared with the theoretical results. Various measurements were made during the test: vehicle impact speed; vehicle deceleration, measured at different points on the frame, package deceleration, displacement of attachment points. The impact was filmed from different angles. The second test was performed in the same impact conditions but with a waggon instead of a truck, and loaded with one container. The front of the waggon was equipped with special shock absorbers to obtain the same deceleration as recorded during the truck impact (first test). In the third test the stowing systems were reinforced by a nylon one in order to obtain information of stowing systems of that type and to increase the energy absorption capacity. In the fourth test in addition to being stowed the package was also chocked. The results obtained have shown that it is possible to maintain a package on a truck platform even during a severe frontal impact

  6. Phosphates as packaging materials for separated nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audubert, F.

    2006-10-01

    The author gives an overview of fifteen years of research activities performed within the context of the so-called Bataille bill which recommended in 1991 new investigations on the management of nuclear wastes. She presents studies aimed at the elaboration of phosphates with an apatite structure, and outlines the determination of compositions adapted to iodine, caesium and tri- or tetravalent actinide incorporation. She reports the synthesis of phosphates with a monazite structure for caesium and actinide confinement. Finally, she reports studies dealing with the waste packaging issue (elaboration of packaging matrices, properties)

  7. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Daniel; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten; Hansen, Staffan

    2011-07-01

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for ∼ 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project

  8. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  9. The profitability drivers in packaging materials reuse for manufacturers in business to business environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Deleuran, Brian; Jacobsen, Peter

    ’s theoretical basis is the RSC literature’s business perspective formulated by Guide and Van Wassenhove. Findings – The drivers of profitability in packaging materials reuse are 1) the amount of avoided costs of purchasing new packaging materials, 2) the firm’s ability to reduce costs of reverse logistics......Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to explore the profitability drivers for a firm’s operation of a reverse supply chain (RSC) that takes back and reuses packaging materials. Results apply specifically to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in business to business environments. Design...

  10. The effects of packaging materials on microbe population in irradiated traditional herbal medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagiawati, Sri; Hilmy, Nazly

    1983-01-01

    Microbial population and moisture content of traditional herbal medicines contaminated with 3 kinds of aerobic microbes, packed in 5 kinds of plastic packaging materials, followed by irradiation at minimum dose of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months were investigated. The highest reduction of microbial counts during storage was observed on samples packed in polyethylene bags. All of packaging materials used were found to be impermeable to microbes and water vapour. Radiation and packaging materials used acted synergistically to inactivate microbes durind storage. The microbial counts decreased as much as 2 to 4 log cycles during storage. (author)

  11. Leaktightness definitions for and leakage tests on packages for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, L.

    1989-07-01

    In 1986, the International Organization for Standardization asked a group of experts representing some fifteen countries to draft a standard for the leaktightness of packagings used for the transport of radioactive materials. Progress of work and test before shipping of packages are reviewed

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2. Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    Purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This volume contains all certificates of compliance for radioactive material packages effective Nov. 30, 1977

  13. Procedures for picking up and receiving packages of radioactive material - May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This regulatory guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for licensees to comply with the provisions in 10 CFR Part 20, Section 20.205, with respect to arrangements for receipt, pickup, and monitoring of packages containing radioactive material and with respect to reporting of packages which, on receipt, show evidence of leakage or excessive radiation levels

  14. The effect of packaging material and storage method on shelf life ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor harvesting, packaging, and storage practices harm cocoyam (Xanthosoma spp) cormels resulting in short shelf life and post harvest loses. Packaging materials namely, jute sack and woven polypropylene sack, and storage methods namely, storage in moistened 'wawa' sawdust and on platform in open-air were ...

  15. Influence of polystryrene and polyethylene packaging materials on food quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) used for packaging of food were studied on their effect on product quality. Different types of PS were tested: General purpose polystyrene (GPPS), high impact polystyrene (HIPS, which contains a dispersed rubber phase) and several blends of

  16. Layered packaging: A synergistic method of transporting radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The DOE certification for a transportation cask used to ship radioactive Krypton 85 from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), was allowed to expire in 1987. The Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) was charged by DOE with modifying this cask to meet all current NRC requirements and preparing an updated Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, which would be submitted by DOE to the NRC for certification. However, an urgent need arose for ORNL to receive Krypton 85 which was in storage at the ICPP, which would not allow time to obtain certification of the modified shipping cask. WINCO elected to use a layered shipping configuration in which the gaseous Krypton 85 was placed in the uncertified, modified shipping cask to make use of its shielding and thermal insulation properties. This cask was then inserted into the Model No. 6400 (Super Tiger) packaging using a specially constructed plywood box and polyurethane foam dunnage. Structural evaluations were completed to assure the Super Tiger would provide the necessary impact, puncture, and thermal protection during maximum credible accidents. Analyses were also completed to determine the uncertified Krypton shipping cask would provide the necessary containment and shielding for up to 3.7 E+14 Bq of Krypton 85 when packaged inside the Super Tiger. The resulting reports, based upon this layered packaging concept, were adequate to first obtain DOE certification for several restricted shipments of Krypton 85 and then NRC certification for unrestricted shipments

  17. Effects of flavour absorption on foods and their packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, van R.W.G.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: flavour absorption, scalping, packaging, food matrix, lldpe, ldpe, pp, pc, pet, pen,b-lactoglobulin, casein, pectin, cmc, lactose, saccharose, oil, modelling, storage, oxygen permeability, taste perception,

  18. Effects of pulsing solution, packaging material and passive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment consisted of four pulsing solutions (silver thiosulfate + Chrysal clear solution (RVB), silver thiosulfate + 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate, silver thiosulfate + Chrysal clear solution + hydroxyquinoline sulphate and H2O), two packaging types (cardboard box and box with polyethylene bag) and four storage period ...

  19. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1987. This directory makes available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2

  20. Safety Analysis Report--packages: cobalt-60 shipping cask (packaging of radioactive and fissile materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherney, J.R.; Gates, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    Safety Analysis Report DPSPU 73-124-1 is revised to permit shipment of 8 slugs (max), each slug containing an average of 43,750 curies of 60 Co and contained in a stainless steel can with a double-plug closure in cobalt-60 shipping casks in compliance with 10 CFR 71, Packaging of Radioactive Materials for Transport. This is in addition to the forms already discussed in DPSPU 73-124-1

  1. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive-Materials Packages. Certificates of Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume I), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective December 31, 1982. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volumes 1 and 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  2. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages: Certificates of Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume 1), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1988. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  3. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages, Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Materials Packages effective October 1, 1990. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packaging which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volume 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Reports include a listing of all users of easy package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory

  4. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages. Volume 3. Revision 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Approved Packages (Volume I), all Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs (Volume 3) for Radioactive Material Packages effective October 1, 1985. The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the back of Volumes 1 and 2 of the directory. A listing by packaging types is included in the back of Volume 2. An alphabetical listing by Company name is included in the back of Volume 3 for approved QA programs. The Summary Reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packages must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR Section 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct, source or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, or 70

  5. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  7. Packaging strategies for printed circuit board components. Volume I, materials & thermal stresses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. (Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, MO); Austin, Kevin N.; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Spangler, Scott W.; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Chambers, Robert S.

    2011-09-01

    Decisions on material selections for electronics packaging can be quite complicated by the need to balance the criteria to withstand severe impacts yet survive deep thermal cycles intact. Many times, material choices are based on historical precedence perhaps ignorant of whether those initial choices were carefully investigated or whether the requirements on the new component match those of previous units. The goal of this program focuses on developing both increased intuition for generic packaging guidelines and computational methodologies for optimizing packaging in specific components. Initial efforts centered on characterization of classes of materials common to packaging strategies and computational analyses of stresses generated during thermal cycling to identify strengths and weaknesses of various material choices. Future studies will analyze the same example problems incorporating the effects of curing stresses as needed and analyzing dynamic loadings to compare trends with the quasi-static conclusions.

  8. Safety Analysis Report: Packages, Pu oxide and Am oxide shipping cask: Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalfant, G.G.

    1984-12-01

    The PuO 2 cask or 5320-3 cask is designed for shipment of americium or plutonium by surface transportation modes. The cask design was physically tested to demonstrate that it met the criteria specified in US ERDA Manual Chapter 0529, dated 12/21/76, which invokes Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) ''Packaging of Radioactive Materials for Transport,'' and Title 49 CFR Parts 171.179 ''Hazardous Materials Regulations.'' (US DOE Order 4580.1A, Chapter III, superseded manual chapter 0529 effective May 1981, but it retained the same 10 CFR 71 and 49 CFR 171-179 references

  9. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  10. Hydrothermal carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials for energy source generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Diederick, Ryan; Flora, Joseph R V; Berge, Nicole D

    2013-11-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermal conversion technique that converts food wastes and associated packaging materials to a valuable, energy-rich resource. Food waste collected from local restaurants was carbonized over time at different temperatures (225, 250 and 275°C) and solids concentrations to determine how process conditions influence carbonization product properties and composition. Experiments were also conducted to determine the influence of packaging material on food waste carbonization. Results indicate the majority of initial carbon remains integrated within the solid-phase at the solids concentrations and reaction temperatures evaluated. Initial solids concentration influences carbon distribution because of increased compound solubilization, while changes in reaction temperature imparted little change on carbon distribution. The presence of packaging materials significantly influences the energy content of the recovered solids. As the proportion of packaging materials increase, the energy content of recovered solids decreases because of the low energetic retention associated with the packaging materials. HTC results in net positive energy balances at all conditions, except at a 5% (dry wt.) solids concentration. Carbonization of food waste and associated packaging materials also results in net positive balances, but energy needs for solids post-processing are significant. Advantages associated with carbonization are not fully realized when only evaluating process energetics. A more detailed life cycle assessment is needed for a more complete comparison of processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste Package and Material Testing for the Proposed Yucca Mountain High Level Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, Thomas; Pasupathi, V.

    2002-01-01

    Over the repository lifetime, the waste package containment barriers will perform various functions that will change with time. During the operational period, the barriers will function as vessels for handling, emplacement, and waste retrieval (if necessary). During the years following repository closure, the containment barriers will be relied upon to provide substantially complete containment, through 10,000 years and beyond. Following the substantially complete containment phase, the barriers and the waste package internal structures help minimize release of radionuclides by aqueous- and gaseous-phase transport. These requirements have lead to a defense-in-depth design philosophy. A multi-barrier design will result in a lower breach rate distributed over a longer period of time, thereby ensuring the regulatory requirements are met. The design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) has evolved. The initial waste package design was a thin walled package, 3/8 inch of stainless steel 304, that had very limited capacity, (3 PWR and 4 BWR assemblies) and performance characteristics, 300 to 1,000 years. This design required over 35,000 waste packages compared to today's design of just over 10,000 waste packages. The waste package designs are now based on a defense-in-depth/multi-barrier philosophy and have a capacity similar to the standard storage and rail transported spent nuclear fuel casks. Concurrent with the development of the design of the waste packages, a comprehensive waste package materials testing program has been undertaken to support the selection of containment barrier materials and to develop predictive models for the long-term behavior of these materials under expected repository conditions. The testing program includes both long-term and short-term tests and the results from these tests combination with the data published in the open literature are being used to develop models for predicting performance of the waste packages

  12. Application of common packaging materials in the probiotic fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Iličić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the application of common packaging materials polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS in the probiotic fresh cheese production packaging. Probiotic and traditional cheeses were produced from milk with standardized milk fat content of 2.3 g/100 g including the application of two cultures (probiotic and traditional. The samples were packed in the PP and PS cups and stored at 4 ºC for 30 days. The observed permeability of gases through the two applied packaging materials was significantly different. Cheese samples were analysed for microbiological properties whereby lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp. and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB were determined. Packaging materials showed no significant effect on the content of ascorbic acid which is known to be sensitive to the presence of oxygen.

  13. Packaging tomorrow : modelling the material input for European packaging in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Joosten, L.A.J.; Worrell, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a result of the MATTER project (MATerials Technology for CO2 Emission Reduction). The project focuses on CO2 emission reductions that are related to the Western European materials system. The total impact of the reduction options for different scenario's will be modeled in MARKAL

  14. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials on conveyances. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1982-01-01

    The study includes the redaction of a reference document that would give directives concerning the stowing of packages on ground transportation means. These directives would exclusively cover the mechanical loads to which the packages are subjected in normal or accidental transport conditions. Regulatory prescriptions have been collected in Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden and the U.S.A. Additionally, advisory prescriptions and information have been received from national or international organizations, as well as from companies specialized in road and railway traffic. On the basis of a large inquiry made with truck- and waggon manufacturers about generated deceleration forces involved during transport vehicles and train accidents, and about forces taken into account for the construction of these equipments, some interesting information has been collected. The most current standards concerning the strength of the stowing for road transportation are in the three directions (longitudinal, lateral and vertical) respectively 2g - 1g - 1g, while the maximum values are respectively 10g - 5g - 2g. For railway transportation, the standards in many European countries are 4 g - 0,4 g - 0,3 g. While data concerning the normal railway traffic are coherent, no reliable data exist for accidents including the impact of vehicles against rigid obstacles

  15. 49 CFR 173.21 - Forbidden materials and packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... container, or overpack with another material, the mixing of which is likely to cause a dangerous evolution... the material at a speed greater than the speed of sound. (2) When tests are required to evaluate the...

  16. Corrosion test on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Curtis, P.G.

    1996-01-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials in order to assist in selecting materials for package design and to help in designing longer-term corrosion tests. The corrosion solution was buffered near pH4, was in contact with air, and contained chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel-, and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron absorber elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron absorber elements were studied

  17. Simplified analytical solutions for free drops during NCT for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    To ensure structural integrity during normal conditions of transport (NCT), Federal regulations in 10CFR71.71 require that the nuclear material package designs be evaluated for the effects of free drops. The vessel stress acceptance criteria for these drops are given in Regulatory Guide 7.6 and ASME Section III Code. During initial phases of the package design, the effects of the NCT free drops can be evaluated by simplified analytical solutions which will ensure that the safety margins specified in R. G. 7.6 are met. These safety margins can be verified during the final stages of the package design with dynamic analyses using finite element methods. This paper calculates the maximum impact open-quotes gclose quotes loading on the vessels using single degree of freedom models for different drop orientations. Only end, bottom, and corner drops are analyzed for cylindrical packages or packages with cylindrical ends

  18. Development on inelastic analysis acceptance criteria for radioactive material transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerman, D.J.; Ludwigsen, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    The response of radioactive material transportation packages to mechanical accident loadings can be more accurately characterized by non-linear dynamic analysis than by the ''Equivalent dynamic'' static elastic analysis typically used in the design of these packages. This more accurate characterization of the response can lead to improved package safety and design efficiency. For non-linear dynamic analysis to become the preferred method of package design analysis, an acceptance criterion must be established that achieves an equivalent level of safety as the currently used criterion defined in NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6 (NRC 1978). Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting a study of possible acceptance criteria to meet this requirement. In this paper non-linear dynamic analysis acceptance criteria based on stress, strain, and strain-energy-density will be discussed. An example package design will be compared for each of the design criteria, including the approach of NRC Regulatory Guide 7.6

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-01-01

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex(trademark) assemblies within the package. Celotex(trademark) fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex(trademark). The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation

  20. Consumer response to packaging design: The role of packaging materials and graphics in sustainability perceptions and product evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, N.D.; Herpen, E. van; Lans, I.A. van der; Ligthart, T.N.; Trijp, H.C.M. van

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  1. Advances in regulation and package design for transportation or storage of radioactive materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    The design of packages for the transport or storage of radioactive materials, particularly spent nuclear fuel, has been evolving in three major areas. The most significant changes have been increases n the capacity of packages. Testing has received increasing importance to supplement analysis and to verify the accuracy of the computer models to represent the more complex designs. New materials have also been proposed that are capable of serving more than one function within a package which would reduce weight and offer the possibility of simplifying package design. It is the intent of the papers presented in this volume to address the impact of these developments by presenting papers that describe testing methods, materials development programs and recent package designs. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a field that is beginning to emerge as a major field of endeavor that spans the mechanical engineering, nuclear engineering and many other disciplines. Papers included in this publication describe efforts to understand the mechanics of decontamination of surfaces that have been exposed to radioactive materials and the application of robotics to perform tasks that would be excessively hazardous for humans. Presentation of these papers within the format of the ASME has been chosen to focus attention upon the importance of designing packages in accordance with the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Coal. The papers contained herein have been subjected to a formal review process in accordance with ASME requirements

  2. The Influence of Aging Period, Freezing Temperature and Packaging Material on Frozen Beef Chemical Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the influences of aging period, freezing temperature and packaging material on the frozen beef chemical quality. The material of the study was 2-3 years old Ongole grade beef of the Longissimus dorsi part,  and was then classified into 3 treat­ments, namely A (aging periode; 0, 12 and 24 hours, B (freezing temperature; -10°C and -20°C and C (packaging material; aluminum foil (Al, polyprophylene (PP, poly­ethylene (PE and without packaging material. The ob­served variables were water content, crude protein, fat, ash content. The data were analyzed by the Completely Randomized Design (CRD in the Factorial (3x2x4 pattern. The results indicated that the aging periode de­creased the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, and decreased the crude protein but increased the fat content insignificantly. The lower freezing temperature prevented the decreases of the water content, and ash content significantly (P<0.05, but prevented the decrease of crude protein, fat content insignificantly. The packaging material could prevent the decreases of water content, ash content sig­nificantly (P<0.05, but prevent the decreases of protein, and fat content insignificantly. A significant interaction (P<0.05 occured between the freezing temperature and packaging material factors on ash content of the frozen beef. The conclusion was the frozen beef without aging has a high of water content, protein, and ash, but has a low fat content.Temperature at -200C and using aluminium foil packaging can prevent decreasing quality of frozen beef. Keywords : Aging period, freezing temperature,  packaging material

  3. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  4. Technological challenges of addressing new and more complex migrating products from novel food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Ian C; Haighton, Lois A; Lynch, Barry S; Tafazoli, Shahrzad

    2009-12-01

    The risk assessment of migration products resulting from packaging material has and continues to pose a difficult challenge. In most jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for the approval or notification of food contact substances that will be used in packaging. These processes generally require risk assessment to ensure safety concerns are addressed. The science of assessing food contact materials was instrumental in the development of the concept of Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern procedures. While the risk assessment process is in place, the technology of food packaging continues to evolve to include new initiatives, such as the inclusion of antimicrobial substances or enzyme systems to prevent spoilage, use of plastic packaging intended to remain on foods as they are being cooked, to the introduction of more rigid, stable and reusable materials, and active packaging to extend the shelf-life of food. Each new technology brings with it the potential for exposure to new and possibly novel substances as a result of migration, interaction with other chemical packaging components, or, in the case of plastics now used in direct cooking of products, degradation products formed during heating. Furthermore, the presence of trace levels of certain chemicals from packaging that were once accepted as being of low risk based on traditional toxicology studies are being challenged on the basis of reports of adverse effects, particularly with respect to endocrine disruption, alleged to occur at very low doses. A recent example is the case of bisphenol A. The way forward to assess new packaging technologies and reports of very low dose effects in non-standard studies of food contact substances is likely to remain controversial. However, the risk assessment paradigm is sufficiently robust and flexible to be adapted to meet these challenges. The use of the Threshold of Regulation and the Threshold of Toxicological Concern concepts may

  5. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 17: Certificates of compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This directory contains a Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Materials Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on Quality Assurance Programs and Packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR section 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure themselves that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program

  6. Regulatory compliance in the design of packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raske, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    Shipments of radioactive materials within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy (DOE) must meet the package design requirements contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, and DOE Order 5480.3. These regulations do not provide design criteria requirements, but only detail the approval standards, structural performance criteria, and package integrity requirements that must be met during transport. The DOE recommended design criterion for high-level Category I radioactive packagings is Section III, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, alternative design criteria may be used if all the design requirements are satisfied. The purpose of this paper is to review alternatives to the Code criteria and discuss their applicability to the design of containment vessels in packages for high-level radioactive materials. Issues such as design qualification by physical testing, the use of scale models, and problems encountered using a non-ASME design approach are addressed

  7. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  8. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  9. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Volume 2, Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  10. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages. Certificates of compliance. Volume 2. Revision 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1). Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volumes 3). The purpose of this directory is make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  11. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for Radioactive Materials Packages. Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure them that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note that the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  12. Directory of certificates of compliance for radioactive materials packages: certificates of compliance. Volume 2, Revision 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This directory contains a Summary Report of NRC Approved Packages (Volume 1), Certificates of Compliance (Volume 2), and a Summary Report of NRC Approved Quality Assurance Programs for Radioactive Material Packages (Volume 3). The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance number is included at the back of each volume of the directory. The Summary Report includes a listing of all users of each package design prior to the publication date of the directory. Shipments of radioactive material utilizing these packagings must be in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR 173.471 and 10 CFR Part 71, as applicable. In satisfying the requirements of Section 71.12, it is the responsibility of the licensees to insure that they have a copy of the current approval and conduct their transportation activities in accordance with an NRC approved quality assurance program. Copies of the current approval may be obtained from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Public Document Room files (see Docket No. listed on each certificate) at 1717 H Street, Washington, DC 20555. Note the general license of 10 CFR 71.12 does not authorize the receipt, possession, use or transfer of byproduct source, or special nuclear material; such authorization must be obtained pursuant to 10 CFR Parts 30 to 36, 40, 50, or 70

  13. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1992 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    Being in a unique position to facilitate information exchange, the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency was requested by its Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) to collate package approval data and publish periodical reports thereon. A database was implemented on the mainframe computer in the mid-1980s but this was soon adapted for use on a personal computer. A fully menu-driven system programme was designed that allows both contributing Member States and the Secretariat more flexibility in data processing and reporting. Complete documentation is available in the form of a user guide. The cut-off date used for this report is 31 August 1992. This report supersedes IAEA-TECDOC-617 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design, Special Form Material and Shipment of Radioactive Material, 1991 Edition''. The information contained in this report is given in six tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. The certificate number is identical with the competent authority identification mark. It is composed of the issuing Member State's international vehicle registration identification (VRI) code, followed by a slash, then a unique number specific to a particular design or shipment that is assigned by the competent authority, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiry dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6

  14. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The format of this report is a result of recommendations made by the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM) at its 6th meeting in November 1987. The database was at that time maintained on the main frame and it was felt that adapting it for use on a personal computer would allow more flexibility in data processing and reporting. This document supersedes TECDOC-552 ''Directory of National Competent Authorities' Approval Certificates for Package Design and Shipment of Radioactive Material 1990 Edition''. Since publication of TECDOC-552, some modifications affecting the structure of the database and reporting formats were undertaken. These are fully described in ''Working Material: The PACKTRAM Database National Competent Authority Package Approval Certificates, User Guide Rev. 1'', which was released in early 1991. The present report is contained in five tables. In each of these, information is presented in alphabetical order based on the certificate number. This is composed of the issuing Member State's VRI code, followed by a slash, then a three- or four-digit number, another slash and finally a code identifying the type of package involved. ''-85'' is appended to those certificates that were approved on the basis of the 1985 Edition of Safety Series No. 6. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expire, dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipment is approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table. 5

  15. Stability of flavoured phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts during storage as affected by different packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuc, Cristina Anamaria; Cardenia, Vladimiro; Mandrioli, Mara; Muste, Sevastiţa; Borsari, Andrea; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different packaging materials on storage stability of flavoured phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts. White vanilla (WV) and blood orange (BO) phytosterol-enriched drinking yogurts conditioned in mono-layer and triple-layer co-extruded plastic bottles were stored at +6 ± 1 °C for 35 days (under alternating 12 h light and 12 h darkness) to simulate shelf-life conditions. Samples were collected at three different storage times and subjected to determination of total sterol content (TSC), peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). TSC was not significantly affected by packaging material or storage time and met the quantity declared on the label. PV was significantly influenced by yogurt type × packaging material × storage time interaction and TBARs by packaging material × storage time interaction. Between the two packaging materials, the triple-layer plastic mini bottle with black coloured and completely opaque intermediate layer offered the best protection against lipid oxidation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Ingredient of Biomass Packaging Material and Compare Study on Cushion Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the white pollution caused by nondegradable waste plastic packaging materials, the biomass cushion packaging material with straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials had been synthesized. The orthogonal experiment was used to study the impact of mass ratio of fiber to starch, content of plasticizer, active agent, and foaming agent on the compressive strength of cushion material. Infrared spectrometer and theory of water’s bridge-connection were used to study the hydroxyl groups among the fiber and starch. The results were demonstrated as follows: the mass ratio of fiber to starch had the most significant impact on compressive strength. When the contents of the plasticizer, the foaming agent, and the active agent were, respectively, 12%, 0.1%, and 0.3% and the mass ratio of fiber to starch was 2 : 5, the compressive strength was the best up to 0.94 MPa. Meanwhile, with the plasticizer content and the mass ratio of fiber to starch increasing, the cushioning coefficient of the material decreased first and then increased. Comparing the cushion and rebound performance of this material with others, the biomass cushion packaging material could be an ideal substitute of plastic packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.

  17. Certified reference materials for food packaging specific migration tests: development, validation and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffers, N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:certified reference materials; diffusion; food contact materials; food packaging; laurolactam; migration modelling; nylon; specific migration This thesis compiles several research topics

  18. Final versions of the initial package of classroom materials and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel; Jonker, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the mascil Work Package 3 ‘classroom materials’ is to present guidelines and an online collection of teaching materials that encourage and support teachers to design their own classroom materials that connect IBL and the WoW in mathematics and science education.The collection

  19. Candidate container materials for Yucca Mountain waste package designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Gdowski, G.E.; Clarke, W.L.

    1991-09-01

    Materials considered as candidates for fabricating nuclear waste containers are reviewed in the context of the Conceptual Design phase of a potential repository located at Yucca Mountain. A selection criteria has been written for evaluation of candidate materials for the next phase -- Advanced Conceptual Design. The selection criteria is based on the conceptual design of a thin-walled container fabricated from a single metal or alloy; the criteria consider the performance requirements on the container and the service environment in which the containers will be emplaced. A long list of candidate materials is evaluated against the criteria, and a short list of materials is proposed for advanced characterization in the next design phase

  20. Perceptions of Sustainability and Functional Aspects on Liquid Carton Board Packaging Materials versus Competing Materials for Juice Applications in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Olsmats

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the downstream perceptions of liquid carton board versus competing materials in packaging applications for juice. The methodology used is focus groups. The context is sustainability and functional performance, and related potential implications for the beverage industry value chain. The purpose is to get a deeper insight and understanding of functionality in relation to juice beverage packaging. The results confirm that there is no optimal packaging for every juice product, but a multitude, depending on the distribution channel, retail outlet, customer preferences, and context of consumption. There are some general packaging preferences, but the main deciding criteria for purchase seem to be the product characteristics in terms of quality, taste, brand, price and shelf life. For marketing reasons, packaging has to be adopted to the product and its positioning, liquid carton board packaging seem to have some functional advantages in distribution and is considered as sustainable and functional among many consumers. Major drawbacks seem to be shape limitations, lack of transparency, and lack of a “premium look”. To improve packaging performance and avoid sub-optimization, actors in the beverage industry value chain need to be integrated in development processes.

  1. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2000 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped, rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required on the package. The grater the radiological risk posed by the material being moved, the more stringent become the performance for the packaging that can be authorised to contain it. These principles have been expanded since 1061 into a set of regulations that are responsible for safety moving the ever-growing number and complexity of radioactive material shipments throughout the world. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material are incorporated into UN regulations, as well as the requirements of other international transport organizations. This is the eleventh report published by the IAEA since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Transport safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). Through the PACKTRAM database, the IAEA collects administrative and technical information provided by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates

  2. Thermal analysis of regulatory fire conditions on a transport package for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.

