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  1. Insuficiência cardíaca: estratégias usadas por idosos na busca por qualidade de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analyane Conceição Silva dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa cujos objetivos foram identificar as repercussões da insuficiência cardíaca na qualidade de vida dos idosos; descrever as estratégias utilizadas no enfrentamento destas repercussões e conhecer as percepções acerca dos cuidados de enfermagem. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com dez idosos com insuficiência cardíaca em um hospital militar do Rio de Janeiro-RJ. Identificou-se que a insuficiência cardíaca gera repercussões emocionais, físicas e financeiras na vida dos idosos, ocasionando impacto na qualidade de vida. Dentre as estratégias criadas pelos idosos, verificou-se o enfrentamento paliativo e o enfrentamento emocional. Os cuidados de enfermagem evidenciados foram orientação, carinho, zelo e dedicação. Cuidar do idoso com insuficiência cardíaca implica em avaliar as repercussões na capacidade funcional e autonomia dos anciãos, exigindo habilidades e competências do enfermeiro para identificar suas especificidades na perspectiva de um cuidado integral que contribua para a qualidade de vida dos mesmos.

  2. Escalas de Envolvimento dos alunos na escola: Estudo da validade externa da escala de engagement usada no PISA e do "Student Engagement School Scale"

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Procedeu-se ao estudo da validade externa da Escala de Engagement usada no PISA (unidimensional)e da Student Engament in School Scale (SES)com três factores (envolvimento cognitivo, afectivo e comportamental) This article presents the study of the external validity of Engagement Scale used in PISA (one dimension)and of the Engament in School Scale (SES)with three factores (cognitive, emotional and behavioral involvement)

  3. O papel do tamanho dos poros na biocompatibilidade de duas próteses de polipropileno usadas na retopexia pré-sacra estudo experimental em cães

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    Greca Fernando Hintz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A sacropromonto-fixação no tratamento do prolapso retal é freqüentemente realizada através do uso de telas, suturas ou associações destas com ressecções. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a reação da parede retal em contato com duas telas macroporosas de polipropileno, bem como determinar a incorporação de colágeno às telas. Dezoito cães adultos, pesando entre 10 e 15 kg, divididos em 2 grupos de 9 animais, foram submetidos à laparotomia e retopexia pré-sacra, sendo a tela fixada com pontos de fio monofilamentar de náilon 3.0. No primeiro grupo utilizou-se a tela denominada X (porosidade = 4 mm x 3 mm, espessura = 0,2 mm e no segundo a tela de Prolene® (porosidade = 164 m x 96 m, espessura = 0,7 mm. No 30º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram sacrificados. A reação tissular foi avaliada macro e microscópicamente. Os parâmetros macroscópicos analisados foram: presença de seroma, hematoma, abscesso, fístula, estenose, aderência e não incorporação da tela. Na avaliação microscópica foram verificados: reação inflamatória, fibrose, presença de células gigantes e infiltração fibroblástica além da incorporação qualitativa e quantitativa de colágeno à tela. Verificou-se que na análise macroscópica e histológica as telas se comportaram de maneira semelhante. Já a densitometria do colágeno revelou maior incorporação de colágeno I (maduro na tela X, não havendo diferença significante quanto ao colágeno III (imaturo. Concluiu-se não haver diferença de parâmetros macroscópicos, histopatológicos ou de incorporação de colágeno III entre as duas telas. A tela com poros maiores incorporou mais colágeno I e consequentemente mais colágeno total.

  4. Influência da cera de carnaúba no comportamento reológico de misturas usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão

    OpenAIRE

    P. A. Ourique; R. C. D. Cruz; J. E. Zorzi

    2015-01-01

    A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP) tem algumas vantagens sobre outros métodos de conformação de peças cerâmicas com formas complexas. Dentre as vantagens estão os menores custos na produção de lotes pequenos e médios e o menor desgaste de moldes e equipamento. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de um dos aditivos orgânicos usados na MIBP, a cera de carnaúba, no comportamento reológico da mistura (feedstock). O pó cerâmico utilizado foi uma alumina, com tamanho de partícula em t...

  5. Influência da cera de carnaúba no comportamento reológico de misturas usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Ourique

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP tem algumas vantagens sobre outros métodos de conformação de peças cerâmicas com formas complexas. Dentre as vantagens estão os menores custos na produção de lotes pequenos e médios e o menor desgaste de moldes e equipamento. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o efeito de um dos aditivos orgânicos usados na MIBP, a cera de carnaúba, no comportamento reológico da mistura (feedstock. O pó cerâmico utilizado foi uma alumina, com tamanho de partícula em torno de 0,4 μm. Com adições de 5% e 10% em peso de cera de carnaúba no veículo orgânico a viscosidade diminui significativamente, sendo bem mais acentuada com 10%, enquanto que, acima deste valor (15%, a viscosidade diminui, mas esta redução é menos pronunciada. Em contrapartida, em feedstocks sem a cera de carnaúba (0%, a viscosidade é tão elevada que praticamente inviabiliza a injeção em baixas pressões.

  6. Analysis of the necessary radioprotection procedures in manufacture and transport of iodine-125 sources used in brachytherapy;Analise dos procedimentos de radioprotecao necessarios na manufatura e no transporte de fontes de iodo-125 usadas em braquiterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, C.D.; Hilario, K.F.; Rostelato, M.E.C.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2009-07-01

    The estimates for the year 2009 show that 466,730 new cancer cases will occur in Brazil. Prostate cancer is the second most incident type. Brachytherapy, a type of radiotherapy, with Iodine-125 sources are an important form of treatment for this kind of cancer. The Energy and Nuclear Research Institute IPEN-CNEN/SP created a project to develop a national prototype of these sources and is implementing a facility for local production. The seeds manufacture in Brazil will allow to diminish the treatment cost and make it possible for a larger number of patients. This study aim to evaluate the procedures for transport and radiation protection requirements for employees with imported sources in order to tailor them for use in the new laboratory. Before being sent to hospitals, the packages are monitored by a radioprotection supervisor. Despite Iodine-125 presents low-energy photons, about 29 keV, local and personal dosimeters are used during transport, as described in the standards. The results showed no significant contamination or occupational exposure, validating the existing method. The transport procedure is correct, according to the regulations. For local production, new detectors should be implemented. (author)

  7. Mineralogical characterization of clays used in the structural ceramic industry in west of S. Paulo State, Brazil Caracterização mineralógica de argilas usadas na indústria de cerâmica estrutural no oeste do estado de S. Paulo, Brasil

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    S. R. Teixeira

    2001-12-01

    coletada nas várzeas dos rios Paraná e Paranapanema e a massa cerâmica usada pela indústria cerâmica do oeste do Estado de São Paulo. Difratometria de raios X, análise textural, limite de plasticidade e concentração de matéria orgânica foram usadas para caracterizar as amostras. A análise textural mostra que a fração argila variou de 38,2 a 66,3 %, a fração silte de 22,2 a 49,7 % e a fração areia de 3,1 a 34,1 %. A concentração de matéria orgânica varia de 5 a 7 %. Os resultados de difração de raios X mostram que todas as amostras possuem caulinita e muitas delas tem argilas do grupo das esmectitas, argilas interestratificadas e mica. Gibsita, óxidos de ferro e de titânio e quartzo são também identificados. Uma amostra usada para "pintar" potes é rica em goetita. Os resultados indicam que as massas cerâmicas tem alta concentração de argila na sua composição e devem ser misturadas com argila "magra". Caulinita é a fase majoritária em todas as amostras, dando uma boa plasticidade para a produção de tijolos e telhas por extrusão.

  8. BANCA PRIVADA Y VIVIENDA USADA EN LA CIUDAD DE MADRID

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    Víctor Jiménez Barrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El número de viviendas usadas en poder de los bancos ha aumentado de forma notable en los últimos diez años como consecuencia de la crisis económica e hipotecaria. El considerable incremento del paquete de activos tóxicos inmobiliarios (más del 36% entre el año 2012 y 2015 procede, en buena medida, de los impagos a la banca por parte de las familias. La ciudad de Madrid es una de las poblaciones más afectadas por este fenómeno, en la que se acumulan los desahucios día tras día. El presente estudio cuantifica y analiza, a través de la información que facilitan las inmobiliarias de las cinco principales entidades bancarias del país, esta bolsa de viviendas de segunda mano en la capital española. La localización de las mismas dentro del núcleo urbano permite conocer el grado de afectación por distritos. Por otro lado, nos hemos servido de la base de datos socioeconómicos de la Administración Local para determinar la incidencia social del posicionamiento de la banca privada. El análisis espacial a través de Sistemas de Información Geográfica ha revelado comportamientos anómalos de la banca en relación al mercado de compra-venta de viviendas usadas en la ciudad de Madrid.

  9. Variabilidade espacial de atributos físicos de solo usada na identificação de classes pedológicas de microbacias na Amazônia meridional Spatial variability of soil physical attributes used for soil mapping in small headwater catchments of the southern Amazon

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    João Paulo Novaes Filho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A região noroeste do Estado de Mato Grosso compreende paisagens de grande complexidade para amostragem de solo. Isso ocorre devido à contínua atividade geomorfológica, que contribuiu para a existência de diferentes classes pedológicas em pequenas distâncias. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em Juruena (MT, com o objetivo de identificar as classes pedológicas em microbacias sob floresta não-perturbada, por meio do estudo da variabilidade espacial da textura (relação textural e cor (índice de avermelhamento do solo, considerando-se ainda a altitude da paisagem. A variabilidade espacial da textura e da cor do solo foi determinada em amostras de 185 pontos georreferenciados em malha sistemática regular com espaçamento de 20 x 20 m, abrangendo quatro microbacias. Usando profundidades de 0-20 e 40-60 cm, foi possível distinguir e mapear as principais classes de solo ocorrentes na área de estudo até o segundo nível categórico do Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, associadas ao fator relevo da paisagem. Também foi estabelecida uma correspondência bastante satisfatória entre os intervalos do índice de avermelhamento do horizonte diagnóstico e as cores das classes de solo. As microbacias apresentaram as classes Plintossolos e Argissolos (com caráter plíntico em altitudes inferiores a 280 m e Latossolos nas cotas superiores. Dessa forma, ficou evidenciada a possibilidade do uso da geoestatística para separar classes homogêneas de solo, além de estimar a precisão de mapeamento. Contudo, são indispensáveis o conhecimento pedológico e o trabalho posterior de campo para a aplicação e o ajuste dessa modelagem.The northwestern region of Mato Grosso State consists of complex landscapes due to ongoing geomorphologic activity that contributes to the occurrence of different soil classes over small distances, which complicates soil sampling strategies. This study was conducted in Juruena (MT, with the objective of

  10. Orchid bee baits attracting bees of the genus Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil: abundance, seasonality, and the importance of odors for dim-light bees Abelhas do gênero Megalopta (Hymenoptera, Halictidae atraídas por iscas químicas usadas para euglossíneos na região de Bauru, SP: abundância, sazonalidade e importância de odores para abelhas crepusculares

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    Fátima R. N. Knoll

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal bees in the genus Megalopta Smith, 1853 are generally collected using artificial light sources. However, between 1993 and 2000, a total of 946 females (no males were captured were captured using aromatic baits commonly used for orchid bees (Euglossini in five localities in Bauru region, São Paulo, Brazil. Aromatic compounds used in bait traps were: benzyl acetate, eucalyptol, eugenol, skatole, methyl salicylate, and vanillin. The Megalopta species collected were: M. guimaraesi (71.2% of total number of specimens, M. amoena (28.1%, and M. aegis (0.6%. Using the data from these traps, we showed that there was a positive and significant correlation between the abundance of individuals and meteorological factors, rainfall and temperature. Bees were more commonly collected in the spring (September to December and summer (December to March than in the autumn and winter, the latter characterized for being a drier and colder period. Variations in the abundance were also detected among localities and years. The most attractive compounds were eugenol (54%, methyl salicylate (22%, and eucalyptol (16%. The ability to detect smells may have an important role in searching for flowers during dim-light conditions. We suggest the use of aromatic compounds in future studies on the biology of Megalopta in the Neotropical region.Abelhas noturnas do gênero Megalopta (Smith, 1853 são geralmente coletadas usando fontes artificiais de luz. Porém entre os anos de 1993 e 2000, um total de 946 fêmeas de Megalopta foram capturadas (machos não foram capturados usando iscas aromáticas frequentemente usadas para atração de machos de Euglossini, em cinco localidades na região de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil. Os compostos aromáticos utilizados foram: acetato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, escatol, salicilato de metila e vanilina. As espécies encontradas foram M. guimaraesi (71.2% do total de indivíduos, M. amoena (28.1% and M. aegis (0.6%. De modo geral

  11. Photoperiod and feeding behavior of the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii (Perciformes: Nototheniidae and functional morphology of chemical and visual sensory structures used in foraging Comportamento alimentar do peixe antártico Notothenia rossii (Perciformes: Nototheniidae em diferentes fotoperíodos e a morfologia funcional das estruturas quimio-foto sensoriais usadas na detecção do alimento

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    Lucélia Donatti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of photoperiod on the ability of Notothenia rossii Richardson, 1844 to detect prey was studied experimentally. In 12L/12D there was the highest number of individuals stimulated visually and chemically while in 24D chemical perception was the same as that observed in 12L/12D, the latter being lower than in 24L. The ultrastructure of chemo- and photo-sensory structures, involved in the detection of food, was studied. The photoreceptor cells of the retina are single and double cones, and rods. Taste buds were concentrated in the central part of upper and lower lips. Their shape is even, but the size is variable. The olfactory rosette has a sensory and a non-sensory epithelium, being rich in different mucosubstances. The conclusion was that in different photoperiods there is a difference in the response to visual and chemical stimulation for prey detection and that all sensory systems are more stimulated in periods of more luminosity, mainly when there is an alternation between light and dark periods. Sensory organs are complex when compared to some other Antarctic fish such as Gobionotothen gibberifrons Lönnberg, 1905 and Ophthalmolycus amberensis Tomo, Marshoff & Torno, 1977 but similar to those of N. coriiceps Rchardson, 1844.A capacidade de Notothenia rossii Richardson, 1844 detectar presas in diferentes fotoperíodos (24L, 24D e 12L/12D foi estudada em tanques experimentais. Em 12L/12D houve um maior número de indivíduos estimulados visual e quimicamente enquanto que em 24D a percepção química foi a mesma que a observada em 12L/12D, sendo este ultimo inferior a 24L. A morfologia das estruturas quimio-foto sensoriais, envolvidas na detecção do alimento, foi estudada. As células fotorreceptoras da retina são os cones simples e duplos e os bastonetes. Os botões concentraram-se na região central dos lábios superior e inferior. Seu formato é constante, mas o tamanho é variável. A rosseta olfatória possui um epit

  12. Recuperação da solução de soda cáustica usada no tratamento do couro bovino na produção de gelatina Recovery of the sodium hydroxide aqueous solution used in the treatment of bovine leather for the production of gelatin

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    Eduardo Rodrigues de Lima

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available No tratamento de couro bovino para a produção de gelatina utiliza-se uma solução de soda cáustica com função de dissolver substâncias orgânicas indesejáveis, como proteínas e gorduras. Para evitar seu descarte como efluente, procurou-se viabilizar um processo de purificação da soda cáustica, evitando seu desperdício e ainda tornando-o adequado para reutilização no processo. A microfiltração, a ultrafiltração e a nanofiltração são técnicas potenciais para esta separação, dependendo do tipo e tamanho dos sólidos existentes. Experimentos de ultrafiltração foram realizados na unidade de micro/ultrafiltração Koch Membrane System Model Protosep modified IV, nas pressões transmembrana de 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 kgf/cm² e temperaturas de 25 e 50 °C. Utilizaram-se membranas cerâmicas (material TiO2/alfa-Al2O3 tubulares com diâmetro médio de corte de 0,01, 0,05 e 0,10 µm. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: na primeira selecionou-se a melhor pressão para cada membrana, e na segunda adotou-se a pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², usou-se uma alimentação centrifugada e outra peneirada para então definir a membrana. As melhores condições operacionais foram determinadas em termos de fluxo de permeado e qualidade de produto. Com os resultados obtidos, observaram-se as melhores condições operacionais: pressão de 3,5 kgf/cm², temperatura de 25 °C e membrana com diâmetro médio de poros de 0,01 µm.The sodium hydroxide solution used in the treatment of bovine leather in the production of gelatin has the function of dissolving undesirable organic substances, such as proteins and fats. To avoid the discard of this solution as an effluent to the environment, the intention of this project was to develop a process of sodium hydroxide purification, avoiding the waste of the solution and making it appropriate to be re-utilised in the process. Ultrafiltration experiments were carried out in a micro/ultrafiltration unit, Koch Membrane

  13. Efeito do processamento em misturas de alumina/ligantes orgânicos usadas na moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão Effect of processing variables in alumina/organic binders mixtures used in low-pressure injection molding

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    P . A. Ourique

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A moldagem por injeção em baixa pressão (MIBP é uma técnica que já vem sendo empregada na produção de peças cerâmicas com formas e geometrias complexas. A homogeneidade da mistura de ligantes orgânicos e pós cerâmicos é um fator determinante que deve ser controlado para minimizar a formação de imperfeições no processamento de feedstocks para MIBP. Defeitos típicos de processamento por MIBP, como bolhas de ar e aglomerados, geram gradientes de densidade nas misturas que, após conformação, possuem poucas possibilidades de remoção. Essas imperfeições comprometem o desempenho dos produtos obtidos por essa técnica. Este trabalho está focado na avaliação dessas heterogeneidades e como elas podem ser correlacionadas com a variação da densidade aparente e com o comportamento reológico dessas misturas. Para tanto, aluminas submicrométricas, como recebida e desaglomerada, foram adicionadas a uma mistura fundida de ligantes a base de parafinas, ceras e aditivos e processada em dois tipos diferentes de misturadores, com e sem o auxílio de vácuo. Foi observada a presença de aglomerados existentes na alumina como recebida, possivelmente gerados durante a etapa de calcinação. Também foi observado que o tipo de misturador e a aplicação ou não de vácuo durante a etapa final do processamento têm grande influência no tempo de mistura necessário para reduzir a viscosidade do feedstock para a injeção.The low-pressure injection molding (LPIM is a technique already being used in the production of ceramic parts with complex shapes and geometries. The homogeneity of the mixture of organic binder and ceramic powder is a determining factor which must be controlled to minimize defects formation while feedstock processing to LPIM. Typical defects of LPIM processing, such as air bubbles and agglomerates, generate density gradients in the mixtures, which, after shaping, have little possibility of removal. These imperfections

  14. Caracterização bioquímica de soros de bezerros utilizados na manutenção de culturas celulares usadas em virologia Biochemical characterization of calf sera used for the growth of cell cultures used in virology

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    Elisabeth Christina Nunes Tenório

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Oito lotes de soros de bezerros com idade maior ou menor de seis meses, usados para suplementar meios de cultivo de linhagens de células de uso difundido em virologia, foram testados quanto à sua capacidade promotora de crescimento (CPC e classificados como bons promotores ou promotores pobres. Foram pesquisados parâmetros relacionados com macronutrientes para estabelecer o perfil bioquímico daqueles lotes. Os resultados obtidos podem ser considerados valores normais para animais aparentemente sadios. As variações que ocorreram para um mesmo parâmetro bioquímico, entre os resultados da pesquisa e os de alguns estudos existentes na literatura, podem ser atribuídas à metodologia utilizada, à raça e idade dos animais, ou mesmo à própria dieta regional. A análise estatística, realizada pela aplicação do teste "t" de Student aos valores das médias e dos desvios padrão, demonstrou que, com relação às frações séricas, não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre soros de CPC celular boa ou pobre, considerando-se t c=2,45, enquanto que, para soros animais maiores ou menores de seis meses, apenas os resultados relativos às frações alfa e beta (t=2,68 e 2,61, respectivamente apresentaram significância, sendo superiores ao t crítico. Ficou evidenciado que a avaliação do conjunto de parâmetros bioquímicos pesquisados não permite diferenciar soros pertencentes aos dois grupos de animais, isto é, identificar soros de boa ou de pobre CPC, ou soros de bezerros maiores ou menores de seis meses de idadeEight lots of the calf sera employed to supplement culture media for the cultivation of animal cells, of widespread use in virology obtained from calves above and below six months of age were rated as good or as poor cell growth promoters according to their growth promoting capacity (GPC. Parameters related to macronutrients contained in these serum lots were then evaluated with the purpose of establishing their biochemical

  15. Quality of raw materials from different regions of Minas Gerais State utilized in ration industry Qualidade de matérias-primas das diferentes regiões do estado Minas Gerais usadas na indústria de ração

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    Paulo C. Coradi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at evaluating the quality of raw materials destined for animal feed production, as well as the quality of corn produced in different areas of the Minas Gerais State. The study was conducted in a feed mill for poultry, with production capacity of 1,000 t d-1. Samples of corn, soybean, flours, animal meals, and feed, during the year of 2008 were collected for analysis of moisture, acidity, peroxides, crude protein, ethereal extract, and physical classification of the corn for "type". The collection of samples, physical-chemical analysis and classification of corn according to "type" were performed at the Industrial Laboratory and at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of Federal University of Viçosa. It was concluded that: raw materials meet the minimum demands of quality (with regards to physical-chemical and nutritional aspects; the corn grains and some by-products present high indexes of moisture and are subject to microbiological contamination during storage; the corn produced in the different areas of Minas Gerais State can be classified as "type 1" for commercialization.Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a qualidade das matérias-primas destinadas à indústria de ração e às rações processadas, além da qualidade do milho produzido nas diferentes regiões do estado de Minas de Gerais. O estudo foi conduzido em uma indústria de ração para aves, com capacidade de produção de 1,000 t d-1. Para as análises de teor de água, acidez, peróxidos, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e classificação física do milho por "tipo" amostras de: milho, soja, farinhas de origem animal, farelos e rações, foram coletados durante o ano de 2008. A coleta de amostras, as análises físico-químicas e a classificação do milho por "tipo", foram realizadas no laboratório da indústria e no Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. Concluiu-se que as matérias-primas atendem

  16. Plantas medicinales y para condimento usadas en el sudeste del Partido de Berisso (Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue relevar las plantas usadas con fines terapéuticos por los habitantes de un sector costanero del Río de la Plata entre los balnearios Bagliardi y La Balandra. Se identificaron 36 especies utilizadas en la medicina popular, 10 de las cuales también se usan como condimento.

  17. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    The pelletizing of NaF granules on laboratory scale used for recovery and purification of fluorides of nuclear fuel materials are investigated, particularity experimental studies on how to pelletize, fluidity of granules and flow rate of the granules in mortar of tablet machine are carried out. As result, added quantity of H 2 O as binder at granulation process of spherical NaF granule influence to yield of NaF granules. The proper quantity of H 2 O to NaF powder is about 18--19%. Friction coefficient of unfixed shape NaF granule is higher than that of spherical granule, in opposition, density of the former granule is lower. So fluidity of unfixed shape NaF granule is low, flow rate of the granules through feeder of tablet machine is slow, and arching on mortar of the tablet machine occurs. Then, some further operation for getting better fluidity needs for pelletizing of NaF granules using unfixed shape granule. The other hand, using spherical NaF granule, continuous pelletizing by commercial tablet machine can be carried out. (auth.)