    2006-01-01

    MDS Nordion, a division of Canadian-based MDS Inc., maintains and operates transport packages for the distribution of radioactive materials used in the medical, sterilization and pharmaceutical industries. Each of these packages must be proven to meet international regulatory standards, often including the analysis of the packages under accident fire conditions. Actual physical fire tests are costly and time consuming. Therefore, it is beneficial to simulate such fire tests with numerical models validated against previous tests. This paper describes the thermal simulation of the IAEA TS-R-1 regulatory fire conditions (800 o C fire for a period of 30 minutes and left to cool naturally in the heat of the sun) on a transport package using the ANSYS finite element code. The analyzed transport package is a steel-encased cylindrical lead-filled radiation shield welded to a support frame. A cylindrical cavity in the center of the shield, sealed by a lead-filled shielding plug, holds the radioactive material. The radiation shield is wrapped in thermal insulation, which is held in place by wire mesh. A two-dimensional, axi-symmetric model was developed to simulate the thermal behavior of the transport package during and after the regulatory fire. Mechanical deformations and stresses induced from the temperature distributions in the package are not considered in this paper. The mesh (solid model, radiation enclosure calculations, convection and radiation elements), material properties (non-linear), boundary conditions (radiation and convection) and loading (thermal transient, heat generation) used in the ANSYS simulations are discussed. Test data from physical steady state and transient fire tests was used to develop and validate the model. The finite element model was then used to predict and evaluate the response of the package to the TS-R-1 fire transient. (author)

  3. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  4. Determination of Fire Enviroment in Stacked Cargo Containers with Radioactive Materials Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arviso, M.; Bobbe, J.G.; Dukart, R.D.; Koski, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Results from a Fire Test with a three-by-three stack of standard 6 m long International Standards Organization shipping containers containing combustible fuels and empty radioactive materials packages are reported and discussed. The stack is intended to simulate fire conditions that could occur during on-deck stowage on container cargo ships. The fire is initated by locating the container stack adjacent to a 9.8 x 6 m pool fire. Temperatures of both cargoes (empty and simulated radioactive materials packages) and containers are recorded and reported. Observations on the duration, intensity and spread of the fire are discussed. Based on the results, models for simulation of fire exposure of radioactive materials packages in such fires are suggested.

  5. An Investigation Into The Viability Of Nanocrystalline Cellulose As A Packaging Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, John

    The focus of this proposal is to identify unexplored areas of research in the field of packaging science, specifically related to the incorporation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose (NCC) as a functional material in fiber based packaging, as well as to highlight some of potential risks and unknowns in the product lifecycle. This research hypothesizes that incorporating NCC into wood fiber-based c-flute corrugated packaging medium will show a sufficient performance improvement to justify additional research. Nanomaterials, as a whole, are still being understood, including those using naturally occurring bases such as NCC. Further incremental testing with NCC will help provide a performance and safety baseline for the necessary future research prior to mass production. NCC holds great promise for the future: a commonly available, naturally occurring material that's easily recyclable and biodegradable, yet has the strength of steel. Due diligence is required for this material to come to market in a safe and sustainable manner.

  6. The effect of different packaging materials on proteolysis, sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, tulum cheese was manufactured using raw ewe's milk and was ripened in goat's skin and plastic bags. The effect of ripening materials (skin bag or plastic) on proteolysis was investigated during 120 days of ripening. In addition, sensory scores of the cheeses were assessed at the 90th and 120th days.

  7. Mitigation of ammunition effects by application of alternative packaging materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Hooijmeijer, P.A.; Meuken, B.; Scholtes, J.H.G.; Makkus, J.C.; Klerk, W.P.C. de

    2013-01-01

    A mass detonation of stored ammunition may lead to devastating injury, material damage, and asset loss. Such a scenario can be initiated by an external (fragment or bullet) impact, or the detonation of nearby ammunition articles, leading to sympathetic reaction/detonation. At a military base,

  8. Effect of packaging materials on shelf life and quality of banana cultivars (Musa spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailu, M; Seyoum Workneh, T; Belew, D

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of packaging materials on the shelf life of three banana cultivars. Four packaging materials, namely, perforated low density polyethylene bag, perforated high density polyethylene bag, dried banana leaf, teff straw and no packaging materials (control) were used with three banana cultivars, locally known as, Poyo, Giant Cavendish and Williams I. The experiment was carried out in Randomized Complete Block Design in a factorial combination with three replications. Physical parameters including weight loss, peel colour, peel thickness, pulp thickness, pulp to peel ratio, pulp firmness, pulp dry matter, decay, loss percent of marketability were assessed every 3 days. Banana remained marketable for 36 days in the high density polyethylene and low density polyethylene bags, and for 18 days in banana leaf and teff straw packaging treatments. Unpackaged fruits remained marketable for 15 days only. Fruits that were not packaged lost their weight by 24.0 % whereas fruits packaged in banana leaf and teff straw became unmarketable with final weight loss of 19.8 % and 20.9 %, respectively. Packaged fruits remained well until 36th days of storage with final weight loss of only 8.2 % and 9.20 %, respectively. Starting from green mature stage, the colour of the banana peel changed to yellow and this process was found to be fast for unpackaged fruits. Packaging maintained the peel and the pulp thickness, firmness, dry matter and pulp to peel ratio was kept lower. Decay loss for unpackaged banana fruits was16 % at the end of date 15, whereas the decay loss of fruits packaged using high density and low density polyethylene bags were 43.0 % and 41.2 %, respectively at the end of the 36th day of the experiment. It can, thus, be concluded that packaging of banana fruits in high density and low density polyethylene bags resulted in longer shelf life and improved quality of the produce followed by packaging in dried banana leaf

  9. Type B plutonium transport package development that uses metallic filaments and composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.D.; Moya, J.L.; McClure, J.D.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Golliher, K.G.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a concept for a Type B packaging that could meet present and future regulatory requirements. Two prototype packages were fabricated and subjected to dynamic crush (500 kg steel plate dropped 9 meters onto the package) environments. Subsequent evaluation indicated no deformation in the seal areas that would allow dispersal of the material. One-dimensional wall sections were fabricated to obtain thermal conductivity values for pre- and post-accident conditions. Finally, structural and thermal computer models were developed and benchmarked by test results to predict package behavior during accident environments. Design details, cost analyses, and results from structural and thermal finite element analyses are presented. In addition, the experimental results of lateral and axial dynamic crush tests, simulated fire tests, and handling tests are also discussed. (J.P.N.)

  10. 9975 Shipping Package Performance Of Alternate Materials For Long-Term Storage Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, E.; Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Model 9975 shipping package specifies the materials of construction for its various components. With the loss of availability of material for two components (cane fiberboard overpack and Viton(reg s ign) GLT O-rings), alternate materials of construction were identified and approved for use for transport (softwood fiberboard and Viton(reg s ign) GLT-S O-rings). As these shipping packages are part of a long-term storage configuration at the Savannah River Site, additional testing is in progress to verify satisfactory long-term performance of the alternate materials under storage conditions. The test results to date can be compared to comparable results on the original materials of construction to draw preliminary conclusions on the performance of the replacement materials.

  11. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  12. Safety Evaluation of Radioactive Material Transport Package under Stacking Test Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Chan; Seo, Ki Seog; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive waste transport package was developed to transport eight drums of low and intermediate level waste(LILW) in accordance with the IAEA and domestic related regulations. The package is classified with industrial package IP-2. IP-2 package is required to undergo a free drop test and a stacking test. After free drop and stacking tests, it should prevent the loss or dispersal of radioactive contents, and loss of shielding integrity which would result in more than 20 % increase in the radiation level at any external surface of the package. The objective of this study is to establish the safety test method and procedure for stacking test and to prove the structural integrities of the IP-2 package. Stacking test and analysis were performed with a compressive load equal to five times the weight of the package for a period of 24 hours using a full scale model. Strains and displacements were measured at the corner fitting of the package during the stacking test. The measured strains and displacements were compared with the analysis results, and there were good agreements. It is very difficult to measure the deflection at the container base, so the maximum deflection of the container base was calculated by the analysis method. The maximum displacement at the corner fitting and deflection at the container base were less than their allowable values. Dimensions of the test model, thickness of shielding material and bolt torque were measured before and after the stacking test. Throughout the stacking test, it was found that there were no loss or dispersal of radioactive contents and no loss of shielding integrity. Thus, the package was shown to comply with the requirements to maintain structural integrity under the stacking condition.

  13. Application of the ASME code in designing containment vessels for packages used to transport radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raske, D.T.; Wang, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The primary concern governing the design of shipping packages containing radioactive materials is public safety during transport. When these shipments are within the regulatory jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy, the recommended design criterion for the primary containment vessel is either Section III or Section VIII, Division 1, of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, depending on the activity of the contents. The objective of this paper is to discuss the design of a prototypic containment vessel representative of a packaging for the transport of high-level radioactive material

  14. Nupack, the new ASME code for radioactive material transportation packaging containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, P.

    1998-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has added a new division to the nuclear construction section of its Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B and PVC). This Division, commonly referred to as Nupack, has been written to provide a consistent set of technical requirements for containment vessels of transportation packagings for high-level radioactive materials. This paper provides an introduction to Nupack, discusses some of its technical provisions, and describes how it can be used for the design and construction of packaging components. Nupack's general provisions and design requirements are emphasized, while treatment of materials, fabrication and inspection is left for another paper

  15. Qualification testing facility for packages to be used for transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The radioactive materials (RAM) packaging have to comply to all modes and transport condition, routine or in accident conditions possibly to occur during transportation operations. It is well known that the safety in the transport of RAM is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required for the package. The quality of these packages - type A, B or C has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the ROMANIAN nuclear regulation conditions provided by CNCAN Order no. 357/22.12.2005- 'Norms for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Material', the IAEA Vienna Recommendation stipulated in the Safety standard TS-R-1- Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, and other applicable international recommendations. The paper will describe the components of the designed testing facilities, and the qualification testing to be performed for all type A, B and C packages subjected to the testing. In addition, a part of the qualification tests for a package (designed and manufactured in INR Pitesti) used for transport and storage of spent fuel LEU elements of a TRIGA nuclear reactor will be described and analyzed. Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design are also presented and commented. The paper concludes that the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM packages will comply with the national safe standards as well as with the IAEA applicable recommendation provided by the TS-R-1 safety standard. (author)

  16. Assessment of Quality Assurance Measures for Radioactive Material Transport Packages not Requiring Competent Authority Design Approval - 13282

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komann, Steffen; Groeke, Carsten; Droste, Bernhard [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 44-46, 12203 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The majority of transports of radioactive materials are carried out in packages which don't need a package design approval by a competent authority. Low-active radioactive materials are transported in such packages e.g. in the medical and pharmaceutical industry and in the nuclear industry as well. Decommissioning of NPP's leads to a strong demand for packages to transport low and middle active radioactive waste. According to IAEA regulations the 'non-competent authority approved package types' are the Excepted Packages and the Industrial Packages of Type IP-1, IP-2 and IP-3 and packages of Type A. For these types of packages an assessment by the competent authority is required for the quality assurance measures for the design, manufacture, testing, documentation, use, maintenance and inspection (IAEA SSR 6, Chap. 306). In general a compliance audit of the manufacturer of the packaging is required during this assessment procedure. Their regulatory level in the IAEA regulations is not comparable with the 'regulatory density' for packages requiring competent authority package design approval. Practices in different countries lead to different approaches within the assessment of the quality assurance measures in the management system as well as in the quality assurance program of a special package design. To use the package or packaging in a safe manner and in compliance with the regulations a management system for each phase of the life of the package or packaging is necessary. The relevant IAEA-SSR6 chap. 801 requires documentary verification by the consignor concerning package compliance with the requirements. (authors)

  17. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  18. Survival of Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms on Cardboard and Plastic Packaging Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Siroli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the interaction of corrugated and plastic materials with pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms frequently associated to fresh produce. The effect of the two packaging materials on the survival during the storage of microorganisms belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Aspergillus flavus was studied through traditional plate counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results obtained showed that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduced the potential of packaging to cross-contaminate food due to a faster viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic ones. In fact, the cell loads of the pathogenic species considered decreased over time independently on the inoculation level and packaging material used. However, the superficial viability losses were significantly faster in cardboard compared to plastic materials. The same behavior was observed for the spoilage microorganisms considered. The SEM microphotographs indicate that the reduction of superficial contamination on cardboard surfaces was due to the entrapping of the microbial cells within the fibers and the pores of this material. In addition, SEM data showed that the entrapped cells were subjected to more or less rapid lyses, depending on the species, due to the absence of water and nutrients, with the exception of molds. The latter spoilers were able to proliferate inside the cardboard fibers only when the absorption of water was not prevented during the storage. In conclusion, the findings of this work showed the reduction of cross-contamination potential of corrugated compared to plastic packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable sector. However, the findings outlined the importance of hygiene and low humidity during cardboard storage to prevent the mold growth on

  19. Survival of Spoilage and Pathogenic Microorganisms on Cardboard and Plastic Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroli, Lorenzo; Patrignani, Francesca; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Chiavari, Cristiana; Benevelli, Marzia; Grazia, Luigi; Lanciotti, Rosalba

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of corrugated and plastic materials with pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms frequently associated to fresh produce. The effect of the two packaging materials on the survival during the storage of microorganisms belonging to the species Escherichia coli , Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enteritidis , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Lactobacillus plantarum , Pseudomonas fluorescens , and Aspergillus flavus was studied through traditional plate counting and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results obtained showed that cardboard materials, if correctly stored, reduced the potential of packaging to cross-contaminate food due to a faster viability loss by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms compared to the plastic ones. In fact, the cell loads of the pathogenic species considered decreased over time independently on the inoculation level and packaging material used. However, the superficial viability losses were significantly faster in cardboard compared to plastic materials. The same behavior was observed for the spoilage microorganisms considered. The SEM microphotographs indicate that the reduction of superficial contamination on cardboard surfaces was due to the entrapping of the microbial cells within the fibers and the pores of this material. In addition, SEM data showed that the entrapped cells were subjected to more or less rapid lyses, depending on the species, due to the absence of water and nutrients, with the exception of molds. The latter spoilers were able to proliferate inside the cardboard fibers only when the absorption of water was not prevented during the storage. In conclusion, the findings of this work showed the reduction of cross-contamination potential of corrugated compared to plastic packaging materials used in fruit and vegetable sector. However, the findings outlined the importance of hygiene and low humidity during cardboard storage to prevent the mold growth on packaging.

  20. Safety analysis report: packages. Pu oxide and Am oxide shipping cask (Packaging of fissile and other radioactive materials). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalfant, G.G.

    1980-05-01

    The PuO 2 cask or SP 5320-2 and 3 cask is designed for surface shipment of americium or plutonium. The cask design was physically tested to demonstrate that it met the criteria specified in US ERDA Manual Chapter 0529, and Chapter I, Interstate Commerce Commission. The package has been assessed for transport of up to 357 grams of plutonium (403 grams PuO 2 powder) and up to 176 grams of americium (200 grams AmO 2 powder), having a maximum decay heat of 203 watts. Criticality evaluation alone would allow the shipment as Fissile Class II but the radiation level of the cask, measured at the time of shipment, may exceed 50 mrem/h at the surface and require shipment as Fissile Class III. Sample calculations address only the more restrictive of the two materials, which in most cases is 238 PuO 2

  1. Biocomposite cellulose-alginate films: promising packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirviö, Juho Antti; Kolehmainen, Aleksi; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo E O

    2014-05-15

    Biocomposite films based on cellulose and alginate were produced using unmodified birch pulp, microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and birch pulp derivate, nanofibrillated anionic dicarboxylic acid cellulose (DCC), having widths of fibres ranging from 19.0 μm to 25 nm as cellulose fibre materials. Ionically cross-linked biocomposites were produced using Ca(2+) cross-linking. Addition of micro- and nanocelluloses as a reinforcement increased the mechanical properties of the alginate films remarkably, e.g. addition of 15% of NFC increased a tensile strength of the film from 70.02 to 97.97 MPa. After ionic cross-linking, the tensile strength of the film containing 10% of DCC was increased from 69.63 to 125.31 MPa. The biocomposite films showed excellent grease barrier properties and reduced water vapour permeability (WVP) after the addition of cellulose fibres, except when unmodified birch pulp was used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sensitivity analysis: Interaction of DOE SNF and packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.; Kirkham, R.J.; Shaber, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the technical issues pertaining to possible destructive interactions between spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) and the stainless steel canisters. When issues are identified through such an analysis, they provide the technical basis for answering what if questions and, if needed, for conducting additional analyses, testing, or other efforts to resolve them in order to base the licensing on solid technical grounds. The analysis reported herein systematically assessed the chemical and physical properties and the potential interactions of the materials that comprise typical US Department of Energy (DOE) SNFs and the stainless steel canisters in which they will be stored, transported, and placed in a geologic repository for final disposition. The primary focus in each step of the analysis was to identify any possible phenomena that could potentially compromise the structural integrity of the canisters and to assess their thermodynamic feasibility

  3. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described.

  4. An analysis of the qualification criteria for small radioactive material shipping packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    The RAM package design certification process has two important elements, testing and acceptance. These terms sound very similar but they have specific meanings. Qualification testing in the context of this study is the imposition of simulated accident test conditions upon the candidate package design. (Normal transportation environments may also be included.) Following qualification testing, the acceptance criteria provide the performance levels which, if demonstrated, indicate the ability of the RAM package to sustain the severity of the qualification testing sequence and yet maintain specified levels of package integrity. This study has used Severities of Transportation Accidents as a data base to examine the regulatory test criteria which are required to be met by small packages containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM). The basic findings indicate that the present regulatory test standards provide significantly higher levels of protection for the surface transportation modes (truck, rail) than for RAM packages shipped by aircraft. It should also be noted that various risk assessment studies have shown that the risk to the public due to severe transport accidents by surface and air transport modes is very low. A key element in this study was the quantification of the severity of the transportation accident environment and the severity of the present qualification test standards (called qualification test standards in this document) so that a direct comparison could be made between them to assess the effectiveness of the existing qualification test standards. The manner in which this was accomplished is described

  5. Variation in Inspection Efficacy by Member States of Wood Packaging Material Entering the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominic Eyre; Roy Macarthur; Robert A Haack; Yi Lu; Hannes Krehan

    2018-01-01

    The use of wood packaging materials (WPMs) in international trade is recognized as a pathway for the movement of invasive pests and as the origin of most introductions of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe and North America. Following several pest interceptions on WPM associated with...

  6. Proposals for radioactive material by rail (packaging, labelling and carriage) regulations (Northern Ireland) 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The proposed Radioactive Material by Rail (Packaging, Labelling and Carriage Regulations (Northern Ireland) are presented in this consultation document. The proposals establish a new system of safety controls which implement the requirements of two European Directives. These are the ADR and RID Framework Directives which relate to the transport of dangerous goods by road and rail respectively. (UK)

  7. Radioactive materials packaging standards and regulations: Making sense of it all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous regulations and standards, both national and international, apply to the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These are legal and technical prerequisites to practically every action that a designer or user of a radioactive material transportation package will perform. The identity and applicability of these requirements and the bodies that formulate them are also not readily understood. This paper addresses the roles that various international bodies play in developing and implementing the various regulations and standards. It uses the US regulatory and standards-making bodies to illustrate how international requirements feed the domestic control of packaging and transport. It explains the scope and interactions between domestic and international regulatory and standards agencies and summarizes the status and major standards activities at the international level. The overview provided by this paper will be valuable to designers and users of radioactive material packages for better understanding and use of both standards and regulations, and for complying with regulatory requirements in the radioactive materials transportation field. 11 refs., 2 figs

  8. Radioactive materials packaging standards and regulations: Making sense of it all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, R.B.; Rawl, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous regulations and standards, both national and international, apply to the packaging and transportation of radioactive material. These are legal and technical prerequisites to practically every action that a designer or user of a radioactive material transportation package will perform. The identity and applicability of these requirements and the bodies that formulate them are also not readily understood. This paper addresses the roles that various international bodies play in developing and implementing the various regulations and standards. It uses the US regulatory and standards-making bodies to illustrate how international requirements feed the domestic control of packaging and transport. It explains the scope and interactions between domestic and international regulatory and standards agencies and summarizes the status and major standards activities at the international level. The overview provided by this paper will be valuable to designers and users of radioactive material packages for better understanding and use of both standards and regulations, and for complying with regulatory requirements in the radioactive materials transportation field. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Impact of packaging material and storage time on olive oil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olive oil is very appreciated for its characteristic flavor and its biological and nutritional value which are strongly related to the quality. The effect of packaging materials (stainless, jar, clear polyethylenene terephthalate (PET), clear glass and dark glass bottles) on quality attributes of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) was studied ...

  10. Surface modification of food contact materials for processing and packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barish, Jeffrey A.

    This body of work investigates various techniques for the surface modification of food contact materials for use in food packaging and processing applications. Nanoscale changes to the surface of polymeric food packaging materials enables changes in adhesion, wettability, printability, chemical functionality, and bioactivity, while maintaining desirable bulk properties. Polymer surface modification is used in applications such as antimicrobial or non-fouling materials, biosensors, and active packaging. Non-migratory active packagings, in which bioactive components are tethered to the package, offer the potential to reduce the need for additives in food products while maintaining safety and quality. A challenge in developing non-migratory active packaging materials is the loss of biomolecular activity that can occur when biomolecules are immobilized. Polyethylene glycol (PEG), a biocompatible polymer, is grafted from the surface of ozone treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resulting in a surface functionalized polyethylene to which a range of amine-terminated bioactive molecules can be immobilized. The grafting of PEG onto the surface of polymer packaging films is accomplished by free radical graft polymerization, and to covalently link an amine-terminated molecule to the PEG tether, demonstrating that amine-terminated bioactive compounds (such as peptides, enzymes, and some antimicrobials) can be immobilized onto PEG-grafted LDPE in the development of non-migratory active packaging. Fouling on food contact surfaces during food processing has a significant impact on operating efficiency and can promote biofilm development. Processing raw milk on plate heat exchangers results in significant fouling of proteins as well as minerals, and is exacerbated by the wall heating effect. An electroless nickel coating is co-deposited with polytetrafluoroethylene onto stainless steel to test its ability to resist fouling on a pilot plant scale plate heat exchanger. Further

  11. Experience of air transport of nuclear fuel material as type A package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kageyama, Tomio; Suzuki, Toru

    2004-01-01

    Special law on nuclear disaster countermeasures (hereafter called as to nuclear disaster countermeasures low) that is domestic law for dealing with measures for nuclear disaster, was enforced in June, 2000. Therefore, nuclear enterprise was obliged to report accidents as required by nuclear disaster countermeasures law, besides meeting the technical requirement of existent transport regulation. For overseas procurement of plutonium reference materials that are needed for material accountability, A Type package must be transported by air. Therefore, concept of air transport of nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law was discussed, and the manual including measures against accident in air transport was prepared for the oversea procurement. In this presentation, the concept of air transport of A Type package containing nuclear fuel materials according to the nuclear disaster countermeasures law, and the experience of a transportation of plutonium solution from France are shown. (author)

  12. Geochemical modeling of the nuclear-waste repository system. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The primary objective of the geochemical modeling task is to develop an understanding of the waste-repository geochemical system and provide a valuable tool for estimating future states of that system. There currently exists a variety of computer codes which can be used in geochemical modeling studies. Some available codes contain the framework for simulating a natural chemical system and estimating, within limits, the response of that system to environmental changes. By data-base enhancement and code development, this modeling technique can be even more usefully applied to a nuclear-waste repository. In particular, thermodynamic data on elements not presently in the data base but identified as being of particular hazard in the waste-repository system, need to be incorporated into the code to estimate the near-field as well as the far-field reactions during a hypothetical breach. A reaction-path-simulation code, which estimates the products of specific rock/water reactions, has been tested using basalt and ground water. Results show that the mass-transfer capabilities of the code will be useful in chemical-evolution studies and scenario analyses. The purpose of this report is to explain the status of geochemical modeling as it currently applies to the chemical system of a hypothetical nuclear-waste repository in basalt and to present the plan proposed for further developmet and application

  13. Implementation of the INSPECT software package for statistical calculation in nuclear material accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M.A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The INSPECT software package was developed in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for statistical calculations in nuclear material accountability. The programs apply the inspection and evaluation methodology described in Part of the Safeguards Technical Manual. In this paper the implementation of INSPECT at the Safeguards Division of CNEN, and the main characteristics of INSPECT are described. The potential applications of INSPECT to the nuclear material accountability is presented. (Author) [pt

  14. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology plc, Winfrith,UK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J.E

    2001-07-01

    Transport containers for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international standards. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide range of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700 tonne); pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests, including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities; criticality simulations and leak test techniques. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  15. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology plc, Winfrith,UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Transport containers for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international standards. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide range of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700 tonne); pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests, including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities; criticality simulations and leak test techniques. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  16. Comparison of flavour qualities of mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) packed with different packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donglu, Fang; Wenjian, Yang; Kimatu, Benard Muinde; Liyan, Zhao; Xinxin, An; Qiuhui, Hu

    2017-10-01

    To clarify the dynamic changes of flavour components in mushrooms packed with different packaging materials during storage, comprehensive flavour characterization, non-volatile and volatile compounds of Flammulina velutipes were evaluated using electronic nose (E-nose), electronic tongue (E-tongue) technology and headspace solid phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS), respectively. Results showed that volatile compounds of fresh F. velutipes mainly consisted of ketones and alcohols, with 3-octanone being the predominant compound. After storage, volatile components significantly changed in mushrooms packed with normal packaging material (Normal-PM) according to the GC-MS analysis and radar fingerprint chart of electronic nose. The ethanol accumulation was inhibited by nanocomposite packaging materials (Nano-PM). Besides, both radar graph and PCA of E-tongue signals could differentiate the samples from different packaging and storage time. In general, these results may provide a profile of flavour substances and explain mechanism of flavour changes in F. velutipes over storage period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1994 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the fifth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material

  18. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1996 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This is the seventh annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificated (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the then Standing Advisory Group on the Sate Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The functions of SAGSTRAM were taken over in 1996 by the Transport Safety Standards Advisory Committee (TRANSSAC). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose membership consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'', highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  19. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1993 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This is the fourth annual report being published by the Secretariat of the International Atomic Energy Agency since implementing its database on package approval certificates (PACKTRAM) at the recommendation of the Standing Advisory Group on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM). The reporting format was established at consecutive meetings of SAGSTRAM, whose memberships consists of national competent authorities responsible for the transport of radioactive material from those Member States who have a nuclear industry and others who have shown a keen interest in the IAEA's transport safety programme. Through the PACKTRAM database, the Secretariat collects administrative and technical information on package approval certificates to assist national competent authorities in regulating radioactive material movements in their country. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last two complete calendar years. The 1985 Edition of IAEA Safety Series No. 6, the 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material'' highlights the role of competent authorities in assuring regulatory compliance in their own countries. Package approval certificates are an important aspect of that function. This document aims to be a useful reference for competent authorities as well as for manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. 6 tabs

  20. The advantages of using standardized review procedures in certifying type B radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, E.P.; Faille, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the advantages of adopting well-documented standardized review practices for reviewing Type B package designs. The US experience using standardized review plans and guidance has shown them to be a valuable tool in achieving more consistent and efficient package reviews, in training and qualifying technical reviewers, and in enhancing public and industry understanding of the package certification process. In addition, the standardized review practices, as living documents, have proven to be an effective method of incorporating new technical advances into the review process, and have provided a vehicle to make that knowledge widely available to fellow reviewers, the public and industry. Canada implemented a new internal review process in early 2003 to standardize the review of applications for certification of Type B Packages. Based on the similarity of these approaches, the United States and Canada have started discussions on a A North American System for the unilateral approval of Type B (U) packages. This initiative is looking into how each country is currently reviewing transportation package applications to see if agreement can be reached on accepting Type B certifications on a reciprocal basis, i.e., without additional review. Based on the experience in Canada and the United States, the authors believe that the use of standardized review processes, coupled with the knowledge and experience resident in IAEA's Transportation Advisory Material (TS-G-1.1) and series of TECDOCS, could also be used to develop a standard internationally accepted review process that could enhance the acceptance of unilateral approvals for Type B packages

  1. Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages

  2. Test facilities for radioactive material transport packages (AEA Technology, Winfrith, UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Transport packages for radioactive materials are tested to demonstrate compliance with national and international regulations. The involvement of AEA Technology is traced from the establishment of the early IAEA Regulations. Transport package design, testing, assessment and approval requires a wide variety of skills and facilities. The comprehensive capability of AEA Technology in these areas is described with references to practical experience in the form of a short bibliography. The facilities described include drop-test cranes and targets (up to 700te); air guns for impacts up to sonic velocities; pool fires, furnaces and rigs for thermal tests including heat dissipation on prototype flasks; shielding facilities and instruments; criticality simulations and leak test instruments. These are illustrated with photographs demonstrating the comprehensive nature of package testing services supplied to customers. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include, or did include in the past, their use as electrical transformer and capacitor fluids, heat... percentage of paper food-packaging material contains PCB's which can migrate to the packaged food. The origin of PCB's in such material is not fully understood. Reclaimed fibers containing carbonless copy paper...

  4. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include, or did include in the past, their use as electrical transformer and capacitor fluids, heat... percentage of paper food-packaging material contains PCB's which can migrate to the packaged food. The origin of PCB's in such material is not fully understood. Reclaimed fibers containing carbonless copy paper...

  5. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...

  6. Technical committee on transport package test standards (for radioactive materials transport). Vienna, 6-10 August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-11-01

    The report of a meeting of the technical committee on transport package test standards is presented. The committee assigned high priority to work on Low Level Solid material and Low Specific Activity material, on the justification for and requirements of a Crush Test and on leakage from packages

  7. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. 500 C Electronic Packaging and Dielectric Materials for High Temperature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for exploring the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and application of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high temperature electronics, and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by these high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed. High-temperature environment operable sensors and electronics are required for probing the inner solar planets and distributed control of next generation aeronautical engines. Various silicon carbide (SiC) high temperature sensors, actuators, and electronics have been demonstrated at and above 500C. A compatible packaging system is essential for long-term testing and eventual applications of high temperature electronics and sensors. High temperature passive components are also necessary for high temperature electronic systems. This talk will discuss ceramic packaging systems developed for high electronics and related testing results of SiC circuits at 500C and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) integrated circuits at temperatures beyond commercial limit facilitated by high temperature packaging technologies. Dielectric materials for high temperature multilayers capacitors will also be discussed.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE PRESENCE OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES WITHIN CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2008-06-04

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles, (Stegobium paniceum (L.) Coleoptera: Anobiidae), were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. Initial indications were that the beetles were feeding on the Celotex{trademark} assemblies within the package. Celotex{trademark} fiberboard is used in numerous radioactive material packages serving as both a thermal insulator and an impact absorber for both normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident conditions. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-63) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex{trademark}. The Savannah River National Laboratory is conducting the investigation with entomological expertise provided by Clemson University. The two empty 9975 shipping packages were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory in the fall of 2007. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation.

  10. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemljič, Lidija Fras; Tkavc, Tina; Vesel, Alenka; Šauperl, Olivera

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. ► Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. ► Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  11. Dose Assessment for Public due to Packages Shipping Radioactive Materials Hypothetically Sunk on a Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumune, D.; Saegusa, T.; Suzuki, H.; Watabe, N.; Asano, H.; Maruyama, K.; Kinehara, Y

    2000-07-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO{sub 2} powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan for many years. Dose assessments for the public have been performed in the past for situations assuming packages shipping radioactive materials are hypothetically sunk on a continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for all types of package was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose to the members of the public for all materials is lower than previous evaluations due to more realistic assumptions used in this study. These evaluated effective doses are far less than the ICRP recommended limit (1 mSv.year{sup -1} averaged over 5 years). (author)

  12. Labelling and marking of packages, for the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    It is the responsibility of the consignor, even when he is also the carrier, to ensure that every package of dangerous materials is correctly labelled and marked before dispatch. The purpose of this Code of Practice is to amplify the provisions, embodied in various regulations and codes for the safe transport of radioactive materials, relating to the labelling of packages of such materials, and to provide detailed instructions that will ensure fulfilment of the relevant requirements. The model regulations published by the International Atomic Energy Agency are referred to in this Code as 'the IAEA regulations'. It has been assumed that those using the Code will be familiar with the international and national transport regulations, which are based on the IAEA regulations and that they will have experience of transport procedures. (author)

  13. Impact limiters for radioactive materials transport packagings: a methodology for assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    2002-01-01

    This work aims at establishing a methodology for design assessment of a cellular material-filled impact limiter to be used as part of a radioactive material transport packaging. This methodology comprises the selection of the cellular material, its structural characterization by mechanical tests, the development of a case study in the nuclear field, preliminary determination of the best cellular material density for the case study, performance of the case and its numerical simulation using the finite element method. Among the several materials used as shock absorbers in packagings, the polyurethane foam was chosen, particularly the foam obtained from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a non-polluting and renewable source. The case study carried out was the 9 m drop test of a package prototype containing radioactive wastes incorporated in a cement matrix, considered one of the most severe tests prescribed by the Brazilian and international transport standards. Prototypes with foam density pre-determined as ideal as well as prototypes using lighter and heavier foams were tested for comparison. The results obtained validate the methodology in that expectations regarding the ideal foam density were confirmed by the drop tests and the numerical simulation. (author)

  14. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, M; Rodriguez-Lafuente, A; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool in the analysis of non-volatile compounds, and the use of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer allows a high sensitivity and accuracy when acquiring full fragment mode, providing a high assurance of correct identification of unknown compounds. In this work, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology has been applied to the analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials. The materials tested were based on polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The active packaging materials studied were one PP film containing a natural antioxidant, and two PP/EVOH films, two PET/EVOH films and one coextruded PP/EVOH/PP film containing natural antimicrobials. The chemical structure of several compounds was unequivocally identified. The analysis revealed the migration of some of the active substances used in the manufacture of active packaging, such as caffeine (0.07 ± 0.01 μg/g), carvacrol (0.31 ± 0.03 μg/g) and citral (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/g). Unintentionally added substances were also found, such as citral reaction compounds, or citral impurities present in the raw materials.

  16. Fungal mycelium and cotton plant materials in the manufacture of biodegradable molded packaging material: Evaluation study of select blends of cotton byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary material used by the packaging industry is extruded polystyrene foam, which is commonly marketed as Styrofoam™. In its original formulation, Styrofoam™ is resistant to photolysis and effectively does not decompose. The light weight of Styrofoam™ packaging materials reduces the likelihood...

  17. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL's extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed

  18. Radioactive material package closures with the use of shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Bronowski, D.R.

    1997-11-01

    When heated from room temperature to 165 C, some shape memory metal alloys such as titanium-nickel alloys have the ability to return to a previously defined shape or size with dimensional changes up to 7%. In contrast, the thermal expansion of most metals over this temperature range is about 0.1 to 0.2%. The dimension change of shape memory alloys, which occurs during a martensite to austenite phase transition, can generate stresses as high as 700 MPa (100 kspi). These properties can be used to create a closure for radioactive materials packages that provides for easy robotic or manual operations and results in reproducible, tamper-proof seals. This paper describes some proposed closure methods with shape memory alloys for radioactive material packages. Properties of the shape memory alloys are first summarized, then some possible alternative sealing methods discussed, and, finally, results from an initial proof-of-concept experiment described

  19. Attachment of Asaia bogorensis Originating in Fruit-Flavored Water to Packaging Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kregiel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the adhesion of isolated spoilage bacteria to packaging materials used in the food industry. Microorganisms were isolated from commercial fruit-flavored mineral water in plastic bottles with flocks as a visual defect. The Gram-negative rods were identified using the molecular method through the amplification of a partial region of the 16S rRNA gene. Based on the sequence identity (99.6% between the spoilage organism and a reference strain deposited in GenBank, the spoilage isolate was identified as Asaia bgorensis. Experiments on bacterial adhesion were conducted using plates made of glass and polystyrene (packaging materials commonly used in the beverage industry. Cell adhesion ability was determined using luminometry, plate count, and the microscopic method. The strain of A. bogorensis was characterized by strong adhesion properties which were dependent on the surface type, with the highest cell adhesion detected on polystyrene.

  20. Nupack, the new Asme code for radioactive material transportation packaging containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turula, P.

    1998-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) has added a new division to the nuclear construction section of its Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B and PVC). This Division, commonly referred to as 'Nupack', has been written to provide a consistent set of technical requirements for containment vessels of transportation packagings for high-level radioactive materials. This paper provides an introduction to Nupack, discusses some of its technical provisions, and describes how it can be used the design and construction of packaging components. Nupack's general provisions and design requirements are emphasized, while treatment of materials, fabrication and inspection is left for another paper. Participation in the Nupack development work described in this paper was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. (authors)

  1. WannierTools: An open-source software package for novel topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, QuanSheng; Zhang, ShengNan; Song, Hai-Feng; Troyer, Matthias; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    We present an open-source software package WannierTools, a tool for investigation of novel topological materials. This code works in the tight-binding framework, which can be generated by another software package Wannier90 (Mostofi et al., 2008). It can help to classify the topological phase of a given material by calculating the Wilson loop, and can get the surface state spectrum, which is detected by angle resolved photoemission (ARPES) and in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments. It also identifies positions of Weyl/Dirac points and nodal line structures, calculates the Berry phase around a closed momentum loop and Berry curvature in a part of the Brillouin zone (BZ).

  2. MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY OF SNAP FUEL COMPONENTS DURING SHIPMENT IN 9975 PACKAGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vormelker, P

    2006-11-14

    Materials Science and Technology has evaluated materials compatibility for the SNAP (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) fuel for containment within a 9975 packaging assembly for a shipping period of one year. The evaluation included consideration for potential for water within the convenience can, corrosion from water, galvanic corrosion, tape degradation, and thermal expansion risk. Based on a review of existing literature and assumed conditions, corrosion and/or degradation of the 304 stainless steel (SS) Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and the 304 stainless steel convenience cans containing the SNAP fuel is not significant to cause failure during the 1 year time shipping period in the 9975 packaging assembly. However, storage beyond the 1 year shipping period has not been validated.

  3. Searching for acceptable solutions to nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Three lettes are presented here, all addressing the problem of nuclear waste disposal. Robert M. Bernero (former director of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, US NRC) points out there are only 4 options for managing toxic and nuclear waste (recycling, outer space disposal; deep-ocean disposal, geologic disposal) and that the stragegy should prevent people from inadvertently stumbling onto the waste site. Robert Holden (director nuclear Waste Program, National Congress of American Indians) uses Yucca Mountain to illustrate problems and solutions that must be implemented if tribal people's concerns are to be respected. George E. Dials (Manager, Carlsbad Area Office, US DOE) focuses on a positive assessment of WIPP as part of the solution

  4. Calculation of shipboard fire conditions for radioactive materials packages with the methods of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.

    1997-09-01

    Shipboard fires both in the same ship hold and in an adjacent hold aboard a break-bulk cargo ship are simulated with a commercial finite-volume computational fluid mechanics code. The fire models and modeling techniques are described and discussed. Temperatures and heat fluxes to a simulated materials package are calculated and compared to experimental values. The overall accuracy of the calculations is assessed

  5. PROPERTIES OF FIBERBOARD OVERPACK MATERIAL IN THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE FOLLOWING THERMAL AGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, W

    2007-01-01

    Many radioactive material shipping packages incorporate cane fiberboard overpacks for thermal insulation and impact resistance. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard following thermal aging in several temperature/humidity environments. Several of the measured properties change significantly over time in the more severe environments, while other properties are relatively constant. These properties continue to be tracked, with the goal of developing a model for predicting a service life under long-term storage conditions

  6. THE TYPE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE CONDITIONS AS FACTORS FOR WHEAT SEED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Šimenić

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of cereal is normally grown on 5-8% of the overall plots under cereals in the Republic of Croatia. The produced seed meets the needs for high quality seed of wheat, barley, oat and other cereals. Certain quantities of seed remain unsold every year and are kept at various storage conditions and in various packaging material. The objective of this paper was to find out which storage conditions and what sort of packaging material would provide for the best viability of wheat seed. The investigation was carried out at storage simulation and by using various packaging material. In addition to well-known packaging material, such as paper 2 and 4-layer bags, jute bags, and PPR bags, the seed was also packed in the PVC transparent and PVC black bags, as well as in bags made of Aluminium foil. The investigation lasted for two years and was carried out in three various storage conditions, such as in the "New Warehouse" - a warehouse of a new type with thermal isolation in the roof and with uncontrolled conditions, ii the "Old Warehouse" made of filled-in brick and with a roof made of asbestos board, and iii under the "Eaves". The results have shown that the best seed was obtained when packed in 2 and 4-layer paper bags, PVC transparent bags and those made of Aluminium foil. Poorer results were obtained with bags of jute, polypropeline bags and PVC black bags. The storage of seed at "Eaves" has attained the best results in both years of the investigation, as compared to all three types of storage and it can in our circumstances meet the needs for wheat seed storage during one year

  7. Supplement to the approved requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Packaging, Labelling and Carriage of Radioactive Material by Rail Regulations 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ADR and RID Framework Directives require EC member states' arrangements for the carriage of dangerous goods on domestic road and rail journeys to align with the existing ADR and RID agreements which cover international journeys by road and rail. Because ADR and RID are updated every two years in line with technical and scientific developments, the ADR/RID Framework Directives are also revised on a two-year cycle, to require member states to amend their implementing legislation accordingly. In Great Britain, these two Directives were initially implemented on 1 September 1996 via regulations (usually referred to as the 'carriage regulations'), containing the general legal duties, supported by approved documents, and an Approved Code of Practice containing the detailed technical requirements. The following approved documents have been updated: (a) Approved Vehicle Requirements (AVR) - L89; (b) Approved Requirements and test methods for the classification and packaging of dangerous goods for carriage (ARTM) - L88; (c) Approved Requirements for the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail (ARCRR) - L94; (d) Approved Requirements for the construction of vehicles intended for the carriage of explosives by road (AEVR) - L92; and (e) Approved Carriage List (ACL) - L90

  8. Synthesis of Iminodiacetate Functionalized Polypropylene Films and Their Efficacy as Antioxidant Active-Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-06-08

    The introduction of metal-chelating ligands to the food-contact surface of packaging materials may enable the removal of synthetic chelators (e.g., ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)) from food products. In this study, the metal-chelating ligand iminodiacetate (IDA) was covalently grafted onto polypropylene surfaces to produce metal-chelating active-packaging films. The resulting films were able to chelate 138.1 ± 26 and 210.0 ± 28 nmol/cm(2) Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively, under acidic conditions (pH 3.0). The films demonstrated potent antioxidant efficacy in two model food systems. In an emulsified-oil system, the chelating materials extended the lag phase of both lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation from 5 to 25 days and were as effective as EDTA. The degradation half-life of ascorbic acid in an aqueous solution was extended from 5 to 14 days. This work demonstrates the potential application of surface-grafted chelating IDA ligands as effective antioxidant active food-packaging materials.

  9. Effect of packaging materials on the quality of irradiated ground spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, T.S.; Maha, Munsiah; Purwanto, Z.I.

    1985-01-01

    These experiments were carried out to determine the suitable packaging materials to be used for irradiated ground spices produced in Indonesia. The materials used were white pepper (Piper album), black pepper (Piper nigrum) nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), and ginger (Zangiber officinale R.) packaged in transparent polypropylene bottles, in pouches made of cellophane-aluminum foil and lithopaper-polyethylene laminates. The samples were irradiated at 5 kGy, stored at ambient conditions, and then examined every 3 months from 0 up to 9 months of storage. The parameters observed were total bacterial counts, total moulds and yeast counts, water activity (Aw), moisture content, and organoleptic scores of the samples. Piperine content of white pepper and black pepper, colour of turmeric extract, and rancidity of ginger were also determined. The results showed that the packaging materials used had no significant effect on bacterial load of the samples. Prolonged storage, however, could reduce the microbial load of the ground spices. Irradiation at 5 kGy could effectively increase the hygienic condition as well as storage life of the ground spices under investigation without affecting their organoleptic properties. (author). 8 refs

  10. Increased Performance of Thermoplastic Packaging Materials by Using a Mild Oxidizing Biobased Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Männle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Green additives such as prodegradants based on natural fatty acids and iron can improve the environmental profile of thermoplastic packaging materials. We present two studies in which this is demonstrated. In the first study, the addition of a green prodegradant to a 5-layer gas barrier laminate during processing provided a laminate with significantly reduced oxygen transmission due to the resulting oxygen-consuming degradation process. The result shows that material reduction and cost efficiency of packaging laminates can be combined, since 5-layer laminates with reduced oxygen barrier layer thickness and retained gas barrier properties are feasible. The products are interesting from an ecological and economic aspect. In the second study, the addition of a green prodegradant to several qualities of polypropylene that are used in packaging applications leads to materials that are readily degraded in accelerated weathering. The molecular weight of the modified polypropylenes after 830 hours of accelerated weathering is reduced from typically 80.000 g/mole to 1.500–2.500 g/mole. At such molecular weight levels, digestion by microorganisms is feasible. The mild prodegradant used in the study does not lead to degradation during processing. Thermoplastics containing such additives are therefore fully recyclable provided that they have not been exposed to a long period of weathering.

  11. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date

  12. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved packages. Volume 1, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  13. Food-packaging materials: migration of constituents into food contents. January 1982-December 1988 (Citations from Packaging Science and technology Abstracts data base). Report for January 1982-December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the migration of food-packaging materials into foods. Plastic, glass, cardboard, metal, and ceramic containers are discussed. Techniques for analyzing packaging contamination are included. (Contains 90 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Effect of chloride concentration and pH on pitting corrosion of waste package container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.K.; Fleming, D.L.; Gordon, S.R.

    1996-12-01

    Electrochemical cyclic potentiodynamic polarization experiments were performed on several candidate waste package container materials to evaluate their susceptibility to pitting corrosion at 90 degrees C in aqueous environments relevant to the potential underground high-level nuclear waste repository. Results indicate that of all the materials tested, Alloy C-22 and Ti Grade-12 exhibited the maximum corrosion resistance, showing no pitting or observable corrosion in any environment tested. Efforts were also made to study the effect of chloride ion concentration and pH on the measured corrosion potential (Ecorr), critical pitting and protection potential values

  15. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and...

  16. Influence of storage Time and Temperature on Absorption of Flavour Compounds from Solutions by Plastic Packaging Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willige, R.; Schoolmeester, D.; Ooij, van A.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Food packaging, although an integral part of the food chain, has a major drawback in that, often, the packaging material interacts with the flavor constituents of the food, causing either a selective or an extensive loss of desirable food flavors or absorption of undesirable off-flavors from the

  17. RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER ENVIRONMENT IN FIRE AND FURNACE TESTS OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) sequential test of radioactive materials packages includes a thermal test to confirm the ability of the package to withstand a transportation fire event. The test specified by the regulations (10 CFR 71) consists of a 30 minute, all engulfing, hydrocarbon fuel fire, with an average flame temperature of at least 800 C. The requirements specify an average emissivity for the fire of at least 0.9, which implies an essentially black radiation environment. Alternate test which provide equivalent total heat input at the 800 C time averaged environmental temperature may also be employed. When alternate tests methods are employed, such as furnace or gaseous fuel fires, the equivalence of the radiation environment may require justification. The effects of furnace and open confinement fire environments are compared with the regulatory fire environment, including the effects of gases resulting from decomposition of package overpack materials. The results indicate that furnace tests can produce the required radiation heat transfer environment, i.e., equivalent to the postulated pool fire. An open enclosure, with transparent (low emissivity) fire does not produce an equivalent radiation environment

  18. Development of more friendly food packaging materials base on polypropylene through blending with polylacticacid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Achmad Hanafi; Aulia, Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    The commonly food packaging materials today is used a thin layer plastic or film, which is made of a synthetic polymer, such as polypropylene (PP). However, the use of these polymers has a negative impact on the environment, because the synthetic polymer is difficult to degrade naturally by the biotic components such as micro-organisms decomposers and abiotic components such as the sunshine. The use of the biodegradable polymeric material will reduce the use of synthetic polymer products, thereby reducing plastic waste pollution at relatively low cost, it is expected to produce positive effects both for the environment and in terms of economy. PLA is a biodegradable polymer that can be substituted totally or partially to synthetic polymers as far as could fulfill the main function of packaging in the protection and preservation of food. Increasing PLA content in polypropylene blend will affect to the increasing in its water absorption and also its biodegradable. 20% PLA may the optimum composition of poly-blend for food packaging.

  19. Effects of antioxidant and package materials on the quality of irradiated rugao ham

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong; Chen Xiulan; Bao Jianzhong; Han Yan; Jiang Yunsheng; Wang Zhijun; Dong Jie; Yang Hairong; Xi Jun

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation could extend the shelf life of ham, but irradiation also facilitates the oxidation of fat. Different packaging materials and combination of antioxidants were used to deal with Rugao ham in order to lower the level of antioxidation caused by irradiation treatment. The peroxide value of fat was detected as the reference index. The results were indicated that the fat peroxide value of all samples increased within the storage of 100d, and then decreased. Aluminum film compound packaging showed a better effect than polyethylene plastic bag. The antioxideant combination of 0.5% tea-polyphenol, 0.5% Vc, 0.5% citric acid, 5% sodium alginate, applied on 4 kGy irradiated samples was measured the lowest peroxide value of fat among all the treatments. (authors)

  20. Applications of nanotechnology in food packaging and food safety: barrier materials, antimicrobials and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Timothy V

    2011-11-01

    In this article, several applications of nanomaterials in food packaging and food safety are reviewed, including: polymer/clay nanocomposites as high barrier packaging materials, silver nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agents, and nanosensors and nanomaterial-based assays for the detection of food-relevant analytes (gasses, small organic molecules and food-borne pathogens). In addition to covering the technical aspects of these topics, the current commercial status and understanding of health implications of these technologies are also discussed. These applications were chosen because they do not involve direct addition of nanoparticles to consumed foods, and thus are more likely to be marketed to the public in the short term. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Packaging Technologies for 500 C SiC Electronics and Sensors: Challenges in Material Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Behelm, Glenn M.; Spry, David J.; Meredith, Roger D.; Hunter, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ceramic substrates and thick-film metallization based packaging technologies in development for 500C silicon carbide (SiC) electronics and sensors. Prototype high temperature ceramic chip-level packages and printed circuit boards (PCBs) based on ceramic substrates of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and aluminum nitride (AlN) have been designed and fabricated. These ceramic substrate-based chip-level packages with gold (Au) thick-film metallization have been electrically characterized at temperatures up to 550C. The 96 alumina packaging system composed of chip-level packages and PCBs has been successfully tested with high temperature SiC discrete transistor devices at 500C for over 10,000 hours. In addition to tests in a laboratory environment, a SiC junction field-effect-transistor (JFET) with a packaging system composed of a 96 alumina chip-level package and an alumina printed circuit board was tested on low earth orbit for eighteen months via a NASA International Space Station experiment. In addition to packaging systems for electronics, a spark-plug type sensor package based on this high temperature interconnection system for high temperature SiC capacitive pressure sensors was also developed and tested. In order to further significantly improve the performance of packaging system for higher packaging density, higher operation frequency, power rating, and even higher temperatures, some fundamental material challenges must be addressed. This presentation will discuss previous development and some of the challenges in material science (technology) to improve high temperature dielectrics for packaging applications.

  2. Effect of Packaging Materials on Orthosiphon Stamineus Dried-Leaf Quality During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norawanis, A. R.; Shaari, A. R.; Leng, L. Y.

    2018-03-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine the effects on the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, moisture content and total different color (ΔE) when the O. stamineus dried whole-leaf were packed in different packaging materials (plastic bag, paper bag and glass container) and stored under room temperature (±25 °C) and relative humidity (±65 %RH) for 8 weeks. The total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay respectively, and analyzed using UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. The moisture content changes were examined using a moisture analyzer and the color changes were analyzed using colorimeter. The results showed that packing O. stamineus dried whole-leaf in different packaging materials significantly affected the herbal leaves quality. After 8 weeks of storage period, the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity exhibited the increase values during storage. Meanwhile, the moisture content of the samples decreased by storage period for the samples packed in plastic bag and glass container. The moisture content of the samples packed in the paper bag fluctuated along the 8 weeks of storage period. The total different color (ΔE) of the O. stamineus dried whole-leaf increased by storage period. The highest changes of ΔE belonged to the samples packed in the glass container, followed by paper and plastic bags. The selection of the packaging materials can be considered as an important element to control the quality of raw herbal materials for further processing and the herbal finished products.

  3. Safety by design of printed multilayer materials intended for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeño, Celia; Aznar, Margarita; Nerín, Cristina; Isella, Francesca; Fedeli, Mauro; Bosetti, Osvaldo

    2017-07-01

    Printing inks are commonly used in multilayer plastics materials used for food packaging, and compounds present in inks can migrate to the food either by diffusion through the multilayers or because of set-off phenomena. To avoid this problem, the right design of the packaging is crucial. This paper studies the safety by design of multilayer materials. First, the migration from four different multilayers manufactured using polyethylene terephthalate (PET), aluminium (Al) and polyethylene (PE) was determined. The structural differences among materials such as the presence of inks or lacquer coatings as well as the differences in layers position allowed the study of a safety-by-design approach. Sixty-nine different compounds were detected and identified; 49 of them were not included in the positive list of Regulation EU/10/2011 or in Swiss legislation and 15 belong to Cramer class III, which means that they have a theoretical high toxicity. Some of the compounds related to ink composition were pyrene, a compound commercially used to make dyes and dye precursors and the antioxidant Irganox 1300. The application of external lacquers decreased the concentration of some migrants but also brought the potential for new migrants coming from its composition. A final risk assessment of the material allowed evaluating food safety for different food simulants and confirm it.

  4. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive material. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated

  5. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  6. Biodegradation of PVP-CMC hydrogel film: a useful food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Niladri; Saha, Nabanita; Kitano, Takeshi; Saha, Petr

    2012-06-20

    Hydrogels can offer new opportunities for the design of efficient packaging materials with desirable properties (i.e. durability, biodegradability and mechanical strength). It is a promising and emerging concept, as most of the biopolymer based hydrogels are supposed to be biodegradable, they can be considered as alternative eco-friendly packaging materials. This article reports about synthetic (polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) and biopolymer (carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)) based a novel hydrogel film and its nature of biodegradability under controlled environmental condition. The dry hydrogel films were prepared by solution casting method and designated as 'PVP-CMC hydrogel films'. The hydrogel film containing PVP and CMC in a ratio of 20:80 shows best mechanical properties among all the test samples (i.e. 10:90, 20:80, 50:50, 80:20 and 90:10). Thus, PVP-CMC hydrogel film of 20:80 was considered as a useful food packaging material and further experiments were carried out with this particular hydrogel film. Biodegradation of the PVP-CMC hydrogel films were studied in liquid state (Czapec-Dox liquid medium+soil extracts) until 8 weeks. Variation in mechanical, viscoelastic properties and weight loss of the hydrogel films with time provide the direct evidence of biodegradation of the hydrogels. About 38% weight loss was observed within 8 weeks. FTIR spectra of the hydrogel films (before and after biodegradation) show shifts of the peaks and also change in the peak intensities, which refer to the physico-chemical change in the hydrogel structure and SEM views of the hydrogels show how internal structure of the PVP-CMC film changes in the course of biodegradation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of backfill material as an engineered barrier in the waste package system. Interim topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelwright, E.J.; Hodges, F.N.; Bray, L.A.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Lester, D.H.; Nakai, T.L.; Spaeth, M.E.; Stula, R.T.