  18. Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) - Sao Paulo, Brazil, - Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The activities carried out at 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) S.P., Brazil, in 1978 are related, such as : development of research on the use of radioisotopes in crop improvement and plant breeding, as well as in the improvement of animal production; works in collaboration with other entities; personnel formation and scientific exchange with other countries. (M.A.) [pt

  19. {sup 23}Na nuclear magnetic resonance study of the structure and dynamic of natrolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paczwa, Mateusz; Olszewski, Marcin; Sergeev, Nikolaj [Szczecin Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Sapiga, Aleksej A.; Sapiga, Aleksej V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky Univ., Simferopol, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2015-07-01

    The temperature dependences of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectra of {sup 23}Na nuclei in natrolite (Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 10} . 2H{sub 2}O) have been studied. The temperature dependences of the spin-lattice relaxation times T{sub 1} in natrolite have also been studied. It has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation of the {sup 23}Na is governed by the electric quadrupole interaction with the crystal electric field gradients modulated by translational motion of H{sub 2}O molecules in the natrolite pores. The dipolar interactions with paramagnetic impurities become significant as a relaxation mechanism of the {sup 23}Na nuclei only at low temperature (<270 K).

  20. The Na+ transport in gram-positive bacteria defect in the Mrp antiporter complex measured with 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia; Drakenberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-15

    (23)Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has previously been used to monitor Na(+) translocation across membranes in gram-negative bacteria and in various other organelles and liposomes using a membrane-impermeable shift reagent to resolve the signals resulting from internal and external Na(+). In this work, the (23)Na NMR method was adapted for measurements of internal Na(+) concentration in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, with the aim of assessing the Na(+) translocation activity of the Mrp (multiple resistance and pH) antiporter complex, a member of the cation proton antiporter-3 (CPA-3) family. The sodium-sensitive growth phenotype observed in a B. subtilis strain with the gene encoding MrpA deleted could indeed be correlated to the inability of this strain to maintain a lower internal Na(+) concentration than an external one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.; Jhon Jairo Calderón L.

    2017-01-01

    Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los muni...

  2. Reuse of nuclear byproducts, NaF and HF in metal glass industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.W.; Lee, H.W. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Inc., Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, S.H.; Moon, H.S.; Cho, N.C. [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    A study has been performed to evaluate the radiological safety and feasibility associated with reuse of NaF(Sodium Fluoride) and HF(Hydrofluoric Acid) which are generated as byproducts from the nuclear fuel fabrication process. The investigation of oversea`s experience reveals that the byproduct materials are most often used in the metal and glass industries. For the radiological safety evaluation, the uranium radioactivities in the byproduct materials were examined and shown to be less than radioactivities in natural materials. The radiation doses to plant personnel and the general public were assessed to be very small and could be ignored. The Korea nuclear regulatory body permits the reuse of NaF in the metal industry on the basis of associated radioactivity being {open_quote}below regulatory concern{close_quote}. HF is now under review for reuse acceptability in the steel and glass industries.

  3. Nuclear astrophysics with DRAGON at ISAC: the 21Na(p, γ)22Mg reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRAGON facility at the new intense radioactive beams facility, ISAC, is now operational. It was built to perform studies of radiative alpha and proton capture reactions involving radioactive reactants, and of interest to nuclear astrophysics. The rate of the 21 Na(p, γ) 22 Mg reaction has been measured using inverse kinematics. Resonance strengths have been measured for states of importance for novae explosions. This report will summarize aspects of this study and its impact. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Li and Na): Production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaensch, H.; Becker, K.; Blatt, K.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) are described. By means of optical pumping in combination with the existing multipole separation magnet the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity) was doubled. 7 Li and 23 Na atomic beams can now be produced in pure hyperfine magnetic substates. Fast switching of the polarization is achieved by an adiabatic medium field transition. The hyperfine magnetic substate population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In routine operation atomic beams with nuclear polarization p α ≥0.85 (α=z, zz) are obtained. The acceleration of polarized 23 Na - ions by a 12 MV tandem accelerator introduces a new problem: the energy at the terminal stripper foil is not sufficient to produce a usable yield of naked ions. For partially stripped ions hyperfine interaction of the remaining electrons with the nuclear spin reduces the nuclear polarization. Using in addition the Heidelberg postaccelerator 23 Na 9+ beams of energies between 49 and 184 MeV were obtained with an alignment on target of P zz ≅0.45. 7 Li beams have also been accelerated up to 45 MeV with an alignment of P zz =0.69. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear quadrupole interaction measurements of 19F* and 22Na* on Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Surono, Th; Martin, Peter W

    1996-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique has been used to investigate nuclear quadrupole interactions of 19 F * and 22 Na * in graphite. We concentrated the measurements on pseudo single crystal graphite called Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite for it has an ordered structure in which the c-axes of the microcrystals aligned in a certain direction with the mosaic spread less than 1 o , while the a- and b-axes randomly oriented on a plane perpendicular to the c-axes. Interactions between quadrupole moment of 19 F * and 22 Na * with its surroundings electric field gradient were studied by detecting the γ-rays distribution, W(Θ,t). For 1 9F * we found one static interaction. The corresponding electric field gradient was V zz =3.24(19)x10 22 V/m 2 . In the case of 22 Na * we found no evidence of nuclear quadrupole interaction, however, we were able to conclude that |QV 22 | 19 bV/m 2 . Using theoretical calculation Q=0.06 barn, we find that |V zz | 20 V/m 2 . These results indicate that the value efg depend on two factors, the host crystal and the core electrons. The core electrons contribution to the total efg is considerably large

  6. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.S. [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P. [Department of Physics, Sejong University,Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University,Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I.S. [Department of Science Education, Ewha Womans University,Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-18

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  7. Pulse-shape discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils in a NaI(Tl) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.S.; Adhikari, G.; Adhikari, P.; Choi, S.; Hahn, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the response of a high light-output NaI(Tl) crystal to nuclear recoils induced by neutrons from an Am-Be source and compare the results with the response to electron recoils produced by Compton-scattered 662 keV γ-rays from a 137 Cs source. The measured pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) power of the NaI(Tl) crystal is found to be significantly improved because of the high light output of the NaI(Tl) detector. We quantify the PSD power with a quality factor and estimate the sensitivity to the interaction rate for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with nucleons, and the result is compared with the annual modulation amplitude observed by the DAMA/LIBRA experiment. The sensitivity to spin-independent WIMP-nucleon interactions based on 100 kg⋅year of data from NaI detectors is estimated with simulated experiments, using the standard halo model.

  8. Effect of Na{sub 2}O on aqueous dissolution of nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, Rahmat Ullah, E-mail: rufarooqi@live.com [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hrma, Pavel [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro, Nam-Gu, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Sodium oxide is present in the majority of commercial and waste glasses as a viscosity-reducing component. In some nuclear waste glasses, its source is the waste itself. As such, it can limit the waste loading because of its deleterious effect on the resistance of the glass to attack by aqueous media. The maximum tolerable content of Na{sub 2}O in glass depends on the presence and concentration of components that interact with it. To assess the acceptability limits of Na{sub 2}O in the composition region of nuclear waste glasses, we formulated 11 baseline compositions by varying the content of oxides of Si, B, Al, Ca, Zr, and Li. In each of these compositions, we varied the Na{sub 2}O fraction from 8–16 mass% to 23–30 mass%. To each of 146 glasses thus formulated, we applied the seven-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) to determine normalized B and Na releases (r{sub i}, where i ≡ B or Na). Fitting approximation functions ln(r{sub i}/gm{sup −2}) = Σb{sub ij}g{sub j} to r{sub i} data (g{sub j} is the j-th component mass fraction and b{sub ij} the corresponding component coefficient), we showed that the r{sub B} (and, consequently, the initial glass alteration rate) was proportional to the glass component mass fractions in the order Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}Na{sub 2}O

  9. Study On Analytical Methods Of Tellurium Content In Natriiodide (Na131I) Radiopharmaceutical Solution Produced In The Dalat Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Thi Cam Hoa; Duong Van Dong; Nguyen Thi Thu; Chu Van Khoa

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the practical methods for analyzing of Tellurium content in Na 131 I solution produced at the Dalat Nuclear Research Institute. We studied analytical methods to control Tellurium content in final Na 131 I solution product used in medical purposes by three methods such as: spot test, gamma spectrometric and spectrophotometric methods. These investigation results are shown that the spot test method is suitable for controlling Tellurium trace in the final product. This spot test can be determinate Tellurium trace less than 10 ppm and are used to quality control of Na 131 I solution using in medical application. (author)

  10. /sup 14/N nuclear quadrupole resonance in ferroelectric sodium nitrite NaNO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S; Singh, K [Defence Science Lab., Delhi (India)

    1974-06-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonance has been studied in ferroelectric sodium nitrite (NaNO/sub 2/) from 77 K to its phase transition point 437 K. The three rotational frequencies ..omega../sub c/ = 190 cm/sup -1/, ..omega../sub b/ = 120 cm/sup -1/ and ..omega../sub c/ = 227 cm/sup -1/ and their temperature variation when fitted in the Bayer-Kushida theory predict the temperature dependence of nqr frequencies reasonably well. A second order phase transition is found to occur at 180 K which is in confirmity with the one found earlier from thermal expansion and dielectric studies. The shift in resonance frequencies is seen to occur mainly by rotation around the 'c' axis and hence it is inferred that the mechanism of polarization reversal is intimately connected with orientational motion about 'c' axis. (auth)

  11. CAMBIOS DE COLOR Y PERFIL AROMÁTICO EN SOLUCIONES OSMÓTICAS USADAS EN DESHIDRATACIÓN OSMÓTICA DE TOMATE DE ÁRBOL COR E SABOR MUDANÇAS NO SOLUÇÃO OSMÓTICA, UTILIZADO NA DESIDRATAÇÃO OSMÓTICA DE TOMATE DE ÁRVORE COLOR AND FLAVOR CHANGES ON THE OSMOTIC SOLUTION, USED IN THE OSMOTIC DEHYDRATION OF TREE TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Ivonne Pinzón

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La reutilización de la solución osmótica (SO en el proceso de deshidratación osmótica (DO de frutas de origen tropical ricas en aromas exóticos como el tomate de árbol (Cyphomandra betacea (Cav Sendth, del cual ya se han obtenidos resultados muy satisfactorios, trae consigo cambios en las diferentes propiedades de la SO, sobre todo en el enriquecimiento sustancias provenientes de la fruta, que la convierten en una materia prima interesante en la fabricación y diseño de nuevos productos alimenticios, en este artículo se evaluaron los cambios el color y el perfil aromático, de la SO a medida que es reutilizada en 9 ciclos de DO teniendo en cuenta que estas dos propiedades van a tener gran influencia sobre las características sensoriales en el diseño de los nuevos productos alimenticios. Se utilizaron cubos deformados de tomate de árbol, deshidratados durante 240 minutos, en una SO de 65°Brix, con una relación solución:fruta de 5:1. En cada ciclo de DO se renovaron los frutos y se reutilizó la SO sin reconcentración, filtrando cada 4 ciclos durante 9 ciclos de DO. Se analizó el color de la SO encontrando una tendencia al descenso de L* en la SO y otros cambios; los demás parámetros de color: a*, b*, C* y h° solo fueron apreciados instrumentalmente; estos cambios en el color de la SO no mostraron un efecto drástico en el color de los frutos deshidratados; además se encontró la aparición de componentes del aroma de tomate de árbol en la SO a medida que fue reutilizada.Reutilização da solução osmótica (SO no processo de desidratação osmótica (DO de frutas tropicais ricos em sabores exóticos, como o tomate de árvore (betacea Cyphomandra (Cav Sendth, que tenham sido obtidos resultados muito satisfatóriostraz com ela mudanças nas propriedades diferentes do SO, principalmente no enriquecimento de substâncias a partir do fruto, o que torna um material interessante na fabricação e design de novos produtos

  12. Plantas usadas por aves en paisajes cafeteros de Nariño, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulieth Viviana Castillo R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas son un importante recurso alimenticio para las aves presentes en los paisajes cafeteros, por lo que la heterogeneidad en las diferentes unidades de estos paisajes, garantizan la disponibilidad de alimento. Conocer este tipo de interacciones entre plantas y aves es importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en paisajes cafeteros. En esta investigación, se presenta la lista inicial de especies de plantas usadas por las aves de paisajes cafeteros en zonas rurales de los municipios de Colón-Génova, La Unión, Arboleda y San Pedro de Cartago en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Las observaciones en campo y colectas generales de plantas muestran que 25 especies vegetales son consumidas por aves frugívoras, ocho especies son aprovechadas por aves nectarívoras y nueve especies son aprovechadas por aves insectívoras. Los resultados obtenidos permiten proponer un listado de especies de plantas potenciales como fuente de recursos para las aves, algunas nativas y otras introducidas, que pueden ser útiles para el manejo de paisajes cafeteros en la región a través de la implementación de estrategias de producción y propagación para la restauración.

  13. ESTRATÉGIAS COMPETITIVAS USADAS PELAS EMPRESAS DE EVENTOS DE CURITIBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rogério Maioli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta como duas empresas de organização de eventos de Curitiba Paraná atuam no mercado, como utilizam seus conhecimentos de gestão de forma empírica quando usam as estratégias de competitividade de Porter e Ansoff para atuarem no mercado e fazerem frente as mudanças ambientais ocorridas. Os principais resultados podem ser encontrados no uso das estratégias que fazem frente aos concorrentes, aos serviços substitutos, ao poder de barganha tanto de clientes, fornecedores e aos novos entrantes, também no uso de estratégias de expansão e diversificação. O trabalho está dividido em introdução, fundamentação em turismo, eventos, estratégias competitivas de Porter e Ansoff, a caracterização das empresas estudadas, a metodologia usada a apresentação dos resultados e as conclusões

  14. Influence of communication on public opinion about nuclear energy; Influencia da comunicacao na aceitacao publica da energia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Everton de Almeida [ELETROBRAS Termonuclear S.A., (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    Public opinion on risks and benefits associated to nuclear energy is depending on psychological and social factors and mainly on the communication strategy used to transfer knowledge and facts about nuclear technology to the public. In this work, the individual and collective communication process and the influences on the public opinion on nuclear energy will be analyzed. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Pelletizing of NaF granules as adsorbent for fluorides of nuclear fuel materials, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Tsutsui, Tenson; Kanagawa, Akira.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental studies on compressibility of NaF granules are investigated. Brittleness and porosity of a tableted pellet depend on compressive power applied to the granules. Relation of the compressive power and distortion of NaF granules agree with Kawakita's formula. About the brittleness of NaF pellet tableted with optional pressure, the follow experimental formula is formed between axial destructive power and compressive power. Dsub(p)=f.psup(n) Then, relation of the axial destructive power and porosity of NaF pellet is given from the above mentioned experimental formula and Kawakita's formula. At the lower value of the porosity than 0.4, the axial destructive power varies steeply as compared with variation of the porosity. At optional porosity, the brittleness of the tableted NaF pellet are lower than Harshow Chem. Co. NaF.HF pellet. So it requires some process raising the brittleness of the pellet after the compression. (auth.)

  16. Radiological respiratory protection in Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant; Protecao respiratoria radiologica na Usina Nuclear de Angra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Marcos A. do [Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A., Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Central Nuclear de Angra I. Div. de Protecao Radiologica e Ambiental

    1996-07-01

    The present paper has the purpose to describe the actual situation of the Radiological respiratory Protection in Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, the difficulties found and the goals to achieve, in order of the radiological protection excellence. (author)

  17. Estimation of radioactive effluents concentrations in the vicinity of nuclear power plant; Predviduvanje na koncentraciite na radioaktivni aerozagaduvaci vo okolinata na nuklearni energetski postrojni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsov, Lj [Elektrostopanstvo, Skopje (Yugoslavia)

    1977-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem of mathematical prediction of radioactive effluent concentrations around nuclear power plants. This mathematical model which describes the behaviour of the effluent in the atmosphere here in after is expanded and adapted for radioactive effluent treatment. In this way the mathematical model includes the description of the following effects: the rise of plume caused by its vertical momentum and its heat content, wind velocity profile and vertical growth of the coefficient of diffusion, fallout under gravity, ground deposition, precipitation scavenging, and radioactive decay. The advanced computer program DIFFUS has been applied to evaluate the ground concentration of the nuclides of I, which constitute the greatest risk for population.(author)

  18. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  19. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear physics: Facilitating the peaceful and practical uses of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    When properly applied, nuclear science - the study of atomic nuclei and other subatomic particles - can contribute in many ways to the health, development and security of communities around the world. In this context, the IAEA plays an important role in helping interested Member States develop the capabilities and infrastructure necessary to manage their own programmes devoted to nuclear and radiological applications. The IAEA's nuclear science programme helps Member States to establish sound frameworks for the efficient, safe and secure use of new nuclear technologies, including accelerator facilities, research reactors and future nuclear fusion facilities. By applying nuclear technologies in a wide variety of areas such as energy production, health care, food and agriculture, industry and the environment, Member States can benefit immensely from the ensuing socioeconomic developments, as well as providing better living conditions for their citizens.

  20. Thermogravimetric and nuclear magnetic resonance study of hydrated Na-β''-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, P.; Panepucci, H.; Gobato, Y.G.; Oliveira, L.N.; Souza, D.P.F. de

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports thermogravimetric and proton spin-lattice relaxation times measurement of hydrated Na-β''-alumina, which yield information about the identification of the sites where the loosely bound water molecules are located in the polycrystalline sample. It examines also the influence of impurities on the motion of the protons. (autor) [pt

  1. Crystalline phase of sodium germanate system determined by x-ray diffraction and 23Na magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, R.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline products of sodium germanate glasses system with composition from 10 mol% to 50 mol% Na 2 O have been investigated using 23 Na magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Fitting of the 23 Na NMR spectra of the crystalline phases concerning different crystallographically sodium atom in sodium germanate system are reasonably reproducible as observed by the spectra obtained. The line shape simulations of the 23 Na NMR spectra yielded NMR quadrupolar parameters such as nuclear quadrupole coupling constants (C Q ), asymmetry parameters (η), and isotropic chemical shifts (δ i ). 23 Na NMR isotropic chemical shift may also provide further information on the structural environment of the sodium atom. A simple correlation between structure and NMR parameters to be tested can be used to probe the structure of sodium germanate glasses. The experimental 23 Na chemical shifts correlate well with an empirical shift parameter based on the total oxygen-cation bond valence and Na-O distances of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of the sodium cation. In this study the different phases in the sodium germanate system were identified. These results show that 23 Na NMR can provide examples of the types of structural information for sodium germanate system. (Author)

  2. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance in osteoporosis evaluation; Aplicacoes de ressonancia magnetica nuclear na avaliacao de osteoporose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: giannoni@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montrazi, Elton T.; Bonagamba, Tito J., E-mail: elton.montrazi@gmail.com, E-mail: tito@ifsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cesar, Reinaldo, E-mail: reinaldofisica@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    2013-07-01

    In this work, initially ceramic samples of known porosity were used. These ceramic samples were saturated with water. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal due to relaxation processes that the hydrogen nucleus water contained in the pores of this ceramic material was measured. Then these samples were subjected to a process of drying and measures successively. As the water contained in pores greater evaporates the intensity of signal decreases and shows the sign because of the smaller pores. The analysis of this drying process gives a qualitative assessment of the pore size of the material. In a second step, bones of animals of unknown porosity underwent the same methodology for evaluating osteoporosis. Also a sample of human vertebra in a unique manner, with the same purpose was measured. Combined with other techniques is a quantitative evaluation of the possible porosity.

  3. Diffusion and the dynamics of displacive phase transitions in cryolite (Na3AlF6) and chiolite (Na5Al3F14): Multi-nuclear NMR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.; Stebbins, Jonathan F.; Farnan, Ian

    1994-10-01

    Cryolite is a mixed-cation perovskite (Na2(NaAl)F6) which undergoes a monoclinic to orthorhombic displacive phase transition at ˜550° C. Chiolite (Na5Al3F14) is associated with cryolite in natural deposits, and consists of sheets of corner sharing [AlF6] octahedra interlayered with edge-sharing [NaF6] octahedra. Multi-nuclear NMR line shape and relaxation time (T1) studies were performed on cryolite and chiolite in order to gain a better understanding of the atomic motions associated with the phase transition in cryolite, and Na diffusion in cryolite and chiolite. 27Al, 23Na, and 19F static NMR spectra and T1's in cryolite suggest that oscillatory motions of the [AlF6] octahedra among four micro-twin and anti-phase domains in α-cryolite begin at least 150° C below the transition temperature and persist above it. Variable temperature 23Na MAS NMR further indicates diffusional exchange at a rate of at least 13 kHz between the Na sites by the time the transition temperature is reached. 27Al and 23Na T1's show the same behavior with increasing temperature, indicating the same relaxation mechanisms are responsible for both. The first order nature of the cryolite transition is apparent as a jump in the 23Na and 27Al T1's. Above the transition temperature, the T1's decrease slightly indicating that the motions responsible for the drop in T1, are still present above the transition, further supporting the dynamic nature of the high temperature phase of cryolite. Chiolite 23Na static spectra decrease in linewidth with increasing temperature, indicating increased Na diffusion, which is interpreted as occurring within the [NaF6] sheets in the chiolite structure, but not between the two different Na sites. 27Al and 23Na T1's show similar behavior as in cryolite, but there is no discontinuity due to a phase transition. 19F T1's are constant from room temperature to 150° C indicating no oscillatory motion of the [AlF6] octahedra in chiolite.

  4. Ropas americanas: Comercio, contrabando y compradores de ropa usada en la frontera de Corumbá, Brasil, y Puerto Quijarro, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERO HERNÁNDEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la comercialización y venta de ropa usada en la frontera entre Bolivia y Brasil, la cual atraviesa un proceso de traslado por varios países, medios de transporte, contra - bando, reúsos y resignif icación de vestimentas. a f inales del siglo xx , el comercio de ropa usada adquiere mayor importancia con la incorporación de onG norteamericanas y europeas, quienes recaudan estas mercancías en calidad de donativos para reenviarlas y comercializarlas en países sudamericanos. l as ropas usadas realizan extensos recorridos hasta los puertos chilenos, para después iniciar un trayecto por tren, y otros medios de transporte, rumbo al este boliviano fronterizo con Brasil. Puerto Quijarro, Bolivia, y c orumbá, Brasil, representan una experiencia de intercambio cultural y comercial, donde el contrabando y la compra y venta de ropa usada son parte de su interacción cotidiana.

  5. Nuclear spin phonon relaxation by Raman process in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction using {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ae Ran [Department of Science Education, Jeonju University, Jeonju 560-759, Chonbuk (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: aeranlim@hanmail.net; Shin, Chang Woo [Solid State Analysis Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-30

    Successive phase transitions in a Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} single crystal were found at 296, 513, and 533 K. To investigate the mechanism of the phase transition at 296 K, the {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spin-lattice relaxation time and the spin-spin relaxation time of Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} were measured near the phase transition temperature using a FT NMR spectrometer. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T{sub 1}, for {sup 1}H in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals exhibits a minimum below T{sub C1} (=296 K) indicating the presence of distinct molecular motion governed by the Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound (BPP) theory. Although the results for the {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na relaxation times provide no evidence of the phase transition at T{sub C1}, the separation of the {sup 23}Na resonance lines changes abruptly at T{sub C1}. The phase transition at 296 K produces a change in the separation of the Na resonance line that is associated with a change in the atomic positions in the vicinity of the Na ions. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation process in Na{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals with the electric-quadrupole-type interaction proceed via Raman process. These results are compared with those obtained for other M{sub 3}H(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} (M=K, Rb, and Cs) crystals, which have similar hydrogen-bonded structures.