    1981-09-01

    A backfill barrier, emplaced between the containerized waste and the host rock, can both protect the other engineered barriers and act as a primary barrier to the release of radionuclides from the waste package. Attributes that a backfill should provide in order to carry out its required function have been identified. Primary attributes are those that have a direct effect upon the release and transport of radionuclides from the waste package. Supportive attributes do not directly affect radionuclide release but are necessary to support the primary attributes. The primary attributes, in order of importance, are: minimize (retard or exclude) the migration of ground water between the host rock and the waste canister system; retard the migration of selected chemical species (corrosive species and radionuclides) in the ground water; control the Eh and pH of the ground water within the waste-package environment. The supportive attributes are: self-seal any cracks or discontinuities in the backfill or interfacing host geology; retain performance properties at all repository temperatures; retain peformance properties during and after receiving repository levels of gamma radiation; conduct heat from the canister system to the host geology; retain mechanical properties and provide resistance to applied mechanical forces; retain morphological stability and compatibility with structural barriers and with the host geology for required period of time. Screening and selection of candidate backfill materials has resulted in a preliminary list of materials for testing. Primary emphasis has been placed on sodium and calcium bentonites and zeolites used in conjunction with quartz sand or crushed host rock. Preliminary laboratory studies have concentrated on permeability, sorption, swelling pressure, and compaction properties of candidate backfill materials

  8. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  9. Fifth international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, G.C. Jr.; Kent, D.C.; Pope, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    This article is a brief review of the Fifth Interantional Symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held at Las Vegas, Nev., May 7-12, 1978. This symposium was sponsored by Sandia Laboratories under the auspices of the Department of Energy. Highlighting the meeting were papers on regulations, legal issues, logistics and planning, risk assessment, ad various technology- and systems-related topics. It is apparent that, although transportation of radioactive materials has received much attention in the past, even more attention will be required in the future or transportation may become a limiting factor in the nuclear power option. Areas requiring special attention include: (1) the continued evaluation and updating of regulations and the coordination of this effort on an international level; (2) the use of risk analysis not only to establish, modify, or verify regulations but also to lend credence to the regulations in the public view; (3) the development of technology to provide cost-effective and more easily used packaging and transportation systems; (4) the expansion of effort to provide accurate information to legislative and other rule-making bodies and to the public to aid in making rational decisions relative to transportation; (5) the evaluation of large-scale international transfer of spent fuel; and (6) the commitment to, and fabrication of, the large fleets of shipping systems that will soon be required to transport the growing quantities of spent fuel, nuclear waste, and other radioactive materials

  10. Supercritical impregnation of cinnamaldehyde into polylactic acid as a route to develop antibacterial food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Carolina; Torres, Alejandra; Rios, Mauricio; Rojas, Adrián; Romero, Julio; de Dicastillo, Carol López; Valenzuela, Ximena; Galotto, María José; Guarda, Abel

    2017-09-01

    Supercritical impregnation was used to incorporate a natural compound with antibacterial activity into biopolymer-based films to develop active food packaging materials. Impregnation tests were carried out under two pressure conditions (9 and 12MPa), and three depressurization rates (0.1, 1 and 10MPamin -1 ) in a high-pressure cell at a constant temperature equal to 40°C. Cinnamaldehyde (Ci), a natural compound with proven antimicrobial activity, was successfully incorporated into poly(lactic acid) films (PLA) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ), with impregnation yields ranging from 8 to 13% w/w. Higher pressure and slower depressurization rate seem to favor the Ci impregnation. The incorporation of Ci improved thermal, structural and mechanical properties of the PLA films. Impregnated films were more flexible, less brittle and more resistant materials than neat PLA films. The tested samples showed strong antibacterial activity against the selected microorganisms. In summary, this study provides an innovative route to the development of antibacterial biodegradable materials, which could be used in a wide range of applications of active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chitosan coatings onto polyethylene terephthalate for the development of potential active packaging material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemljic, Lidija Fras, E-mail: lidija.fras@uni-mb.si [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Tkavc, Tina [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Vesel, Alenka [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Sauperl, Olivera [Laboratory for Characterization and Processing of Polymers, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitosan was reversible attached onto PET plastic films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antimicrobial functionalized PET may provide potential active packaging material. - Abstract: In this paper advanced surface treatment of PET plastic film is presented for introduction of antimicrobial properties as a potential application for food (as for example meat) packaging material. Adsorption/desorption of chitosan onto PET plastic film surface was studied using several analytical techniques such as: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and titrations. Kinetic desorption of chitosan from PET surface was analysed by polyelectrolyte titration and spectrophotometric Ninhydrine reaction. Standard antimicrobial test ASTM E2149-01 was performed for functionalised PET materials in order to determine their antimicrobial properties; i. e. to measure the reductions of some of the meat pathogens; such as bacteria Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and fungi Candida albicans.

  12. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements

  13. Performance-oriented packaging: A guide to identifying and designing. Identifying and designing hazardous materials packaging for compliance with post HM-181 DOT Regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    With the initial publication of Docket HM-181 (hereafter referred to as HM-181), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, Transportation Management Division decided to produce guidance to help the DOE community transition to performance-oriented packagings (POP). As only a few individuals were familiar with the new requirements, elementary guidance was desirable. The decision was to prepare the guidance at a level easily understood by a novice to regulatory requirements. This document identifies design development strategies for use in obtaining performance-oriented packagings that are not readily available commercially. These design development strategies will be part of the methodologies for compliance with post HM-181 U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) packaging regulations. This information was prepared for use by the DOE and its contractors. The document provides guidance for making decisions associated with designing performance-oriented packaging, and not for identifying specific material or fabrication design details. It does provide some specific design considerations. Having a copy of the regulations handy when reading this document is recommended to permit a fuller understanding of the requirements impacting the design effort. While this document is not written for the packaging specialist, it does contain guidance important to those not familiar with the new POP requirements.

  14. Technology for the storage of radioactive materials packagings during maritime transport. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, C.; Chevalier, G.; Tomachevski, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Following the accident of the M/S Mont Louis on August 25, 1984 carrying UF 6 cylinders, this report is a preliminary study of bibliographic data to help to define recommendations on packaging stowing for sea transport. Data on acceleration to take into account for normal or accidental transport conditions, safe areas on board that should be reserved for radioactive materials and accidents statistics are collected. Main information concerns: number of serious casualities or total losses to ships in European waters, accident causes, collision probability in function of mean distance between ships in the British Channel, selection of 8 reference accidents for future studies

  15. Study of silicone-based materials for the packaging of optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yeong-Her

    The first part of this work is to evaluate the main materials used for the packaging of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), i.e., the die attach materials, the encapsulant materials, and high color rendering index(CRI) sol-gel composite materials. All of these materials had been discussed the performance, reliability, and issues in high power LED packages. High power white LEDs are created either from blue or near-ultraviolet chips encapsulated with a yellow phosphor, or from red-green-blue LED light mixing systems. The phosphor excited by blue LED chip was mostly used in experiment of this dissertation. The die attach materials contains filler particles possessing a maximum particle size less than 1.5 mum in diameter blended with epoxy polymer matrix. Such compositions enable thin bond line thickness, which decreases thermal resistance that exists between thermal interface materials and the corresponding mating surfaces. The thermal conductivity of nano silver die attach materials is relatively low, the thermal resistance from the junction to board is just 1.6 KW-1 in the bond line thickness of 5.3 mum, which is much lower than the thermal resistance using conventional die attach materials. The silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab cures through the free radical reaction of epoxy-functional organopolysiloxane and through the hydrosilylation reaction between alkenyl-functional organopolysiloxane and silicone-boned hydrogen-functional organopolysiloxane. By the combination of the free radical reaction and the hydrosilylation reaction, the low-molecular-weight silicone oil will not be out-migrated and not contaminate wire bondability to the LED chip and lead frame. Hence, the silicone die attach adhesive made in the lab can pass all reliability tests, such as operating life test JEDEC 85°C/85RH and room temperature operating life test. For LED encapsulating materials, most of commercial silicone encapsulants still suffer thermal/radiation induced

  16. Scoping corrosion tests on candidate waste package basket materials for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Curtis, P.G.; Summers, T.S.E.

    1998-03-01

    A scoping corrosion test was performed on candidate waste package basket materials. The corrosion medium was a pH-buffered solution of chemical species expected to be produced by radiolysis. The test was conducted at 90 C for 96 hours. Samples included aluminum-, copper-, stainless steel- and zirconium-based metallic materials and several ceramics, incorporating neutron-absorbing elements. Sample weight losses and solution chemical changes were measured. Both corrosion of the host materials and dissolution of the neutron-absorbing elements were studied. The ceramics and the zirconium-based materials underwent only minor corrosion. The stainless steel-based materials performed well except for a welded sample. The aluminum- and copper-based materials exhibited the highest corrosion rates. Boron dissolution depends on its chemical form. Boron oxide and many metal borides dissolve readily in acidic solutions while high-chromium borides and boron carbide, though thermodynamically unstable, exhibit little dissolution in short times. The results of solution chemical analyses were consistent with this. Gadolinium did not dissolve significantly from monazite, and hafnium showed little dissolution from a variety of host materials, in keeping with its low solubility

  17. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 2004 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-10-01

    The PACKTRAM database contains administrative and technical information provided annually by the issuing competent authority about package approval certificates. Such data are used mainly by national competent authorities and port and customs officials to assist in regulating radioactive material movements in their country, and also by manufacturers and shippers of radioactive material. The database carries information on extant certificates and those that expired within the last complete calendar year. This is the fifteenth PACKTRAM annual report to being published by the IAEA. It is distributed worldwide mainly to designated competent authorities, as well as to registered interested parties. The database itself is maintained at www.packtram.org and can be accessed by the general public

  18. Nano selenium as antioxidant agent in a multilayer food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Paula; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Canellas, Elena; Nerín, Cristina; Palomo, María; Madrid, Yolanda; Cámara, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) were incorporated in a flexible multilayer plastic material using a water-base adhesive as vehicle for SeNPs. The antioxidant performance of the original solutions containing spherical SeNPs of 50-60 nm diameter, the adhesive containing these SeNPs, and the final multilayer plastic material to be used as food packaging were quantitatively measured. The radical scavenging capacity due to SeNPs was quantified by a free radical assay developed in the laboratory and by the diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. DPPH was not efficient to measure the scavenging capacity in the multilayer when the free radical scavenger is not in the surface in contact with it. Several multilayer laminated structures composed by [PET (20 m)-adhesive-LDPE (with variable thickness from 35 to 90 μm)] were prepared and measured, demonstrating for the first time that free radicals derived from oxygen (OH·, O2·, and O2H) cross the PE layer and arrive at the adhesive. SeNPs remain as such after manufacture and the final laminate is stable after 3 months of storage. The antioxidant multilayer is a non-migrating efficient free radical scavenger, able to protect the packaged product versus oxidation and extending the shelf life without being in direct contact with the product. Migration tests of both Se and SeNPs to simulants and hazelnuts demonstrated the non-migrating performance of this new active packaging. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Characterizing, for packaging and transport, large objects contaminated by radioactive material having a limited A2 value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Cash, J.M.; Best, R.E.

    1998-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the safe packaging and transportation of radioactive materials follow a graded approach to the requirements for both packaging and controls during transport. The concept is that, the lower the risk posed to the people and the environment by the contents, (1) the less demanding are the packaging requirements and (2) the smaller in number are the controls imposed on the transport of the material. There are likely to be a great number of situations arising in coming years when large objects, contaminated with radioactive material having unlimited A 2 values will result from various decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities and will then require shipment from the D and D site to a disposal site. Such situations may arise relatively frequently during the cleanup of operations involving mining, milling, feedstock, and uranium enrichment processing facilities. Because these objects are contaminated with materials having an unlimited A 2 value they present a low radiological risk to worker and public safety and to the environment during transport. However, when these radioactive materials reside on the surfaces of equipment and other large objects, where the equipment and objects themselves are not radioactive, the radioactive materials appear as surface contamination and, if the contaminated object is categorized as a surface contaminated object, it would need to be packaged for shipment according to the requirements of the Regulations for SCO. Despite this categorization, alternatives may be available which will allow these contaminants, when considered by themselves for packaging and transport, to be categorized as either (1) a limited quantity of radioactive material to be shipped in an excepted package or (2) low specific activity (LSA) materials to be shipped in an IP-1 package or possibly even shipped unpackaged. These options are discussed in this paper

  20. Development of bio based plastic materials for packaging from soybeans waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.; Rashidi, A. R.; Roslan, A.; Idris, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    Demands of plastic material which increase with the increasing of human population encourage researchers to find alternative solution to replace petro based plastic. Thus, in the present study, a novel "green bioplastic" packaging was developed using soybean waste which is a major waste in soy sauce food industry. The evaluation of the effect of ratio of starch, soy waste and plasticizer in this bioplastic production was studied and their characteristics were compared with available bioplastics. Characteristics study was done in terms of burning test, water absorption capacity, thermal and tensile strength measurement and the result obtained were analyzed. The glass transition temperature (Tg) for soy waste bioplastic is 117˚C. The water absorption test shows that an increase in mass up to 114.17% which show large amount of water uptake capacity of this bioplastics. And about 38% of percentage loss was observed when compared with other novel bioplastics. The results clearly show that the amount of glycerol as a plasticizer had an inversely proportional relationship with the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg). The average maximum force value for tensile strength test is 6.71 N. The burning test show that the soy wastes bioplastic release a very faint smell of soy and glue-like substance. The flame ignited a Yellowish-Orange colour and released some sparks. Based on the overall results, soy-based have been proven to become an excellent bio-based packaging materials.

  1. Migration of Toxic Metals from Ceramic Food Packaging Materials into Acid Food Simulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term extraction experiments were carried out on glazed tile specimens with 4 and 10% (v/v acetic acid, 1% (w/v citric acid, and 1% (v/v lactic acid solution in three temperature conditions (20, 40, and 60°C to investigate the effect of temperature and pH value on extraction of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc from ceramic food packaging materials and to study the extraction kinetics of toxic metals. Results showed that except at 60°C the amount of extraction of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc had linear dependence on time at longer times and removal of these toxic metals under other conditions increased linearly with the square root of the time, indicating a diffusion-controlled process. The amount of these toxic metals leached out from ceramic food packaging materials into the leachate, and the leaching rate increased with temperature and decreased with pH value of the food simulants. In addition, among these four toxic metals lead was the least leachable element, and nickel was the most leachable one. Disagreement between the ratios of the oxide of lead, cobalt, nickel, and zinc in the glaze and their release in the leachate suggested that extraction of these toxic metals was an incongruent dissolution process.

  2. Halloysite Nanocapsules Containing Thyme Essential Oil: Preparation, Characterization, and Application in Packaging Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Si-Hoon; Jang, So-Ri; Lee, Gyeong-Min; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Park, Su-Il; Park, No-Hyung

    2017-09-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs), which are natural nanomaterials, have a hollow tubular structure with about 15 nm inner and 50 nm outer diameters. Because of their tubular shape, HNTs loaded with various materials have been investigated as functional nanocapsules. In this study, thyme essential oil (TO) was encapsulated successfully in HNTs using vacuum pulling methods, followed by end-capping or a layer-by-layer surface coating process for complete encapsulation. Nanocapsules loaded with TO were mixed with flexographic ink and coated on a paper for applications as food packaging materials. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the morphology of the nanocapsules and to confirm the TO loading of the nanocapsules. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses analysis were used to complement the structural information. In addition, the controlled release of TO from the nanocapsules showed sustained release properties over a period of many days. The results reveal that the release properties of TO in these nanocapsules could be controlled by surface modifications such as end-capping and/or surface coating of bare nanocapsules. The packaging paper with TO-loaded HNT capsules was effective in eliminating against Escherichia coli during the first 5 d and showed strong antibacterial activity for about 10 d. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.A.; Salzbrenner, D.; Sorenson, K.; McConnell, P.

    1998-04-01

    The use of a fracture mechanics based design for the radioactive material transport (RAM) packagings has been the subject of extensive research for more than a decade. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has played an important role in the research and development of the application of this technology. Ductile iron has been internationally accepted as an exemplary material for the demonstration of a fracture mechanics based method of RAM packaging design and therefore is the subject of a large portion of the research discussed in this report. SNL`s extensive research and development program, funded primarily by the U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Transportation, Energy Management and Analytical Services (EM-76) and in an auxiliary capacity, the office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, is summarized in this document along with a summary of the research conducted at other institutions throughout the world. In addition to the research and development work, code and standards development and regulatory positions are also discussed.

  4. Simplified methods for impact loads of solid-walled transportation packagings for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teper, W.W.; Sauve, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Transportation packagings for radioactive materials must withstand severe impact conditions without loss of integrity and without excessive permanent distortions in the seal regions. The compliance with the requirements may be shown either through extensive testing, elastic- plastic impact analysis or a combination of both. Elastic- plastic finite element analysis, although less costly than testing, is usually expensive and time consuming. This paper presents simplified methods for determining the impact force for the following impact cases of solid walled casks: impact on a pin, impact on an edge, and impact on a corner. The results of the simplified methods are in good agreement with the results of elastic-plastic finite element analysis. It is shown that in each case almost the entire impact energy is dissipated by the plastic deformation of the material in the impact zone

  5. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials.

  6. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  7. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Report of NRC approved quality assurance programs for radioactive materials packages. Volume 3, Revision 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date

  8. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassouf, Amine, E-mail: amine.kassouf@agroparistech.fr [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Maalouly, Jacqueline, E-mail: j_maalouly@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Rutledge, Douglas N., E-mail: douglas.rutledge@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France); Chebib, Hanna, E-mail: hchebib@hotmail.com [ER004 “Lebanese Food Packaging”, Faculty of Sciences II, Lebanese University, 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar (Lebanon); Ducruet, Violette, E-mail: violette.ducruet@agroparistech.fr [INRA, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 1 Avenue des Olympiades, 91300 Massy (France); AgroParisTech, UMR1145 Ingénierie Procédés Aliments, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75005 Paris (France)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  9. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N.; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An innovative technique, MIR-ICA, was applied to plastic packaging separation. • This study was carried out on PE, PP, PS, PET and PLA plastic packaging materials. • ICA was applied to discriminate plastics and 100% separation rates were obtained. • Analyses performed on two spectrometers proved the reproducibility of the method. • MIR-ICA is a simple and fast technique allowing plastic identification/classification. - Abstract: Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of

  10. Use of ceramic materials in waste-package systems for geologic disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-12-01

    A study to investigate the potential use of ceramic materials as components in the waste package systems was conducted. The initial objective of the study was to screen and compare a large number of ceramic materials and identify the best materials for the proposed application. The principal method used to screen the candidates was to subject samples of each material to a series of leaching tests and to determine their relative resistance to attack by the leach solutions. A total of 14 ceramic materials, plus graphite and basalt were evaluated using three different leach solutions: demineralized water, a synthetic Hanford ground water, and a synthetic WIPP brine solution. The ceramic materials screened were Al 2 O 3 (99%), Al 2 O 3 (99.8%), mullite (2Al 2 O 3 .SiO 2 ), vitreous silica (SiO 2 ), BaTiO 3 , CaTiO 3 , CaTiSiO 5 , TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , ZrSiO 4 , Pyroceram 9617, and Marcor Code 9658 machinable glass-ceramic. Average leach rates for the materials tested were determined from analyses of the leach solutions and/or sample weight loss measurements. Because of the limited scope of the present study, evaluation of the specimens was limited to ceramographic examination. Based on an overall evaluation of the leach rate data, five of the materials tested, namely graphite, TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , and the two grades of alumina, exhibited much greater resistance to leaching than did the other materials tested. Based on all the experimental data obtained, and considering other factors such as cost, availability, fabrication technology, and mechanical and physical properties, graphite and alumina are the preferred candidates for the barrier application. The secondary choices are TiO 2 and ZrO 2

  11. Dielectric Spectroscopy Analysis of Aged EVOH films with Application to Deterioration of Food Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Timothy

    2007-06-01

    Samples of EVOH films from compositions of 29 - 44 mol% ethylene content were exposed to thermal aging with and without light exposure. The results of Dielectric Spectroscopy on select samples showed Cole-Cole plots of skewed dielectric constant indicating multiple distributions of dipole relaxation times. The onset for decreases in dielectric response occurs earlier in samples exposed to elevated temperature under light exposure. Lower permittivity is exhibited in samples of higher ethylene content. Results from heat exposed samples are presented. Colorimetric analysis indicates only a slight film yellowing in one case. Raman spectroscopy on untreated films discerns changes in the C-C-O stretch associated with the alcohol. The effects of aging on microstructure may cause hindrance of molecular motion from moisture desorption. Slight material degradation occurs from film hardening presumably due to crosslinking. An electrical circuit model of the conduction processes associated with the EVOH films is presented. Dielectric analysis shows promise for monitoring material changes related to deterioration. We are also using these methods to understand Fluorescence Imaging which has been recently released for paper and plastic materials analysis. Future work may include refinement of these techniques for identification of changes in material properties correlated to packaging material barrier resistance.

  12. PC-CIMACT. A near real time materials accountancy software package for use on an IBM or compatible PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.E.; Gale, R.

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the 'PC-CIMACT' Near Real Time Materials Accountancy computer package. It has been derived from 'CIMACT', which is in daily use at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Power Establishment. The scope of the package is presented, together with the statistical analyses it encompasses. Several of the analyses are illustrated by the treatment of data from a simulated reprocessing campaign. A user guide providing detailed instructions is also included. (author)

  13. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation

  14. Bioethical perspective on acceptable-risk criteria for nuclear-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1977-07-15

    Wisely managing the profound human and environmental risks of nuclear wastes requires complex moral and ethical judgments. Whereas traditional ethics is limited to interpersonal relations, a new system of ethics--bioethics--concerns man's relation with nature. Environmentalists claim that technology has upset the balance of nature, that nature is sacred and has inviolable rights, and that man must therefore regulate his behavior to conform to earth's limited carrying capacity. They also say that Judeo-Christian monotheism and anthropocentrism have sanctioned the exploitation of nature in the West, whereas Eastern religions teach adaptation to nature. Evidence suggests, however, that the balance of nature is neither absolute nor precarious, but is continually changing. Moreover, technology has brought more good than harm to man, and man's needs should supersede nature's. Other evidence indicates that the earth's resources may be neither limited nor nearly exhausted. Persuasive arguments also demonstrate that man's relation with nature is not traceable to religious assumptions. In assessing the risks/benefits of nuclear-waste management, we should avoid risks that jeopardize the rights of future generations without imposing excessive sacrifices on the present generation.

  15. Biodegradable packaging for storage of fruit and other horticultural products: materials, properties and its effect on fruit quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Tokić

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of packaging material is to preserve the nutritional and sensory properties of product, inform consumers about the nutritional values, facilitate storage and handling. Today, the development and commercial production of biodegradable packaging materials, other than paper, is focused on materials from other renewable sources of plant origin. Further development of biodegradable polymer market is dependent on securing a permanent, reliable and cheap sources of raw materials. In the battle for their share of the market, biopolymers enjoy strong support from policy and legislation, particularly in Europe. Attractive and efficient packaging contribute to the development of new products, provides an interesting presentation to consumers, lowers production costs, improves the food product and defines the specific ‘’brand’’.

  16. Effect of γ-irradiation on commercial polypropylene based mono and multi-layered retortable food packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Johnsy; Kumar, R.; Sajeevkumar, V. A.; Sabapathy, S. N.; Vaijapurkar, S. G.; Kumar, D.; Kchawahha, A.; Bawa, A. S.

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation processing of food in the prepackaged form may affect chemical and physical properties of the plastic packaging materials. The effect of γ-irradiation doses (2.5-10.0 kGy) on polypropylene (PP)-based retortable food packaging materials, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis, which revealed the changes happening to these materials after irradiation. The mechanical properties decreased with irradiation while oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was not affected significantly. Colour measurement indicated that Nylon 6 containing multilayer films became yellowish after irradiation. Thermal characterization revealed the changes in percentage crystallinity.

  17. The effects of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; King, F.

    1999-07-01

    The influence of gamma radiation on the corrosion of candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear waste packages has been comprehensively reviewed. The comparison of corrosion of the various materials was compared in three distinct environments: Environment A; Mg 2+ -enriched brines in which hydrolysis of the cation produces acidic environments and the Mg 2+ interferes with the formation of protective films; Environment B; saline environments with a low Mg 2+ content which remain neutral; Environment C; moist aerated conditions.The reference design of nuclear waste package for emplacement in the proposed waste repository in Yucca Mountain, Nevada, employs a dual wall arrangement, in which a 2 cm thick nickel alloy inner barrier is encapsulated within a 10 cm thick mild steel outer barrier. It is felt that this arrangement will give considerable containment lifetimes, since no common mode failure exists for the two barriers. The corrosion performance of this waste package will be determined by the exposure environment established within the emplacement drifts. Key features of the Yucca Mountain repository in controlling waste package degradation are expected to be the permanent availability of oxygen and the limited presence of water. When water contacts the surface of the waste package, its gamma radiolysis could produce an additional supply of corrosive agents. the gamma field will be produced by the radioactive decay of radionuclides within the waste form, and its magnitude will depend on the nature and age of the waste form as well as the material and wall thickness of the waste package

  18. Antimicrobial Performance of Two Different Packaging Materials on the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rollini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research the antimicrobial activity of two active packaging materials on the spoilage microbiota of fresh salmon fillets was tested. A PET-coated film (PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate containing lysozyme and lactoferrin was tested in parallel with a carvacrol-coextruded multilayer film. Salmon fillet samples were stored up to four days at 0 and 5 °C, comparatively. The carvacrol multilayer film was found effective in preventing mesophiles and psychrotrophs at shorter storage time and at lower temperature (4.0 compared to 5.0 log CFU/g in the control sample—CFU: Colony Forming Units. Lysozyme/lactoferrin-coated PET was instead efficient in decreasing H2S-producing bacteria at longer storage time and higher temperature (2.7 instead of 4.7 log CFU/g in the control sample. Even if is not intended as a way to “clean” a contaminated food product, an active package solution can indeed contribute to reducing the microbial population in food items, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases.