  6. Palmeras usadas por los indígenas Asháninkas en la Amazonía Peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sosnowska

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra el conocimiento e importancia de las palmeras en la vida de los nativos Asháninkas. Presentamos una descripción cualitativa y cuantitativa de 32 entrevistas, obtenidos durante la visita a siete comunidades nativas ubicadas en los márgenes de los ríos Perené y Tambo en el departamento Junín, Perú. Registramos 15 especies de palmeras usadas por los Asháninkas, agrupadas bajo cinco categorías de uso: alimenticio, construcción, herramienta, ornamental y medicinal. Las especies con usos más amplios son: Attalea phalerata, Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua y Socratea exorhiza. Las partes de las palmeras más utilizadas son los frutos, principalmente gracias a su valor comestible. La cercanía de las comunidades Asháninkas del valle del Perené a ciudades, influirían en un cambio en el tipo de vida tradicional, donde las palmeras son los más importantes recursos naturales utilizados por ellos. Sin embargo, en las comunidades del valle Tambo la vida tradicional, el conocimiento y practica en el uso de las palmeras esta aún vital

  7. Measurement of nuclear reactor noise at low power levels; Merenje nuklearnog reaktorskog suma na malim snagama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velickovic, Lj; Petrovic, M [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1968-11-15

    mogu da se interpretiraju pomocu prostorno-nezavisne reaktorske teorije. Fizicki analiza reaktorskog suma se ogranicila na odredjivanje odnosa {beta}/l iz autokorelaeionih merenja na snazi od 0,5 W (reaktor 'RB' u Vinci). Analizirane su tri razlicite konfiguracije goriva (resetke koraka 8 cm, 11,3 cm i 14 cm). Pokazano je da je moguce odrediti parametar {beta}/l iz autokorelacionih merenja neutronske gustine sa velikom tacnoscu (nekoliko %). (author)

  8. Radiative heat transfer in the Na mist dispersion over the hot surface of liquid Na in the cooling system of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomo, T.; Shafey, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis has been carried out for the radiative heat transfer in the Na mist dispersion enclosed between the hot surface of liquid Na at temperature Tsub(n) and the cold surface of Na deposit at Tsub(c). The model selected for the present study represents the Na mist formed in a sodium cooled fast breeder reactor in which the condensed liquid particles are dispersed in the mixture of the Ar cover gas and the Na vapor. The analysis is based on replacing the inhomogeneous dispersing medium by three discrete homogeneous layers, and formulating the transfer equation for the monochromatic radiation in each layer according to the Chandrasekhar theory. The numerical calculations of the radiative qsub(r) and convective qsub(c) heat transfers have been performed for the wave length range lambda=1.6-30 μm and are compared. The qsub(r) has the same order of magnitude as the qsub(c) for all conditions of the mist dispersions. Both qsub(r) and qsub(c) increase by nearly equal rates with the increase of Tsub(H) and decrease by different rates with increasing Tsub(c). Variations of the particle diameter of the Na mist do not change substantially the qsub(r). Both qsub(r) and qsub(c) decrease slightly with the increase in the total thickness of the Na mist dispersion

  9. Professional Nuclear Materials Management; Gestion Industrielle des Matieres Nucleaires; Obrashchenie s yadernymi materialami na professional'nom urovne; Administracion Eficiente de Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forcella, A. A.; O' Leary, W. J. [Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1966-02-15

    manipulacion y su transporte resulten economicos y sea facil sustituirlos. La programacion de las operaciones de fabricacion debera reducir al mfnimo las perdidas de ingresos debidas a un almacenamiento improductivo excesivamente largo de materiales de costo elevado. Para la etapa de su empleo en el reactor, sera necesario un programa adecuado de redistribucion de los elementos combustibles a fin de lograr el grado maximo de combustion del material fisionable. Ademas, habra que reducir en la medida de lo posible los paros improductivos del reactor debidos a la redistribucion del combustible, a las inspecciones, etc. Cuando el combustible haya llegado a un grado predeterminado de agotamiento, el administrador tendra que disponer la forma mas economica de regeneracion de los materiales fisionables y de recuperacion de los subproductos. La administracion de materiales nucleares es por consiguiente un factor esencial para la reduccion de los costos del ciclo del combustible y para lograr que el costo unitario de la energia producida resulte economicamente interesante. (author) [Russian] Daets ja opisanie ob{sup e}ma rabot na tipichnom jenergetichesko m reaktore v SShA. Poskol'ku jetot reaktor finansiruetsja chastnym kapitalom, odna iz osnovnyh objazannostej operatora sostoit v obespechenii sohrannosti kapitalovlozhenij i poluchenii opredelennoj pribyli. Vvidu bol'shoj sebestoimosti jadernyh materialov neobhodimo postojanno obespechivat' nadlezhashhuju bezopasnost' i uchet s cel'ju svedenija k minimumu poter', ne svjazannyh s obespe- cheniem bezopasnosti i ucheta jadernyh materialov. Neobhodimo vse tshhatel'no produmyvat' i planirovat' zaranee, chtoby izbegat' nenuzhnyh zatrat i rashodovanija kapitala ili snizhe- nija razmerov pribyli v rjade oblastej. Pojetomu administrator, vedajushhij jadernymi materialami, dolzhen zaranee uchityvat' vse nepredvidennye obstojatel'stva i osushhestvljat' postojannyj kontrol' nad otklonenijami ot standartov pri planirovanii vo vremja a

  10. Preservação da proteína verde fluorescente no tecido ósseo descalcificado

    OpenAIRE

    Boeloni,Jankerle Neves; Ocarino,Natália de Melo; Hell,Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues; Silva,Guilherme Resende da; Goes,Alfredo Miranda; Gomes,Dawidson Assis; Serakides,Rogéria

    2010-01-01

    A proteína verde fluorescente (GFP) foi originalmente descoberta no cnidário Aequorea victoria. Células-tronco GFP positivas podem ser rastreadas in vivo quando usadas na terapia de doenças. No entanto, no osso, a fluorescência gerada pela GFP pode ser perdida durante o processo de descalcificação, dificultando o rastreamento das células-tronco usadas no tratamento de doenças ou defeitos ósseos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar diferentes técnicas de preservação da GFP no tecido ósseo des...

  11. Characterization of sodium transport in Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing purified A. laidlawii (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 22Na tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, S.; Lewis, R.N.; George, R.; Sykes, B.D.; McElhaney, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The active transport of sodium ions in live Acholeplasma laidlawii B cells and in lipid vesicles containing the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase from the plasma membrane of this microorganism was studied by 23Na nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and 22 Na tracer techniques, respectively. In live A. laidlawii B cells, the transport of sodium was an active process in which metabolic energy was harnessed for the extrusion of sodium ions against a concentration gradient. The process was inhibited by low temperatures and by the formation of gel state lipid in the plasma membrane of this organism. In reconstituted proteoliposomes containing the purified (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase, the hydrolysis of ATP was accompanied by the transport of sodium ions into the lipid vesicles, and the transport process was impaired by reagents known to inhibit ATPase activity. At the normal growth temperature (37 degrees C), this transport process required a maximum of 1 mol of ATP per mol of sodium ion transported. Together, these results provide direct experimental evidence that the (Na+-Mg2+)-ATPase of the Acholeplasma laidlawii B membrane is the cation pump which maintains the low levels of intracellular sodium characteristic of this microorganism

  12. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  13. Estudo de impactos ambientais em solos: o caso da reciclagem de baterias automotivas usadas, tipo chumbo-ácido

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Josely Dantas; Dantas, Edilma Rodrigues Bento; Barbosa, Juliana Nóbrega; Barbosa, Edimar Alves

    2011-01-01

    A ocorrência de solos contaminados com o elemento chumbo está se tornando cada vez mais comum. Ele é, essencialmente, um contaminante ambiental e suas concentrações no meio ambiente vem aumentando de acordo com a aplicação sempre crescente em diversos produtos industriais necessários à sociedade moderna. Hoje, usa-se o chumbo, por exemplo, na fabricação de canos, em revestimentos de cabos elétricos, de chapas para pias, cisternas e telhados e, principalmente, na indústria de baterias automoti...

  14. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao

    2002-07-01

    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  15. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    1 H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH 4 ) 4 ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn 2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn 2+ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH 3 ) 4 ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous 31 P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35 0 , and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn 2+ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn 2+ to N 6 and N 7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme

  16. /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the conformation of an ATP analogue at the active site of Na,K-ATPase from kidney medulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacD. Stewart, J.M.; Grisham, C.M.

    1988-06-28

    /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic relaxation measurements have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase and that Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase can be an effective paramagnetic probe for nuclear relaxation studies of the Na-K-ATPase. From the paramagnetic effect of Mn/sup 2 +/ bound to the APTase on the longitudinal relaxation rates of the protons of Co(NH/sub 3/)/sub 4/ATP at the substrate site (at 300 and 361 MHz), Mn-H distances to seven protons on the bound nucleotide were determined. Taken together with previous /sup 31/P nuclear relaxation data, these measurements are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. The glycosidic torsion angle is 35/sup 0/, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type. The bound Mn/sup 2 +/ lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from Mn/sup 2 +/ to N/sub 6/ and N/sub 7/ are too large for first coordination sphere complexes but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.

  17. Contamination monitoring of Na 131 I levels in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences by indirect method (Wipe test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiki, D.; Shahhosseini, S.; Eftekhari, M.; Takavar, A.; Fard-Esfahani, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contamination with radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine centres in addition to being a health concern requires time consuming decontamination efforts. According to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Contamination should be monitored in nuclear medicine centers where radiopharmaceuticals are prepared and administrated at the end of each working session; otherwise, contamination spread to other areas not only equipment but also personnel and other people will be expected. The wipe test for the presence of radioactivity is accomplished by wiping the surface over an area approximately 100 cm 2 with an absorbent paper, then counting it in an appropriate radiation detector. In this study, contamination monitoring of patient's rooms (4 rooms), entrance corridor, patient's corridor, waiting room, control room (nursing station), radiopharmaceutical storage room in therapy unit of Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine, Shariati hospital was performed by indirect method. Based on the results, some areas including storage room were contaminated. There was also a direct relationship between dose administrated and levels of contamination in patient's rooms. Regarding high uptake of iodine by thyroid gland and damaging effects of Na 131 I, weekly wipe tests are required to determine the level of contamination. Patient's rooms after discharging the patients and before re hospitalization specially should be checked. If these tests reveal contamination over standard levels, appropriate decontamination procedures should be carried out immediately

  18. The role of nuclear energy in brazilian energy matrix: socioeconomic and environmental aspects; O papel da energia nuclear na matriz energetica brasileira: aspectos socioeconomicos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, Priscila

    2016-09-01

    With the large increase of energy demand in the world, either for the continued expansion of industrialization, or by the raise of consumption, are increasing the need for energy sources diversification and the search for cleaner alternatives of energy production. Nuclear power has been considered as an option to curb the emission of greenhouse gases and reduce the dependence of fossil fuels. However, nuclear energy is an issue that still causes a lot of doubt and questions, turning the development of this work very important for a better understanding of the lay public as well as to contribute and encourage future research through an assessment of their environmental and socio-economic aspects, discussing the risks, benefits, and an assessment of the expansion of nuclear energy use, including an overview of nuclear energy in Brazil. Concluding that nuclear energy can contribute to the expansion of the Brazilian energy matrix, as the only heat source able to ensure constant supply of energy without emitting greenhouse gases. Considering that Brazil dominates the technology of the nuclear fuel cycle, and has a large reserves of uranium. A larger share of nuclear energy in the Brazilian energy matrix can generate greater diversification of the same, valuing the environmental and economic sustainability of the country and reducing the system's vulnerability. However, nuclear generation should not be considered as the only solution to the energy problems of the country, but make a part of it by the combination with other renewable sources, increasing the diversity and energy security of the country. (author)

  19. Use of nuclear magnetic resonance in the characterization of modified clays; Uso da ressonancia magnetica nuclear na caracterizacao de argilas modificadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Sidnei Q.M. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Menezes, Sonia M.C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Gil, Rosane A.S. San [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1992-12-31

    This work uses NMR spectroscopy with rotation in the {sup 29} Si, {sup 27} Al and {sup 23} Na magic angles for characterization of clays with Si/Al ratio in the range 3.0 - 16,5, obtained by chemical treatment of commercial samples, under different conditions of leaching with mineral acid 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Nuclear pore complex-mediated modulation of TCR signaling is required for naïve CD4+ T cell homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlido, Joana; Sakuma, Stephen; Raices, Marcela; Carrette, Florent; Tinoco, Roberto; Bradley, Linda M; D'Angelo, Maximiliano A

    2018-05-07

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are channels connecting the nucleus with the cytoplasm. We report that loss of the tissue-specific NPC component Nup210 causes a severe deficit of naïve CD4 + T cells. Nup210-deficient CD4 + T lymphocytes develop normally but fail to survive in the periphery. The decreased survival results from both an impaired ability to transmit tonic T cell receptor (TCR) signals and increased levels of Fas, which sensitize Nup210 -/- naïve CD4 + T cells to Fas-mediated cell death. Mechanistically, Nup210 regulates these processes by modulating the expression of Cav2 (encoding Caveolin-2) and Jun at the nuclear periphery. Whereas the TCR-dependent and CD4 + T cell-specific upregulation of Cav2 is critical for proximal TCR signaling, cJun expression is required for STAT3-dependent repression of Fas. Our results uncover an unexpected role for Nup210 as a cell-intrinsic regulator of TCR signaling and T cell homeostasis and expose NPCs as key players in the adaptive immune system.

  1. Energia nuclear na mídia: Jornalismo científico em portais de notícias nacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique Almeida Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine how the nuclear energy is conveyed by the news media. We used the newsworthiness criteria in journalistic discourse to analyse some science journalism texts on nuclear energy in Brazilian news websites. We selected some news and classified using news values such as conflict, proximity, novelty and relevance. We concluded that nuclear energy is conveyed by the media in a way that the advantages and disadvantages were discussed, and news values were useful to point how all these arguments worked.

  2. PIRATARIA E DOWNLOAD COMO COMPORTAMENTO DESVIANTE E AS TÉCNICAS DE NEUTRALIZAÇÃO USADAS PELO CONSUMIDORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe R. Sauerbronn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do crescimento na venda de música digital, pesquisas apontam que 95% dos downloads musicais não pagam direitos autorais. As tecnologias de download e compartilhamento são geralmente apontados como responsáveis pelo fenômeno chamado de pirataria pela indústria fonográfica, colocando na mesma categoria pessoas físicas e jurídicas, vendedores e usuários. A indústria classifica download como crime, um comportamento desviante do ideal social e econômico. Este trabalho busca dar voz ao consumidor, ao tentar compreender suas percepções e estratégias de neutralização de tal comportamento desviante. Para tanto, foram realizados quatro grupos de foco com jovens “downloaders” com o objetivo de verificar a relação desses consumidores com a música, a identificação de comportamentos desviantes e a descrição das Técnicas de Neutralização utilizadas. Os dados foram analisados segundo a Análise de Discurso e os resultados mostraram oito maneiras dos consumidores justificarem ‘maus comportamentos’, representando a ampliação de duas das categorias apresentadas pela literatura.

  3. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics; Uso de microcontrolador na construcao de espectrometro gama com sensor de NaI(Tl), com enfase em analisador multicanal, para aplicacao em geofisica nuclear e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-07-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ({sup 133}Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  4. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications collaborating centres: Establishing a culture of cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    As a large international organization with a variety of programmes, initiatives and laboratories, one of the mandates of the IAEA is to promote the peaceful use of nuclear techniques worldwide while also collaborating with other institutions in its Member States in order to implement part of its approved activities. In this regard, the IAEA designates selected institutions as official IAEA collaborating centres (IAEA-CCs). Recognizing the need to preserve and transfer nuclear knowledge, the IAEA-CCs are dedicated to furthering the research, development and training in peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. By working alongside various nuclear related institutions from around the world, the IAEA contributes to reaching important targets laid out by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. The IAEA-CCs are, in general, scientific institutions such as laboratories, universities, research facilities, etc., that receive public recognition by the IAEA and have been designated to collaborate with the IAEA in a variety of fields, such as food safety, environmental protection, water resources and human health. In line with the objectives of the IAEA, IAEA-CCs are expected to further the research, development and training in the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. Through these research and academic institutions, Member States can assist the IAEA with their own original research, development and training in nuclear technologies. As a cooperative mechanism, the IAEA-CC is also efficient, as it encourages centres to share resources, knowledge and expertise. One of the goals of the IAEA-CC is also to help developing Member States expand their capabilities in these areas and thus improve the quality of life of their citizens. So far, the IAEA-CC has led to socioeconomic benefits in many parts of the world, from Asia to Latin America.

  5. Estimation of covariances of 16O, 23Na, Fe, 235U, 238U and 239Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Keiichi; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kawano, Toshihiko; Oh, Soo-Youl; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru.

    1997-10-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 6 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are 16 O, 23 Na, Fe, 235 U, 238 U, and 239 Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. As for 235 U, covariances were obtained also for the average number of neutrons emitted in fission. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. In nuclear model calculations, the covariances were calculated by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author). 193 refs

  6. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications partnerships: Making a difference together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA has a long history of cooperation with other international organizations, regional agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), local and national governments, research and academic institutions. These cooperative efforts make it possible for the IAEA to implement many of its projects undertaken in the area of nuclear applications for peaceful purposes.

  7. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  8. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear and atomic data: Providing values for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA supports nuclear research activities in Member States by providing essential nuclear data and serving as the central agency for the collection and dissemination of data from laboratories worldwide. The EXFOR database contains a compilation of experimental reaction data from all around the world, and this effort - led by the IAEA - has been very well received, as it provides invaluable data for nuclear calculations and evaluations to researchers in Member States. ENSDF is a collection of evaluated data on the structure and decay properties of radioactive nuclides collected worldwide through a network coordinated by the IAEA. The IAEA has also developed tools to allow users to visualize data, since visual presentation of data in the form of a plot makes them easier to understand and appreciate. Two important applications are available from the Nuclear Data Services web site: LiveChart interactively presents nuclide properties, and ZVView plots reaction cross-sections, both from evaluated files and from EXFOR, as 2-D or 3-D plots. Concerted efforts by the IAEA include coordination of activities in Member States, such as EXFOR and ENSDF, coordinated research project (CRP) implementation, and also staff efforts, which have resulted in data libraries of immense value. IBANDL and RIPL-3 are examples of two databases resulting from CRPs. IBANDL is a database of experimental and evaluated nuclear cross-sections relevant to ion beam analysis. RIPL-3 is a library of reference input parameters which are essential ingredients of theoretical modelling codes. By providing a complete set of verified parameters, it is ensured that evaluations carried out around the world are compatible and can be produced easily and efficiently.

  9. Feasibility Study for the Measurement of Nuclear Fragmentation Cross Sections with NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Aduszkiewicz, A

    2017-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the fragmentation cross sections of intermediate mass nuclei is of paramount importance to understand the propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy and to evaluate the background for dark matter searches with space-based cosmic-ray experiments such as AMS. Therefore, we suggest a one-week test run in 2018 with secondary ions to establish the capabilities of NA61/SHINE to measure fragmentation cross sections at isotope level. No major modifications to the experimental setup of NA61/SHINE are needed to perform this feasibility study. The experience gained during the test run will be used to formulate a comprehensive measurement campaign for cosmic-ray related fragmentation cross sections for the possible extension of the NA61/SHINE physics program beyond 2020. The test data on carbon-proton and oxygen-proton interactions at 13A GeV/c that we intend to collect during the proposed test run have already the potential to reduce the current cross section uncertainties.

  10. Um olhar sobre as benzedeiras de Juruena (Mato Grosso, Brasil e as plantas usadas para benzer e curar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Antunes Maciel

    Full Text Available O 'benzimento' é forma antiga no tratamento de várias doenças, utilizada na Europa desde a Idade Média. No Brasil, os benzedores surgiram a partir do século XVII. Interpretações dos conhecimentos, uso tradicional dos recursos vegetais e manejo realizado por benzedores, raizeiros e parteiras são fonte de pesquisa nos estudos etnobotânicos. Benzedores indicam plantas para efeito de cura ou como amuletos protetores, com a presença destas formas de uso da flora na cultura popular. Este estudo foi realizado em Juruena, Mato Grosso, com aplicação de técnicas de observação participante, entrevistas semi-estruturadas (questões abertas/fechadas gravadas e amostras intencionais e a realizção de coleta de material botânico, depositado no Herbário da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT. Teve o objetivo de compreender a importância das benzedeiras, identificar etnobotanicamente as plantas utilizadas, formas de prescrição e manipulação. Foram entrevistadas quatro benzedeiras no período de setembro de 2002 a novembro de 2003, as quais demonstraram um conhecimento etnobotânico expressivo. Estas benzem, preparam e receitam chás, garrafadas, banhos e ungüentos. As enfermidades tratadas foram agrupadas em duas categorias: doenças físicas (dorde-dente, dor-de-barriga, verminoses, cobreiro, arca-caída, rendidura, erisipela etc e doenças espirituais (quebranto, mau-olhado, pessoas carregadas, encosto. Foram relatadas 87 etnoespécies, distribuídas em 31 famílias botânicas, dentre as quais se salientam erva-de-Santa-Maria (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus MIq., quina-do-mato (Strychnos sp St.Hil., ipê-roxo (Tabebuia heptaphylla (Vell. Toledo, arruda (Ruta graveolens L., guiné (Petiveria alliacea L. e comigo-ninguém-pode (Dieffenbachia picta L. A medicina popular praticada pelas benzedeiras vem ao encontro dos anseios das pessoas que buscam alívio para seus males, com valores e heran

  11. Plantas medicinais usadas para tratamentos dermatológicos, em comunidades da Bacia do Alto Paraguai, Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macedo

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais no Brasil e em especial no Estado de Mato Grosso vem sendo registrado em suas comunidades rurais e tradicionais. Este trabalho visa identificar plantas com potencial dermatológico utilizada pelas comunidades: quilombolas, ribeirinhas, rurais e tradicionais dos municípios de Barão de Melgaço, Nossa Senhora do Livramento, Poconé e Santo Antônio de Leverger. Fez-se a coleta de material botânico fértil e levantamento sobre o uso desses vegetais com a população local. Este material encontra-se identificado e depositado em Coleção de Referência de Plantas Medicinais no UFMT, Herbário Central. Registraram-se 36 espécies utilizadas no tratamento de doenças como afecções, feridas e úlceras, erisipelas, herpes labial e verrugas. Destacam-se espécies como: Astronium fraxinifolium Schott.; Bixa orellana L.; Brosimum gaudichaudii Tréc.; Cassia grandis Lf.; Heliotropium indicum L.; Jacaranda brasiliana (Lam. Pers.; Macrosiphonia velame (St. Hil. Mull. Arg.; Pistia stratiotes L.; Senna alatal. Roxb., entre outras. Estes vegetais são freqüentemente usados na forma de banhos e chás. O órgão vegetal mais utilizado foi as folhas, seguido de cascas do caule, frutos, óleo, raiz, planta inteira, seiva e sementes. O avanço da fronteira agropecuária nesse Estado é constante preocupação dos botânicos e das comunidades que ao longo das décadas usufruem desse potencial medicinal.

  12. Hadron production in nuclear collisions from the NA49 experiment at 158 GeV/c.A

    CERN Document Server

    Bächler, J; Barnby, L S; Bartke, Jerzy; Barton, R A; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Blyth, C O; Boimska, B; Bracinik, J; Brady, F P; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Carr, L; Cebra, D; Cooper, G E; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Eckardt, V; Eckhardt, F; Ferenc, D; Fischer, H G; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Ftácnik, J; Gál, J; Ganz, R E; Gazdzicki, M; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, J; Harris, J W; Hegyi, S; Hlinka, V; Höhne, C; Igo, G; Ivanov, M; Jacobs, P; Janik, R; Jones, P G; Kadija, K; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Lasiuk, B; Lednicky, R; Lévai, Peter; Malakhov, A I; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Molnár, J; Nelson, J M; Odyniec, Grazyna Janina; Oldenburg, M; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Poskanzer, A M; Prindle, D J; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Retyk, W; Ritter, H G; Röhrich, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybicki, A; Sammer, T; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Semenov, A Yu; Schäfer, E; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Snellings, R; Squier, G T A; Stock, Reinhard; Strmen, P; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szarka, I; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Toy, M; Trainor, T A; Trentalange, S; Ullrich, T S; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Voloshin, S A; Vranic, D; Wang, F; Weerasundara, D D; Wenig, S; Whitten, C; Xu, N; Yates, T A; Yoo, I K; Zimányi, J

    1999-01-01

    With its large acceptance and particle identification coverage the NA49 experiment can study hadron production in a wide range of high energy reactions. Originally aimed at examining central Pb+Pb collisions for signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation, the scope of the experiment has been enhanced with the systematic study of impact parameter and projectile size dependence, as well as the inclusion of the more elementary p+p and p+A interactions. The question is: are predicted signals of the quark-gluon plasma observed and are there discontinuities which would support the concept of hadronic phase transition?. (15 refs).

  13. Hadron production in nuclear collisions from the NA49 experiment at 158GeV/c · A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikler, F.; Baechler, J.; Barna, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Bartke, J.; Barton, R.A.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Billmeier, A.; Blume, C.; Blyth, C.O.; Boimska, B.; Bracinik, J.; Brady, F.P.; Brun, R.; Buncic, P.; Carr, L.; Cebra, D.; Cooper, G.E.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Eckardt, V.; Eckhardt, F.; Ferenc, D.; Fischer, H.G.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Freund, P.; Friese, V.; Ftacnik, J.; Gal, J.; Ganz, R.; Gazdzicki, M.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, J.; Harris, J.W.; Hegyi, S.; Hlinka, V.; Hoehne, C.; Igo, G.; Ivanov, M.; Jacobs, P.; Janik, R.; Jones, P.G.; Kadija, K.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kowalski, M.; Lasiuk, B.; Lednicky, R.; Levai, P.; Malakhov, A.I.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Mayes, B.W.; Melkumov, G.L.; Molnar, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Odyniec, G.; Oldenburg, M.D.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Pikna, M.; Pinsky, L.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Prindle, D.J.; Puehlhofer, F.; Reid, J.G.; Renfordt, R.; Retyk, W.; Ritter, H.G.; Roehrich, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybicki, A.; Sammer, T.; Sandoval, A.; Sann, H.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Schaefer, E.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Snellings, R.; Squier, G.T.A.; Stock, R.; Strmen, P.; Stroebele, H.; Susa, T.; Szarka, I.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Toy, M.; Trainor, T.A.; Trentalange, S.; Ullrich, T.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Voloshin, S.; Vranic, D.; Wang, F.; Weerasundara, D.D.; Wenig, S.; Whitten, C.; Xu, N.; Yates, T.A.; Yoo, I.K.; Zimanyi, J.

    1999-01-01

    With its large acceptance and particle identification coverage the NA49 experiment (Fig. 1) can study hadron production in a wide range of high energy reactions [1]. Originally aimed at examining central Pb+Pb collisions for signatures of quark-gluon plasma formation, the scope of the experiment has been enhanced with a systematic study of impact parameter and projectile size dependence, as well as the inclusion of the more elementary p+p and p+A interactions. The question is: are predicted signals of the quark-gluon plasma observed and are there discontinuities which would support the concept of hadronic phase transition?

  14. Metrological aspects in estimating of radiation dose in patients of nuclear medicine; Aspectos metrologicos na estimativa da dose efetiva de pacientes em medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzzarin, Anelise

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate the performance of routine measurements in nuclear medicine services, LNMRI/IRD has been conducting, since 1998, a comparison program of activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine. Correction factors are determined from the result of performance analysis in order to determine with better accuracy the activity to be administered to the patients. The present study shows how the correction factor is determined by the ratio between the measurement of the activity at the nuclear medicine center and the activity determined by the LNMRI, which is adopted as reference. It is essential that the dose calibrator be calibrated with standards traceable to national metrology laboratories, so that the activity administered to the patient is neither greater nor smaller than the appropriate value. The corrected values of the activities can be used to calculate with greater accuracy the effective doses received by the patients as well as the risk of cancer. Information related to radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities, type of exams and patient data of three Brazilian hospitals were collected for 1496 adults and 134 children submitted to diagnostic exams employing {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 131}I. Results showed up to a considerable difference between the administered activity and the corrected activity until 30% and 13% above the reference value, respectively, for the {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc was detected. The consequences of these differences were not very critical in this study since the activity measured in dose calibrator before administration was lower than the corrected activity, thus causing a lower effective dose in patients. However, this reduction in activity may result in problems in obtaining the image and consequently, failure diagnosis, delaying correct diagnosis. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed

  15. Impacts of the turbogenerator reactive operation in the nuclear fuel burnup; Impactos da operacao reativa do turbogerador na queima do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Helio Ricardo V. de; Martinez, Aquilino S. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The parameterization of the losses in a turbogenerator in function of an operation with the electrical system reactive allowed to model in a simple and exact way the equations that define and they quantify the additional of nuclear potency that it should be generated by a reactor, in order to maintain the commitment with the national system operator, that is, the electric active power contracted. starting from this additional of nuclear power it was modeled the additional burn up of the fuel elements, as well as the numbers of effective days to full power wasted. it was promoted a safety analysis and some limitations due to the reactive operation of the electrical system. inside of this context it was made a financial evaluation in which we ask some questions to companies and government organs in order to define what losses are acceptable and also the reason why we don't use other technician resources such as: increase of the electrical mesh, electrical power injection in strategic points, capacitor banks and increase of the number the electrical plants. (author)

  16. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations; Organisation du personnel des centrales nucleaires; Organizatsiya personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh; Organizacion del personal de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scuricini, G. B. [Comitato Nazionale Energia Nucleare, Roma (Italy)

    1963-10-15

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author) [French] Dans le memoire, on examine l'organisation du personnel d'exploitation et d'entretien des centrales nucleaires italiennes et les differences existant dans les effectifs, differences dues soit aux caracteristiques des centrales memes, soit aux particularites d'organisation des entreprises. Le personnel charge de fonctions determinees pour lesquelles un entrainement special est requis, fait l'objet d'une attention particuliere. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examina la organizacion del personal de explotacion y conservacion de las centrales nucleares italianas y las diferencias que existen entre sus efectivos, diferencias que se deben a las caracteristicas de las mismas centrales o a las particularidades de organizacion de las empresas. El autor dedica especial atencion al personal encargado de funciones que requieren una formacion profesional especial. (author) [Russian] Issleduyutsya voprosy organizatsii personala, zanimayushchegosya ehkspluatatsiej ital'yanskikh atomnykh ehlektrostantsij i ukhodom za nimi, a takkhe razlichiya v sostave personala, vytekayushchie libo iz kharakternykh osobennostej samikh stantsij, libo iz osobennostej organizatsii predpriyatij. Osoboe vnimanie udelyaetsya personalu, kotoromu porucheny opredelennye funktsii, trebuyushchie spetsial'noj pod go tovki. (author)

  17. Inspection of the brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the area of radiotherapy. A critical analysis; Inspecao do orgao regulador nuclear brasileiro na area de radioterapia. Uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Ricardo Roberto de Azevedo

    2005-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible in Brazil for the activities of licensing and control of radioactive installations in the radiotherapy medical area. The majority of these activities are developed by CNEN Co-ordination of Radioactive Installations (CORAD). One of the necessary stages for the development of licensing and control activities is the inspection of radiotherapy services (clinics and hospitals). Almost all of these inspections are carried out by CNEN Inst. of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD), through its Service of Medical Physics in Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (SEFME). This work makes a survey of the main nonconformities found during ten years of inspections in radiotherapy services (1995 - 2004) and analyses the efficiency of these inspections in making the radiotherapy services develop their activities according to the norms in vigour in the country and adopt corrective actions against, at least, the nonconformities evidenced by CNEN inspectors. Additionally, it analyses the possibility of improvement and / or the optimisation of the process, through a procedure able to be unified and controlled, aiming a prompt communication to those involved in the licensing process (SEFME and CORAD) about the attendance by the radiotherapy services to the non-conformity items observed during the inspection. (author)

  18. Regulation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by nuclear respiratory factor 1: implication in the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Kaid; Priya, Anusha; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2012-11-23

    NRF-1 regulates mediators of neuronal activity and energy generation. NRF-1 transcriptionally regulates Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits α1 and β1. NRF-1 functionally regulates mediators of energy consumption in neurons. NRF-1 mediates the tight coupling of neuronal activity, energy generation, and energy consumption at the molecular level. Energy generation and energy consumption are tightly coupled to neuronal activity at the cellular level. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, a major energy-consuming enzyme, is well expressed in neurons rich in cytochrome c oxidase, an important enzyme of the energy-generating machinery, and glutamatergic receptors that are mediators of neuronal activity. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that the coupling extends to the molecular level, whereby Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits are regulated by the same transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), found recently by our laboratory to regulate all cytochrome c oxidase subunit genes and some NMDA and AMPA receptor subunit genes. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, and real-time quantitative PCR, NRF-1 was found to functionally bind to the promoters of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 genes but not of the Atp1a3 gene in neurons. The transcripts of Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 subunit genes were up-regulated by KCl and down-regulated by tetrodotoxin. Atp1b1 is positively regulated by NRF-1, and silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA blocked the up-regulation of Atp1b1 induced by KCl, whereas overexpression of NRF-1 rescued these transcripts from being suppressed by tetrodotoxin. On the other hand, Atp1a1 is negatively regulated by NRF-1. The binding sites of NRF-1 on Atp1a1 and Atp1b1 are conserved among mice, rats, and humans. Thus, NRF-1 regulates key Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase subunits and plays an important role in mediating the tight coupling between

  19. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pickett, Chris A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Queirolo, Al [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, Katherine M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Worrall, Louise G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-07

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers’ goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term “software sustainability” was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  20. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation: Report to the NNSA DOE Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Susan E.; Pickett, Chris A.; Queirolo, Al; Bachner, Katherine M.; Worrall, Louise G.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened a workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. Safeguards instrumentation software must be sustained in a changing environment to ensure existing instruments can continue to perform as designed, with improved security. The approaches to the development and maintenance of instrument software used in the past may not be the best model for the future and, therefore, the organizers' goal was to investigate these past approaches and to determine an optimal path forward. The purpose of this report is to provide input for the DOE NNSA Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) and other stakeholders that can be utilized when making decisions related to the development and maintenance of software used in the implementation of international nuclear safeguards. For example, this guidance can be used when determining whether to fund the development, upgrade, or replacement of a particular software product. The report identifies the challenges related to sustaining software, and makes recommendations for addressing these challenges, supported by summaries and detailed notes from the workshop discussions. In addition the authors provide a set of recommendations for institutionalizing software sustainability practices in the safeguards community. The term ''software sustainability'' was defined for this workshop as ensuring that safeguards instrument software and algorithm functionality can be maintained efficiently throughout the instrument lifecycle, without interruption and providing the ability to continue to improve that software as needs arise.

  1. Virtual reality for training of occupationally exposed individuals in nuclear medicine; Realidade virtual para treinamento de indivíduos ocupacionalmente expostos na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, J.S.; Carvalho, J.B.; Silveira, J.L.; Nascimento, A.C.H.; Mol, A.C.A.; Suita, J.C.; Marins, E.R., E-mail: julianedesacarvalho@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Applications in virtual environments have been an important tool for education and training of skills in several areas. In Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS), whose environment is susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, virtual simulation is a complementary tool to the traditional way of training, able to have the required content by norm, good laboratory practices and radioprotection, interactive form without the exposure of the user. The study consists of the research and unification of recommendations, norms and procedures, collected in the scientific literature and in loco, on the activities of professionals of NMS's radiopharmacy, to define the minimum content for training in order to guide the simulations of a virtual environment.

  2. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  3. Experience in training of health personnel for response to radiological and nuclear accidents; Experiencia na capacitacao de profissionais de saude para a resposta a acidentes radiologicos e nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurmo, Alexandre M., E-mail: ammaurmo@gmail.com [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CMRI/CTNV/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Medicina das Radiacoes Ionizantes. Centro de Treinamento Prof. Nelson Valverde; Leite, Teresa C.S.B., E-mail: feam@feam-etn.org.br [Fundacao Eletronuclear de Assistencia Medica (CIRA/FEAM), Praia Brava, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Informacoes em Radioepidemiologia

    2013-07-01

    Eletronuclear Healthcare Foundation is the Institution responsible for the actions of health response involving ionizing radiation in the area of Nuclear Power Plant Almirante Alvaro Alberto in Angra dos Reis. Because of their specific assignments and references for being in training health manpower in the field of ionizing radiation developed a range of Training Courses for Professionals Area Health to prepare them for Response to Radiological and Nuclear Accidents. Modules are proposed specifically for the professional response of the Technical Level and Higher Level, the level Pre-hospital and hospital. These modules are further divided into specific levels or modules, Basic or Introductory, Intermediate and Advanced. Are applied pretests and post tests to monitor the content of fixing, maintaining a historical series of reviews. Your content is theoretical and practical applications developed in 30 to 48 hours, with simulations (drills) and distribution of educational materials. We already have more than 80 applications training, focusing on internal staff and external to the institution, developing interesting partner with the Armed Forces and Civil Defense. It still maintained a link on the institution seeking access and download over 400 titles on the subject and exchange of information and experiences. For improving the teaching material, the authors launched in 2011 the first manual in Portuguese on the subject with new revised edition in 2013: 'Manual of Medical Actions In Radiological Emergencies'. The results indicate increased knowledge and appropriateness of the themes and the strategy proposed for this activity, demonstrating yet passed that information can be multiplied and meets the growing demand of the country that has hosted and will host international events relevant at QBNRE risk. (author)

  4. Processing of three-dimensional structures of Nuclear Medicine in PET modality; Processamento de estruturas tridimensionais de medicina nuclear na modalidade PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Edward Florez; Furuie, Sergio Shiguemi, E-mail: edward.florez@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Telecomunicacoes e Controle. Lab. de Engenharia Biomedica

    2013-03-15

    The nuclear medicine, as a specialty to obtain medical images is very important, and it has became one of the main procedures utilized in health care centers to analyze the metabolic behavior of the patient. This project was based on medical images obtained by the PET modality (Positron Emission Tomography). Thus, we developed a framework for processing Nuclear Medicine three-dimensional images of the PET modality, which is composed of consecutive steps that start with the generation of standard images (gold standard) by using simulated images of the Left Ventricular Heart, such as phantoms obtained from the NCAT-4D software. Then, Poisson quantum noise was introduced into the whole volume to simulate the characteristic noises in PET images. Subsequently, the pre-processing step was executed by using specific 3D filters, such as the median filter, the weighted Gaussian filter, and the Anscombe/Wiener filter. Then the segmentation process, which is based on the fuzzy connectedness theory, was implemented. For that purpose four different 3D approaches were implemented: Generic, LIFO, kTetaFOEMS, and dynamic weight algorithm. Finally, an assessment procedure was used as a measurement tool to quantify three parameters (true positive, false positive and maximum distance) that determined the level of efficiency and precision of our process. It was found that the pair filter - segmenter formed by the Anscombe/Wiener filter together with the Fuzzy segmenter based on dynamic weights provided the best results, with VP and FP rates of 98.49 {+-}0.27% and 2.19 {+-}0.19%, respectively, for the simulation of the left ventricular volume. Along with the set of choices made during the processing structure, the project was finished with the analysis of a small number of volumes that belonged to a real PET test, thus the quantification of the volumes was obtained. (author)

  5. Use of nuclear technique in samples for agricultural purposes Uso de técnica nuclear em amostras de interesse na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerley A. P. de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    do cerrado (argiloso e arenoso. Adicionalmente, um material de referência de solo da Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica foi analisado. A concentração de ETR no PG foi, em média, duas vezes maior que a encontrada na maioria dos fertilizantes nacionais (total de 4.000 mg kg-1 , 154 vezes maior que no solo arenoso (26 mg kg-1 e 14 vezes maior que no solo argiloso (280 mg kg-1 . Os resultados obtidos no material de referência confirmaram a exatidão do método com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Foi comprovada a versatilidade da técnica ao serem determinados o La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb e Lu em amostras de solo e fosfogesso de interesse na agricultura.

  6. Sensitivity analysis for heat diffusion in a fin on a nuclear fuel element; Analise de sensitividade na difusao de calor em uma aleta de um elemento combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tito, Max Werner de Carvalho

    2001-11-15

    The modern thermal systems generally present a growing complexity, as is in the case of nuclear power plants. It seems that is necessary the use of complex computation and mathematical tools in order to increase the efficiency of the operations, reduce costs and maximize profits while maintaining the integrity of its components. The use of sensitivity calculations plays an important role in this process providing relevant information regarding the resultant influence of variation or perturbation of its parameters as the system works. This technique is better known as sensitivity analysis and through its use makes possible the understanding of the effects of the parameters, which are fundamental for the project preparation, and for the development of preventive and corrective handling measurements of many pieces of equipment of modern engineering. The sensitivity calculation methodology is based generally on the response surface technique (graphic description of the functions of interest based in the results obtained from the system parameter variation). This method presents a lot of disadvantages and sometimes is even impracticable since many parameters can cause alterations or perturbations to the system and the model to analyse it can be very complex as well. The utilization of perturbative methods result appropriate as a practical solution to this problem especially in the presence of complex equations. Also it reduces the resultant computational calculus time considerably. The use of these methods becomes an essential tool to simplify the sensitivity analysis. In this dissertation, the differential perturbative method is applied in a heat conduction problem within a thermal system, made up of a one-dimensional circumferential fin on a nuclear fuel element. The fins are used to extend the thermal surfaces where convection occurs; thus increasing the heat transfer to many thermal pieces of equipment in order to obtain better results. The finned claddings are

  7. Management of radioactive waste from {sup 99}Mo production by nuclear fission; Gestao dos rejeitos radioativos gerados na producao do {sup 99}Mo por fissao nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo

    2013-07-01

    Brazil intends to build a facility for the {sup 99}Mo production through {sup 235}U fission, once this radioisotope is largely used in nuclear medicine. This study aimed at estimating the physical, chemical and radiological characteristics of radioactive waste expected to be generated in that facility, and to provide theoretical subsides that can be used on the definition of a proper waste management system. Two production scenarios were established and the radioisotope inventories of the wastes were calculated by Scale®. From the chemical processing of the uranium targets the wastes were characterized on their chemical and radiological features. MicroShield® was used to determine the activity concentrations up to three months of {sup 99}Mo production. In addition, this work presents dose rate calculation for several sizes of shielding and different amount of wastes, collected in a proper package for in-site transportation. Radionuclides responsible for higher doses were identified in order to facilitate choosing the most appropriate method for managing the wastes after their chemical separation and before their storage. These results are part of what is expected on radioactive wastes at a {sup 99}Mo production facility and might help on the development of the waste management planning for that facility. (author)

  8. Virtual reality technology used to estimate radiation doses in nuclear installations; Utilizacao de ambientes virtuais na estimativa de dose de radiacao em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas Cordeiro

    2008-03-15

    The physical integrity of people when walking in places subjected to radiation can be preserved by following some rules. Among these rules are safe limits of radiation level, proximity of radiation sources, time of exposition to radiation sources, and a combination of these factors. In this way, previous training and simulations of operation proceedings to be executed in places subjected to radiation help to better prepare the course in such places, minimizing the absorbed dose. On the other hand, virtual reality is a technology applicable in several areas, enabling the training and simulation of real places and hypothetical scenarios, with a good level of realism, but without danger if compared to the same activities in the real world. As a virtual environment does not presents any health risks, it is possible to train workers beforehand to several operation or maintenance scenarios. In this virtual environment, the dose tax distribution can be visualized, and the dose absorbed by the worker, represented and simulated in the virtual environment by a virtual character (avatar) can be shown. Therefore, the tasks to be done can be better planned, evaluating the workers actions and the performance so to reduce failures and health risks. Finally, this work presents a tool to build and navigate in virtual environments, enabling the training of activities in nuclear facilities. To that end is proposed a methodology to modify and adapt a free game engine. (author)

  9. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35 degrees, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme

  10. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies of the conformation of Co(NH3)4ATP bound to kidney Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, J.M.; Jorgensen, P.L.; Grisham, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

    1989-05-30

    Transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements (in the two-dimensional mode) have been used to determine the three-dimensional conformation of an ATP analogue, Co(NH3)4ATP, at the active site of sheep kidney Na,K-ATPase. Previous studies have shown that Co(NH3)4ATP is a competitive inhibitor with respect to MnATP for the Na,K-ATPase. Nine unique proton-proton distances on ATPase-bound Co(NH3)4ATP were determined from the initial build-up rates of the cross-peaks of the 2D-TRNOE data sets. These distances, taken together with previous 31P and 1H relaxation measurements with paramagnetic probes, are consistent with a single nucleotide conformation at the active site. The bound (Co(NH3)4ATP) adopts an anti conformation, with a glycosidic torsion angle of 35{degrees}, and the conformation of the ribose ring is slightly N-type (C2'-exo, C3'-endo). The delta and gamma torsional angles in this conformation are 100 degrees and 178 degrees, respectively. The nucleotide adopts a bent configuration, in which the triphosphate chain lies nearly parallel to the adenine moiety. Mn2+ bound to a single, high-affinity site on the ATPase lies above and in the plane of the adenine ring. The distances from enzyme-bound Mn2+ to N6 and N7 are too large for first coordination sphere complexes, but are appropriate for second-sphere complexes involving, for example, intervening hydrogen-bonded water molecules. The NMR data also indicate that the structure of the bound ATP analogue is independent of the conformational state of the enzyme.

  11. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-01-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ( 133 Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources 137 Cs and 60 Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  12. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  13. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4} - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illy, Marie-Claire [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Smith, Anna L. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Radiation Science & Technology, Nuclear Energy and Radiation Applications (NERA), Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft (Netherlands); Wallez, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.wallez@upmc.fr [Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Université, Paris 06, 75005 Paris (France); Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O{sub 2} fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na{sub 3.16(2)}U{sup V,VI}{sub 0.84(2)}O{sub 4} results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Na{sub n-2}M{sup n+}O{sub n-1} - including Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the M{sup n+} cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products. - Highlights: •Thermal expansion and structural mechanism of Na{sub 3}(U{sub 0.84(2)},Na{sub 0.16(2)})O{sub 4}, main product of the reaction of sodium with nuclear fuel. •Thermomechanical behavior of sodium uranate suggests possible strains on the fuel cladding and risks of de-cohesion with the fuel pin. •Effect of homo- and aliovalent cation substitutions allows to predict the thermomechanical behavior of sodium metallates involving fission products or minor actinide elements. •Crystal structure of new compounds Na{sub 3}SbO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}TaO{sub 4}.