  19. Determination of partition behavior of organic surrogates between paperboard packaging materials and air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, V I; Akrida-Demertzi, K; Demertzis, P G

    2005-06-03

    The suitability of recycled paperboard packaging materials for direct food contact applications is a major area of investigation. Chemical contaminants (surrogates) partitioning between recycled paper packaging and foods may affect the safety and health of the consumer. The partition behavior of all possible organic compounds between cardboards and individual foodstuffs is difficult and too time consuming for being fully investigated. Therefore it may be more efficient to determine these partition coefficients indirectly through experimental determination of the partitioning behavior between cardboard samples and air. In this work, the behavior of organic pollutants present in a set of two paper and board samples intended to be in contact with foods was studied. Adsorption isotherms have been plotted and partition coefficients between paper and air have been calculated as a basis for the estimation of their migration potential into food. Values of partition coefficients (Kpaper/air) from 47 to 1207 were obtained at different temperatures. For the less volatile surrogates such as dibutyl phthalate and methyl stearate higher Kpaper/air values were obtained. The adsorption curves showed that the more volatile substances are partitioning mainly in air phase and increasing the temperature from 70 to 100 degrees C their concentrations in air (Cair) have almost doubled. The analysis of surrogates was performed with a method based on solvent extraction and gas chromatographic-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) quantification.

  20. Experimental measurement of a shipboard fire environment with simulated radioactive materials packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Results from a series of eight test fires ranging in size from 2.2 to 18.8 MW conducted aboard the Coast Guard fire test ship Mayo Lykes at Mobile, Alabama are presented and discussed. Tests aboard the break-bulk type cargo ship consisted of heptane spray fires simulating engine room and galley fires, wood crib fires simulating cargo hold fires, and pool fires staged for comparison to land-based regulatory fire results. Primary instrumentation for the tests consisted of two pipe calorimeters that simulated a typical package shape for radioactive materials packages. The calorimeters were both located adjacent to the fires and on the opposite side of the cargo hold bulkhead nearest the fire. The calorimeters were constructed from 1.5 m length sections of nominal 2 foot diameter schedule 60 steel pipe. Type K thermocouples were attached at 12 locations on the circumference and ends of the calorimeter. Fire heat fluxes to the calorimeter surfaces were estimated with the use of the Sandia SODDIT inverse heat conduction code. Experimental results from all types of tests are discussed, and some comparisons are made between the environments found on the ship and those found in land-based pool fire tests

  1. Energy and materials use in the production and recycling of consumer-goods packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L.

    1981-02-01

    A comparison is made of the energy consumed annually in the United States to produce paper, glass, steel, aluminum, and plastic for consumer-goods packaging and types of energy used for production are examined. Energy saved through recycling and combustion for energy recovery also is considered. A maximum of 1.5 quad could be saved if this packaging material were recycled, and about 0.6 quad could be recovered if it were burned as part of municipal solid waste. Paper and plastic compete in several markets, including bags and milk containers: in almost all cases, the plastic container requires less energy to produce and recycle. However, the major energy input to paper manufacture is wood, rather than oil and natural gas. Glass bottles require less energy to produce than aluminum or steel cans. On the other hand, aluminum cans take less energy to recycle than bottles, and recycled aluminum cans are the least energy intensive of the single-serving beverage containers, except for refillable glass bottles that are reused several times. For family-sized beverage bottles, a plastic bottle uses less energy to make and to recycle than a glass bottle. In addition, plastic bottles are combustible. However, glass bottles could be made with no oil or natural gas input, and they can be reused.

  2. Broadband Terahertz Refraction Index Dispersion and Loss of Polymeric Dielectric Substrate and Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaharifar, E.; Pierce, R. G.; Islam, R.; Henderson, R.; Hsu, J. W. P.; Lee, Mark

    2018-01-01

    In the effort to push the high-frequency performance of electronic circuits and signal interconnects from millimeter waves to beyond 1 THz, a quantitative knowledge of complex refraction index values and dispersion in potential dielectric substrate, encapsulation, waveguide, and packaging materials becomes critical. Here we present very broadband measurements of the real and imaginary index spectra of four polymeric dielectric materials considered for use in high-frequency electronics: benzocyclobutene (BCB), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), the photoresist SU-8, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Reflectance and transmittance spectra from 3 to 75 THz were made using a Fourier transform spectrometer on freestanding material samples. These data were quantitatively analyzed, taking into account multiple partial reflections from front and back surfaces and molecular bond resonances, where applicable, to generate real and imaginary parts of the refraction index as a function of frequency. All materials showed signatures of infrared active organic molecular bond resonances between 10 and 50 THz. Low-loss transmission windows as well as anti-window bands of high dispersion and loss can be readily identified and incorporated into high-frequency design models.

  3. Drop Weight Device Fabrication and Tests for a Dynamic Material Property of Shock-Absorbing Material and Structure in Transportation Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Woo Seok; Jeon, Jea Eon; Han, Sang Hyeok; Lee, Sang Hoon; Seo, Ki Seok

    2009-01-01

    A radioactive material transportation package consists of canister and impact limiters. IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1 recommends a drop test to evaluate the structural integrity of a transportation package under a hypothetical accident condition. The free drop test of a transportation package from 9 m height simulates one of accident conditions. The transportation package has a potential energy corresponding to 9 m drop height, and this energy changes to a kinetic energy when it impacts on the target. The energy is absorbed by a deformation of shock-absorbing material so that the minimum energy is transferred to canister. Accordingly, the shock-absorbing material is a very important part in transportation package design. Since the data for shock-absorbing material characteristics is acquired by a static test in general, it is quite different to that of dynamic characteristics. And the dynamic characteristics data is hardly found in literature. In this study, a drop weight facility was designed and fabricated which produces an impact speed like that of free drop of 9 m height. Several materials considered for an impact limiter and impact limiter structures were tested by a drop weight facility to acquire a dynamic material characteristics data

  4. Guidelines for conducting impact tests on shipping packages for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, G.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Lu, S.C.; Fischer, L.E.

    1995-09-01

    Federal regulation (10 CFR Part 71) specifies a number of impact conditions (free-drop, penetration, and puncture), under which a package for the transport of radioactive materials must be tested or evaluated to demonstrate compliance with the regulation. This report is a comprehensive guide to the planning and execution of these impact tests. The report identifies the required considerations for both the design, pre-, and post-test inspections of the test model and the measurement, recording, analysis, and reporting of the test data. The report also presents reasons for the requirements, identifies the major difficulties in meeting these requirements, and suggests possible methods to overcome the difficulties. Discussed in substantial detail is the use of scale models and instrumented measurements

  5. Eggshell and Bacterial Cellulose Composite Membrane as Absorbent Material in Active Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ummartyotin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose and eggshell composite was successfully developed. Eggshell was mixed with bacterial cellulose suspension and it was casted as a composite film. CaCO3 derived from eggshell was compared with its commercial availability. It can be noted that good dispersion of eggshell particle was prepared. Eggshell particle was irregular in shape with a variation in size. It existed in bacterial cellulose network. Characterization on composite was focused on thermal and mechanical properties. It showed that flexibility and thermal stability of composite were enhanced. No significant effect of mechanical properties was therefore observed. The thermal stability of composite was stable up to 300°C. The adsorption experiment on water and vegetable oil capacity was performed. The enhancement on adsorption was due to the existence of eggshell in bacterial cellulose composite. It exhibited the potential to be a good candidate for absorbent material in active packaging.

  6. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF 6 packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences

  7. Depleted uranium oxides as spent-nuclear-fuel waste-package fill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Depleted uranium dioxide fill inside the waste package creates the potential for significant improvements in package performance based on uranium geochemistry, reduces the potential for criticality in a repository, and consumes DU inventory. As a new concept, significant uncertainties exist: fill properties, impacts on package design, post- closure performance

  8. Utilization of biobased polymers in food packaging: Assessment of materials, production and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food packaging contains and protects food, keeps it safe and secure, retains food quality and freshness, and increases shelf-life of food. Packaging should be affordable and biodegradable. Packaging is the core of the businesses of fast-foods, ready meals, on-the-go beverages, snacks and manufacture...

  9. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. 1998 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The information contained in this report is given in six tables. Tables 1 to 4 present administrative data including issue and expiration dates, package identification, package serial numbers, modes for which the package/shipments approved and the edition of Safety Series No. 6 on which the approval has been based. The technical information on package mass, authorized contents, and detailed and general description of the package are contained in Table 5. Table 6 shows the certificates reported to the IAEA Secretariat by each participating Member State

  10. Evaluation of performance indicators applied to a material recovery facility fed by mixed packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura; Cremiato, Raffaele; Zaccariello, Lucio; Lotito, Roberta

    2017-06-01

    Most of the integrated systems for municipal solid waste management aim to increase the recycling of secondary materials by means of physical processes including sorting, shredding and reprocessing. Several restrictions prevent from reaching a very high material recycling efficiency: the variability of the composition of new-marketed materials used for packaging production and its shape and complexity are critical issues. The packaging goods are in fact made of different materials (aluminium, polymers, paper, etc.), possibly assembled, having different shape (flat, cylindrical, one-dimensional, etc.), density, colours, optical properties and so on. These aspects limit the effectiveness and efficiency of the sorting and reprocessing plants. The scope of this study was to evaluate the performance of a large scale Material Recovery Facility (MRF) by utilizing data collected during a long period of monitoring. The database resulted from the measured data has been organized in four sections: (1) data related to the amount and type of inlet waste; (2) amount and composition of output products and waste; (3) operating data (such as worked hours for shift, planned and unscheduled maintenance time, setting parameters of the equipment, and energy consumption for shift); (4) economic data (value of each product, disposal price for the produced waste, penalty for non-compliance of products and waste, etc.). A part of this database has been utilized to build an executive dashboard composed by a set of performance indicators suitable to measure the effectiveness and the efficiency of the MRF operations. The dashboard revealed itself as a powerful tool to support managers and engineers in their decisions in respect to the market demand or compliance regulation variation as well as in the designing of the lay-out improvements. The results indicated that the 40% of the input waste was recovered as valuable products and that a large part of these (88%) complied with the standards of

  11. Properties of Whey-Protein-Coated Films and Laminates as Novel Recyclable Food Packaging Materials with Excellent Barrier Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of food packaging applications, high oxygen and water vapour barriers are the prerequisite conditions for preserving the quality of the products throughout their whole lifecycle. Currently available polymers and/or biopolymer films are mostly used in combination with barrier materials derived from oil based plastics or aluminium to enhance their low barrier properties. In order to replace these non-renewable materials, current research efforts are focused on the development of sustainable coatings, while maintaining the functional properties of the resulting packaging materials. This article provides an introduction to food packaging requirements, highlights prior art on the use of whey-based coatings for their barriers properties, and describes the key properties of an innovative packaging multilayer material that includes a whey-based layer. The developed whey protein formulations had excellent barrier properties almost comparable to the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers (EVOH barrier layer conventionally used in food packaging composites, with an oxygen barrier (OTR of <2 [cm³(STP/(m²d bar] when normalized to a thickness of 100 μm. Further requirements of the barrier layer are good adhesion to the substrate and sufficient flexibility to withstand mechanical load while preventing delamination and/or brittle fracture. Whey-protein-based coatings have successfully met these functional and mechanical requirements.

  12. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  13. Pyrolysis behavior of different type of materials contained in the rejects of packaging waste sorting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; De Marco, I; Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F

    2013-01-01

    In this paper rejected streams coming from a waste packaging material recovery facility have been characterized and separated into families of products of similar nature in order to determine the influence of different types of ingredients in the products obtained in the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis experiments have been carried out in a non-stirred batch 3.5 dm(3) reactor, swept with 1 L min(-1) N(2), at 500°C for 30 min. Pyrolysis liquids are composed of an organic phase and an aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is greater as higher is the cellulosic material content in the sample. The organic phase contains valuable chemicals as styrene, ethylbenzene and toluene, and has high heating value (HHV) (33-40 MJ kg(-1)). Therefore they could be used as alternative fuels for heat and power generation and as a source of valuable chemicals. Pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons but contain high amounts of CO and CO(2); their HHV is in the range of 18-46 MJ kg(-1). The amount of COCO(2) increases, and consequently HHV decreases as higher is the cellulosic content of the waste. Pyrolysis solids are mainly composed of inorganics and char formed in the process. The cellulosic materials lower the quality of the pyrolysis liquids and gases, and increase the production of char. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On The Application of Flow Forming to the Fabrication of Type B Radioactive Material Package Containment Vessels, Rev. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); DeMicco, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fischer, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hagler, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Russell, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wen, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hafner, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anderson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-07-02

    Flow forming is a modernized and improved version of metal spinning, which is one of the oldest methods of chipless forming. The metal spinning method used a pivoted pointer to manually push a metal sheet mounted at one end of a spinning mandrel. As a result, the modernized version of metal spinning, i.e. flow forming evolved. The recent proposal in the radioactive material (RAM) packaging community to use flow forming for mass production of small containment vessels for drum packages is a natural continuation of the trend. We will discuss how the vessel can have the special material properties and stabilities required for a RAM containment vessel.

  15. Rapid discrimination of plastic packaging materials using MIR spectroscopy coupled with independent components analysis (ICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Amine; Maalouly, Jacqueline; Rutledge, Douglas N; Chebib, Hanna; Ducruet, Violette

    2014-11-01

    Plastic packaging wastes increased considerably in recent decades, raising a major and serious public concern on political, economical and environmental levels. Dealing with this kind of problems is generally done by landfilling and energy recovery. However, these two methods are becoming more and more expensive, hazardous to the public health and the environment. Therefore, recycling is gaining worldwide consideration as a solution to decrease the growing volume of plastic packaging wastes and simultaneously reduce the consumption of oil required to produce virgin resin. Nevertheless, a major shortage is encountered in recycling which is related to the sorting of plastic wastes. In this paper, a feasibility study was performed in order to test the potential of an innovative approach combining mid infrared (MIR) spectroscopy with independent components analysis (ICA), as a simple and fast approach which could achieve high separation rates. This approach (MIR-ICA) gave 100% discrimination rates in the separation of all studied plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polylactide (PLA). In addition, some more specific discriminations were obtained separating plastic materials belonging to the same polymer family e.g. high density polyethylene (HDPE) from low density polyethylene (LDPE). High discrimination rates were obtained despite the heterogeneity among samples especially differences in colors, thicknesses and surface textures. The reproducibility of the proposed approach was also tested using two spectrometers with considerable differences in their sensitivities. Discrimination rates were not affected proving that the developed approach could be extrapolated to different spectrometers. MIR combined with ICA is a promising tool for plastic waste separation that can help improve performance in this field; however further technological improvements and developments are required before it can be applied

  16. The comparison of antimicrobial packaging properties with different applications incorporation method of active material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, R. W.; Sugiarto; Warsiki, E.

    2018-03-01

    Contamination after the processing of products during storage, distribution and marketing is one of the main causes of food safety issues. Handling of food products after processing can be done during the packaging process. Antimicrobial (AM) active packaging is one of the concept of packaging product development by utilize the interaction between the product and the packaging environment that can delay the bacterial damage by killing or reducing bacterial growth. The active system is formed by incorporating an antimicrobial agent against a packaging matrix that will function as a carrier. Many incorporation methods have been developed in this packaging-making concept which were direct mixing, polishing, and encapsulation. The aims of this research were to examine the different of the AM packaging performances including its stability and effectiveness of its function that would be produced by three different methods. The stability of the packaging function was analyzed by looking at the diffusivity of the active ingredient to the matrix using SEM. The effectiveness was analyzed by the ability of the packaging to prevent the growing of the microbial. The results showed that different incorporation methods resulted on different characteristics of the AM packaging.

  17. Integrated software package for nuclear material safeguards in a MOX fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.J.; Piana, M.; Moussalli, G.; Saukkonen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Since computerized data processing was introduced to Safeguards at large bulk handling facilities, a large number of individual software applications have been developed for nuclear material Safeguards implementation. Facility inventory and flow data are provided in computerized format for performing stratification, sample size calculation and selection of samples for destructive and non-destructive assay. Data is collected from nuclear measurement systems running in attended, unattended mode and more recently from remote monitoring systems controlled. Data sets from various sources have to be evaluated for Safeguards purposes, such as raw data, processed data and conclusions drawn from data evaluation results. They are reported in computerized format at the International Atomic Energy Agency headquarters and feedback from the Agency's mainframe computer system is used to prepare and support Safeguards inspection activities. The integration of all such data originating from various sources cannot be ensured without the existence of a common data format and a database system. This paper describes the fundamental relations between data streams, individual data processing tools, data evaluation results and requirements for an integrated software solution to facilitate nuclear material Safeguards at a bulk handling facility. The paper also explains the basis for designing a software package to manage data streams from various data sources and for incorporating diverse data processing tools that until now have been used independently from each other and under different computer operating systems. (author)

  18. A probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive materials transport. A risk analysis of LLW package handling at harbor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kouno, Yutaka

    1997-01-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) method for radioactive materials (RAM) transport has been developed by CRIEPI. A case study was executed for the purpose of studying the adaptability of the PSA method to LLW package handling, which is one of the processes of the actual transport. The main results of the case study were as follows; 1) Accident scenarios for falling of package were extracted from the 25 ton-crane system chart and package handling manual. 2) Protection methods for each drop accident scenario were confirmed. 3) Important points of the crane system were extracted. 4) Fault trees, which describe accident scenarios, were developed. 5) Probabilities for each basic event and the top event on fault trees were calculated. Consequently, 'falling of a package' on the package handling process by the 25 ton-crane was revealed to be extremely low. Among the four major stages of handling process, i.e. 'Rolling-up', 'Horizontal travelling' 'Rolling-down' and 'Contact with loading platform', the 'Rolling-down' process was found to be a major process with occupies more than 50% of the probability of the falling accidents. According to those results, it was concluded that PSA method is adaptable to package handling from the view points of extraction of weak points and review of the effect of vestment for facility. (author)

  19. A probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive materials transport. A risk analysis of LLW package handling at harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Naohito; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kouno, Yutaka [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Abiko, Chiba (Japan). Abiko Research Lab.

    1997-10-01

    The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) method for radioactive materials (RAM) transport has been developed by CRIEPI. A case study was executed for the purpose of studying the adaptability of the PSA method to LLW package handling, which is one of the processes of the actual transport. The main results of the case study were as follows; (1) Accident scenarios for falling of package were extracted from the 25 ton-crane system chart and package handling manual. (2) Protection methods for each drop accident scenario were confirmed. (3) Important points of the crane system were extracted. (4) Fault trees, which describe accident scenarios, were developed. (5) Probabilities for each basic event and the top event on fault trees were calculated. Consequently, `falling of a package` on the package handling process by the 25 ton-crane was revealed to be extremely low. Among the four major stages of handling process, i.e. `Rolling-up`, `Horizontal travelling` `Rolling-down` and `Contact with loading platform`, the `Rolling-down` process was found to be a major process with occupies more than 50% of the probability of the falling accidents. According to those results, it was concluded that PSA method is adaptable to package handling from the view points of extraction of weak points and review of the effect of vestment for facility. (author)

  20. Qualification testing facility for type A, B and C packages to be used for transport and storage of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.; Nistor, V.; Vasile, A.; Cojocaru, V.

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the Economic Commission for Europe-Committee on inland transport (ADR- European Agreement-concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road, 2007 Edition) the Safety and Security of the dangerous goods class No. 7 - Radioactive Materials during transport in all different modes - by road, by rail, by sea, by inland rivers or by air - have to be ensured at a very high level. The radioactive materials (RAM) packaging have to comply to all transport conditions, routine or in accident conditions, possibly to occur during transportation operations. It is well known that the safety in the transport of RAM is dependent on packaging appropriate for the contents being shipped rather than on operational and/or administrative actions required for the package. The quality of these packages - type A, B or C has to be proved by performing qualification tests in accordance with the Romanian nuclear regulation conditions provided by CNCAN Order no. 357/22.12.2005- N orms for a Safe Transport of Radioactive Material , the IAEA Vienna Recommendation (1, 2) stipulated in the Safety standard TS-R-1- Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, 2005 Edition, and other applicable international recommendations. The paper will describe the components of the designed testing facilities, and the qualification testing to be performed for all type A, B and C packages subjected to the testing Quality assurance and quality controls measures taken in order to meet technical specification provided by the design are also presented and commented. The paper concludes that the new Romanian Testing Facilities for RAM packages will comply with the national safe standards as well as with the IAEA applicable recommendation provided by the TS-R-1 safety standard. (authors)

  1. Directory of national competent authorities' approval certificates for packages, shipments, special arrangements and special form radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    The Agency's transport regulations prescribe various requirements for the authorization of packages and shipments in respect of both national and international movement of radioactive materials. These authorizations are issued by the relevant competent authority of the country concerned; they take the form of package approval and/or shipment approval certificates. At the request of the Standing Advisory Group of the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SAGSTRAM), the Agency has established a programme to maintain a file of those certificates for packages and shipments which are either transported internationally or used outside the country of origin. The purpose of this directory is to facilitate the transfer of information to competent authorities and any other person wishing details on the packaging, authorized contents or special conditions pertinent to any package or shipment. The directory enables competent authorities to be aware of the status of any certificate submitted for validation. It also indicates any change in status of any certificate already validated. Future updates of the complete data will be distributed annually in a TECDOC form and, in addition, summary listings of the certificates will be issued every six months thereafter

  2. Safety analysis report: packages. Argonne National Laboratory SLSF test train shipping container, P-1 shipment. Fissile material. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, C.A.

    1975-06-01

    The package is used to ship an instrumented test fuel bundle (test train) containing fissile material. The package assembly is Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Model R1010-0032. The shipment is fissile class III. The packaging consists of an outer carbon steel container into which an inner container is placed; the inner container is separated from the outer container by urethane foam cushioning material. The test train is supported in the inner container by a series of transverse supports spaced along the length of the test train. Both the inner and outer containers are closed with bolted covers. The covers do not seal the containers in a leaktight manner. The gross weight of the shipment is about 8350 lb. The unirradiated fissile material content is less than 3 kg of UO 2 of up to 93.2 percent enrichment. This is a Type A quantity (transport group III and less than 3 curies) of radioactive material which does not require shielding, cooling or heating, or neutron absorption or moderation functions in its packaging. The maximum exterior dimensions of the container are 37 ft 11 in. long, 24 1 / 2 in. wide, and 19 3 / 4 in. high

  3. 77 FR 36017 - Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0139] Regulatory Guide 7.3, Procedures for Picking Up and... Guide (RG) 7.3, ``Procedures for Picking Up and Receiving Packages of Radioactive Material.'' The guide..., please contact the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR) reference staff at 1-800-397-4209, or 301-415-4737...

  4. Potential of polymeric materials for packaging; L'impiego dei materiali polimerici nell'imballaggio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M. [ENEA, Divisione Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Packaging preserves different kind of materials, from raw materials, and it plays an important role in the presentation of the products to the market, too. That's why packaging should be in charge of responding to marketing requirements by means of a proper design, effective colour choice and material, etc. Nowadays packaging is becoming more and more important in different fields. In Italy, it is a rapid growth of the packaging market and the companies involved are very competitive and efficient, in particular in some market segments. Concerning the application fields it can be asserted that packaging is mostly exploited in the food market which represents the 65% of the whole packaging market. Nearly all types of packaging use plastics as a part of their construction: lightness, chemical inertness, corrosion resistance, molding attitude, the good transparency to light, sound and mechanical insulation, etc. Focusing the attention to the horticultural market, growth in South of Italy in particular, examples of promising research fields to date are: developing of good barrier performance films; developing of suitable modified atmosphere packaging; developing of active plastic films, such as antimicrobic films or antioxidant films. The large amount of plastic films used for packaging create a large waste problem. This can be reduced by: optimising packaging design, avoiding the excessive use of plastics; improvising strength, moisture and heat stability per unit weight in order to reduce plastic waste volume; developing blend of plastics and bio-based polymer in order to increase the biodegradability of packaging after use. [Italian] L'imballaggio e' un prodotto adibito a contenere e a proteggere determinate merci, dalle materie prime ai prodotti finiti, a consentire la loro manipolazione e ad assicurare la loro presentazione. E' una realta' importante del mondo della produzione, delle strutture distributive e della vita quotidiana. Nell

  5. Toward 6 log10 pulsed electric field inactivation with conductive plastic packaging material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.; Haan, S.W.H. de; Ferreira, J.A.; Coronel, P.; Wouters, P.C.; Hatt, V.

    2013-01-01

    Generally, high grade products such as pulsed electric field (PEF) treated fruit juices are packaged after their preservative treatment. However, PEF treatment after packaging could avoid recontamination of the product and becomes feasible when electric field pulses of sufficient magnitude can be

  6. 75 FR 27273 - Hazardous Materials; Packages Intended for Transport by Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... inner packaging, such as a glass bottle or plastic receptacle, is initially filled and sealed, the cap... Technical Instructions Packaging Provisions Currently under the HMR, stoppers, corks, or other such friction... proposing to revise Sec. 173.27(d) to clearly state that all friction and screw type closures must be...

  7. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : influence of reuse on intrinsic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the

  8. The 9th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    This three-volume document contains the papers and poster sessions presented at the symposium. Volume 3 contains 87 papers on topics such as structural codes and benchmarking, shipment of plutonium by air, spent fuel shipping, planning, package design and risk assessment, package testing, OCRWN operations experience and regulations. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  9. The impact of the new IAEA transport regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials on package design and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.

    1989-01-01

    In April 1985 the 1985 Edition of the IAEA Safety Series No. 6, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, was issued. This is a completely revised edition which shall come into force internationally in the late eighties. This edition will supersede the 1973 (As Amended, 1979) edition. A paragraph by paragraph comparison is carried through, followed by a consideration on the impact on general requirements for packaging and transport. A detailed estimate on packaging design and transport is performed for typical products of the nuclear fuel cycle. The major practical consequences likely to be encountered are presented

  10. Barrier Properties of Polymeric Packaging Materials to Major Aroma Volatiles in Herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelaphiwat Pattarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the main transport coefficients (diffusion, solubility and permeability of key aroma compounds present in tropical herbs (eucalyptol and estragol through low‒density polyethylene (LDPE, polypropylene (PP, nylon (Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET, metalized‒polyethylene terephthalate (MPET and poly(lactic acid (PLA films at 15 and 25 °C. The concentration of aroma compounds permeating through the films were evaluated at various time intervals using a gas chromatograph flame ionization detector (GC–FID. Results showed that the diffusion coefficients of aroma compounds were highest in LDPE whereas the solubility coefficients were highest in PLA at both temperatures. PLA had the highest permeability coefficients for estragol at both temperatures. PP and LDPE had the highest permeability coefficients for eucalyptol at 15 and 25 °C, respectively. MPET had the lowest permeability for both aroma compounds studied. Aroma barrier properties can be used when selecting polymeric packaging materials to prevent aroma loss in various food and consumer products.

  11. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  12. Chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition on oils and fats stored in different packaging materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleached cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated palm oil and margarine were stored in metal (tin cans and white plastic (polyethylene bottles with air in head space and served at room temperature during the whole period of investigation. The analytical techniques used to analyse these materials has been done at zero time storing (control, after four and seven months of storage. This study showed that storing oils in metal cans have better results than plastic packages specially for bleached cottonseed and hydrogenated oils.

    Aceite de semilla de algodón decolorado, aceite de palma parcialmente hidrogenado y margarina fueron almacenados en latas metálicas (estaño y en botellas de plástico blanco (polietileno con aire en el espacio de cabeza y a temperatura ambiente durante todo el período de investigación. Las técnicas analíticas usadas para analizar estos materiales fueron ensayados a tiempo cero de almacenamiento (control, y después de cuatro y siete meses de almacenamiento. Este estudio mostró que los aceites almacenados en latas metálicas tienen mejores resultados que los envases de plástico, especialmente para los aceites hidrogenados y de semilla de algodón decolorado.