  14. Characterisation of Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag cement-like composites for the immobilisation of sulfate bearing nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobasher, Neda; Bernal, Susan A.; Hussain, Oday H. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Soluble sulfate ions in nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on cementitious wasteforms and disposal facilities based on Portland cement. As an alternative, Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composites are studied for immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes. Calcium aluminosilicate hydrate (C–A–S–H) with some barium substitution is the main binder phase, with barium also present in the low solubility salts BaSO{sub 4} and BaCO{sub 3}, along with Ba-substituted calcium sulfoaluminate hydrates, and a hydrotalcite-type layered double hydroxide. This reaction product assemblage indicates that Ba(OH){sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} act as alkaline activators and control the reaction of the slag in addition to forming insoluble BaSO{sub 4}, and this restricts sulfate availability for further reaction as long as sufficient Ba(OH){sub 2} is added. An increased content of Ba(OH){sub 2} promotes a higher degree of reaction, and the formation of a highly cross-linked C–A–S–H gel. These Ba(OH){sub 2}–Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–blast furnace slag composite binders could be effective in the immobilisation of sulfate-bearing nuclear wastes.

  15. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications: Applying 21st century nuclear science to 21st century problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    By enhancing the integration across various thematic areas, the IAEA plays a role in helping to address today's emerging challenges. In radiation medicine, for example, nuclear technology is used for the diagnosis and treatment of major non-communicable diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. The Human Health Campus at http://humanhealth.iaea.org provides on-line resources and learning for health professionals working in radiation medicine. Responding to the world cancer crisis, the IAEA developed a unique initiative, the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy which works closely with the World Health Organization (WHO) through the WHO-IAEA Joint Programme on Cancer Control. The programme aims at providing assistance to Member States to adopt comprehensive national cancer control programmes that encompass early detection, prevention, cancer diagnosis and treatment and palliative care. In a joint division with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the IAEA assists Member States in applying nuclear techniques to alleviate challenges in food safety, food security and sustainable agricultural development. The IAEA has made significant contributions to helping developing countries adopt sterile insect techniques to suppress and eradicate insect pests that pose a threat to human and to animal health. Using scientific methods based on the tracing of isotopes, the IAEA is improving the management of the world's freshwater resources, a key aspect of sustainable development in the face of climate change. The IAEA also helps Member States monitor known sites of radioactive contamination, as manifested by their ongoing efforts in Japan after the incident at Fukushima. Radioisotope products and radiation technology are essential components for applications across all fields, be it medicine, industry, or agriculture. The demand for the most used radioisotopes has been steadily increasing, such as, for example, fission produced 99Mo and 99m

  16. Dose evaluation on the basis of {sup 24}Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Tasaki, T.; Kanai, K.; Hayashi, N.; Shinohara, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Sodium-24({sup 24}Na) generated in human body due to neutron activation was measured by whole body counter (WBC) in JNC Tokai works. Total 148 persons (JCO employees and contractor, public member, fire fighters, etc.) were measured and {sup 24}Na was detected in the 62 persons. Neutron energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using ANISN and MCNP code and estimated mean capture probability {xi} of neutron for human body at this accident was around 0.25-0.28 at any distance from the center of the precipitation tank. Effective dose equivalent for the 62 persons were estimated based on the calculated conversion factors from {sup 24}Na specific activity to neutron dose. Maximum {sup 24}Na activity was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq({sup 24}Na)/g({sup 23}Na)) in total body and the evaluated effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  17. FORMA DE DESCARTE DE PILHAS E BATERIAS DE CELULARES USADAS POR MORADORES DO MUNICÍPIO DE CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES E CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL QUANTO O DESCARTE ADEQUADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FORMA DE DESCARTE DE PILHAS E BATERIAS DE CELULARES USADAS POR MORADORES DO MUNICÍPIO DE CAMPOS DOS GOYTACAZES E CONSCIÊNCIA AMBIENTAL QUANTO O DESCARTE ADEQUADO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O descarte de pilhas e baterias é um problema que não envolve somente órgãos responsáveis, mas também a população como um todo. A cooperação da comunidade pode contribuir para a diminuição dos impactos causados por resíduos perigosos no meio ambiente. O objetivo do presente trabalho é analisar as formas de descarte de pilhas e baterias usadas pelos moradores dos bairros Calabouço, Jardim Carioca e Parque Guarus do município de Campos dos Goytacazes – RJ. Foi elaborado um questionário de seis perguntas fechadas, sendo duas perguntas sobre informações pessoais dos participantes e quatro perguntas sobre o descarte de pilhas e baterias. O mesmo foi aplicado a um total de 308 moradores (numero de pessoas alcançadas num período de seis meses dos bairros selecionados, sendo 98 do calabouço, 107 do Jardim Carioca e 103 do Parque Guarus. O resultado dos questionários foi tabulado, devidamente analisado e discutido com base no objetivo proposto pelo presente trabalho. Analisando os dados de modo geral é possível dizer que, embora a população não apresente conhecimento sobre os problemas ocasionados pelo descarte indevido, é necessário que haja por parte dos órgãos governamentais a implementação de políticas públicas que viabilizem o descarte correto e responsável uma vez que segundo a lei 12.305/2010 (que trata da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos a responsabilidade pelo gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos, incluindo os perigosos é dos geradores, do poder público e dos instrumentos econômicos aplicáveis (Sistema de Gestão Integrada. Os fabricantes de pilhas e baterias ainda de acordo com a lei 12.305/2010 devem estruturar e implementar sistemas de logística reversa, ou seja, o retorno dos produtos após o uso pelo consumidor. Esse sistema quando colocado em prática traz benefícios como: o retorno de alguns materiais para o processo produtivo e redução do volume de resíduos despejados em aterros, no

  18. Effects of different litter depths on environmental parameters and growth performance of growing finishing pigs Efeito de diferentes profundidades de cama usada para suínos em crescimento e em terminação sobre parâmetros ambientais e desempenho de crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Kunde Corrêa

    2009-06-01

    , comparando três tratamentos: cama de casca de arroz com 0,5m (T1, com 0,25m de profundidade (T2 e piso de concreto (T3. A primeira cama foi usada em dois lotes de animais e foi substituída por uma segunda, usada em outros dois lotes, compreendendo 52 semanas. Cada lote foi constituído por cinco animais criados dos 60 aos 145 dias de idade, em uma baia de 7m². Os seguintes parâmetros ambientais foram medidos semanalmente: temperatura ambiente, umidade relativa e temperatura no centro da baia, na superfície (TSF e na metade da profundidade da cama (TMP, apenas em T1 e T2. O consumo de ração e o peso dos animais foram aferidos a cada quatro semanas. A temperatura ambiente e a umidade relativa não foram influenciadas pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. A TSF média foi de 22,8±3,6°C, sendo menor no T3 (P0,05. A TSF foi mais alta nas camas novas do que nas usadas (P<0,001 e nas primeiras camas em comparação com as segundas (P=0,03, aparentemente sendo mais alta nos lotes criados durante as fases termofílicas. A TMP média foi de 33,8 ± 10,8°C, sendo mais alta no T1 do que no T2 (P<0,05. A TMP também foi mais alta nas camas novas do que nas usadas (P<0,001 e nas primeiras camas em comparação com as segundas (P<0,05. Nenhum dos parâmetros de crescimento diferiu entre os tratamentos (P<0,05. Ainda que possam ocorrer condições de conforto térmico desfavoráveis aos animais, principalmente sob temperaturas mais elevadas, o sistema de criação sobre cama pode ser usado nos setores de crescimento e terminação sem prejuízo para o desempenho de crescimento.

  19. Influência das gonadotrofinas na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos eqüinos Influence of gonadotropins on nuclear maturation of equine oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Larre Borges

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A maturação in vitro, fecundação e as técnicas de cultivo de embriões na espécie eqüina são extremamente importantes e necessárias para se examinar as causas de repetição de cio, redução de concepção em éguas velhas e também para a preservação da espécie eqüina. Para avaliar o efeito das gonadotrofinas na regulação da maturação nuclear de oócitos eqüinos, folículos com diâmetro entre 5 a 20mm foram aspirados de 551 ovários provenientes de matadouro obtendo-se 408 oócitos aptos para cultivo. Após a aspiração, os oócitos foram avaliados no próprio líquido folicular quanto a sua integridade e distribuídos nos diferentes tratamentos. No Tratamento I (T1 - grupo controle - os oócitos (n=92 foram cultivados em TCM-199 modificado (mod., com 25mM de HEPES, 2,2mg/ml de bicarbonato de sódio, 1 mi g/ml 17-beta estradiol, 250mi M de piruvato de sódio e 0,4% de albumina sérica bovina. No tratamento 2 (T2, os oócitos (n= 108 foram cultivados no mesmo meio TC M-199 mod. acrescido de lug/ml de hormônio luteinizante suíno (LHs. No Tratamento 3 (T3, os oócitos (n=102 também foram cultivados em TCM-199 mod. porém com 0,5mi g/ml de hormônio folículo estimulante suíno (FSHs e no Tratamento 4 (T4 os oócitos (n= 106 foram cultivados com 1mi g/ml de LHs e 0,5mi g/ml, de FSHs. Os oócitos dos quatros tratamentos foram cultivados em estufa a 39°C com 5% de CO2 , e 95% de umidade relativa no ar, durante 24 h. Após este período, as células do Cumulus oophorus foram removidas e os oócitos fixados em solução de ácido acético glacial-metanol (1:3 em placas de Petri 10 x 35mm por 24h sendo posteriormente corados com aceto-orceína. O percentual de oócitos em telófase I / metáfase II foi de 55,6% (59/106 para o T4 (FSHs/LHs e de 53,9% (55/102 para o T3 (FSHs, os quais não diferiram significativamente. No entanto, estes percentuais foram significativamente superiores (pIn vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization

  20. The CERES / NA45 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Ceres is one of the second generation heavy ion experiments at CERN's SPS. It is dedicated to the study of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nuclear collisions. NA45 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN's Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma. In this state, quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  1. Case Study in Internal Audit of Nuclear Material; Etude d'un Systeme de Verification Comptable Interne des Matieres Nucleaires; Izuchenie primera organizatsii vnutrennego ucheta yadernykh materialov na predpriyatii; Estudio de la Fiscalizacion Interna de los Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kops, S. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    The general need for the internal audit function and the basic principles of management underlying this need are briefly discussed. The size, complexity and degree of centralization, or decentralization, are usually the main factors in determining the need for a conventional internal audit. Here, the more specialized needs and characteristics of an internal audit peculiar to an organization handling source or special fissionable material (nuclear material) are discussed and contrasted with an audit of the standard type. The necessity of a special audit, because of the high monetary and strategic value, is demonstrated. Planning the internal audit within a production plant is discussed in detail. This includes the rationale of timing the review together with the records and physical inventory to be tested and verified. Quality and types of professional skills of the personnel to be used in internal audit are also discussed. A qualified statistical plan in choosing the items to be tested is discussed. The application of the plans in the actual performance of the internal audit are described in detail. Possible variances from a recognized norm and possible approaches to audit resolution are discussed. Although in many other manufacturing situations there are variations in the methods of verifying inventories without physically doing so, the necessity for physically testing inventories of nuclear material is demonstrated. The various means of reporting the results of the internal audit are presented. The needs of individual groups within the organization are considered in determining the format of the report, as well as the basic content. Distribution of the report and its variations are discussed. (author) [French] L'auteur etudie brievement la necessite de la verification comptable interne en general, et les principes essentiels de gestion auxquels repond cette necessite. La taille de l'installation, la complexite et le degre de centralisation ou de decentralisation

  2. Átomos na integração: a aproximação Brasil-Argentina no campo nuclear e a construção do Mercosul

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Everton Vieira

    1997-01-01

    Este trabalho tenciona ser uma reflexão sobre a importância da aproximação entre o Brasil e a Argentina no campo nuclear, na segunda metade da década de 80 e no início dos anos 90, como fundamento para a construção de um relacionamento novo que suplantou uma rivalidade histórica entre ambos. O processo de aproximação encetado com um propósito aparentemente econômico, tinha uma dimensão estratégica. As repercussões desse esforço iam além dos interesses bilaterais imediatos e se refletiram na b...

  3. Dose evaluation on the basis of {sup 24}Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Tasaki, T.; Kanai, K.; Hayashi, N.; Shinohara, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    {sup 24}Na in the human body, activated by neutrons emitted at the JCO criticality accident, was observed for 62 subjects, where 148 subjects were measured by the whole body counter of JNC Tokai Works. The 148 subjects, including JCO employees and the contractors, residents neighboring the site and emergency service officers, were measured by the whole-body counter. The neutron-energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using neutron transport codes (ANISN and MCNP), and the relation between an amount of activated sodium in human body and neutron dose was evaluated from the calculated neutron energy spectrum and theoretical neutron capture probability by the human body. The maximum {sup 24}Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq({sup 24}Na)/g({sup 23}Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  4. Dose evaluation on the basis of 24Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, T.; Tsujimura, N.; Tasaki, T.; Kanai, K.; Hayashi, N.; Shinohara, K.

    2001-01-01

    24 Na in the human body, activated by neutrons emitted at the JCO criticality accident, was observed for 62 subjects, where 148 subjects were measured by the whole body counter of JNC Tokai Works. The 148 subjects, including JCO employees and the contractors, residents neighboring the site and emergency service officers, were measured by the whole-body counter. The neutron-energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using neutron transport codes (ANISN and MCNP), and the relation between an amount of activated sodium in human body and neutron dose was evaluated from the calculated neutron energy spectrum and theoretical neutron capture probability by the human body. The maximum 24 Na activity in the body was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq( 24 Na)/g( 23 Na)) and the relevant effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  5. Activities on nuclear energy introduction in the SR of Serbia without territory of provinces; Aktivnosti na uvodjenju nuklearne energije u SR Srbiji van teritorija SAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boljanac, C; Vukovic, D; Putnik, S; Tankosic, D [ZEP, RO ' Nuklearna' u osnivanju, Beograd (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    In the paper the review of the past and the present activities on nuclear energy introduction in the SR Serbia without territory of provinces is given. The program of the activities in this field includes extensive spectrum of different tasks from investigation of the nuclear raw material and the development in the field of nonconventional uranium production, through studies in fuel cycle area up to the preparatory activities for the nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  6. Investigation on U - O - Na, Pu - O - Na and U,Pu - O - Na phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, S.

    1989-03-01

    The thermochemical interaction between the nuclear fuel (uranium and plutonium mixed oxides) and the sodium has been investigated and particularly the three phase diagrams: U - O - Na; Pu - O - Na; U,Pu - O - Na. High temperature neutron diffraction, microcalorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the compounds synthetized. This study allowed to complete the knowledge about each of these diagrams and to measure some physical and thermal properties on the compounds. The limits on the modelization of the fuel-sodium interaction are discussed from the results of the UO 2 - Na reaction [fr

  7. Behaviour of semiconductor nuclear-particle detectors; Comportement des semi-conducteurs comme detecteurs de particules nucleaires; Povedenie detektorov yadernykh chastits na poluprovodnikakh; Propiedades de los detectores de particulas nucleares a base de semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, F J; Dabbs, J W.T.; Roberts, L D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1962-04-15

    asegurar una coleccion completa, el campo minimo necesario (en la superficie) para los fragmentos de fision seria de mas de 3 {center_dot} 10{sup 4} V/cm, frente a 2 {center_dot} 10{sup 3} V/cm para las particulas alfa en el Ge y el Si. Un estudio detallado del tiempo de elevacion del impulso en el amplificador ha puesto en claro que tanto el tiempo de relajacion como la resistencia correspondiente al material de base no purificado pueden desempenar un papel muy importante en los materiales de elevada resistividad. La memoria presenta una descripcion cuantitativa del efecto de los parametros del detector y del amplificador sobre la forma y el tiempo de elevacion de los impulsos. Se discuten las ventajas y los problemas que presenta la utilizacion de detectores de barrera superficial en varios experimentos muy especiales de alineacion nuclear realizados a baja temperatura, entre otros, referentes a las distribuciones angulares de fragmentos de fision y a la resolucion de la estructura alfa fina con estabilidad a largo plazo. Tambien se describen tecnicas de fabricacion basadas en coeficientes de dilatacion equiparados, que han permitido obtener detectores con areas activas de hasta 8 cm{sup 2}. (author) [Russian] Byli provedeny ehksperimental'nye i teoreticheskie issledovaniya povedeniya detektorov yadernykh chastits na poluprovodnikakh pri temperaturakh ot 0,2{sup o}K do 300{sup o}K. V doklade privoditsya prostaya teoreticheskaya model' povedeniya detektora, kotoraya, kak bylo ustanovleno, otrazhaet nablyudaemoe povedenie pri bol'shoj amplitude parametrov. V doklade obsuzhdaetsya vazhnost' chistoty poluprovodnikov i smeshcheniya napryazheniya v svyazi s amplitudoj impul'sa, vremenem narastaniya impul'sa i zonoj detektsii. EHmpiricheski issledovaniya shuma i ehnergeticheskogo razresheniya svidetel'stvuyut o tom, chto dlya al'fa-chastits nablyudaemaya naimen'shaya shirina pikov znachitel'no bol'she, chem ta, kotoraya ozhidaetsya na osnove ehlektricheskogo shuma

  8. Qualidade dos produtos de terapias avançadas: requisitos de células extensamente manipuladas usadas em terapias celulares e em bioengenharia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bizon Carias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O preparo de produtos para terapias avançadas inclui, frequentemente, a manipulação extensa de células primárias in vitro, o que pode acarretar em alterações da população celular final. A padronização dos métodos de obtenção das culturas, seguindo as regras das Boas Práticas de Fabricação, com a realização dos controles de qualidade do processo e do produto final, é essencial para garantir a segurança do paciente e a comparabilidade dos resultados clínicos obtidos. Objetivo: Este estudo buscou identificar os ensaios, prevalentemente citados na literatura científica ou em normas sanitárias, aplicados na avaliação da qualidade de células primárias humanas, passíveis de serem inseridos na rotina dos Centros de Processamento Celular. Método: Foi realizado o levantamento de artigos científicos e de normas sanitárias que tratassem de terapia celular e dos ensaios de qualidade associados. Resultados: Foi evidenciado que as normas regulamentares direcionadas a produtos com base em células cultivadas in vitro não detalham os ensaios de qualidade, o que torna urgente a discussão dessa matéria. Conclusões: Evidenciamos a necessidade de preparo do produto na forma de um lote de células, que deve ser controlado para a qualidade, a partir de amostras representativas do todo e propomos a realização de uma bateria de ensaios, que definem a qualidade do produto de terapia avançada, a base de células cultivadas in vitro, com detalhamento dos pontos em que estes devem ser realizados, organizados como fluxogramas de processamento.

  9. The use of CH3OH additive to NaOH for etching alpha particle tracks in a CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abdalla, A.M.; Rammah, Y.S.; Eisa, M.; Ashraf, O.

    2014-01-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in CR-39 detectors was investigated using a new chemical etchant. 252 Cf and 241 Am sources were used for irradiating samples of CR-39 SSNTDs with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal temperature and pressure. A series of experimental chemical etching are carried out using new etching solution (8 ml of 10N NaOH+1 ml CH 3 OH) at 60 °C to detect alpha particle in short time in CR-39 detectors. Suitable analyzing software has been used to analyze experimental data. From fission and alpha track diameters, the value of bulk etching rate is equal to 2.73 μm/h. Both the sensitivity and etching efficiency were found to vary with the amount of methanol in the etching solution. Pure NaOH was used as a control to compare with the result from etching in NaOH with different concentrations of CH 3 OH. The etching efficiency is determined and compared with conventional aqueous solution of 6.25N NaOH at 70 °C for etching time equals 5 h. In this study, the obtained etching efficiency shows a considerable agreement with the previous work. - Highlights: • The value of bulk etching rate is equal to 2.73 μm/h. • Fast detection of alpha particles in CR-39 detectors. • Samples of CR-39 have been irradiated with fission fragments. • Etching efficiency was determined

  10. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.

    2011-02-21

    This study details the differences in real-time hydration between pure tricalcium aluminate (cubic C3A or 3CaO·Al2O 3) and Na-doped tricalcium aluminate (orthorhombic C3A or Na2Ca8Al6O18), in aqueous solutions containing sulfate ions. Pure phases were synthesized in the laboratory to develop an independent benchmark for the reactions, meaning that their reactions during hydration in a simulated early age cement pore solution (saturated with respect to gypsum and lime) were able to be isolated. Because the rate of this reaction is extremely rapid, most microscopy methods are not adequate to study the early phases of the reactions in the early stages. Here, a high-resolution full-field soft X-ray imaging technique operating in the X-ray water window, combined with solution analysis by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C3A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between the two types of C3A, which are also dependent on the concentration of sulfate ions in the solution. The reactions with cubic C3A (pure) seem to be more influenced by higher concentrations of sulfate ions, forming smaller ettringite needles at a slower pace than the orthorhombic C3A (Na-doped) sample. The rate of release of aluminate species into the solution phase is also accelerated by Na doping. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  11. The PRONUCLEAR role (1976-1986) in the human resource training for the nuclear area in Brazil: science history; O papel do PRONUCLEAR (1976 -1986) na formacao de recursos humanos para a area nuclear no Brasil: historia da ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedecke, Winston Gomes

    2006-07-01

    In 1975, an agreement between the governments of Brazil and West-Germany was signed for the construction of nuclear power plants in Brazil as well as the extraction, processing and enrichment of uranium. As the result of the first oil crisis and facing the perspective of a continuous world energy crisis, the Brazilian government decided to turn to nuclear power as an alternative supply for the country's energy needs. However, serious limitations were present regarding the transfer of nuclear technology for a third world country. This paper analyzes some aspects of the process involved in the creation of the specialized human resources during the extent of the agreement between Brazil and West Germany. Since its inception, the agreement received harsh criticism from the Brazilian nuclear physics and related fields scientific communities. Because the planning and implementation of the agreement took place during a period of military dictatorship, the decisions relating to the agreement were never debated between the policy makers and the scientific community. Not surprisingly, the agreement received plenty of criticism that ranged from the actual need for nuclear power to technical feasibility and suspicious of possible military uses and even the very policies created to prepare human resources to work in the nuclear area. One of the most important tools of these policies was the Programa de Recursos Humanos para o Setor Nuclear - PRONUCLEAR (Nuclear Sector Human Resources Program), implemented in 1976 and gradually deactivated starting in 1983. (author)

  12. The PRONUCLEAR role (1976-1986) in the human resource training for the nuclear area in Brazil: science history; O papel do PRONUCLEAR (1976 -1986) na formacao de recursos humanos para a area nuclear no Brasil: historia da ciencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmiedecke, Winston Gomes

    2006-07-01

    In 1975, an agreement between the governments of Brazil and West-Germany was signed for the construction of nuclear power plants in Brazil as well as the extraction, processing and enrichment of uranium. As the result of the first oil crisis and facing the perspective of a continuous world energy crisis, the Brazilian government decided to turn to nuclear power as an alternative supply for the country's energy needs. However, serious limitations were present regarding the transfer of nuclear technology for a third world country. This paper analyzes some aspects of the process involved in the creation of the specialized human resources during the extent of the agreement between Brazil and West Germany. Since its inception, the agreement received harsh criticism from the Brazilian nuclear physics and related fields scientific communities. Because the planning and implementation of the agreement took place during a period of military dictatorship, the decisions relating to the agreement were never debated between the policy makers and the scientific community. Not surprisingly, the agreement received plenty of criticism that ranged from the actual need for nuclear power to technical feasibility and suspicious of possible military uses and even the very policies created to prepare human resources to work in the nuclear area. One of the most important tools of these policies was the Programa de Recursos Humanos para o Setor Nuclear - PRONUCLEAR (Nuclear Sector Human Resources Program), implemented in 1976 and gradually deactivated starting in 1983. (author)

  13. Pedagogias do corpo na educação da dança de matriz africana em Salvador, BA, Brasil: perspectivas e tensões do projeto emancipatório

    OpenAIRE

    Echeverry Zambrano, Claudia Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    212 f. Esta tese, resultado de uma pesquisa de caráter etnográfico e bibliográfico, analisa as pedagogias usadas na educação do corpo, dentro da proposta das danças de matriz africana, que são praticadas em ambientes escolares em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. O estudo faz uma ênfase na descrição das perspectivas e desafios que esta educação enfrenta na atualidade como projeto corporal emancipador e reestruturador das representações sobre o corpo negro, historicamente configuradas no marco moder...

  14. Estimation of covariances of {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu neutron nuclear data in JENDL-3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Nakajima, Yutaka; Kawano, Toshihiko; Oh, Soo-Youl; Matsunobu, Hiroyuki; Murata, Toru

    1997-10-01

    Covariances of nuclear data have been estimated for 6 nuclides contained in JENDL-3.2. The nuclides considered are {sup 16}O, {sup 23}Na, Fe, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu, which are regarded as important for the nuclear design study of fast reactors. The physical quantities for which covariances are deduced are cross sections, resolved and unresolved resonance parameters, and the first order Legendre-polynomial coefficient for the angular distribution of elastically scattered neutrons. As for {sup 235}U, covariances were obtained also for the average number of neutrons emitted in fission. The covariances were estimated by using the same methodology that had been used in the JENDL-3.2 evaluation in order to keep a consistency between mean values and their covariances. The least-squares fitting code GMA was used in estimating covariances for reactions of which JENDL-3.2 cross sections had been evaluated by taking account of measurements. In nuclear model calculations, the covariances were calculated by the KALMAN system. The covariance data obtained were compiled in the ENDF-6 format, and will be put into the JENDL-3.2 Covariance File which is one of JENDL special purpose files. (author). 193 refs.

  15. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district Triagem das atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica de algumas plantas medicinais brasileiras usadas na cidade de Governador Valadares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay. The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men ("raizeiros" who showed familiarity with local used remedies. A total of 33 crude extracts from 32 plant species was studied. Ten extracts (Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa and Plectranthus ornatus presented brine shrimp toxicity (LD50Os extratos etanólicos de plantas medicinais utilizadas por moradores da cidade de Governador Valadares foram avaliados quanto às atividades antimicrobiana e citotóxica. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada durante o período de 1997-2000, por meio de entrevistas com os raizeiros locais. Foram avaliados 33 extratos brutos de um total de 32 espécies. Desses extratos, dez apresentaram toxicidade às larvas de Artemia salina (DL50<1000 ppm: Costus pisonis, Cymbopogon nardus, Eclipta alba, Eleutherine bulbosa, Erigium foetidium, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mikania hirsutissima, Momordica charantia, Solidago microglossa e Plectranthus ornatus. Quanto à atividade antimicrobiana, nenhum dos extratos apresentou atividade contra Escherichia coli. Entretanto, treze extratos mostraram-se ativos contra Staphylococcus aureus: E. alba, Scoparia sp., Arctium lappa, Chammomila tinctoria, E. bulbosa, M. hirsutíssima, S. microglossa, Stachytarpheta dichotoma, Pffafia glomerata, Stenorrhyrchnus lanceolatum, Vernonia condensata e Lippia alba.

  16. Study of the Production Mechanisms and Decay Properties of Charmed Particles Observed in Nuclear Emulsions Coupled to the NA14 Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this test experiment are: \\item a)~~~~to check the expected improvement in scanning speed and efficiency, due to the use of the microstrip vertex detector of the NA14 set-up and to the help of automated microscopes; \\item b)~~~~to evaluate the enrichment factor in the charmed event content of the sample to be searched, due to the particle identification power and the vertex detector of NA14; \\item c)~~~~to collect some 100 pairs of charmed particles, produced and decaying in emulsion, which would allow a comparison with the results from the WA58 experiment, in particular about the possible energy dependence of the production mechanism of associated @L^c|+~$\\bar{D}$. \\end{enumerate} The incident beam will consist of tagged photons between 70 and 150-200~GeV.

  17. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on human health: Improving health around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Every year, millions of nuclear medical examinations are conducted around the world using radiopharmaceuticals that assess diseases at molecular levels. Diagnostic images are then generated to help diagnose and treat major disorders and illnesses such as heart disease and cancer. Positron emission tomography in oncology and single photon emission tomography in cardiology (as well as in other areas) provide unique functional information that, when combined with anatomical data obtained by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, allow for more precise localization of cancer or cardiac abnormalities. By facilitating appropriate human resources capacity building, the IAEA helps to establish new, and improve existing, nuclear medicine facilities, and encourages nuclear medicine imaging integration with diagnostic radiology procedures, thus helping its Member States to achieve and maintain high standards of professional practice.

  18. Production and sharing of the nuclear knowledge: knowledge management at the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of Brazilian CNEN; Produção e compartilhamento do conhecimento nuclear: a gestão do conhecimento na Divisão de Radiofármacos do Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2011-07-01

    The Brazilian nuclear area made great progress in recent years, bringing many benefits to society, not only in producing electric power, but also in agriculture, industry and medicine. One of the problems in this area, nowadays, is the risk losing nuclear knowledge. Although it is difficult to understand how knowledge is created and used, can be seen that the sharing and production are influenced by some factors that provide favorable conditions. This research focused its attention on identifying actions that contribute to the production and sharing of knowledge and information at the Divisão de Radiofármacos of Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear of Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN). Knowledge management was chosen as a tool to study the problem identified, because it has methodologies aimed at stimulating the knowledge production process and knowledge and information sharing, both in private companies and public institutions, such as IEN/CNEN. Knowledge management is an interdisciplinary relatively new discipline, and although it had not been born in Information Science, there has been seeking theoretical support and legitimacy at this interdisciplinary science. This research conceptualizes, historically contextualizes and analyzes developments and trends in knowledge management. The study discourses on the peculiarities and aspects in common between the knowledge management and information management and identifies factors that influence the sharing of information and knowledge such as: social networks, communities of practice, collaborative spaces, organizational culture, organizational learning, and storytelling. In reviewing the literature and after data analysis of interviews, some actions have been identified, and it was possible to make some suggestions. It is concluded that institutional incentive for collaboration and knowledge sharing can influence positive results and increase the production of new knowledge. (author)

  19. Experience and perspectives of nuclear power plant reliability evaluation at Institute J. Stefan; Izkusnje in perspektive vrednotenja zanesljivosti jedrskih elekrarn na Institutu Jozef Stefan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susnik, J [Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia)

    1979-07-01

    First a short report on development of computer programs for the reliability evaluation and the findings regarding the adequate reliability of Nuclear Power Plant safety systems are given. Then evaluation of the general NPP availability situation is discussed and suggestions for planning and achieving an adequate high availability are presented. (author)

  20. A construção da coordenação política e da cooperação estratégica entre o Brasil e Argentina na área nuclear (1980-1997)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Ana Paula da [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho analisa o processo histórico do surgimento, desenvolvimento e consolidação da coordenação política e da cooperação estratégica entre Brasil e Argentina na área nuclear. Levando em conta a rivalidade existente entre os dois países, faz-se um exame das políticas interna e externa exercida por ambos, considerando ainda aspectos importantes da política regional e global, e de que maneira foram implantados os mecanismos para a superação da desconfiança mútua e estabelecimento da coopera...

  1. On-site test of filters in nuclear facilities using radioactive sodium chloride (24Na)-aerosol and methyl iodide (131I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidam, N.Z.; Hansen, K.A.; Fenger, J.; Flyger, H.; Hedemann Jensen, P.

    1986-02-01

    The nuclar facilities at Risoe National Laboratory are equipped with high-efficiency filters to protect the environment from routine or accidental releases of radioactive material. The filter efficiency must be tested regularly and a method for on-site control is described. It is based on injection of a radioactive sample in the filter duct, followed by sampling before and after the filter. HEPA-filters are tested with a 24 NaCl-aerosol and charcoal filters with 131 ICH 3 . Normally samples of 1 mCi are used. Penetrations (1 - efficiency) can be determined with a relative uncertainty of 10-15%. (author)

  2. Proceedings of the Tripartite Seminar on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control at Radiochemical Plants; Trudy trekhstoronnego seminara Uchet i kontrol' yadernykh materialov na radiokhimicheskikh ustanovkakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The problems of creation and operation of nuclear materials (NM) control and accounting systems and their components at radiochemical plants were discussed in seminar during November 2-6 of 1998. There were 63 Russian and 25 foreign participants in seminar. The seminar programme includes following sessions and articles: the aspects of State NM control and accountancy; NM control and accounting in radiochemical plants and at separate stages of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel and irradiated fuel elements of commercial reactors; NM control and accountancy in storage facilities of radiochemical plants; NM control and accounting computerization, material balance assessment, preparation of reports; qualitative and quantitative measurements in NM control and accounting at radiochemical plants destructive analysis techniques.

  3. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on food and agriculture: Building better agriculture one atom at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In a world facing the dilemmas posed by exponential population growth and changing climates, nuclear technology offers possible avenues to solve production problems, protect soil and water resources and conserve biodiversity, which, in turn, means increased hope for global food security. Application of nuclear technology has a proven record in increasing agricultural production. Higher and more reliable yields not only improve farmers' livelihoods, they mean better quality and safer food for consumers. The methods used vary: isotope measurements identify and trace the efficiency of crop inputs such as water and fertilizer and of animal feeds; gamma rays sterillize male insects so that when they are returned to the wild they are unable to produce progeny; irradiation stops the growth of pests and expands the shelf life of grains, spices and processed foods; radiation induced mutation speeds up natural genetic changes in crops to support plant breeders; and genetic markers expedite the identification of animal diseases thereby allowing treatment to begin sooner. All of these methods, plus a host of others that come under the heading of nuclear technology, are invaluable tools for agriculture and food production. For almost five decades, the IAEA, together with its partner the FAO, guided development of new nuclear based methodologies, requested by its Member States and facilitated their adaptation, adoption and application. A harbinger of the United Nation's Delivering as One, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division stands as the United Nations' system's only joint venture. It also operates its own agriculture and biotechnology laboratories in Seibersdorf where technical services, R and D and laboratory training activities are conducted in support of the development and transfer of new technologies and their adaptation to local needs and environments.

  4. The use of genetic algorithms with niching methods in nuclear reactor related problems; A utilizacao dos metodos de nichos dos algoritmos geneticos na otimizacao de problemas de reatores nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Wagner Figueiredo

    2000-03-01

    Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are biologically motivated adaptive systems which have been used, with good results, in function optimization. However, traditional GAs rapidly push an artificial population toward convergence. That is, all individuals in the population soon become nearly identical. Niching Methods allow genetic algorithms to maintain a population of diverse individuals. GAs that incorporate these methods are capable of locating multiple, optimal solutions within a single population. The purpose of this study is to test existing niching techniques and two methods introduced herein, bearing in mind their eventual application in nuclear reactor related problems, specially the nuclear reactor core reload one, which has multiple solutions. Tests are performed using widely known test functions and their results show that the new methods are quite promising, specially in real world problems like the nuclear reactor core reload. (author)

  5. A genética dos distúrbios do sono na infância e adolescência

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes,Magda Lahorgue; Bruni,Oliviero

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste artigo é revisar a literatura sobre a genética dos distúrbios do sono na infância e adolescência. FONTES DOS DADOS: As palavras-chave "sono" e "genética" foram usadas para pesquisar por artigos publicados nos últimos cinco anos no banco de dados MEDLINE. A seguir, seus resumos foram analisados. A pesquisa também incluiu artigos clássicos, com a primeira descrição dos genes. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A recorrência familiar de muitos distúrbios do sono é um achado freqüente,...

  6. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on comprehensive cancer control: Fighting cancer in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    For over thirty years, the IAEA has worked in some 115 low and middle income (LMI) Member States to deploy robust radiotherapy and nuclear medicine programmes, expending over US $250 million on cancer related assistance under its Technical Cooperation Programme, with technical support provided by the Division of Human Health. This has enabled many Member States to establish safe and effective diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy capacity to provide treatment and higher quality care to many of their cancer patients. The IAEA also helps establish new nuclear medicine facilities and encourages their integration with diagnostic radiology procedures by facilitating appropriate human resources capacity building. This helps Member States to achieve and maintain high standards of professional practice. The IAEA addresses quality management though services such as the Quality Assurance in Nuclear Medicine (QUANUM), Quality Assurance Team in Radiation Oncology (QUATRO) and Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology (QUADRIL), which allow the IAEA to provide tools for improving the practice of radiation medicine around the world. In 2004, the IAEA established the Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in support of the World Health Assembly's call to action against cancer. It stands as the IAEA's umbrella programme for combating cancer and builds upon the above experience in radiation medicine expertise and technology. PACT works closely with the World Health Organization (WHO), its regional offices and other key players through the WHO-IAEA Joint Programme on Cancer Control. The WHO-IAEA Joint Programme was established in 2009 to enable LMI Member States to introduce, expand and improve their cancer treatment capacities and therapeutic effectiveness by integrating radiotherapy into a comprehensive national cancer control programme.

  7. Development of methodologies used in the areas of safeguards and nuclear forensics based on LA-HR-ICP-MS technique; Desenvolvimento de metodologias utilizadas nas areas de salvaguardas e forense nuclear baseadas na tecnica LA-HR-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, Rafael Coelho

    2013-07-01

    Environmental sampling performed by means of swipe samples is a methodology frequently employed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify if the signatory States of the Safeguards Agreements are conducing unauthorized activities. Swipe samples analysis is complementary to the Safeguards ordinary procedures used to verify the information given by the States. In this work it was described a methodology intending to strengthen the nuclear safeguards and nuclear forensics procedures. The proposal is to study and evaluate the laser ablation high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-HR-ICP-MS) technique as an alternative to analyze the real-life swipe samples. The precision achieved through the standard (CRM - 125A) measurements, represented by the relative standard deviation (RSD), was respectively 1.3 %, 0.2 % e 7.6 % for the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U, {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U e {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U isotopes ratios. The percent uncertainties (u %), which covers the RSD, ranged from 3.5 % to 29.8 % to the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U measurements and from 16.6 % to 42.9 % to the {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio. These results were compatible with former studies performed by the LA-HR-ICP-MS that analyzed real-life swipe samples collected at a nuclear facility. Swipe samples collected from several points of the nuclear facility presented enrichment level ranging from (2.3 ± 0.7) % (sample 3) to (17.3 ± 2.8) % (sample 18). They also allowed detecting different enrichment levels within the facility. (author)

  8. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on environment laboratories: Protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    According to the Millennium Development Goals, managing the environment is considered an integral part of the global development process. The main purpose of the IAEA's environment laboratories is to provide Member States with reliable information on environmental issues and facilitate decision making on protection of the environment. An increasingly important feature of this work is to assess the impact of climate change on environmental sustainability and natural resources. The IAEA's environment laboratories use nuclear techniques, radionuclides, isotopic tracers and stable isotopes to gain a better understanding of the various marine processes, including locating the sources of pollutants and their fate, their transport pathways and their ultimate accumulation in sediments. Radioisotopes are also used to study bioaccumulation in organisms and the food chain, as well as to track signals of climate change throughout history. Natural and artificial radionuclides are used to track ocean currents in key regions. They are also used to validate models designed to predict the future impact of climate change and ocean acidification. The laboratories study the fate and impact of contamination on a variety of ecosystems in order to provide effective preventative diagnostic and remediation strategies. They enhance the capability of Member States to use nuclear techniques to understand and assess changes in their own terrestrial and atmospheric environments, and adopt suitable and sustainable remediation measures when needed. Since 1995, the IAEA environment laboratories have coordinated the international network of Analytical Laboratories for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity, providing accurate analysis in the event of an accident or an intentional release of radioactivity. In addition, the laboratories work alongside other organizations, such as UNESCO, the IOC, UNEP and the EC. The laboratories collaborate with Member States through direct involvement with

  9. Innovation and knowledge generation in cooperation nets: challenges for regulations in the nuclear safety area in Brazil; Inovacao e geracao de conhecimento nas redes de cooperacao: desafios para a regulacao na area de seguranca nuclear no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staude, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The importance of inter-organisational cooperation within the innovation process has been increasingly recognized. In fact, all organisations, at some point, need to look to external sources for inputs to the process of building up technological competence. In this sense, through a detailed case study, this thesis examine theoretical and empirically how collaborative initiatives have supported the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body in the development and implementation of innovations, in order to verify the positive relationship between the collaboration and the organisational innovation performance. Emphasizing the importance of both internal sources of knowledge and external participation, the study encompasses documentary analysis, a preliminary survey and semi-structured interviews with the regulatory body employers in charge of controlling medical and research facilities and activities involving radiation sources. The thesis demonstrates that innovations developed and implemented in the Brazilian nuclear safety and security area are associated with collaborative initiatives, in order to improve the organizational capability to fulfill safety obligations, providing some important implications for regulatory body managers concerned with the management of innovation. The findings also identified actors with a significant degree of influence in the innovation process. The result reveals that the support provided by these actors has a significant influence on the innovation performance of the Brazilian nuclear regulatory body, suggesting that Brazil should adopt more interactive models of innovation and knowledge transfer. In addition, the findings show that these key actors can play a very distinctive role in the context of sectoral systems of innovation information regime. (author)

  10. Social representation for future teachers on the nuclear energy: probable implications of the public opinion; Representacoes sociais de futuros professores a respeito da energia nuclear: possiveis implicacoes na opiniao publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Farias, Luciana Aparecida, E-mail: rafaellayllon@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: ditfavaro@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to study the SR (social representation) regarding the 'Nuclear Energy' (NW) and 'Nuclear Chemistry' (NC) of students of Science - Bachelor of Federal University of Sao Paulo - UNIFESP. Individual questionnaires to research the topic, followed by the presentation of seminars with the focus of the research were applied. The methodology used was the technique of free word (Abric ,1994) which gives the frequency of each element that was mentioned and their average order of evocation, as well as semi -structured questionnaire with questions. Among the first results, it was found that the words 'Bomb' and 'Reactor' were the most mentioned by the group when asked evocations related to 'NE', while the terms 'Health' and 'Safety' are among the least mentioned. When referring to 'NC' the most frequent terms were 'Chemistry' and 'Atoms/Elements and 'Reactor' and 'Development' were less frequent. However, even though as a possible central core elements that match a negative SR theme, these students indicated Nuclear Energy as a strong option/option for diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix.

  11. Virtual reality as information for patients and their families in a therapeutic procedure in Nuclear Medicine; Realidade virtual como meio de informação para pacientes e seus familiares em procedimento terapêutico na Medicina Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, S.F.; Nascimento, A.C.H.; Mol, A.C.A.; Marins, E.R.; Suíta, J.C. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This work consists of the research and unification of the guidelines transmitted to the patients and their relatives in the radioiodine therapy procedures. The goal is to provide greater understanding of the use of nuclear radiation and better understanding of treatment, to help patients better adapt to therapy, to demystify misconceptions about radiation use, and to improve care for their protection and for people close to them. Based on written and verbal information, collected in the scientific literature and in loco, accompanying the routine of the therapeutic rooms of Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Rio de Janeiro, the set of actions that define scenarios experienced by radioiodine therapy patients and their helpers is being generated. Based on this information, a virtual environment is being developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil, a virtual environment that will allow the visualization of the procedures and instructions passed to the patients by the NMS teams. With this virtual environment, the patient will be able to immersive visualize and experience the different phases of the treatment increasing the chances of efficiency of their participation in the process. (author)

  12. The role of nuclear energy in Brazilian energy matrix: environmental and socio-economical aspects; O papel da energia nuclear na matriz energética brasileira: aspectos socioeconômicos e ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bones, Ubiratan A.; Schirmer, Priscila; Ceolin, Celina, E-mail: biraabones@gmail.com, E-mail: schirmerpriscila@gmail.com, E-mail: celina.ceolin@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Due to the great increase demand for energy in the world, the continuous expansion of industrialization and the increase of consumption, together with the indispensable search for the sustainability of human acts, the need for diversification of the energy matrix and the search for less polluting energy comes increasing. Nuclear energy is increasingly seen as an option to contain greenhouse gas emissions and reduce dependence on fossil fuels. In this context, although it is not a source of renewable energy and also not the solution to all Brazilian problems, it can contribute to the expansion of the Brazilian energy matrix, being the only thermal source capable of guaranteeing the constant supply of energy without emitting greenhouse gases, considering that Brazil dominates nuclear fuel cycle technology and has large uranium reserves. However, this is a topic that generates a great deal of insecurity and questioning, making important the development of this work, both for a better understanding of the public, and to contribute and encourage future research through an evaluation of its environmental and socioeconomic aspects, discussing its risks and assessing the possibilities of expanding its use, including a panoramic view of nuclear energy in Brazil. In addition, for the full development of a country, it is necessary to diversify its energy sources, focusing on environmental and economic sustainability and reducing the vulnerability of the system.

  13. The role of nuclear emulsions in the institutionalization of research in experimental physics in Brazil; O papel das emulsoes nucleares na institucionalizacao da pesquisa em fisica experimental no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Cassio Leite [Instituto Ciencia Hoje, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Videira, Antonio A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the introduction and the use of the nuclear emulsions technique in Brazil. Even though consistent researches in cosmic ray physics had been done since the forties of the last century in this country, physicists here only began using this technique after Cesar Lattes' works in Bristol (England) and Berkeley (US). Despite being the implantation of the technique in this country posterior to the origin of the method itself dated from late 1900s, Brazilian scientists were quickly familiarized with it and adopted it not only in cosmic rays, but also in particle physics and nuclear physics, employing it until recently. In our work, we will be concerned with the reasons of this longevity. In other words, why were the nuclear emulsions technique employed for so many years in Brazil, even after its vanishing in physics researches centers in the world? We advance here that the answer to this question involves the institutionalization of science in Brazil mainly physics and economical, social, and geographic reasons. (author)

  14. Ensino interativo na abordagem de Eletricidade numa escola portuguesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Quintas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n3p839 A exploração de materiais didáticos interactivos é vista como potenciadora de uma melhor aprendizagem da Física. Neste trabalho apresentam-se alguns resultados obtidos da realização de atividades práticas de laboratório (APL e exploração de ferramentas baseadas em recursos educativos digitais (RED, na abordagem de Eletricidade em algumas escolas portuguesas. Nesta investigação, os alunos foram divididos em Grupo Experimental (GE e Grupo de Controlo (GC. Na recolha dos dados foram usadas fichas, relatórios de aula, inquéritos e entrevistas. Os resultados apontam para uma melhor aprendizagem dos alunos do GE, validando assim as hipóteses de qualidade e de continuidade desta prática de ensino e aprendizagem nas escolas. Este trabalho mostra também que quer a utilização pelos alunos dos materiais interativos quer a formação dos professores na exploração desses materiais, são necessárias para promover uma aprendizagem colaborativa.

  15. Efectos cardiovasculares de la cocaína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubier Gómez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La cocaína es un alcaloide derivado de la planta de coca, la cual es nativa de Sur América. Hay datos arqueológicos de esta planta desde 300 años a. C. en los cuales se encontró la primera prueba del uso de coca en humanos. En este tiempo la coca fue reconocida por su habilidad de producir energía, quitar la fatiga y disminuir el hambre.
    La cocaína es la droga ilícita más usada después de la marihuana. La
    frecuencia es mayor en hombres entre los 18-25 años.
    En los años 70 y 80 con el desarrollo del freebase y el crack se revolucionó el uso de esta droga, proporcionando una forma que podría ser fumada.
    Los síntomas que relatan los pacientes que usan cocaína son principalmente en el sistema cardiovascular; otros son neurológicos,
    pulmonares, gastrointestinales, etc.