  13. Characterization of Surface Properties of Glass Vials Used as Primary Packaging Material for Parenterals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditter, Dominique; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roehl, Holger; Wahl, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Nieto, Alejandra; Allmendinger, Andrea

    2018-01-10

    The appropriate selection of adequate primary packaging, such as the glass vial, rubber stopper, and crimp cap for parenteral products is of high importance to ensure product stability, microbiological quality (integrity) during storage as well as patient safety. A number of issues can arise when inadequate vial material is chosen, and sole compliance to hydrolytic class I is sometimes not sufficient when choosing a glass vial. Using an appropriate pre-treatment, such as surface modification or coating of the inner vial surface after the vial forming process the glass container quality is often improved and interactions of the formulation with the surface of glass may be minimized. This study aimed to characterize the inner surface of different type I glass vials (Exp33, Exp51, Siliconized, TopLyo TM and Type I plus®) at the nanoscale level. All vials were investigated topographically by colorimetric staining and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Glass composition of the surface was studied by Time-of-Flight - Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the inner surface was assessed by dye tests and surface energy measurements. All containers were studied unprocessed, as received from the vendor, i.e. in unwashed and non-depyrogenized condition. Clear differences were found between the different vial types studied. Especially glass vials without further surface modifications, like Exp33 and Exp51 vials, showed significant (I) vial-to-vial variations within one vial lot as well as (II) variations along the vertical axis of a single vial when studying topography and chemical composition. In addition, differences and heterogeneity in surface energy were found within a given tranche (circumferential direction) of Exp51 as well as Type I plus® vials. Most consistent quality was achieved with TopLyo TM vials. The present comprehensive characterization of surface properties of the

  14. Development of New Low-Cost, High-Performance, PV Module Encapsulant/Packaging Materials: Final Technical Progress Report, 22 October 2002 - 15 November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.

    2008-04-01

    Report on objectives to work with U.S.-based PV module manufacturers (c-Si, a-Si, CIS, other thin films) to develop/qualify new low-cost, high-performance PV module encapsulant/packaging materials, and processes using the packaging materials.

  15. Dose assessment for public by packages shipping radioactive materials hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. Annex 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Saegusa, Toshiari; Watabe, Naohito; Asano, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Koki; Kinehara, Yoshiki

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive materials such as spent fuel (SF), PuO 2 powder, high level wastes (HLW) and fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel have been transported by sea between Europe and Japan. Dose assessments for public have been performed in the past when the packages shipping radioactive materials were hypothetically sunk on the continental shelf. These studies employed various conditions and methods in their assessments and the results were not always the same. In this study, the dose assessment for these packages was performed under the same conditions and by the same methods. The effective dose equivalents of radiation exposure to the public for all materials become smaller than the previous evaluations due to more realistic assumption in this study. These evaluated results are far less than the effective dose equivalent limit (1 mSv year -1 ) by the ICRP recommendation. (author)

  16. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date

  17. Directory of Certificates of Compliance for radioactive materials packages: Certificates of Compliance. Volume 2, Revision 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this directory is to make available a convenient source of information on packagings which have been approved by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To assist in identifying packaging, an index by Model Number and corresponding Certificate of Compliance Number is included at the front of Volumes 1 and 2. An alphabetical listing by user name is included in the back of Volume 3 of approved QA programs. The reports include a listing of all users of each package design and approved QA programs prior to the publication date.

  18. Non-Foil High Barrier Food Packaging Materials for Human Centered Spacecrafts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to develop food packaging technologies for extending shelf-live toward maintaining healthy diet and psychological well being of the space crew. The...

  19. Non-Foil High Barrier Food Packaging Materials for Human Centered Spacecrafts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project aims to develop food packaging technologies for extending shelf-live toward maintaining healthy diet and psychological well being of the space crew. The...

  20. 49 CFR 173.247 - Bulk packaging for certain elevated temperature materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reference to the axes of the transport vehicle. Each accelerative or decelerative load may be considered... packagings used for transportation of molten metals and molten glass by rail when movement is restricted to...

  1. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.

    2004-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of Alloy 22

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, the Waste Package Outer Barrier, and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Gordon

    2004-10-13

    Stress corrosion cracking is one of the most common corrosion-related causes for premature breach of metal structural components. Stress corrosion cracking is the initiation and propagation of cracks in structural components due to three factors that must be present simultaneously: metallurgical susceptibility, critical environment, and static (or sustained) tensile stresses. This report was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling and Analysis of the Waste Form and Waste Package'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171583]). The purpose of this report is to provide an evaluation of the potential for stress corrosion cracking of the engineered barrier system components (i.e., the drip shield, waste package outer barrier, and waste package stainless steel inner structural cylinder) under exposure conditions consistent with the repository during the regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For the drip shield and waste package outer barrier, the critical environment is conservatively taken as any aqueous environment contacting the metal surfaces. Appendix B of this report describes the development of the SCC-relevant seismic crack density model (SCDM). The consequence of a stress corrosion cracking breach of the drip shield, the waste package outer barrier, or the stainless steel inner structural cylinder material is the initiation and propagation of tight, sometimes branching, cracks that might be induced by the combination of an aggressive environment and various tensile stresses that can develop in the drip shields or the waste packages. The Stainless Steel Type 316 inner structural cylinder of the waste package is excluded from the stress corrosion cracking evaluation because the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA) does not take credit for the inner cylinder. This document provides a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the

  3. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 contains papers from the following sessions: emergency response; structural modeling and testing; transportation system planning; institutional issues and public response; packaging systems; thermal analysis and testing; systems analysis; structural analyses; quality assurance; packaging and transportation systems; physical protection; criticality and shielding; transportation operations and experience; standards; shock absorber technology; and information and training for compliance. Seventy-eight papers were indexed separately; thirty-eight were already in the Energy Data Base

  4. Corrosion studies on selected packaging materials for disposal of heat-generating radioactive wastes in rock-salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Gago, J.A.; Azkarate, I.

    1992-04-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels and the alloy Ti 99.8-Pd were identified as promising materials for heat-generating nuclear waste packagings that could act as a barrier in a rock-salt repository. To characterize the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, a research programme including laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies has been undertaken jointly by KfK and ENRESA/INASMET. Besides carbon steels and Ti 99.8-Pd, also Hastelloy C4 and some Fe-base materials are being examined in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  5. Variation in Inspection Efficacy by Member States of Wood Packaging Material Entering the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Dominic; Macarthur, Roy; Haack, Robert A; Lu, Yi; Krehan, Hannes

    2018-01-20

    The use of wood packaging materials (WPMs) in international trade is recognized as a pathway for the movement of invasive pests and as the origin of most introductions of Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Europe and North America. Following several pest interceptions on WPM associated with stone imports from China, the European Union (EU) agreed to survey certain categories of imports based on the EU Combined Nomenclature Codes for imports, which are based on the international Harmonized System. Between April 2013 and March 2015, 72,263 relevant consignments were received from China in the EU and 26,008 were inspected. Harmful organisms were detected in 0.9% of the consignments, and 1.1% of the imports did not have markings compliant with the international standard for treating WPM, ISPM 15. There were significant differences between the detection rates of harmful organisms among EU member states. In member states that inspected at least 500 consignments, the rate of detection ranged from 6.9% in Austria and France to 0.0% in Spain and Poland. If this difference in detection rate is the result of differences in the methods and intensity of inspection in different member states then an approximate sevenfold increase in the interception of harmful organisms may be achieved if all states were to achieve detection rates achieved by Austria and France. The EU data from 1999 to 2014 indicated an increasing number of interceptions of Bostrichidae and Cerambycidae since 2010. This study demonstrates that there is an ongoing threat of non-native forest pests being imported on WPM. © Crown copyright 2018.

  6. Radiological impact assessment at the hypothetical release from submerged transport package of high level radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2010-01-01

    Radioactive materials (spent fuel, high level waste and fresh MOX fuel) have been transported safely on the sea under the IMO and the IAEA standards. Radiological impact assessments have been made by assuming that a transport package might be sunk into the sea to gain the supplementary public acceptance for these transports since 1970s. Evaluations of the value of radionuclide concentrations and their distributions are important in this assessment. A state-of-the-arts ocean circulation models can estimate realistic distributions of the radionuclides concentrations. The progress of ocean general circulation models are rapid in the research field of global warming projection partly due to the increasing of computer resources. We employed the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) for coastal and global area, respectively. These model's resolutions are higher than the previous models. Although previous regional model simulates only for Japan Sea this regional model simulates all around Japan. We simulated tracer concentrations at the release from sea bottoms for coastal and global area. These models provide useful information where tracer transported in the ocean. Simulated tracer concentrations in the coastal and global area can convert to the nuclides concentration at the release from spent fuel, high level waste and fresh MOX fuel. The converted concentrations were quite smaller than the background concentration by the fallouts. And then, we estimated the dose equivalent for the public by the ingestion of seafood from the contaminated area. The estimated dose equivalents were quite smaller than the ICRP recommendation (1mSv/year). (author)

  7. Stowing of packages containing radioactive materials during their road transportation with trucks for loads up to 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.; Draulans, J.; Lafontaine, I.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation and a coordination of available standards, regulatory prescriptions and directives on stowing are first presented. Then generated forces resulting from road vehicle deceleration in accidental conditions are searched. The investigation shows that higher dangerous materials transportation probabilities essentially concern front end impacts (51.4 %) and side on impacts (19 %). These accidents occur with a speed of about 80 km/h before the impact and 50 km/h during the crash. During the latter, deceleration values ranging from 20 to 100g could be reached, the mean value could be about 30g. A mathematical model is developed. Experiments are realized with the aims on the one hand, to verify the results obtained from a mathematical model of accident and on the other hand to collect experimental values allowing to work out a code of good practice for the stowing of radioactive materials packages having a maximum weight of about 20 tons. A number of 8 tests has been performed with two types of packagings: lower and higher centre of gravity in front end and side on impacts. In case of a front end impact, the stowing system must be able to absorb entirely the kinetic energy generated by the package deceleration. This means that a tie-down system according to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient provided that the package is chocked in the direction of the traffic. The damage is proportional to the weight of the vehicle responsible for such side on impact. This weight could be much higher than the package weight. Deceleration values up to 120g have been recorded. As a result, the tie down system similar to the 2g - 1g - 1g standard is convenient, but chocks acting perpendicularly to the direction of the traffic are to be prohibited

  8. Release Mathematical Model of Active Agent from Packaging Material into Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active packaging is an innovative packaging technology by which active compounds are released from the package to enhance the quality and microbial safety for a wide range of foods. The problem of active ingredient release through the bilayer packaging food system is studied from a theoretical viewpoint. A release model is built to provide predictions of concentration and amount of active ingredient. The equations are built based on Fickian diffusion, and numerical solutions are obtained through finite difference. Different diffusion coefficients DP and DC of active ingredient in different packaging layers, partition coefficient kCP at the interface of outer layer and inner layer, partition coefficient kFC at the interface of inner layer and food, and mass transfer coefficient hm at the interface of inner layer and food are considered in the model. The effects of kCP, thicknesses of outer layer and inner layer, CP0, DP, DC, kFC, and hm on the release are discussed. Corresponding conclusions and analysis are given.

  9. Physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends; effects of packaging material, storage temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of packaging materials, seasonality, storage temperature and time on physiochemical and antioxidant properties of roselle-mango juice blends. Roselle extract (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) was mixed with mango juice and stored in glass and plastic bottles at 4°C and 28°C. Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, color, vitamin C, total monomeric anthocyanins, total phenols, and antioxidant activity (FRAP) were evaluated in freshly prepared juice, and after, 2, 4, and 6 months of storage. The results showed that total soluble solids, reducing sugars, and pH increased with storage times under different storage time, irrespective of packaging materials. The acidity, color, total monomeric anthocyanin, vitamin C, total phenols, and antioxidant activity decreased during storage irrespective of storage temperature and packaging material. Loss of anthocyanins, total phenols, and vitamin C content were higher in blends stored at 28°C than 4°C.

  10. Far-Field Accumulation of Fissile Material From Waste Packages Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.P. Nicot

    2000-09-29

    The objective of this calculation is to estimate the quantity of fissile material that could accumulate in fractures in the rock beneath plutonium-ceramic (Pu-ceramic) and Mixed-Oxide (MOX) waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. This calculation is to feed another calculation (Ref. 31) computing the probability of criticality in the systems described in Section 6 and then ultimately to a more general report on the impact of plutonium on the performance of the proposed repository (Ref. 32), both developed concurrently to this work. This calculation is done in accordance with the development plan TDP-DDC-MD-000001 (Ref. 9), item 5. The original document described in item 5 has been split into two documents: this calculation and Ref. 4. The scope of the calculation is limited to only very low flow rates because they lead to the most conservative cases for Pu accumulation and more generally are consistent with the way the effluent from the WP (called source term in this calculation) was calculated (Ref. 4). Ref. 4 (''In-Drift Accumulation of Fissile Material from WPs Containing Plutonium Disposition Waste Forms'') details the evolution through time (breach time is initial time) of the chemical composition of the solution inside the WP as degradation of the fuel and other materials proceed. It is the chemical solution used as a source term in this calculation. Ref. 4 takes that same source term and reacts it with the invert; this calculation reacts it with the rock. In addition to reactions with the rock minerals (that release Si and Ca), the basic mechanisms for actinide precipitation are dilution and mixing with resident water as explained in Section 2.1.4. No other potential mechanism such as flow through a reducing zone is investigated in this calculation. No attempt was made to use the effluent water from the bottom of the invert instead of using directly the effluent water from the

  11. Overview of hydrothermal testing of waste-package barrier materials at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The current Waste Package Department (WPD) hydrothermal testing program for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has followed a systematic approach for the testing of waste-barrier-basalt interactions based on sequential penetration of barriers by intruding groundwaters. Present test activities in the WPD program have focused on determining radionuclide solubility limits (or steady-state conditions) of simulated waste forms and the long-term stability of waste package barriers under site-specific hydrothermal conditions. The resulting data on solution compositions and solid alteration products have been used to evaluate waste form degradation under conditions specific to a nuclear waste repository located in basalt (NWRB). Isothermal, time-invariant compositional data on sampled solutions have been coupled with realistic hydrologic flow data for near-field and far-field modeling for the calculation of meaningful radionuclide release rates. Radionuclides that are not strongly sorbed or precipitated from solution and that, therefore, may require special attention to ensure their isolation within the waste package have been identified. Taken together, these hydrothermal test data have been used to establish design requirements for waste packages located in basalt

  12. 49 CFR 173.224 - Packaging and control and emergency temperatures for self-reactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packaging and control and emergency temperatures... Administrator. (5) Control temperature. Column 5 specifies the control temperature in °C. Temperatures are specified only when temperature controls are required (see § 173.21(f)). (6) Emergency temperature. Column 6...

  13. Effect of Coating and Packaging Materials on Photocatalytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety or foodborne pathogen contamination is a major concern in food industry. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photocatalyst and can inactivate a wide spectrum of microorganisms under UV illumination. There is significant interest in the development of TiO2-coated or –incorporated food packaging ...

  14. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1990-05-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. To characterise the corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, further in-depth laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies have been performed in the present study. Besides the above-mentioned materials, also some in-situ investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. (orig.) [de

  15. Evaluation of finite element codes for demonstrating the performance of radioactive material packages in hypothetical accident drop scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso, C.F.; Hueggenberg, R.

    2004-01-01

    Drop testing and analysis are the two methods for demonstrating the performance of packages in hypothetical drop accident scenarios. The exact purpose of the tests and the analyses, and the relative prominence of the two in the license application, may depend on the Competent Authority and will vary between countries. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a powerful analysis tool. A reliable finite element (FE) code when used correctly and appropriately, will allow a package's behaviour to be simulated reliably. With improvements in computing power, and in sophistication and reliability of FE codes, it is likely that FEM calculations will increasingly be used as evidence of drop test performance when seeking Competent Authority approval. What is lacking at the moment, however, is a standardised method of assessing a FE code in order to determine whether it is sufficiently reliable or pessimistic. To this end, the project Evaluation of Codes for Analysing the Drop Test Performance of Radioactive Material Transport Containers, funded by the European Commission Directorate-General XVII (now Directorate-General for Energy and Transport) and jointly performed by Arup and Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Behaelter mbH, was carried out in 1998. The work consisted of three components: Survey of existing finite element software, with a view to finding codes that may be capable of analysing drop test performance of radioactive material packages, and to produce an inventory of them. Develop a set of benchmark problems to evaluate software used for analysing the drop test performance of packages. Evaluate the finite element codes by testing them against the benchmarks This paper presents a summary of this work

  16. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial monolayer and multilayer semirigid plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile testing, overall migration tests and sensory tests were used to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (5-60 kGy) on six commercial semirigid packaging materials. The monolayer and multilayer materials in sheet or bottle form were: polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride/high-density polyethylene (PVC/HDPE), polyethylene terepthalate (PET), HDPE/polyamide (HDPE/PA) and HDPE. In terms of mechanical strength, PET was the most radiation-resistant material, while the HDPE monolayer and multilayer showed some degradation after 60 kGy. PS was slightly affected after 30 kGy, whereas PP was severely degraded and became very brittle. Generally, there was no change in overall migration at lower doses; at higher doses migration from PP tended to increase, while migration from HDPE/PVC tended to decrease. Odor and taste transfer as well as discoloration were observed with most plastics, especially at higher doses, and it is concluded that these tests are a sensitive and important quality control tool for evaluating irradiated packaging materials

  17. The PACKTRAM database on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material. User's guide for compiled system program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The PACKTRAM system program enables Member States to prepare data diskettes on national competent authorities' approval certificates for package design, special form material and shipment of radioactive material, for submission to the IAEA, and facilitates data manipulation and report preparation for the IAEA. The system program is provided as a 424 kbyte executable file, for which this document is the User Guide. The system is fully menu-driven and requires an IBM-compatible personal computer with a minimum of 640 kbyte random access memory, a hard drive and one 3-1/2 inch diskette drive. 3 refs, 6 tabs

  18. Graded approach for establishment of QA requirements for Type B packaging of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, R.R.; Woodruff, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    A study that was conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the U.S. Congress to assess the effectiveness of quality assurance (QA) activities has demonstrated a need to modify and improve the application of QA requirements for the nuclear industry. As a result, the packaging community, along with the nuclear industry as a whole, has taken action to increase the efficacy of the QA function. The results of the study indicate that a graded approach for establishing QA requirements is the preferred method. The essence of the graded approach is the establishment of applicable QA requirements to an extent consistent with the importance to safety of an item, component, system, or activity. This paper describes the process that is used to develop the graded approach for QA requirements pertaining to Type B packaging

  19. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  20. Physics of Failure Analysis of Xilinx Flip Chip CCGA Packages: Effects of Mission Environments on Properties of LP2 Underfill and ATI Lid Adhesive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jong-ook

    2013-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex 4QV and 5QV (V4 and V5) are next-generation field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space applications. However, there have been concerns within the space community regarding the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages; polymeric materials such as the underfill and lid adhesive will be directly exposed to the space environment. In this study, reliability concerns associated with the non-hermeticity of V4/V5 packages were investigated by studying properties and behavior of the underfill and the lid adhesvie materials used in V4/V5 packages.

  1. Interactions between cask components and content of packaging for the transport of radioactive material during drop tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercetti, T.; Ballheimer, V.; Zeisler, P.; Mueller, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical, numerical and experimental investigations on the phenomenon of interactions between cask components and content of packages for the transport of radioactive material during drop tests required according to the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Radial and axial gaps between cask components and content are usually necessary for thermal reasons but larger gaps can exist because of the geometrical dimensions of the specified content. Consequently interactions between content and cask components (lid system, cask body, etc.) are possible and can not be excluded during drop tests. Interactions in this context are relative movements between cask and content which are mainly due to elastic spring effects after releasing the cask for the free drop. These relative movements can cause interior collisions between content and cask during the main impact of the package onto the unyielding target. Drop tests with various types of Type A and Type B packages fully instrumented with strain gauges and accelerometers showed that these interactions respectively interior collisions can be considerable relating to high forces acting on cask lids, lid bolts and the content. Of course the real quantitative consequences of the interactions depend upon different conditions, among others the drop orientation, the design characteristics of the impact limiters, the dimensions of the gaps, the material characteristics of the contents, etc. . In order to investigate more precisely the phenomenon of interactions BAM carried out finite element calculations for the named casks using the ABAQUS/ Standard and ABAQUS/ Explicit computer code comparing them with results obtained from experiments. Additionally, tests with a simplified model instrumented with accelerometers were carried out accompanied by finite element calculations and analytical calculations using MATHEMATICA. The investigations on the mentioned phenomena of interaction

  2. Catalogue of facilities in Member States of the European Community for testing the packaging of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, A.; Swindell, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    A group of experts convened by the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels on 2 July 1980 to suggest possible actions in connection with the safe transport of radioactive materials, recommended, among other things, that the Commission should collect and distribute information on packaging test facilities in Member States. In response to that recommendation a letter of enquiry was sent informally, on behalf of the Commission, to the competent authorities of the Member States. The purpose of the enquiry is to assist in the effective implementation of the internationally accepted Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials through the dissemination of information on test facilities and on the terms and conditions under which the services of these facilities could be made available for the testing of packaging designed in other countries. As an aid to the presentation of the material in a harmonized format, it was suggested that the information provided should cover relevant topics. The information received by the Commission has been assembled for each installation according to this format

  3. Materials Assessment of Insulating Foam in the 9977 Shipping Package for Long-Term Storage - Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, A. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-01

    The 9977 shipping package is being evaluated for long-term storage applications in the K-Area Complex (KAC) with specific focus on the packaging foam material. A rigid closed cell polyurethane foam, LAST-A-FOAM® FR-3716, produced by General Plastics Manufacturing Company is sprayed and expands to fill the void between the inner container and the outer shell of the package. The foam is sealed in this annular space and is not accessible. During shipping and storage, the foam experiences higher than ambient temperatures from the heat generated by nuclear material within the package creating the potential for degradation of the foam. A series of experiments is underway to determine the extent of foam degradation. Foam samples of three densities have been aging at elevated temperatures 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% relative humidity (RH), 185 °F, 215 °F, and 250 °F since 2014. Samples were periodically removed and tested. After approximately 80 weeks, samples conditioned at 160 °F, 160 °F + 50% RH, and 185 °F have retained initial property values while samples conditioned at 215 °F have reduced intumescence. Samples conditioned at 250 °F have shown the most degradation, loss of volume, mass, absorbed energy under compression, intumescence, and increased flammability. Based on the initial data, temperatures up to 185 °F have not yet shown an adverse effect on the foam properties and it is recommended that exposure of FR-3716 foam to temperatures in excess of 250 °F be avoided or minimized. Testing will continue beyond the 96 week mark. This will provide additional data to help define the long-term behavior for the lower temperature conditions. Additional testing will be pursued in an attempt to identify transition points (threshold times and temperatures) at the higher temperatures of interest, as well as possible benefits of aging within the relatively oxygen-free environment the foam experiences inside the 9977 shipping package.

  4. Experimental analysis of axial and radial stress distribution in soft materials used for petrochemical valve stem sealing package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripeanu, R. G.; Ispas, A.; Ispas, D.

    2017-02-01

    Paper presents experimental results obtained by authors regarding pressure values and distribution, by using a special pressure sensitive paper, type FujiFilm and adequate hardware equipment and a soft program FPD810 Win. Was obtained the proper axial force related for different materials in order to respect the valves sealing demands. Were showed that, pressure maps obtained depends of the construction of sealing package, density of the preformed band rings and corrected sealing replacing on location in case of square braided cord used.

  5. Research on statistical process control for solvent residual quantity of packaging materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yingzhe; Huang, Yanan

    2013-03-01

    Statistical Process Control (SPC) and the basic tool of its controlling - control chart - are discussed in this paper based on the development of quality management, current situation of quality management of Chinese packaging enterprises, and the necessity of applying SPC. On this basis, X-R control chart is used to analyze and control the solvent residual in the compound process. This work may allow field personnel to find the shortcomings in the quality control by noticing the corresponding of fluctuations and slow variations in the process in time. In addition, SPC also provides objective basis for the quality management personnel to assess semi-products or products quality.

  6. Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Gap-Don; Kim, Geun-Bae; Jin, Sang Keun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Active packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity was significantly (P packaging using self-CO 2 -generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Stress Corrosion Cracking of the Drip Shield, The Waste Package Outer Barrier and the Stainless Steel Structural Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stephen

    2000-04-17

    One of the potential failure modes of the drip shield (DS), the waste package (WP) outer barrier, and the stainless structural material is the initiation and propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) induced by the WP environment and various types of stresses that can develop in the DSs or the WPs. For the current design of the DS and WP, however, the DS will be excluded from the SCC evaluation because stresses that are relevant to SCC are insignificant in the DS. The major sources of stresses in the DS are loadings due to backfill and earthquakes. These stresses will not induce SCC because the stress caused by backfill is generally compressive stress and the stress caused by earthquakes is temporary in nature. The 316NG stainless steel inner barrier of the WP will also be excluded from the SCC evaluation because the SCC performance assessment will not take credit from the inner barrier. Therefore, the purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the process-level models that can be applied to assess the performance of the material (i.e., Alloy 22) used for the WP outer barrier subjected to the effects of SCC. As already mentioned in the development plan for the WP PMR (CRWMS M and O 1999e), this Analyses and Models Report (AMR) is to serve as a feed to the Waste Package Degradation (WPD) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) and Process Model Report (PMR).