     

     

  16. Cocaína: lendas, história e abuso Cocaine: myths, history and abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Eugênio M Ferreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A civilização ocidental tem estado envolvida com múltiplos problemas sociais, sendo o abuso de drogas um deles. A cocaína e os transtornos decorrentes de seu abuso tornaram-se um problema de saúde pública. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo colaborar pelo aprofundamento da investigação histórica desse tema. Há mais de 4500 anos, as folhas de coca são usadas por índios da América do Sul. Com a industrialização no século XIX, a cocaína chegou aos países desenvolvidos da época. Na medicina, essa substância também se mostrou presente, sendo usada, tanto por Freud quanto por outros médicos, na tentativa de curar inúmeras enfermidades. No entanto, a maior disponibilidade e a queda dos preços nos últimos 30 anos possibilitaram que essa droga fosse usada abusivamente por um número crescente de pessoas, trazendo conseqüências assustadoras para a saúde do indivíduo e para a sociedade como um todo.Western civilization is involved with multiple social problems and drug abuse is one of them. Cocaine and its abuse have become over the years a public health problem. This paper intends to provide a historical background to the subject. For more than 4,500 years, South America natives have been using coca leaves. After the industrial revolution in the 19th century, cocaine clorhydrate, an alkaloid present in the coca leaf, reached the developed countries. Many products, which main ingredient was cocaine, were consumed by famous people at that time, such as Vino Mariani, used by Pope Leo XVIII. In medicine, Freud and other doctors used cocaine with the purpose of healing various diseases. However, in the last 30 years, it became more available and its price dropped, making it accessible to an increasing number of people, resulting in alarming consequences to users' health as well as for the whole society.

  17. Átomos na integração: a aproximação Brasil-Argentina no campo nuclear e a construção do Mercosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Vieira Vargas

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tenciona ser uma reflexão sobre a importância da aproximação entre o Brasil e a Argentina no campo nuclear, na segunda metade da década de 80 e no início dos anos 90, como fundamento para a construção de um relacionamento novo que suplantou uma rivalidade histórica entre ambos. O processo de aproximação encetado com um propósito aparentemente econômico, tinha uma dimensão estratégica. As repercussões desse esforço iam além dos interesses bilaterais imediatos e se refletiram na busca de uma nova inserção internacional dos dois países, num momento de transformações profundas nos planos interno e internacional. Através do programa de integração Brasil-Argentina (que mais tarde também envolveu o Uruguai e do MERCOSUL buscou-se estabelecer uma arquitetura político-jurídica, que criou uma realidade que extrapola o campo econômico e projeta-se no terreno político.This paper aims to be a reflection on the importance of the Brazil and Argentina closer relations in the nuclear field, in the late eighties and early nineties, as the basis for building a new relationship that replaced a historical rivalry. The aproximation process has begun with apparently economic purposes, but also had a strategic dimension. The repercussions of this effort went beyond immediate bilateral interests, reflected in the search for a new international insertion by both countries, at a time of deep transformations, both internally and internationally. The Brazil-Argentina integration program (that later also involved Uruguay and MERCOSUL led to the establishment of a political-legal structure that created a reality that goes beyond economics to the political domain.

  18. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  19. Application of genetic algorithms to the maintenance scheduling optimization in a nuclear system basing on reliability; Aplicacao de algoritmos geneticos na otimizacao da politica de manutencoes preventivas de um sistema nuclear centrada em confiabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapa, Celso M. Franklin; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Mol, Antonio C. de Abreu [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a solution based on genetic algorithm and probabilistic safety analysis that can be applied in the optimization of the preventive maintenance politic of nuclear power plant safety systems. The goal of this approach is to improve the average availability of the system through the optimization of the preventive maintenance scheduling politic. The auxiliary feed water system of a two loops pressurized water reactor is used as a sample case, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results, when compared to those obtained by some standard maintenance politics, reveal quantitative gains and operational safety levels. (author)

  20. A simplified study of public perception in the nuclear field: suggestions for educational campaign for different segments of society; Um estudo simplificado sobre a percepcao publica na area nuclear: sugestoes para campanhas educativas para os diferentes segmentos da sociedade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Renata Araujo de

    2011-07-01

    During the last years the need for the increase in the electricity energy production as much as in Brazil as in the rest of the world, has raised the tone o the debate about the environmental impacts as a result of these debates, the government and the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO's) have requested several opinion researches aiming at measuring and evaluating the knowledge and perception of the public in relation to the best non-polluting energy sources. Prior to 2001 these researches would not make any sense in Brazil as the majority of its power grid is made of hydroelectric plants, a renewable energy source. However, when in that year it occurred a drought, the competent authorities have faced the necessity of developing a plan, the National Energy Plan (PNE2030) which recommends, among other objectives, finalizing the construction of the Angra 3 plant and the implementation Df new nuclear plants in places still to be determined. Even considering the complexity of the subject, this paper presents a field research realized from September 28th, 2010 to October 28th, 2010 of the current level of perception of the Brazilian population, specifically the residents of three cities of Rio de Janeiro, about the nuclear area. As a result of this work, it is suggested how the competent authorities should proceed to reach in an efficient manner, by means of communication campaigns both informative and educational, a greater understanding of the population about the proposed subject. (author)

  1. Collective dose estimation in Portuguese population due to medical exams of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine; Estimativa da dose coletiva na populacao portuguesa devido a exames medicos de radiologia de diagnostico e de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Pedro; Vaz, Pedro [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Sousa, M. Carmen de [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Coimbra (Portugal); Paulo, Graciano; Santos, Joana [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (Portugal); Pascoal, Ana [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Kings Health Partners; Cardoso, Gabriela; Santos, Ana isabel [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada (Portugal); Lanca, Isabel [Administracao Regional de Saude, Coimbra (Portugal); Matela, Nuno [Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias. Instituto de Biofisica e Engenharia Biomedica; Janeiro, Luis [Escola superior de Saude da Cruz Vermelha Portuguesa, Lisboa (Portugal); Sousa, Patrick [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal); Carvoeiras, Pedro; Parafita, Rui [Medical Consult, SA, Lisboa (Portugal); Simaozinho, Paula [Administracao Regional de Saude, Faro (Portugal)

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation due to medical examinations of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine, a working group, consisting of 40 institutions, public and private, was created to evaluation the coletive dose in the Portuguese population in 2010. This work was conducted in collaboration with the Dose Datamed European consortium, which aims to assess the exposure of the European population to ionizing radiation due to 20 diagnostic radiology examinations most frequent in Europe (the 'TOP 20') and nuclear medicine examinations. We obtained an average value of collective dose of Almost-Equal-To 1 mSv/caput, which puts Portugal in the category of countries medium to high exposure to Europe. We hope that this work can be a starting point to bridge the persistent lack of studies in the areas referred to in Portugal, and to enable the characterization periodic exposure of the Portuguese population to ionizing radiation in the context of medical applications.

  2. The Staffing of Central Electricity Generating Board Nuclear Power Stations; Organigramme des centrales nucleaires du central electricity generating board; Politika v oblasti kadrov na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh CEGB; El personal de las plantas nucleoelectricas de la central electricity generating board.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, J. S.; Shepherd, G. T. [Central Electricity Generating Board, Western Division, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1963-10-15

    An account is given of the staffing requirements and organization at a CEBG nuclear power station. The training of staff and licensing requirements for reactoroperating staff are discussed. Experience gained to data of the outcome of pre-operating training and detailed planning in the operational sphere is given. (author) [French] Le memoire donne un apercu de l'organigramme d'une centrale nucleaire du CEGB et des conditions auxquelles doit satisfaire le personnel (formation, qualifications requises pour la fonction d'operateur). Il rend compte egalement de l'experience acquise a ce jour quant a l'interet qu'il y a a former le personnel au prealable et a etablir des plans d'operation detailles. (author) [Spanish] La memoria informa sobre la organizacion de las centrales nucleoelectricas de la CEGB y sobre la plantilla de personal que estas requieren. Discute la formacion del personal y los requisitos para obtener la licencia de operador de reactores. Describe la experiencia adquirida hasta el presente en materia de formacion previa del personal y de organizacion detallada de las operaciones. (author) [Russian] Daetsya otchet o trebovaniyakh, pred{sup y}avlyaemykh k personalu, i organizatsiya nabora personala na atomnykh ehlektrostantsiyakh Tsentral'nogo upravleniya proizvodstva ehlektroehnergii (CEGB). Obsuzhdayutsya voprosy podgotovki personala i normativnykh trebovanij, pred{sup y}avlyaemykh k ehkspluatatsionnomu personalu. Izlagaetsya opyt, nakoplennyj k nastoyashchemu vremeni v rezul'tate osushchestvleniya predehkspluatatsionnoj podgotovki i podrobnogo planirovaniya v usloviyakh ehkspluatatsii. (author)

  3. Os desafios do desenvolvimento da engenharia genética na agricultura : percepção de riscos e regulação

    OpenAIRE

    Izaias de Carvalho Borges

    2010-01-01

    Resumo:Nos últimos 15 anos a engenharia genética vem sendo usada para o desenvolvimento de cultivos geneticamente modificados (GM) com diversos atributos de interesses para a produção agrícola, tais como tolerância a herbicidas, resistência a insetos e modificações nas características nutricionais de diversos cultivos. Os cultivos GM estão sendo utilizados na produção de produtos de grande importância no mercado mundial de commodities agrícolas, tais como algodão, milho e soja. Agricultores d...

  4. Adição de aparas de papel reciclável na fabricação de chapas de madeira aglomerada.

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Calegari; Clovis R. Haselein; Marcos V. Barros; Tobias L. Scaravelli; Lourdes Patricia E. Dacosta; Cristiane Pedrazzi; Everton Hillig

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foram analisadas as propriedades físico-mecânicas de chapas aglomeradas produzidas com dois tipos de papel reciclável (papel jornal e offset) e partículas de madeira de Pinus elliottii Engelm. As aparas de papel foram usadas no colchão em dois diferentes formatos (tiras ou moídas) e em diferentes proporções: 0, 20, 40, 60 e 100% do peso seco das partículas. Utilizoaram-se 10% de adesivo à base de tanino-formaldeído na proporção 100:10. O experimento foi estabelecido segundo mo...

  5. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear sciences and applications laboratories. Supporting development: R and D, capacity building and technical services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The system of twelve dedicated IAEA laboratory facilities is a unique feature in the United Nations. The laboratories support and implement programmatic activities that respond to the developmental needs of Member States in food and agriculture, human health, environmental monitoring and assessment, as well as the use of nuclear analytical instruments. The laboratories carry out three essential types of activity, which are simultaneously supported worldwide in Member State laboratories: (i) applied research and development; (ii) training and capacity building and (iii) technical and analytical services. Their primary aim is to assist in increasing the impact of related IAEA programmes. While the laboratories share certain types of activity, their fields of expertise range from food and agriculture, medical dosimetry to the environment and water resources. Most of the laboratories are based in Seibersdorf, a town about 35 km southeast of Vienna. There are five FAO-IAEA agriculture and biotechnology laboratories assisting Member States to develop and adapt new and existing agricultural technologies involving isotopes and radiation to suit local requirements and environmental conditions, and to provide the necessary training and analytical services pertaining to the efficient use of these technologies.

  6. Comparación de las metodologías usadas para medir la radiación electromagnética de las bandas de servicios de 4G con las de servicios 3G- Comparisson Between Methodologies Used for Measuring the Electromagnetic Radiation Coming from the 3G and 4G Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arturo Lezama Márquez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se compara la metodología usada para las mediciones del proyec -to de Investigación Mapa de Radiación Electromagnética producida por los Servicios de 4G en la Localidad de Usaquén, con la Metodología usada para la medición de la radiación de servicios 3G. Las dos metodologías están basadas en los resultados de los análisis de las recomendaciones de la UIT-T K.52 [2], K.61 [3] y K.83 [4] ya publicados en el artículo Metodología para hacer mediciones de radiación electromagnética de telefonía celular

  7. Plantas medicinais usadas para a saúde bucal pela comunidade do bairro Santa Cruz, Chapada dos Guimarães, MT, Brasil Medicinal plants used for oral health in the Santa Cruz neighborhood, Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliza Meireles Borba

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Mato Grosso, populações tradicionais recorrem ao uso de espécies vegetais como alternativa terapêutica. Na cidade de Chapada dos Guimarães, o bairro Santa Cruz se destaca por abrigar famílias nascidas em áreas urbanas ou rurais que conservam esses conhecimentos transmitidos por gerações. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo o levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade local, indicações terapêuticas, preparos e modos de uso visando a manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal. Foram entrevistados 40 residentes, através de abordagem qualitativa, usando entrevista semi-estruturada. As espécies catalogadas foram depositadas para identificação no UFMT/Herbário Central. Foram citadas 87 espécies pertencentes a 48 famílias utilizadas na saúde bucal, encontradas no bioma Cerrado ou cultivadas nas residências. Conforme as afecções bucais citadas, as espécies utilizadas são: para erupção dentária: camomila (Matricaria chamomilla L.; candidíases, estomatites, gengivites e afta: açafrão (Crocus sativus L.; dor de dente: arnica-da-serra (Brickelia brasiliensis (Spreng. Robinson. A folha foi a parte da planta mais usada e o chá, por decocção, modo de preparo mais comum. Pessoas idosas, líderes comunitários, parteiras e benzedeiras entrevistados apresentaram um maior conhecimento sobre o assunto. Constatou-se que a comunidade utiliza espécies vegetais, nativas do cerrado ou exóticas, com finalidade terapêutica para manutenção e recuperação da saúde bucal, sendo uma alternativa tradicional, econômica e atuante.In the State of Mato Grosso, traditional populations turn to the use of many plant species as a therapeutic alternative. In the city of Chapada dos Guimarães, the Santa Cruz neighborhood is well known for harboring families from urban and rural communities who preserve this knowledge passed down through many generations. The objective of this research was to survey the medicinal plants used

  8. Nuclear energy for use in Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervellini, A.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of nuclear energy to solve problems in agriculture, aiming to increase the food production, is presented. The projects that are being developed at CENA (Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura) are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Načrtovan porod na domu

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović, Tamara; Takač, Iztok

    2017-01-01

    Izhodišča: Porod na domu je sicer star toliko kot človeštvo, pa vendar v veliki večini srednje in visoko razvitih držav prevladuje mnenje, da so zaradi nepredvidljivosti zapletov porodnišnice najbolj varno okolje za rojevanje. Kljub temu obstaja peščica držav, v katerih je porod na domu integriran v sistem zdravstvenega varstva (npr. Nizozemska, Velika Britanija, Kanada). Pri porodih na domu ločimo nenačrtovane in načrtovane porode na domu, slednje pa lahko nadalje razdelimo še na porode s sp...

  10. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymula, Agnieszka; Palermo, Richard D; Bayoumy, Amr; Groves, Ian J; Ba Abdullah, Mohammed; Holder, Beth; White, Robert E

    2018-02-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells.

  11. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-LP is essential for transforming naïve B cells, and facilitates recruitment of transcription factors to the viral genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymula, Agnieszka; Palermo, Richard D.; Bayoumy, Amr; Groves, Ian J.

    2018-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) is the first viral latency-associated protein produced after EBV infection of resting B cells. Its role in B cell transformation is poorly defined, but it has been reported to enhance gene activation by the EBV protein EBNA2 in vitro. We generated EBNA-LP knockout (LPKO) EBVs containing a STOP codon within each repeat unit of internal repeat 1 (IR1). EBNA-LP-mutant EBVs established lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from adult B cells at reduced efficiency, but not from umbilical cord B cells, which died approximately two weeks after infection. Adult B cells only established EBNA-LP-null LCLs with a memory (CD27+) phenotype. Quantitative PCR analysis of virus gene expression after infection identified both an altered ratio of the EBNA genes, and a dramatic reduction in transcript levels of both EBNA2-regulated virus genes (LMP1 and LMP2) and the EBNA2-independent EBER genes in the first 2 weeks. By 30 days post infection, LPKO transcription was the same as wild-type EBV. In contrast, EBNA2-regulated cellular genes were induced efficiently by LPKO viruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that EBNA2 and the host transcription factors EBF1 and RBPJ were delayed in their recruitment to all viral latency promoters tested, whereas these same factors were recruited efficiently to several host genes, which exhibited increased EBNA2 recruitment. We conclude that EBNA-LP does not simply co-operate with EBNA2 in activating gene transcription, but rather facilitates the recruitment of several transcription factors to the viral genome, to enable transcription of virus latency genes. Additionally, our findings suggest that EBNA-LP is essential for the survival of EBV-infected naïve B cells. PMID:29462212

  12. Na, Mg, Ni and Cs distribution and speciation after long-term alteration of a simulated nuclear waste glass: A micro-XAS/XRF/XRD and wet chemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Enzo; Dähn, Rainer; Farges, François; Vespa, Marika

    2009-04-01

    Microscopic distribution and speciation of Na, Mg, Ni and Cs in a simulated (inactive) nuclear waste glass were studied using micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μ-XAS), after aqueous leaching during 12 years at 90 °C. Na and Mg are major constituents of the glass that can be used to determine the progress of the glass corrosion process and the nature of secondary alteration phases. Ni and Cs represent dose determining long-lived radionuclides ( 59Ni, 135Cs) in vitrified nuclear waste. The Na-Mg μ-XRF maps revealed that the core regions of the glass fragments are apparently unaltered and compositionally homogeneous, whereas rims and interstitial spaces are enriched with Mg-rich smectite formed during the leaching process. The micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectra collected at the Mg K-edge in the altered zones show three sharp resonances typical for crystalline Mg-silicates. These resonances are distinctive of Mg occupying undistorted octahedral positions. In contrast, the μ-XANES spectra collected in the core zones of the glass fragments lack this resonance pattern and are identical to the spectra measured on the pristine (unleached) MW glass. Micro extended X-ray absorption fine structure (μ-EXAFS) and μ-XANES analyses at the Ni K-edge revealed three distinct Ni(II) species: (a) Ni uniformly distributed in the glass matrix, (b) micro-inclusions with high Ni concentrations and (c) Ni associated to the Mg-clay. The comparison with reference spectra of unleached MW and other Ni-bearing silicate glasses indicated that species (a) represents the original coordinative environment of Ni in the glass. The μ-EXAFS analyses revealed that species (b) is structural Ni in trevorite (NiFe 2O 4), which probably formed through unmixing processes during the cooling of the glass melt. The μ-EXAFS of species (c) could be successfully modeled assuming specific adsorption or incorporation of Ni into the lattice of

  13. Fatores genéticos na agregação familiar da pressão arterial de famílias nucleares portuguesas Factores genéticos en la agregación familiar de la presión arterial de familias nucleares portuguesas Genetic factors in familial aggregation of blood pressure of portuguese nuclear families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério César Fermino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Apesar da elevada prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Portugal, a importância relativa que os genes possam exercer na manifestação final dos valores da pressão arterial (PA parece pouco estudada. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a presença, indireta, de transmissão vertical de fatores genéticos entre progenitores e descendentes nos valores da PA, e estimar a contribuição dos fatores genéticos responsáveis pela variação dos valores de PA em termos populacionais. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 367 indivíduos (164 progenitores e 203 descendentes pertencentes a 107 famílias nucleares provenientes de diferentes regiões do norte de Portugal, participantes do projeto "Famílias Activas". A PA foi medida com um aparelho digital da marca Omron®, modelo M6 (HEM-7001-E. Foram utilizados os softwares estatísticos SPSS 15.0 para a análise exploratória de dados e o cálculo das estatísticas descritivas, e o PEDSTATS para analisar o comportamento genérico das variáveis entre os diferentes membros da família. O cálculo das correlações entre familiares e as estimativas de heritabilidade foram realizados nos módulos FCOR e ASSOC do software de epidemiologia genética S.A.G.E., versão 5.3. RESULTADOS: Para a PA sistólica (PAS, os valores das correlações entre os graus de parentesco foram de baixos a moderados (0,21FUNDAMENTO: A pesar de la elevada prevalencia de hipertensión arterial en Portugal, la importancia relativa que los genes pueden ejercer en la manifestación final de los valores de la presión arterial (PA nos parece poco estudiada. OBJETIVOS:Verificar la presencia, indirecta, de transmisión vertical de factores genéticos entre progenitores y descendientes en los valores de la PA, y estimar el aporte de los factores genéticos responsables de la variación de los valores de PA en términos poblacionales. MÉTODOS: La muestra estaba conformada por 367 individuos (164 progenitores y 203 descendientes

  14. Utilização de técnicas multivariadas e de morfometria geométrica na discriminação de espécies do gênero Rhinobatos (Família Rhinobatidae) do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiane Rocha Albuquerque Lima

    2007-01-01

    Rhinobatos cf percellens é uma espécie de raia marinha de águas costeiras. A amostra analisada foi coletada em Caiçara do Norte, no estado do Rio Grande do Norte (Brasil). Técnicas tradicionais e de morfometria geométrica foram usadas com o objetivo de identificar o status específico da espécie explorada na costa Nordeste do Brasil. Para isso, comparações entre R. percellens e R. lentiginosus foram feitas através de dados obtidos na literatura e dados de parátipos de ambas espécies prov...

  15. Recuperação em área de empréstimo usada para construção de usina hidrelétrica Recovery of nativa area used for construction of hydroelectric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene C. Alves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recuperação de áreas de empréstimo usada para construção de hidrelétricas é um processo lento que requer o uso de plantas de cobertura, como fonte de matéria orgânica e a aplicação de nutrientes e corretivos como condicionadores dos atributos do solo. Portanto, objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a recuperação de atributos físicos do subsolo de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, utilizado no terrapleno e fundação da Usina Hidrelétrica de Ilha Solteira, SP. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. A pesquisa foi implantada em 1992. Os tratamentos se constituíram do uso de adubos verdes, braquiária e correção do solo. Após 13 anos foram avaliados: porosidade total do solo, macroporosidade, microporosidade, densidade do solo, estabilidade de agregados, resistência do solo à penetração, teor de matéria orgânica e produção de matéria seca da braquiária. Os tratamentos adotados estão recuperando, de forma lenta, os atributos físicos do subsolo exposto. Os efeitos da recuperação do solo estão atingindo a profundidade de 0-0,10 m.The recovery of native area used in hydroelectric power station construction is a slow process, and it requires the use of covering plant as a source of organic matter, application of nutrients and amendments as soil conditioner. Thus, this study has the objective to study the recovery of physical attribute of subsoil in a distrophic Red Latosol, used in the embankment and foundation of Hydroelectric Power Station, Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil. The design used was randomized blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The research started in 1992. The treatments consisted of green manure, pasture and soil amendment. After 13 years, total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, bulk density, aggregate stability, resistance to penetration, organic matter of soil and dry matter of pasture production were evaluated. The

  16. Un método para el tratamiento de las pilas y baterías domésticas usadas de tamaño medio. III Parte. Propuesta de un método para su tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Juan, D.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A method for the primary treatment of spent batteries and domestic cells is proposed. Basic processes for the secondary treatment, metals recovering and detoxifying wastes are developed. Iron is directly recovered in the primary treatment as a ferrous scrap. Zinc is recovered from ammoniacal solution obtained in primary treatment by means of a hydrothermal process. For recovering cadmium, copper and nickel, a cementation with zinc dusts is proposed along with the application of the COCADEX process. Detoxifying the fraction bioxide obtained and the mercury recovered are made by heat treatment at 300- 400°C. The heat treatment wastes and the non ferrous fraction can be treated in a Waelz furnace, for the simultaneous recovery of zinc and cadmium contained in the waste as a Waelz oxide.