  8. Safety during sea transport of radioactive materials. Probabilistic safety analysis of package fro sea surface fire accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Obara, Isonori; Akutsu, Yukio; Aritomi, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    The ships carrying irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes(INF materials) are designed to keep integrity of packaging based on the various safety and fireproof measures, even if the ship encounters a maritime fire accident. However, granted that the frequency is very low, realistic severe accidents should be evaluated. In this paper, probabilistic safety assessment method is applied to evaluate safety margin for severe sea fire accidents using event tree analysis. Based on our separate studies, the severest scenario was estimated as follows; an INF transport ship collides with oil tanker and induces a sea surface fire. Probability data such as ship's collision, oil leakage, ignition, escape from fire region, operations of cask cooling system and water flooding systems were also introduced from above mentioned studies. The results indicate that the probability of which packages cannot keep their integrity during the sea surface fire accident is very low and sea transport of INF materials is carried out very safely. (author)

  9. Effect of ionizing radiation on physicochemical and mechanical properties of commercial multilayer coextruded flexible plastics packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulas, A.E.; Riganakos, K.A.; Kontominas, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses: 5, 10 and 30 kGy) on mechanical properties, gas and water vapour permeability and overall migration values into distilled water, 3% aqueous acetic acid and iso-octane was studied for a series of commercial multilayer flexible packaging materials based on coextruded polypropylene (PP), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyamide (PA) and Ionomer. The results showed that radiation doses of 5 and 10 kGy induced no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in all polymer properties examined. A dose of 30 kGy induced differences (p<0.05) in the mechanical properties of PA/LDPE, LDPE/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films. In addition, the same dose induced differences (p<0.05) in the overall migration from Ionomer/EVOH/LDPE and LDPE/PA/Ionomer films into 3% acetic acid and iso-octane and in the overall migration from PP/EVOH/LDPE-LLDPE into iso-octane. Differences recorded, are discussed in relation to food irradiation applications of respective packaging materials

  10. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  11. Development of prototypes of bioactive packaging materials based on immobilized bacteriophages for control of growth of bacterial pathogens in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Ayesha; Anany, Hany; Hakeem, Mohammed; Aguis, Louise; Avdjian, Anne-Claire; Bouget, Marina; Atashi, Arash; Brovko, Luba; Rochefort, Dominic; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2016-01-18

    Due to lack of adequate control methods to prevent contamination in fresh produce and growing consumer demand for natural products, the use of bacteriophages has emerged as a promising approach to enhance safety of these foods. This study sought to control Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes and RTE meat and Escherichia coli O104:H4 in alfalfa seeds and sprouts under different storage conditions by using specific lytic bacteriophage cocktails applied either free or immobilized. Bacteriophage cocktails were introduced into prototypes of packaging materials using different techniques: i) immobilizing on positively charged modified cellulose membranes, ii) impregnating paper with bacteriophage suspension, and iii) encapsulating in alginate beads followed by application of beads onto the paper. Phage-treated and non-treated samples were stored for various times and at temperatures of 4°C, 12°C or 25°C. In cantaloupe, when free phage cocktail was added, L. monocytogenes counts dropped below the detection limit of the plating technique (alfalfa seeds and sprouts, regardless of the type of phage application technique (spraying of free phage suspension, bringing in contact with bacteriophage-based materials (paper coated with encapsulated bacteriophage or impregnated with bacteriophage suspension)), the count of E. coli O104:H4 was below the detection limit (cycle reduction in E. coli count was observed on the germinated sprouts by day 5. In ready-to-eat (RTE) meat, LISTEX™ P100, a commercial phage product, was able to significantly reduce the growth of L. monocytogenes at both storage temperatures, 4°C and 10°C, for 25 days regardless of bacteriophage application format (immobilized or non-immobilized (free)). In conclusion, the developed phage-based materials demonstrated significant antimicrobial effect, when applied to the artificially contaminated foods, and can be used as prototypes for developing bioactive antimicrobial packaging materials capable of

  12. Learning Packages in International Relations. Learning Package Three. Dyadic (Two-Party) Disputes before the Permanent Court of International Justice, the International Courts of Justice, the League of Nations, and the United Nations: Analytical and Empirical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, J. Martin

    Material in this learning package is designed to introduce college students to the systematic study of the role of international institutions in interactions among states. Emphasis is upon students: 1) testing various ideas found in the scholarly literature concerning international conflict and its control through international institutions; 2)…

  13. Novel silicone materials for LED packaging and opto-electronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlathem, Eric; Norris, Ann W.; Bahadur, Maneesh; DeGroot, Jon; Yoshitake, Makoto

    2006-04-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from Light Emitting Diode (LED) manufacturers. In LEDs, silicones can function in several roles that include optical lenses, stress relieving encapsulants, mechanical protection and light path materials. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive materials for high brightness (HB) LEDs include their excellent transparency in the UV-visible region, their non-discoloring behavior and their stable thermo-mechanical properties. The first part of this paper/presentation will describe recent silicone materials development efforts directed towards providing LED manufacturers with silicone materials solutions for LED device fabrication. Injection molding of novel silicone resin based materials will be discussed as a viable route for high throughput LED device manufacturing. For other portions of the light spectrum, specifically at telecom wavelengths, the performances of silicone based materials are also verified and this makes them attractive materials for numerous photonics device applications. The second part of this paper/presentation will describe recent demonstrations of siloxane for use as waveguides for datacom and telecom applications. A Variable Optical Attenuator (VOA) utilizing silicone based waveguides (exploiting dn/dT property) and an Optical Backplane built from silicone waveguides and out-of-plane mirrors built on glass and FR-4 substrates are discussed.

  14. Programme on the recyclability of food-packaging materials with respect to food safety considerations: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R

    2002-01-01

    Stimulated by new ecology-driven European and national regulations, news routes of recycling waste appear on the market. Since food packages represent a large percentage of the plastics consumption and since they have a short lifetime, an important approach consists in making new packages from post-consumer used packages. On the other hand, food-packaging regulations in Europe require that packaging materials must be safe. Therefore, potential mass transfer (migration) of harmful recycling-related substances to the food must be excluded and test methods to ensure the safety-in-use of recycled materials for food packaging are needled. As a consequence of this situation, a European research project FAIR-CT98-4318, with the acronym 'Recyclability', was initiated. The project consists of three sections each focusing on a different class of recycled materials: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), paper and board, and plastics covered by functional barriers. The project consortium consists of 28 project members from 11 EU countries. In addition, the project is during its lifetime in discussion with the US Food and Drug Administrations (FDA) to consider also US FDA regulatory viewpoints and to aim, as a consequence, to harmonizable conclusions and recommendations. The paper introduces the project and presents an overview of the project work progress.

  15. Packaging for Food Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the key areas of concern in packaging the three principle food forms for the space station were covered. It can be generally concluded that there are no significant voids in packaging materials availability or in current packaging technology. However, it must also be concluded that the process by which packaging decisions are made for the space station feeding program will be very synergistic. Packaging selection will depend heavily on the preparation mechanics, the preferred presentation and the achievable disposal systems. It will be important that packaging be considered as an integral part of each decision as these systems are developed.

  16. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  17. Irradiation as a means of sterilizing packaging materials for aseptic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Long shelf life of foodstuffs is essential in order to feed the nations of the world. For 'wet' products which quickly deteriorate in air, the use of refrigeration, retort processing and preservatives can be considered. For example, the metal can will continue to be a reliable means of keeping meat and vegetable products in good condition for long periods at ambient conditons. Today, people require food items to be free of preservatives and with a flavour and texture very close to the original, at all times of the year, at lowest cost. Minimal heat processing and immediate filling into a pre-sterilised container without any possibility of contact with the atmosphere, is the logical route to take to meet these requirements and constitutes an aseptic system. The filled product remains in prime condition for many months without the need for refrigeration and preservatives. Irradiation is a convenient and cheap means of pre-sterilising plastic bags for Bag-in-Box systems and the writer will describe how fruit juices and fruit purees are now being packaged aseptically in South Africa and overseas

  18. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Reducing Wasted Food: How Packaging Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  19. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-05-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  20. Quality Assurance Program Plan for the Hazardous Materials Transportation and Packaging Program. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calihan, T.W. III; Votaw, E.F.

    1995-01-01

    This QAPP covers only the implementation accomplished through Level I and II manuals. It covers the quality affecting activities identified in USDOE orders (both HQ and Richland Operations Office), US DOT, US EPA, and NRC regulations, IAEA guidelines, and the WHC manuals. It covers activities related to hazardous materials transportation performed on and off the Hanford site under the jurisdictional authority of WHC. (Hazardous materials include radioactive, hazardous waste, and mixed waste.)

  1. Closing the loop on plastic packaging materials: What is quality and how does it affect their circularity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahladakis, John N; Iacovidou, Eleni

    2018-03-03

    While attention on the importance of closing materials loops for achieving circular economy (CE) is raging, the technicalities of doing so are often neglected or difficult to overcome. However, these technicalities determine the ability of materials to be properly recovered and redistributed for reuse or recycling, given the material, component and product (MCP) state and functionality. Materials have different properties that make them useful for various functions and purposes. A transition, therefore, towards a CE would require the utmost exploitation of all available routes that MCPs can be diverted to, based on their design, use and recovery; ideally, enabling a perpetual looping of them in the economy. Yet, this is difficult to succeed. In the present short communication article, the authors explain how the quality and the way it is meant at different stages of the plastic packaging supply chain affects their potential recycling; and outlines the opportunities and constraints offered by some of the changes that are currently introduced in order to improve their circularity. The purpose of this article is to underpin the need for research that integrates systemic thinking, with technological innovations and regulations at all stages of the supply chain, in an effort to promote sustainable practices to become established. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Aluminum-thin-film packaged fiber Bragg grating probes for monitoring the maximum tensile strain of composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jooeun; Kim, Mihyun; Choi, Ki-Sun; Hwang, Tae-Kyung; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2014-06-10

    In this paper, new fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor probes are designed to intermittently detect the maximum tensile strain of composite materials, so as to evaluate the structural health status. This probe is fabricated by two thin Al films bonded to an FBG optical fiber and two supporting brackets, which are fixed on the surface of composite materials. The residual strain of the Al packaged FBG sensor probe is induced by the strain of composite materials. This residual strain can indicate the maximum strain of composite materials. Two types of sensor probes are prepared-one is an FBG with 18 μm thick Al films, and the other is an FBG with 36 μm thick Al films-to compare the thickness effect on the detection sensitivity. These sensor probes are bonded on the surfaces of carbon fiber reinforced plastics composite specimens. In order to determine the strain sensitivity between the residual strain of the FBG sensor probe and the maximum strain of the composite specimen, tensile tests are performed by universal testing machine, under the loading-unloading test condition. The strain sensitivities of the probes, which have the Al thicknesses of 18 and 36 μm, are determined as 0.13 and 0.23, respectively.

  3. Methodology for predicting the life of waste-package materials, and components using multifactor accelerated life tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerated life tests are essential for estimating the service life of waste-package materials and components. A recommended methodology for generating accelerated life tests is described in this report. The objective of the methodology is to define an accelerated life test program that is scientifically and statistically defensible. The methodology is carried out using a select team of scientists and usually requires 4 to 12 man-months of effort. Specific agendas for the successive meetings of the team are included in the report for use by the team manager. The agendas include assignments for the team scientists and a different set of assignments for the team statistician. The report also includes descriptions of factorial tables, hierarchical trees, and associated mathematical models that are proposed as technical tools to guide the efforts of the design team

  4. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  5. Evaluation of an alternative shielding materials for F-127 transport package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual, Maritza R.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Pereira, Cláubia

    2018-03-01

    Lead is used as radiation shielding material for the Nordion's F-127 source shipping container is used for transport and storage of the GammaBeam -127's cobalt-60 source of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) located in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. As an alternative, Th, Tl and WC have been evaluated as radiation shielding material. The goal is to check their behavior regarding shielding and dosing. Monte Carlo MCNPX code is used for the simulations. In the MCNPX calculation was used one cylinder as exclusion surface instead one sphere. Validation of MCNPX gamma doses calculations was carried out through comparison with experimental measurements. The results show that tungsten carbide WC is better shielding material for γ-ray than lead shielding.

  6. PATRAM '83: 7th international symposium on packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-12-01

    Volume 1 contains the papers from the following sessions: Plenary session; international regulations; fracture toughness of ferritic steels; monolithic cast iron casks; risk analysis techniques; storage in packagings; packaging design considerations; risk analysis; facility/transportation system interface; research and development programs; UF/sub 6/ packagings; national regulations; transportation operations and traffic; containment, seals, and leakage; and radiation risk experiences.

  7. Corrosion testing of selected packaging materials for disposal of high-level waste glass in rock-salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Schwarzkopf, W.; Koester, R.; Fiehn, B.; Halm, G.

    1991-01-01

    In previous corrosion studies performed in salt brines, unalloyed steels, Ti 99.8-Pd and Hastelloy C4 have proved to be the most promising materials for long-term resistant packagings to be used in heat-generating waste (vitrified HLW, spent fuel) disposal in rock-salt formations. Investigations of the iron-base materials Ni-Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron have also been carried out in order to complete the results available to date. The three steels (fine-grained steel, low-carbon steel, cast steel) investigated and Ti 99.8-Pd resisted pitting and crevice corrosion as well as stress-corrosion cracking under all test conditions. Gamma dose-rates of 1 Gy/h - 100 Gy/h or H 2 S concentrations in the brines as well as welding and explosion plating did not influence noticeably the corrosion behaviour of the materials. Furthermore, the determined corrosion rates of the steels (50 μm/a-250 μm/a, depending on the test conditions) are intercomparable and imply technically acceptable corrosion allowances for the thick-walled containers discussed. For Ti 99.8-Pd no detectable corrosion was observed. By contrast, Hastelloy C4 proved susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion at gamme dose-rates higher than 1 Gy/h and in the presence of H 2 S (25 mg/l) in Q-brine. The materials Ni Resist D2 and D4, cast iron and Si-cast iron corroded at negligible rates in the in-situ experiments performed in rock salt/limited amounts of NaCI-brine. Nevertheless, these materials must be ruled out as container materials because they have proved to be susceptible to pitting and intergranular corrosion in previous laboratory studies conducted with MgCI 2 -rich brine (Q-brine) in excess. 15 refs.; 29 figs.; 7 tabs

  8. Test facilities for radioactive materials transport packages (Transportation Technology Center Inc., Pueblo, Colorado, USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, P.C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. is capable of conducting tests on rail vehicle systems designed for transporting radioactive materials including low level waste debris, transuranic waste, and spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Services include rail vehicle dynamics modelling, on-track performance testing, full scale structural fatigue testing, rail vehicle impact tests, engineering design and technology consulting, and emergency response training. (author)

  9. 21 CFR 179.45 - Packaging materials for use during the irradiation of prepackaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers complying with § 177.1350 of this chapter. The ethylene... processing of prepackaged foods: (1) Vegetable parchments, consisting of a cellulose material made from... exceed 1 pct by weight of the polymer. Triethylene glycol as described in § 178.3740(b) of this chapter...

  10. PATRAM 2004 - The 14th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Conference proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The 14th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials, PATRAM 2004, was held at the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin, Germany, from 20-24 September 2004. PATRAM '04 was held under the auspices of the German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing (BMNBW), and was hosted by the German Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -Prufung (BAM). Further, the conference was held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. As with past PATRAM conferences, this one covered a wide range of topics that are of concern to the nuclear materials transport industry; regulations, operations, technical analyses and testing, design, institutional issues, security, risk assessment and emergency response. Presentation of these topics was provided through a number of fora, plenary presentations, panel presentations, oral presentations, posters and technical tours. Coupled with the opening reception on Monday evening and the coffee breaks, a forum was provided at this PATRAM that allowed all participants ample opportunities to increase their technical knowledge, to learn about compelling issues around the world and to network with colleagues. (orig.)

  11. PATRAM 2004 - The 14th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The 14th International Symposium on the Packaging and Transport of Radioactive Materials, PATRAM 2004, was held at the Estrel Convention Center in Berlin, Germany, from 20-24 September 2004. PATRAM '04 was held under the auspices of the German Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Housing (BMNBW), and was hosted by the German Bundesanstalt fur Materialforschung und -Prufung (BAM). Further, the conference was held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Institute for Nuclear Materials Management. As with past PATRAM conferences, this one covered a wide range of topics that are of concern to the nuclear materials transport industry; regulations, operations, technical analyses and testing, design, institutional issues, security, risk assessment and emergency response. Presentation of these topics was provided through a number of fora, plenary presentations, panel presentations, oral presentations, posters and technical tours. Coupled with the opening reception on Monday evening and the coffee breaks, a forum was provided at this PATRAM that allowed all participants ample opportunities to increase their technical knowledge, to learn about compelling issues around the world and to network with colleagues. (orig.)

  12. INFLUENCE OF VARIOUS RAW MATERIAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES OF ITS RECYCLING ON QUALITATIVE INDICES OF SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCT USED FOR PACKAGE PRINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has investigated influence of various technologies on recycling of vegetal raw material with the purpose to obtain the desired product used for package printing. Influence of various technological regimes and introduction of fresh polyethylene additives for recycled raw material on qualitative indices of the desired product has been studied in the paper. Investigations of preliminary aquatic hydrolysis of vegetal raw material have shown that in order to obtain high quality cellulose from vegetal raw material it is necessary that this cellulose has not less than 2-3 % of hemicellulose otherwise its qualitative indices are significantly deteriorated that is important for packaging printing. Usage of carbon dioxide aqueous solution for preliminary vegetal raw material hydrolysis contributes to reduction in destruction of cellulose carbo-hydrate. This improves qualitative indices of the obtained desired product that is cellulose which is used for package printing.Recommendations for sulphate pulping of vegetal raw material with preliminary hydrolysis have been prepared with the purpose to improve physical and mechanical characteristics of the obtained desired product - cellulose on the basis of the obtained data on content of hemicellulose in cellulose.While investigating recycled polymers the obtained results have demonstrated that increase of low- molecular product content in them looks rather typical. This suggests that packaging will have lower qualitative indices while using polymers being kept in waste deposits. In order to avoid this phenomena it is necessary to add 20-30 % of fresh polymers during their recycling.

  13. Modification of Edible Food Packaging Materials Based on Natural Polymer Blends by Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, H.El-Sh.

    2010-01-01

    Blends based on different ratios of plasticised starch (PLST), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) were prepared by solution casting in the form of thin films. The PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC films were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the thermal, mechanical and structure morphology properties was investigated. As an application in the field of the prolongation of food preservation life time, Mango fruits were coated with solutions of gamma-irradiated PLST/PVA and PLST/CMC blends in the presence of chitosan, as an antimicrobial material, to form thin films. The results showed that the gamma-irradiation improved all the physical properties, which provides suitable materials based on natural biodegradable polymers for food preservation withstanding the temperature and stresses.

  14. Roadmapping - A Tool for Resolving Science and Technology Issues Related to Processing, Packaging, and Shipping Nuclear Materials and Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Dale Elden; Dixon, Brent Wayne; Murphy, James Anthony

    2002-06-01

    Roadmapping is an effective methodology to identify and link technology development and deployment efforts to a program's or project's needs and requirements. Roadmapping focuses on needed technical support to the baselines (and to alternatives to the baselines) where the probability of success is low (high uncertainty) and the consequences of failure are relatively high (high programmatic risk, higher cost, longer schedule, or higher ES&H risk). The roadmap identifies where emphasis is needed, i.e., areas where investments are large, the return on investment is high, or the timing is crucial. The development of a roadmap typically involves problem definition (current state versus the desired state) and major steps (functions) needed to reach the desired state. For Nuclear Materials (NM), the functions could include processing, packaging, storage, shipping, and/or final disposition of the material. Each function is examined to determine what technical development would be needed to make the function perform as desired. This requires a good understanding of the current state of technology and technology development and validation activities to ensure the viability of each step. In NM disposition projects, timing is crucial! Technology must be deployed within the project window to be of value. Roadmaps set the stage to keep the technology development and deployment focused on project milestones and ensure that the technologies are sufficiently mature when needed to mitigate project risk and meet project commitments. A recent roadmapping activity involved a 'cross-program' effort, which included NM programs, to address an area of significant concern to the Department of Energy (DOE) related to gas generation issues, particularly hydrogen. The roadmap that was developed defined major gas generation issues within the DOE complex and research that has been and is being conducted to address gas generation concerns. The roadmap also provided the basis

  15. Biopolymer From Starch and Chitosan as Bioplastic Material for Food Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Fathanah, Umi; Lubis, Mirna Rahman; Moulana, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to improve economic value of cassava peel waste as raw material of bioplastic making, whose existence is still very abundant and has not been benefitted optimally. Bioplastic making is conducted by mixing starch and chitosan with gliserol as plasticizer. Bioplastic making is carried out at gelatinization temperature of 80oC. Chitosan addition is carried out at variatios of 0; 10; 20; 30; and 40 (% w). Research result indicates that mechanical property i.e. optimum value of ...

  16. Compounds in food packaging materials - toxicological profiling of knowns and unknowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine

    compounds present in these materials. Specific focus was placed on in vitroendpoints assessing endocrine activity. BPA, five BPA analogues, and 19 fluorinated substances including fluorochemical containing technical mixtures (TMs) were investigated. The in vitro assays included the androgen receptor (AR...... 17β-estradiol levels. Two TMs caused estrogenicity in vitro, whereas none of the short-chained PFCAs caused effects. It is recommended to conduct further studies on polyfluorinated chemicals as well as TMs to obtain more information on the implications of these differences in effect. The developed...... tool for these purposes....

  17. STATUS REPORT FOR AGING STUDIES OF EPDM O-RING MATERIAL FOR THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2012-08-31

    This is an interim status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments are being performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) Orings used in the H1616 shipping package. The data will support the technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the EPDM O-rings in the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. Current expectations are that the O-rings will maintain a seal at bounding normal temperatures in service (152 F) for at least 12 months. The baseline aging data review suggests that the EPDM O-rings are likely to retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at bounding service temperatures to provide a service life of at least 2 years. At lower, more realistic temperatures, longer service life is likely. Parallel compression stress relaxation and vessel leak test efforts are in progress to further validate this assessment and quantify a more realistic service life prediction. The H1616 shipping package O-rings were evaluated for baseline property data as part of this test program. This was done to provide a basis for comparison of changes in material properties and performance parameters as a function of aging. This initial characterization was limited to physical and mechanical properties, namely hardness, thickness and tensile strength. These properties appear to be consistent with O-ring specifications. Three H1616-1 Containment Vessels were placed in test conditions and are aging at temperatures ranging from 160 to 300 F. The vessels were Helium leak-tested initially and have been tested at periodic intervals after cooling to room temperature to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97 (< 1E-07 std cc air/sec at room temperature). To date, no leak test failures have occurred. The cumulative time at

  18. Effect of cold storage and packaging material on the major aroma components of sweet cream butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Patricio R; Miracle, Evan R; Krause, Andrea J; Drake, Maryanne; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2007-09-19

    The major aroma compounds of commercial sweet cream AA butter quarters were analyzed by GC-olfactometry and GC-MS combined with dynamic headspace analysis (DHA) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE). In addition, the effect of long-term storage (0, 6, and 12 months) and type of wrapping material (wax parchment paper vs foil) on the aroma components and sensory properties of these butters kept under refrigerated (4 degrees C) and frozen (-20 degrees C) storage was evaluated. The most intense compounds in the aroma of pasteurized AA butter were butanoic acid, delta-octalactone, delta-decalactone, 1-octen-3-one, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, dimethyl trisulfide, and diacetyl. The intensities of lipid oxidation volatiles and methyl ketones increased as a function of storage time. Refrigerated storage caused greater flavor deterioration compared with frozen storage. The intensity and relative abundance of styrene increased as a function of time of storage at refrigeration temperature. Butter kept frozen for 12 months exhibited lower styrene levels and a flavor profile more similar to that of fresh butter compared to butter refrigerated for 12 months. Foil wrapping material performed better than wax parchment paper in preventing styrene migration into butter and in minimizing the formation of lipid oxidation and hydroxyl acid products that contribute to the loss of fresh butter flavor.

  19. Development of Equivalent Material Properties of Microbump for Simulating Chip Stacking Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC structure with a significant scale mismatch causes difficulty in analytic model construction. This paper proposes a simulation technique to introduce an equivalent material composed of microbumps and their surrounding wafer level underfill (WLUF. The mechanical properties of this equivalent material, including Young’s modulus (E, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, are directly obtained by applying either a tensile load or a constant displacement, and by increasing the temperature during simulations, respectively. Analytic results indicate that at least eight microbumps at the outermost region of the chip stacking structure need to be considered as an accurate stress/strain contour in the concerned region. In addition, a factorial experimental design with analysis of variance is proposed to optimize chip stacking structure reliability with four factors: chip thickness, substrate thickness, CTE, and E-value. Analytic results show that the most significant factor is CTE of WLUF. This factor affects microbump reliability and structural warpage under a temperature cycling load and high-temperature bonding process. WLUF with low CTE and high E-value are recommended to enhance the assembly reliability of the 3D-IC architecture.

  20. Scarab/Saffron Development Project Case study: Material Selection Criteria for the Monoethylene Glycol Recovery Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.M.; Habib, S.; Shinaishin, A.

    2004-01-01

    MEG Recovery Unit for Scarab/Saffron development project is the first application in gas production. The Mono Ethylene Glycol Recovery Unit (MEG) recovers MEG from Water/MEG stream and removes salts and other contaminants. MEG Recovery Unit Equipment Design Criteria were designed for two parallel trains A and B, each train is capable to treat 500 bbl MEG, 1500 bbl water and 9 ton salt. The MEG unit is a combination of two unit operations; MEG Recovery unit is normally applicable in the oil and gas industries that is applying distillation technique, while the new technology is salt treatment and handling. The MEG Unit material selection is made to be suitable for the entire design life which is 25 years, the materials for MEG Recovery Unit have been selected among the available corrosion resistance alloys, where requested by the service and ambient conditions. Therefore all. the parts of the MEG unit that are in saline service are in either (2205 duplex, AISI 316L) and in Inconel alloy 625 related to operating temperature. This case study focused at Inconel alloy 625, which is selected for salt service and their operation problem occurred during the construction and operating conditions

  1. Innovative material containing the natural product curcumin, with enhanced antimicrobial properties for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, A; Ketikidis, I; Stathopoulou, M-E K; Banti, C N; Papachristodoulou, C; Zoumpoulakis, L; Agathopoulos, S; Vagenas, G V; Hadjikakou, S K

    2018-03-01

    Curcumin (Curc) reacts with zinc di‑iodine (ZnI 2 ) in 2:1molar ratio in the presence of an excess of a base triethylamine ((CH 3 CH 2 ) 3 N) in methanol (CH 3 OH) solution towards the amorphous solid material of formula [ZnI 2 (Curc) 2 ] (1). The complex was characterized by melting point (m.p.), Fourier Transform-Infra Red (FT-IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of hydrogen nucleus ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy. The formula of 1 was determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The retention of the structure in solution was confirmed by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the complex has been studied against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of the compounds 1 and Curc against P. aeruginosa (PAO1) are: 71.3μΜ (75.3μg/mL) for [ZnI 2 (Curc) 2 ] and 339μM (125μg/mL) for Curc, respectively. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of the new material which was diffused in polystyrene against biofilm formed by PAO1 was also calculated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Progress in mass spectrometry for the analysis of set-off phenomena in plastic food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, Margarita; Alfaro, Pilar; Nerín, Cristina; Jones, Emrys; Riches, Eleanor

    2016-07-01

    In most cases, food packaging materials contain inks whose components can migrate to food by diffusion through the material as well as by set-off phenomena. In this work, different mass spectrometry approaches had been used in order to identify and confirm the presence of ink components in ethanol (95%) and Tenax(®) as food simulants. Three different sets of materials, manufactured with different printing technologies and with different structures, were analyzed. Sample analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), using a quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) as a mass analyser proved to be an excellent tool for identification purposes while ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) shown to be very useful for the confirmation of the candidates proposed. The results showed the presence of different non-volatile ink components in migration such as colorants (Solvent Red 49), plasticizers (dimethyl sebacate, tributyl o-acetyl citrate) or surfactants (SchercodineM, triethylene glycol caprilate). An oxidation product of an ink additive (triphenyl phosphine oxide) was also detected. In addition, a surface analysis technique, desorption electrospray mass spectrometry (DESI-MS), was used for analyzing the distribution of some ink components (tributyl o-acetyl citrate Schercodine L, phthalates) in the material. The detection of some of these compounds in the back-printed side confirmed the transference of this compound from the non-food to the food contact side. The results also showed that concentration of ink migrants decreased when an aluminum or polypropylene layer covered the ink. When aluminum was used, concentration of most of ink migrants decreased, and for 5 out of the 9 even disappeared. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrados, A.; Marco, I. de; Caballero, B.M.; López, A.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of plastic waste. ► Comparison of different samples: real waste, simulated and real waste + catalyst. ► Study of the effects of inorganic components in the pyrolysis products. - Abstract: Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products.

  4. The potential role of polymethyl methacrylate as a new packaging material for the implantable medical device in the bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Bumkyoo; Kim, Kang Sup; Bae, Woong Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Tae-Kon; Kim, Sae Woong

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is used in implantable medical devices; however, PDMS is not a completely biocompatible material for electronic medical devices in the bladder. To identify novel biocompatible materials for intravesical implanted medical devices, we evaluated the biocompatibility of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) by analyzing changes in the levels of macrophages, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (MIF), and inflammatory cytokines in the bladder. A ball-shaped metal coated with PMMA or PDMS was implanted into the bladders of rats, and after intravesical implantation, the inflammatory changes induced by the foreign body reaction were evaluated. In the early period after implantation, increased macrophage activity and MIF in the urothelium of the bladder were observed. However, significantly decreased macrophage activity and MIF in the bladder were observed after implantation with PMMA- or PDMS-coated metal in the later period. In addition, significantly decreased inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were observed with time. Based on these results, we suggest that MIF plays a role in the foreign body reaction and in the biocompatible packaging with PMMA for the implanted medical devices in the bladder.

  5. Degradation mode survey candidate titanium-base alloys for Yucca Mountain project waste package materials. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.E.

    1997-12-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is evaluating materials from which to fabricate high-level nuclear waste containers (hereafter called waste packages) for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their very good corrosion resistance in aqueous environments titanium alloys are considered for container materials. Consideration of titanium alloys is understandable since about one-third (in 1978) of all titanium produced is used in applications where corrosion resistance is of primary importance. Consequently, there is a considerable amount of data which demonstrates that titanium alloys, in general, but particularly the commercial purity and dilute {alpha} grades, are highly corrosion resistant. This report will discuss the corrosion characteristics of Ti Gr 2, 7, 12, and 16. The more highly alloyed titanium alloys which were developed by adding a small Pd content to higher strength Ti alloys in order to give them better corrosion resistance will not be considered in this report. These alloys are all two phase ({alpha} and {beta}) alloys. The palladium addition while making these alloys more corrosion resistant does not give them the corrosion resistance of the single phase {alpha} and near-{alpha} (Ti Gr 12) alloys.

  6. Pyrolysis of plastic packaging waste: A comparison of plastic residuals from material recovery facilities with simulated plastic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrados, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; López, A; Laresgoiti, M F; Torres, A

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis may be an alternative for the reclamation of rejected streams of waste from sorting plants where packing and packaging plastic waste is separated and classified. These rejected streams consist of many different materials (e.g., polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), aluminum, tetra-brik, and film) for which an attempt at complete separation is not technically possible or economically viable, and they are typically sent to landfills or incinerators. For this study, a simulated plastic mixture and a real waste sample from a sorting plant were pyrolyzed using a non-stirred semi-batch reactor. Red mud, a byproduct of the aluminum industry, was used as a catalyst. Despite the fact that the samples had a similar volume of material, there were noteworthy differences in the pyrolysis yields. The real waste sample resulted, after pyrolysis, in higher gas and solid yields and consequently produced less liquid. There were also significant differences noted in the compositions of the compared pyrolysis products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms and mechanical properties of selected paper-based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 3 selected paper-based packaging materials, that is, vegetable parchment (VP) paper, Kraft paper, and solid-bleached-sulfate (SBS) paperboard, were determined at 3 different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 degrees C). The GAB isotherm model was found to fit adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the paper samples. The monolayer moisture content of the paper samples decreased with increase in temperature, which is in the range of 0.0345 to 0.0246, 0.0301 to 0.0238, and 0.0318 to 0.0243 g water/g solid for the MG paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively. The net isosteric heats of sorption (q(st)) for the paper samples decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content after reaching the maximum values of 18.51, 27.39, and 26.80 kJ/mol for the VP paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively, at low-moisture content. The differential enthalpy and entropy of 3 paper samples showed compensation phenomenon with the isokinetic temperature of 399.7 K indicating that water vapor had been adsorbed onto the paper samples with the same mechanism. Depending on the paper material, tensile strength of paper samples was affected by moisture content.

  8. Development of a low temperature phase change material package. [for spacecraft thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P. J.; Suelau, H. J.; Mcintosh, R.

    1977-01-01

    Test data obtained for a low temperature phase change material (PCM) canisters are presented. The canister was designed to provide up to 30 w-hrs of storage capacity at approximately -90 C with an overall thermal conductance which is greater than 8 w/deg C. N-heptane which is an n-paraffin and has a -90.6 C freezing point was used as the working fluid. The canister was fabricated from aluminum and has an aluminum honeycomb core. Its void volume permits service temperatures up to 70 C. Results obtained from component and system's tests indicate well defined melting and freezing points which are repeatable and within 1 C of each other. Subcooling effects are less than 0.5 C and are essentially negligible. Measured storage capacities are within 94 to 88% the theoretical.

  9. Future intrusion of oxygenated glacial meltwaters into the Fennoscandian shield: a possibility to consider in performance assessments for nuclear-waste disposal sites?: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Provost et al. (1998) and Glynn and Voss (1999; also published in Glynn et al., 1999) considered the possibility that during future glaciations, oxygenated glacial meltwaters from two- to three-kilometer thick ice sheets could potentially intrude to the 500 m depth of planned nuclear-waste repositories. This possibility has been of concern because of potential negative effects on the stability of the repository engineered environment, and because of the potential mobilization of radionuclides should the oxygenated waters come into contact with the radioactive waste. The above reports argued that given the current state of knowledge, it was hard to discount the possibility that oxygenated waters could penetrate to repository level depth. The reports also suggested that oxidizing conditions might be present in the fractured rock environment for significant amounts of time, on the order of thousands to tens of thousands of years. In some earlier reports, Swedish and Finnish governmental agencies in charge of nuclear-waste disposal had considered the possibility that oxygenated meltwaters might intrude to the repository depth (SKI: 1992; Martinerie et al, 1992; Ahonen and Vieno, 1994). Subsequent to the publication of Provost et al. (1998), Glynn et al. (1999) and Glynn and Voss (1999), the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Handling Company (SKB) commissioned efforts to examine more thoroughly the possibilities that oxygenated meltwaters might occur under ice-sheet conditions and intrude to the repository depth.

  10. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  11. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  12. Guidance for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive material by rail. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document, part of a series of guides for those concerned with the road or rail transportation of dangerous goods, provides detailed recommendations for consignors, rail operators and others involved in the packaging, labelling and carriage of radioactive materials by rail. It covers the relevant legislation and regulations on the carriage of such dangerous goods to assist those involved with compliance. (UK)

  13. PATRAM '92: 10th international symposium on the packaging and transportation of radioactive materials [Papers presented by Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1992-01-01

    This document provides the papers presented by Sandia Laboratories at PATRAM '92, the tenth International symposium on the Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Materials held September 13--18, 1992 in Yokohama City, Japan. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. (FL)

  14. Effectiveness of the International Phytosanitary Standard ISPM No. 15 on reducing wood borer infestation rates in wood packaging material entering the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Kerry O. Britton; Eckelhard G. Brockerhoff; Joseph F. Cavey; Lynn J. Garrett; Mark Kimberley; Frank Lowenstein; Amelia Nuding; Lars J. Olson; James Tumer; Kathryn N. Vasilaky

    2014-01-01

    Numerous bark- and wood-infesting insects have been introduced to new countries by international trade where some have caused severe environmental and economic damage. Wood packaging material (WPM), such as pallets, is one of the high risk pathways for the introduction of wood pests. International recognition of this risk resulted in adoption of International Standards...

  15. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  16. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences in certification of packages for transportation of fresh nuclear fuel in the context of new safety requirements established by IAEA regulations (IAEA-96 regulations, ST-1) for air transportation of nuclear materials (requirements to C-type packages)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudai, V.I.; Kovtun, A.D.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Nilulin, V.M.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Yakushev, V.A.; Bobrovsky, V.S.; Rozhkov, V.V.; Agapov, A.M.; Kolesnikov, A.S. [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' MSZ' ' , Electrostal (Russian Federation)]|[JSC ' ' NPCC' ' , Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)]|[Minatom of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)]|[Gosatomnadzor of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Every year in Russia, a large amount of domestic and international transportation of fresh nuclear fuel (FNF) used in Russian and foreign energy and research atomic reactors and referred to fissile materials based on IAEA Regulations is performed. Here, bulk transportation is performed by air, and it concerns international transportation in particular. According to national ''Main Regulations for Safe Transport and physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (OPBZ- 83)'' and ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Regulations), nuclear and radiation security under normal (accident free) and accident conditions of transport must be completely provided by the package design. In this context, high requirements to fissile packages exposed to heat and mechanical loads in transport accidents are imposed. A long-standing experience in accident free transportation of FM has shown that such approach to provide nuclear and radiation security pays for itself completely. Nevertheless, once in 10 years the International Atomic Energy Agency on every revision of the ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' places more stringent requirements upon the FM and transportation thereof, resulting from the objectively increasing risk associated with constant rise in volume and density of transportation, and also strained social and economical situation in a number of regions in the world. In the new edition of the IAEA Regulations (ST-1), published in 1996 and brought into force in 2001 (IAEA-96 Regulations), the requirements to FM packages conveyed by aircraft were radically changed. These requirements are completely presented in new Russian ''Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials'' (PBTRM- 2004) which will be brought into force in the time ahead.

  18. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : a European study to underpin future legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de; Castle, L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal

  19. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO2 as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loddo, V.; Marcì, G.; Palmisano, G.; Yurdakal, S.; Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L.; Palmisano, L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO 2 . ► A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol–gel method. ► Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO 2 sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO 2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas–solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO 2 as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO 2 with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO 2 particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  20. Criteria definition and approaches in green supplier selection – a case study for raw material and packaging of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Banaeian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper formulates an integrated framework for deciding about the green supplier selection criteria in food supply chain and also proposes different methods that account for single and multiple sourcing of supplier selection. Green supplier selection relies on green criteria, so determination of suitable set of criteria will affect decision-maker results directly. In this research, an operational model including combination of general and environmental criteria is introduced for green supplier selection criteria in raw material and packaging of food industry. This model reviewed a literature on general and environmental criteria that help us to know and make a set of common green criteria. Afterward, weighting criteria and collecting of sub-criteria are done by an expert team using the Analytic Hierarchy Process and Delphi method. The expert team tried to propose important and practical sub-criteria which are well fitted to food industry. Finally, in the section of supplier selection, two kinds of qualitative and quantitative data are discussed when single and multiple sourcing are required, respectively. Fuzzy Grey Relational Analysis is proposed to ranking suppliers in presence of qualitative and imprecise data. Also linear programming is used to present a model which can select the best suppliers and allocate the orders among them optimally.

  1. Stowing of radioactive packages, materials or objects for their transport. Guide nr 27, Release of 30 August 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    A good package stowing is part of an in-depth defence approach to ensure the safety of transport operations in the case of radioactive materials. This guide thus presents a set of recommendations to ensure this safety, recalls regulatory requirements, and presents recommendations made by the ASN for specific stowing training. This document concerns all kinds of transports (road, rail, river, sea, and air). After having indicated the different regulatory references, standards and recommendations, it proposes an overview of the applicable regulatory framework and technical requirements for stowing in France and in the EU in the case of road transport, of rail transport and of sea transport, and in France and in the world for the case of air transport. The next part details regulatory requirements and recommendations made by the ASN for the stowing of radioactive loads: commitment of the company's management, specific training for concerned personnel, definition of packing and stowing plans or of specific instructions, selection of the stowing system, adequacy of the used stowing equipment, documentation to achieve a good stowing, stowing quality control. Then, recommendations are made for the undertaking of a specific training on radioactive load stowing: training modalities, training content, training objectives (for designers, operators and controllers)

  2. Chemical Constituents and Antibacterial Properties of Indocalamus latifolius McClure Leaves, the Packaging Material for “Zongzi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The glutinous rice dumpling named “Zongzi” in Chinese is a type of traditional food that is popular in East Asian countries. “Zongzi” is made of glutinous rice and wrapped in the leaves of Indocalamus latifolius McClure as the packaging material. Four new compounds, latifoliusine A (2, (7S,8R syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 4-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (7, (7S,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8, and (7R,8S syringylglycerol-8-O-4′-sinapyl ether 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10, along with six known compounds (1, 3–6 and 9 were isolated from I. latifolius McClure leaves. The structures and relative configurations of the compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HRESIMS, heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC, nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE and circular dichroism (CD. All of the isolated compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities in vitro. The results indicated that apigenin 6-C-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-β-d-glucopyranoside (5 and apigenin 7-O,8-C-di-glucopyranoside (6 have antibacterial activities against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas solanacearum.

  3. Assessment of environmental impact of ultraviolet radiation or electron beam cured print inks on plastic packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Goncalves

    2014-01-01

    The high level of pollution generated by the inadequate disposal of polymeric materials has motivated the search for environmentally friendly systems and techniques such as the application of biodegradable polymers and the replacement of the solvent-based paint systems by those with high solids content, based water or cured by radiation, practically free of volatile organic compounds. However, the cured polymer coatings are neither soluble nor molten, increasing the complexity of the reprocessing, recycling and degradation. Thus, this work aimed to develop print inks modified with pro-degrading agents, cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, for printing or decoration in plastic packaging products of short lifetime, which are biodegradable or not. Six coatings (varnish and inks in five colors: yellow, blue, white, black and red), three pro-degrading agents (cobalt stearate, cerium stearate and manganese stearate), five polymeric substrates (Ecobras®, low density polyethylene and its respective modifications with pro-degrading agents). The coatings were applied to the substrates and cured by ultraviolet radiation or electron beam, resulting in 180 samples. These materials were then exposed to accelerated aging chamber, type 'QUV', and composting in natural environment. In order to assess the effects of the polymer coatings on the degradation process of the specimens, only the yellow and black samples were exposed to a controlled composting environment via respirometry, reducing to 16 the number of samples. The organic compound generated by the biodegradation process was analyzed by the ecotoxicity tests. It was observed that the coating layer acted as a barrier that inhibits degradation of the plastic when exposed to weathering. The addition of pro-degrading agents promoted acceleration in the degradation process, promoting the migration of the metal ion to the medium without affecting the final quality of the organic compost. (author)

  4. Regression Models for Description of Roasted Ground Coffee Powder Color Change during Secondary Shelf-Life as Related to Storage Conditions and Packaging Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Benković

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides sensory attributes, color is a parameter affecting consumers’ perception of the powdered coffee product or brew. The aim of this study was to develop and compare non-linear and linear regression models for the description of experimentally determined color changes during 6 months of storage in two different packaging materials. Model parameters were estimated using two software packages: Eureqa Formulize (Nutonian, Inc., Boston, MA, USA and Statistica 10.0 (StatSoft, Palo Alto, CA, USA and compared based on their R2 goodness of fit. Both non-linear and linear models used in this study pointed to a significant influence of intrinsic (sample moisture content and external (relative humidity (RH and temperature factors on ground roasted coffee color change. Non-linear model was the most suitable for description of color changes during storage. Based on lower moisture sorption of the sample packed in triplex bag, triplex packaging is proposed as the more suitable one.

  5. Packaging fluency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocanu, Ana; Chrysochou, Polymeros; Bogomolova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Research on packaging stresses the need for packaging design to read easily, presuming fast and accurate processing of product-related information. In this paper we define this property of packaging as “packaging fluency”. Based on the existing marketing and cognitive psychology literature...... on packaging design and processing fluency, our aim is to define and conceptualise packaging fluency. We stress the important role of packaging fluency since it is anticipated that a fluent package would influence the evaluative judgments for a product. We conclude this paper by setting the research agenda...

  6. INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING MATERIAL AND STORAGE TIME ON PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SET YOGURT: A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MODIFIED BIODEGRADABLE POLY(LACTIC ACID AND POLYPROPYLENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAWADON PETCHWATTANA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigates the influence of storage time and type of polymeric packaging material on the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of set yogurt. Firstly, poly(lactic acid (PLA was modified by using a core-shell rubber (CSR and an acrylic processing aid (PA to produce PLA with high toughness and good processability. Secondly, an appropriate PLA/PA/CSR composition was selected and fabricated to yogurt cup. The yogurt was stored in both modified PLA and polypropylene (PP packages to observe some physical, chemical and biological changes. Finally, the biodegradation test was made on both packages and compared with that cellulose. Experimental results revealed that adding 5wt% CSR gave PLA/PA as tough as PP. Types of packaging material and storage time did not change the color of yogurt. The number of lactic acid bacteria grew significantly after they had been incubated for 6 days. The bacterial viability decreased dramatically due to the increased acidity and the decreased pH. A positive impact on the viability of bacterial growth was found when yogurt was stored in modified PLA package. This made yogurt had more health benefits than stored in PP package. The biodegradation test results indicated that the modified PLA degraded at a rapid rate. It achieved approximately 50% biodegradation within 40 days which was comparable to the time required to degrade the cellulose, whereas PP was non-biodegradable over the period studied. In summary, substitution conventional PP by a novel modified PLA seems to be a better way for both the health and the environment benefits.

  7. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  8. Raman spectroscopy, electronic microscopy and SPME-GC-MS to elucidate the mode of action of a new antimicrobial food packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Isabel; Aznar, Margarita; Salafranca, Jesús; Nerín, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    One critical challenge when developing a new antimicrobial packaging material is to demonstrate the mode of action of the antimicrobials incorporated into the packaging. For this task, several analytical techniques as well as microbiology are required. In this work, the antimicrobial properties of benzyl isothiocyanate, allyl isothiocyanate and essential oils of cinnamon and oregano against several moulds and bacteria have been evaluated. Benzyl isothiocyanate showed the highest antimicrobial activity and it was selected for developing the new active packaging material. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were successfully used to demonstrate the mode of action of benzyl isothiocyanate on Escherichia coli. Bacteria exhibited external modifications such as oval shape and the presence of septum surface, but they did not show any disruption or membrane damage. To provide data on the in vitro action of benzyl isothiocyanate and the presence of inhibition halos, the transfer mechanism to the cells was assessed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the transfer system, action mechanism and its stronger antimicrobial activity, benzyl isothiocyanate was incorporated to two kinds of antimicrobial labels. The labels were stable and active for 140 days against two mould producers of ochratoxin A; Penicillium verrucosum is more sensitive than Aspergillus ochraceus. Details about the analytical techniques and the results obtained are shown and discussed. Graphical Abstract Antimicrobial evaluation of pure compounds, incorporation in the packaging and study for mode of action on S. coli by Raman, SEM and SPME-GC-MS.

  9. ONGOING INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT THAT DRUGSTORE BEETLES HAVE ON CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES FOUND WITHIN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.

    2009-06-08

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-60) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex. The Savannah River National Laboratory is continuing to conduct the investigation with entomological expertise being provided by Clemson University. The outcome from the investigation conducted over the previous year was that no discernible damage had been caused by the drugstore beetles. One of the two packages has been essentially untouched over the past year and has only been opened to visually inspect for additional damage. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation of that package.

  10. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY'85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  11. Background studies in support of a feasibility assessment on the use of copper-base materials for nuclear waste packages in a repository in tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Kundig, K.J.A.; Lyman, W.S.; Prager, M.; Meyers, J.R.; Servi, I.S. [CDA/INCRA Joint Advisory Group, Greenwich, CT (USA)

    1990-06-01

    This report combines six work units performed in FY`85--86 by the Copper Development Association and the International Copper Research Association under contract with the University of California. The work includes literature surveys and state-of-the-art summaries on several considerations influencing the feasibility of the use of copper-base materials for fabricating high-level nuclear waste packages for the proposed repository in tuff rock at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The general conclusion from this work was that copper-base materials are viable candidates for inclusion in the materials selection process for this application. 55 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Effect of different packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tert-butylamino) methylstyrene] on the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria on fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlen, S; Braun, C; Brodkorb, F; Fischer, B; Ilg, Y; Kalbfleisch, K; Lorenz, R; Kreyenschmidt, M; Kreyenschmidt, J

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of novel antimicrobial packaging materials containing poly-[2-(tertbutylamino) methylstyrene] (poly(TBAMS)) on the growth of typical spoilage and pathogenic bacteria present on meat. The antimicrobial activity of materials containing different poly(TBAMS) concentrations was determined by comparing the bacterial counts on reference and sample materials at different temperatures and times and in the presence of meat components. Storage tests with poultry fillets and veal cutlets were conducted with samples vacuum packaged in the reference foil and foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS). After specific time intervals, typical spoilage microorganisms, total viable count (TVC), sensory changes and pH value were analysed. The results of the different poly(TBAMS) containing packaging materials showed an increase of the antimicrobial activity with an increasing amount of poly(TBAMS) in the base polymer. A high antimicrobial activity against inoculum of spoilage and pathogenic organisms typical for meat products was detected of a multilayer foil containing 10% poly(TBAMS) in the inner layer after 24h at 7°C. Gram positive-bacteria were more sensitive to poly(TBAMS) foil than gram-negative bacteria. In storage tests however, over the entire storage, a significant effect of this poly(TBAMS) foil on microbial growth on chicken breast fillets and veal cutlets could not be identified. Poly(TBAMS) packaging materials showed very good antimicrobial properties against a wide range of bacteria. However, for a significant inhibition of microbial growth on fresh meat, a higher amount of poly(TBAMS) was necessary to prolong the shelf life of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microelectronic packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, M; Schultze, J Walter

    2004-01-01

    Microelectronic Packaging analyzes the massive impact of electrochemical technologies on various levels of microelectronic packaging. Traditionally, interconnections within a chip were considered outside the realm of packaging technologies, but this book emphasizes the importance of chip wiring as a key aspect of microelectronic packaging, and focuses on electrochemical processing as an enabler of advanced chip metallization.Divided into five parts, the book begins by outlining the basics of electrochemical processing, defining the microelectronic packaging hierarchy, and emphasizing the impac

  14. Studies of nuclear-waste migration in geologic media. Annual report, November 1976--October 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.; Rickert, P.G.; Fried, S.M.; Friedman, A.M.; Steindler, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The confinement of nuclear wastes in geologic formations is being considered as a method of permanently disposing of the waste. Laboratory experiments (column infiltration, static absorption, and batch partitioning experiments) were performed with nuclides of Cs, Pu, Np, and Am to examine the migratory characteristics of long-lived radionuclides that could be mobilized by groundwaters infiltrating a nuclear waste repository and the surrounding geologic body. In column infiltration experiments, the positions of peak concentrations of Cs in chalk or shale columns; Pu in limestone; Am in limestone, sandstone, or tuff; and Np in a limestone column did not move when the columns were infiltrated with water. However, fractions of each of the nuclides were seen downstream from the peaks, indicating that there was a large dispersion in the relative migration rates of each of the trace elements in the lithic materials studied. The results of static absorption experiments indicate that Pu and Am are strongly absorbed from solution by the common rocks studied and that their migration relative to ground-water flow is thereby retarded. In addition, the reaction rates of dissolved nuclides with rocks were found to vary considerably in different rock-element systems. Batch partitioning experiments were performed to test whether absorption processes are reversible. After granulated basalt and americium-bearing water were contacted in an absorption step, part of the water was replaced with water free of Am and the Am repartitioned between rock and solution. The distribution of Am after desorption was comparable to its distribution after absorption. In cntrast, when tablets of various rocks were allowed to dry between absorption and desorption tests, Pu and Am were not generally desorbed from the tablets. This suggests that reversible reactions of nuclides, between waters and rocks may be upset by treatments such as drying

  15. LC-MS/MS analytical procedure to quantify tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, as a source of the endocrine disruptors 4-nonylphenols, in food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Pascal; Frank, Nancy; Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Bessaire, Thomas; Romero, Roman; Delatour, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Tris(nonylphenyl)phosphite, an antioxidant used in polyethylene resins for food applications, is problematic since it is a source of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals 4-nonylphenols (4NP) upon migration into packaged foods. As a response to concerns surrounding the presence of 4NP-based compounds in packaging materials, some resin producers and additive suppliers have decided to eliminate TNPP from formulations. This paper describes an analytical procedure to verify the "TNPP-free" statement in multilayer laminates used for bag-in-box packaging. The method involves extraction of TNPP from laminates with organic solvents followed by detection/quantification by LC-MS/MS using the atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mode. A further acidic treatment of the latter extract allows the release of 4NP from potentially extracted TNPP. 4NP is then analysed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode. This two-step analytical procedure ensures not only TNPP quantification in laminates, but also allows the flagging of other possible sources of 4NP in such packaging materials, typically as non-intentionally added substances (NIAS). The limits of quantification were 0.50 and 0.48 µg dm⁻² for TNPP and 4NP in laminates, respectively, with recoveries ranging between 87% and 114%. Usage of such analytical methodologies in quality control operations has pointed to a lack of traceability at the packaging supplier level and cross-contamination of extrusion equipment at the converter level, when TNPP-containing laminates are processed on the same machine beforehand.

  16. Effects of packaging materials on the aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder as determined by descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelaphiwat, Pattarin; Harte, Janice B; Auras, Rafael A; Ong, Peter Kc; Chonhenchob, Vanee

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the aroma characteristics of Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, containing lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf, as affected by different packaging materials were assessed using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The descriptive aroma attributes for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf powders were developed by the QDA panel. The mixed herb and spice seasoning powder was kept in glass jars closed with different packaging materials (Nylon 6, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA)) stored at 38 °C (accelerated storage condition), and evaluated by the trained QDA panel during storage for 49 days. The descriptive words for Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder developed by the trained panelists were lemongrass, vinegary and leafy for lemongrass, galangal and kaffir lime leaf dried powder, respectively. The aroma intensities significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with increased storage time. However, the intensity scores for aroma attributes were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among the packaging materials studied. The major components in Thai 'tom yam' seasoning powder, quantified by GC-MS, were estragole, bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, β-bisabolene, benzoic acid and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate. The concentrations of major aroma compounds significantly (P ≤ 0.05) decreased with storage time. Aroma stability of Thai 'tom yam' powder can be determined by descriptive sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis. Nylon, PET and PLA exhibited similar aroma barrier properties against key aroma compounds in Thai 'tom yam'. This information can be used for prediction of aroma loss through packaging materials during storage of Thai 'tom yam'. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Fortification of instant coffee beverages - influence of functional ingredients, packaging material and storage time on physical properties of newly formulated, enriched instant coffee powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benković, Maja; Srečec, Siniša; Špoljarić, Igor; Mršić, Gordan; Bauman, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Consumer demands for healthy, functional foods are growing rapidly nowadays. Coffee, as one of the most widespread commodities, represents an interesting aspect for enrichment, since it is consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. The aim of this study was to formulate enriched instant coffee powders with the purpose of estimating the influence of storage time, functional ingredients and packaging material on physical and sensory properties of the mixtures. Storage time of 6 months significantly (P Industry.

  18. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  19. A probabilistic risk-analysis of the transport of small radioactive material type B packages in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Pages, P.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of the accidental risk due to the road transportation of a small package containing γ-ray emitters is performed in France. Analyzing records of road transportation accidents, modeling the package behaviour and estimating the importance of the involved population are the three main steps of the study. The interest of such an anlysis relies on the relative simplicity of the model and the availability of statistical data. This allows modelling of the whole process and study of the various sensitivities. It is also of pratical interest when assessing the cost-effectiveness of some safety/protection measures

  20. Direct quantitation of volatile organic compounds in packaging materials by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquerro, Scar; Pons, Begoña; Tena, María Teresa

    2003-01-24

    The quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flexible multilayer packaging materials using headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was studied. The analytes imclude 22 compounds such as aldehydes. ketones, carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons formed by thermooxidative degradation of polyethylene during the extrusion coating process in the manufacture of the packaging, and many of them are involved in the unpleasant and undesirable odour of these materials. External standard calibration using a solution of the analytes in an appropriate solvent was the first approach studied. Aqueous solutions of the analytes provided low reproducibility and the reduction of aldehydes to alcohols under the HS-SPME conditions. Hexadecane was chosen as the solvent since its polarity is similar to that of polyethylene and its volatility is lower than that of the analytes. However, hexadecane should be added to the sample before the analysis as it modifies the absorption capacity of the fibre. A 75-microm Carboxen-poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibre was used to extract the VOCs from the headspace above the packaging in a 15-ml sealed vial at 100 degrees C after 5 min of preincubation. The influence of the extraction time on the amount extracted was studied for a standard solution of the analytes in hexadecane, together with the influence of the volume of the standard solution and the amount of the sample placed in the vial. Standard addition and multiple HS-SPME were also studied as calibration methods and the results obtained in the quantitative analysis of a packaging material were compared.