    Se propone un método para llevar a cabo el tratamiento primario de las pilas y baterías domésticas usadas. Se desarrollan los procesos necesarios para realizar el tratamiento secundario, recuperar los metales contenidos y separar los componentes tóxicos de los residuos. En el tratamiento primario se recupera el hierro directamente como una chatarra férrea. El cinc se recupera de la disolución amoniacal procedente del tratamiento primario mediante un proceso hidrotermal. Para la recuperación del cadmio, cobre y níquel se propone su cementación con polvo de cinc y posterior aplicación del proceso COCADEX. La eliminación de los productos tóxicos de la fracción bióxido resultante, así como la recuperación del mercurio se realizan mediante calcinación a 300-400 °C. El residuo de calcinación y la fracción no férrea se pueden tratar conjuntamente en un horno Waelz para recuperar simultáneamente el cinc y el cadmio residual como óxido Waelz.

  17. Interação entre células do cumulus e atividade da proteína quinase C em diferentes fases da maturação nuclear de oócitos bovinos Interaction between cumulus cells and the activity of protein kinase C at different stages of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Bertagnolli

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a influência da proteína quinase C (PK-C no reinício e na progressão da meiose em oócitos bovinos, determinando se as células do cumulus são mediadoras da PK-C na regulação da maturação dos oócitos. Complexos cumulus-oócitos (CCO e oócitos desnudos (OD, distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos (T com base na presença de um ativador da PK-C (PMA (T1 e T2, de um forbol éster incapaz de ativar a PK-C (4alfa-PDD-controle (T3 e T4 ou de apenas o meio básico (TCM-199-controle (T5 e T6, foram cultivados por 7, 9, 12, 18 e 22 horas. A percentagem de rompimento da vesícula germinativa no grupo cultivado com PMA foi maior do que nos dois grupos controle, com e sem células do cumulus. O cultivo de CCO e OD por 12 e 18 horas demonstrou que a PK-C influencia a progressão para os estádios de metáfase I (MI e metáfase II (MII de maneira dependente das células do cumulus. Nos períodos de 9 e 22 horas, não foi possível observar diferença entre os grupos quanto aos diferentes estádios de maturação. A ativação da PK-C acelera o reinício da meiose independentemente das células somáticas e acelera a progressão até os estádios de MI e MII na dependência das células do cumulus.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein kinase C (PK-C on the meiotic resumption and progression in bovine oocyte, and to determine if the cumulus cells mediate the PK-C action in the regulation of bovine oocyte nuclear maturation. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC and denuded oocytes (DO, randomly allotted to 6 treatments (T based on the presence of an activator of PK-C (PMA (T1 and T2, or a phorbol ester unable to activate PK-C (4alphaPDD-control (T3 and T4 or a basic culture medium (T5 and T6, were cultivated for 7, 9, 12, 18 and 22 hours. The percentage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD was higher when the oocytes were cultured with PMA than in the control groups with and without cumulus cells. However, PK-C was

  18. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  19. Producción y caracterización de un anticuerpo policlonal dirigido contra la fosfoproteína del virus de la rabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Yadira Castañeda

    2007-06-01

    Materiales y métodos. El gen P que codifica para la proteína P del virus de la rabia, fue amplificado por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa de transcriptasa reversa y clonado en el vector de expresión PinPointTM Xa-1 T (PROMEGA. La proteína recombinante P fue expresada en E. coli purificada por cromatografía de afinidad y usada para la producción del anticuerpo policlonal anti-P. El anticuerpo obtenido fue purificado y caracterizado por inmunocitoquímica con un sistema enzimático, inmunofluorescencia, Cell-ELISA fluorométrica y Western blotting. Resultados. La proteína recombinante se expresó eficientemente como una proteína de fusión biotinilada de aproximadamente 50 kd, que corresponde a la forma completa de la proteína P del virus de la rabia. El anticuerpo policlonal anti-P detectó con alta especificidad la proteína P en cultivos de neuronas sensoriales infectados con el virus de la rabia. Conclusión. La proteína P recombinante expresada en E. coli se constituyó en un antígeno específico para producir un anticuerpo policlonal que reconoce la proteína P nativa en células infectadas con el virus de la rabia.

  20. The influence of Goiania radiological accident on Brazilian public opinion concerning new nuclear electric plants; A influencia do acidente radiologico de Goiania na aceitacao publica de novas usinas nucleoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meldonian, Nelson Leon; Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Energia e Ambiente

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian society is against applications of nuclear energy, mainly respecting to construction of new nuclear power plants, believing that they are harmful to population`s welfare and the environment. By this reason, Brazilian nuclear sector would promote a more intensive program of public discussion, not limited to technical and scientific community. Intending to contribute to a better judgment by society about the differences between diverse employment of nuclear energy, arguments concerned to its benefits are presented, pointing out that adverse accounts to nuclear electricity based on Goiania radiological accident, are not justified 10 refs., 5 tabs.; e-mail: meldonia at net.ipen.br

  1. Opaque Nuclear Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Relationship, 0000271219, 1961. https://www.cia.gov/ library / readingroom/docs/DOC_0000271219.pdf. . Trends in South Africa’s Nuclear Security Policies ...official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. IRB number ____N/A____. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...how Israel and South Africa shaped those strategies. This research may contribute to better understanding possible policies of potential nuclear

  2. Efetividade da "multimistura" como suplemento de dietas deficientes em vitaminas e/ou minerais na recuperação ponderal de ratos submetidos à desnutrição pós-natal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Haroldo da Silva; Assunção,Monica Lopes de; França,Adijane Oliveira Santos de; Cardoso,Eliana Paiva Cunha; Moura,Fabiana Andréa

    2005-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar a efetividade da "multimistura", usada como suplemento de dietas deficientes em vitaminas, deficientes em minerais, ou deficientes em vitaminas e minerais, na recuperação ponderal de ratos desnutridos. MÉTODOS: Após o desmame, 56 ratos Wistar, submetidos à desnutrição pós-natal, foram aleatoriamente distribuídos em 7 grupos diferenciados segundo o tipo de dieta oferecida: controle, dietas deficientes em vitaminas, deficientes em minerais, deficientes em vitaminas e minerais ...

  3. Comparação das técnicas transarterial e de estimulação de múltiplos nervos para bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar usando lidocaína com epinefrina

    OpenAIRE

    Imbelloni, Luiz Eduardo; Beato, Lúcia; Cordeiro, José Antônio

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A técnica transarterial com grandes doses de anestésico local resulta em alta efetividade para o bloqueio axilar do plexo braquial. A técnica utilizando múltiplos estímulos exige mais tempo e maior experiência. Este estudo prospectivo compara a latência e o índice de sucesso do bloqueio do plexo braquial usando duas técnicas de localização: transarterial ou múltipla estimulação dos nervos. MÉTODO: A lidocaína com epinefrina, 800 mg, foi usada inicialmente para o blo...

  4. High resolution laser spectroscopy of the D lines of on-line produced 21Na, 22Na, 24Na, 25Na using a new high sensitivity method of detection of optical resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.; Thibault, G.; Klapisch, R.; Duong, H.T.; Vialle, J.L.; Pinard, I.; Juncar, P.; Jacquinot, P.

    1975-01-01

    A polyisotopic sodium beam of 21 - 25 Na, produced by spallation of Al, was illuminated by a tunable dye laser. The atomic beam, analyzed by a sixpole magnet is then ionized and detected after a mass spectrometer. The results are the isotope shifts, nuclear magnetic moment and quadrupole moment of 25 Na [fr

  5. Degeneração oxychromatica ("inclusões intranucleares" na febre amarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Magarinos Torres

    1931-05-01

    Full Text Available 1- No interior do nucleo de cellulas hepaticas de Macacus rhesus e M. cynomolgus (figs. 13-34 inoculado com o virus da febre amarella e de cellulas hepaticas de doentes de febre amarella (figs. 61-65 e 68-69 ocorre o processo regressivo referido na literatura sob o nome de «degeneração oxychromatica». Tal processo apresenta grande intensidade nos macacos, sendo, porém, assaz escasso no material humano colhido em autopsias. Esta alteração está intimamente associada ao effeito nocivo causado pelo proprio virus da febre amarella, sendo, neste sentido, a unica alteração verdadeiramente especifica na febre amarella. Não foram encontradas alterações do cytoplasma nem granulos intracellulares que tivessem relação com o virus da febre amarella. Assim sendo, a febre amarella pertencerá ao grupo de doenças de virus filtraveis produzindo alterações cellulares caracteristicas ou corpusculos especificos, exclusivamente limitados ao nucleo. Deve ser incluida, portanto no grupo karyo-oikon da classificação de Lipschütz, juntamente com herpes, varicella, virus III do coelho, «submaxillary disease», etc. Como acontece em geral, nas doenças de virus filtraveis, formando inclusões intracellulares, observa-se na febre amarella que a inclusão celular especifica predomina ou existe exclusivamente em determinada especie cellular. Até agora, no nosso material só conseguimos evidenciar a degeneração oxychromatica da febre amarella na cellula hepatica. Quando existe, porém, a sua abundancia é notavel, não raro attingido a quasi totalidade das cellulas hepaticas nos cortes histologicos examinados. Esse facto não poude ser observado nos casos humanos que examinamos,provavelmente em virtude de condições proprias do virus no homem e da phase da molestia na qual foi retirado o material para estudo. Nas cellulas da camada cortical das suprarenaes de M. rhesus infectados encontramos aspectos nucleares suggestivos de degenera

  6. Implantação de um programa de gerenciamento de resíduos químicos e águas servidas nos laboratórios de ensino e pesquisa no CENA/USP Establishment of a management program for chemical residues and waste water, generated in laboratories of the centro de energia nuclear na agricultura (CENA/USP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arnold Tavares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish a program for the treatment of chemical residues and waste waters at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, for environmental preservation and training of staff. Five tons of stored residues and the ones currently generated in the laboratories have to be treated. Rational use of water is also part of the program. The traditional purification by distillation has been replaced by purification with ion exchange resins. Lower energy consumption and better water quality were achieved.

  7. NaK handling and removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desreumaux, J.; Rodriguez, G.; Guigon, A.; Verdelli, J.; Thomine, G.

    1997-01-01

    Sodium-potassium alloy is used in specific application in French Fast Breeder Reactors as: cold traps, NaK bubbler for argon purification, valves and also in experimental irradiation devices. lt has been preferred to sodium because it is liquid from + 7 deg. C for the most common peritectic alloy. After its use, NaK is considered as a hazardous waste (nuclear or not) due to its high reactivity with air and water. The most important risk remains in handling NaK systems which have not been operated for some time. The NaK will be covered with a crust of the superoxide K02 which is a strong oxidising agent. Thermodynamically, K02 will react with most organic material or metallic dust or swarfs and can also react with additional NaK to give sufficient heat to boil part of the NaK, resulting in a sudden increase in pressure and small explosions. We describe the formation given to experimenters in our Sodium School and the CEA's experience in treating specific devices for transportation, decanting of tanks, tank opening and NaK removal. (author)

  8. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  9. Uma abordagem semiótica e indicial da identidade na era de YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Andacht

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo estuda os efeitos comunicacionais e imaginários produzidos pelos vlogs, quer autênticos, quer falsos, no YouTube através de alguns casos célebres na história desse site para carregar e compartilhar vídeos. Em muitas dessas produções audiovisuais há um predomínio dos signos indiciais – a classe de significação que surge do contato do signo com seu objeto, como as pegadas ou os sintomas. Na época atual, estes signos são muito procurados pelos públicos para satisfazer o interesse coletivo por um corpo a corpo com os realizadores amadores – ou aqueles que se apresentam assim – de vlogs autobiográficos. A abordagem teórica da semiótica triádica de Peirce é usada para a análise da identidade humana na era da internet, e também para uma análise da dúvida sobre o autêntico e seu oposto, o simulado, um elemento inseparável dessa experiência midiática

  10. Los cirujanos y la cocaína. Facile est inventis addere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Dagnino Sepúlveda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, tercero de una serie sobre el desarrollo de la anestesia local, describe los acontecimientos que siguieron al descubrimiento hecho por Carl Koller en 1884 del uso anestésico de la cocaína hasta la introducción de la procaína por Einhorn. En un lapso de veinte años, varias investigaciones culminaron con la introducción de muchas de las técnicas de anestesia local y regional usadas contemporáneamente: troncular, por infiltración, raquídea y peridural caudal. El escrito toca aspectos tales como la juventud de los innovadores, en su mayoría cirujanos, la toxicidad y el terrible poder de adicción de la cocaína que alcanzó a algunos de ellos, las disputas por la precedencia y la tradición de autoexperimentación.

  11. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  12. A construção da campanha eleitoral majoritária no HGPE: uma análise comparada das estratégias usadas pelos presidenciáveis de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Goulart Massuchin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir as diferenças na apropriação do Horário Gratuito de Propaganda Eleitoral (HGPE pelos partidos e candidatos na disputa majoritária à Presidência da República em 2014. A propaganda televisiva é o principal recurso de campanha utilizado em eleições de grande porte, sendo que tanto o conteúdo quanto o formato são relevantes para compreender o modo como a disputa se estrutura. Analisa-se o conteúdo apresentado pelos dois principais candidatos – Dilma Rousseff (PT e Aécio Neves (PSDB – considerando as estratégias, o apelo, os formatos, o tipo de orador e a mensagem geral de campanha. A metodologia utilizada é quantitativa de análise de conteúdo, sendo que este artigo parte de duas hipóteses: a o segundo turno torna-se mais negativo, com maior ênfase na imagem do candidato e com uma campanha mais voltada para as emoções; b a estruturação da campanha dos candidatos se dá de modo diferente, evidenciando características e formatos distintos.

  13. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  14. Parametri za procena na kvalitetot na polietilenska i na polipropilenska ambalaza i na gumeni zatvoraci nameneti za farmacevtski preparati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Ugrinova

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Napraven e pregled na parametrite za procena na kvalitetot na polietilenska i na polipropilenska ambalaza i na gumeni zatvoraci nameneti za farmacevtski preparati. Za procena na kvalitetot na ispituvaniot materijal bea izvrseni fizicki, hemiski i bioloski ispituvanja spored postapkite dadeni vo Ph. Eur., DIN i spored DIN ISO standardite. Baranjata za kvalitet na ovoj vid ambalaza propisani spored Ph. Eur., DIN i DIN ISO standardite se razlikuvaat vo odnos na predvidenite parametri za fizicki, za hemiski i za bioloski ispituvanja. Isto taka, propisani se i razlicni granici na dozvoleno otstapuvanje na oddelni parametri.

  15. Fibras vegetais utilizadas na pesca artesanal na microrregião do Salgado, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oliveira

    Full Text Available As espécies vegetais fibrosas ocupam papel de destaque no cotidiano das comunidades tradicionais amazônicas ao lado das espécies medicinais, alimentícias e madeireiras. Na microrregião do Salgado do estado do Pará - constituída pelos municípios de Colares, Curuçá, Magalhães Barata, Maracanã, Marapanim, Salinópolis, Santarém Novo, São Caetano de Odivelas, São João de Pirabas e Vigia - as fibras vegetais são usadas em cestaria, trançados, fixadoras em substituição ao prego, adornos e vestuário. Para a elaboração do presente trabalho, os dados foram obtidos entre artesãos e pescadores artesanais da microrregião do Salgado do estado do Pará, com cerca de 150 entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foram registradas 17 espécies, distribuídas em oito famílias e 17 gêneros utilizados na preparação de implementos de pesca artesanal, cujas matérias prima são provenientes de diversas partes da planta, onde as talas são da haste caulinar de Marantaceae e estipe de Arecaceae, os cipós são raízes de Araceae e Cyclanthaceae e os caules de Bignoniaceae e Dilleniaceae, enquanto que as palhas são folhas e pinas de Arecaceae. A família mais representativa com relação ao número de espécies e o fornecimento de matéria prima utilizada foi Arecaceae com 8 spp., seguida de Dilleniaceae e Araceae com 2 spp., Bignoniaceae, Bombacaceae, Cyclanthaceae, Marantaceae e Poaceae com 1 sp. cada. O trabalho visa contribuir para o conhecimento das espécies vegetais fibrosas, quanto a sua morfologia, origem e manuseio da matéria prima, os produtos confeccionados e seus usos, além do registro dos aspectos culturais da utilização de espécies vegetais fibrosas no cotidiano da atividade pesqueira artesanal daquela microrregião.

  16. Real-time high-resolution X-ray imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance study of the hydration of pure and Na-doped C3A in the presence of sulfates

    KAUST Repository

    Kirchheim, A. P.; Dal Molin, Denise Carpena Coitinho; Fischer, Peter J.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Provis, John L.; Monteiro, Paulo José Meleragno

    2011-01-01

    window, combined with solution analysis by 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to capture information regarding the mechanism of C3A hydration during the early stages. There are differences in the hydration mechanism between

  17. Nuclear Materials Management in a Recovery Facility for Unirradiated Enriched Uranium; Gestion des Matieres Nucleaires dans une Installation de Recuperation d'Uranium Enrichi Non Irradie; Administrativno-khozyajstvennyj uchet yadernykh materialov na ustanovke po regeneratsii neobluchennogo obogashchennogo urana; Administracion de Materiales Nucleares en una Planta de Recuperacion para Uranio Enriquecido No Irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasny, G. R. [Union Carbide Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1966-02-15

    mediante las tecnicas siguientes: 1. Diseno cuidadoso del equipo para facilitar la limpieza y el muestreo y reducir al minimo el atascamiento del material; 2. Control continuo de todas las corrientes de desechos y residuos, incluidos los efluentes li'quidos y gaseosos, y los desechos contaminados. 3. Inventarios fisicos periodicos; 4. Muestreo y analisis minuciosos de todos los materiales que entran en la planta y de todos los productos que salen de ella; 5. Control estricto de la calidad de las mediciones analiticas y del muestreo; 6. Asignacion de la responsabilidad del control de los materiales al personal tecnico y no a los servicios de contabilidad; 7. Adecuado adiestramiento del personal tecnico. El suministro de datos a los servicios de contabilidad se logra estableciendo una corriente de informacion practicamente paralela a la corriente fi'sica del material; la identidad de cada partida se mantiene mediante una serie de fichas individuales y la salida de una partida se indica pasando la ficha correspondiente al departamento de contabilidad de material nuclear. La mayor parte de las operaciones contables se llevan a cabo con un equipo electronico de sistematizacion de datos. Ademas de los registros y de los calculos necesarios para los balances de material, se llevan registros de carga y concentracion que facilitan la deteccion de anomalias en la relacion entrada-salida o en la evaluacion de las existencias. El analisis estadistico se emplea en gran medida para el control de las mediciones y para reducir al minimo el numero de los analisis quimicos. De todas formas, la aplicacion de la estadistica a la evaluacion de las discrepancias de inventario no ha dado buenos resultados. En la memoria se discuten todos estos detalles de la tecnica de control de materiales y algunos de los problemas que plantea la aplicacion de esta tecnica. (author) [Russian] Na ustanovke Y-12 Komissii po atomnoj jenergii v Okridzhe, Tennessi, uzhe bolee 20 let pererabatyvajutsja i

  18. Comparação das técnicas transarterial e de estimulação de múltiplos nervos para bloqueio do plexo braquial por via axilar usando lidocaína com epinefrina Comparación de las técnicas transarterial y de estimulación de múltiples nervios para bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía axilar usando lidocaína con epinefrina Comparison of transarterial and multiple nerve stimulation techniques for axillary block using lidocaine with epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni; Lúcia Beato; José Antônio Cordeiro

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A técnica transarterial com grandes doses de anestésico local resulta em alta efetividade para o bloqueio axilar do plexo braquial. A técnica utilizando múltiplos estímulos exige mais tempo e maior experiência. Este estudo prospectivo compara a latência e o índice de sucesso do bloqueio do plexo braquial usando duas técnicas de localização: transarterial ou múltipla estimulação dos nervos. MÉTODO: A lidocaína com epinefrina, 800 mg, foi usada inicialmente para o blo...

  19. Inovação na fabricação de cervejas especiais na região de Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Hermógenes Ferreira

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar os processos de inovação na fabricação de cervejas especiais na grande Belo Horizonte. Para tanto, utilizou-se conceitos como cervejas especiais, inovação, empreendedorismo e gestão do conhecimento. O foco teórico foi concentrado na evolução da indústria cervejeira, no processo de inovação e nas diversas tipologias adotadas pelos autores tradicionais, que são referência no tema. Autores como Schumpeter, e os mais recentes, como Tidd, Bessant & Pavitt (2008, auxiliaram na definição de inovação usada neste trabalho. A coleta de dados deu-se através de entrevistas com atores da produção de cervejas especiais, da observação em painel setorial, em mesa redonda em evento do setor, além de pesquisa documental. Os sujeitos pesquisados foram os atores envolvidos com cervejas especiais, como: microcervejeiros, homebrewers e consultores do setor. As conclusões indicam que a inovação tem sido importante para aqueles que atuam com esse tipo de cerveja, seja pela diferenciação do produto, pelo atendimento às exigências do mercado e por uma atuação incipiente em redes sociais para transmissão do conhecimento. Os resultados da pesquisa mostraram evidências da ocorrência de inovação no setor cervejeiro artesanal, em particular, as incrementais.

  20. Plantas medicinais usadas nos distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze, Lagarto, SE, Brasil Medicinal plants used for aliments of the gastro-intestinal tract at Colonia Treze village, Lagarto Municipality, Sergipe State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Silene da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os modelos de desenvolvimento sócio-econômicos adotados pela sociedade humana refletem diferentes formas de relacionamento com a natureza, as quais no paradigma vigente têm levado à grande perda de recursos naturais. Na esfera dessa relação, a conservação e preservação da biodiversidade da flora medicinal torna-se fundamental, pela importância que as plantas medicinais assumem como potencial genético para o desenvolvimento de novas drogas, e como acesso primário à saúde para muitas comunidades. Utilizando a abordagem etnofarmacológica na pesquisa de plantas medicinais, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente contra distúrbios do trato gastrintestinal no povoado Colônia Treze em Lagarto, SE, comunidade que tem o uso popular das plantas medicinais inserido em sua cultura. Sua metodologia abrangeu trabalho de campo na comunidade, adotando o método etnográfico qualitativo rápido. A amostra foi composta por líderes da comunidade, usuários de plantas e praticantes da medicina popular. Baseando-se nas indicações populares sobre o uso das plantas medicinais, selecionaram-se oito plantas que foram submetidas aos experimentos farmacológicos. As plantas testadas no Modelo de Trânsito Intestinal não produziram alteração na motilidade. Já as submetidas ao Modelo de Indução de Lesão Gástrica aguda, mostraram-se efetivas na atividade antiulcerogênica. A partir destes resultados propõem-se estratégias de desenvolvimento local para esta comunidade, que aliem a conservação da flora medicinal à melhoria de sua qualidade de vida.Models of socioeconomic development adopted by human societies reflect different ways of relating to Nature, which, given the present paradigm, have evolved towards great natural-resource loss. Within the sphere of this relationship, both the conservation and preservation of medicinal-plant biodiversity are fundamental because of the importance of

  1. A importância da contra-imunoeletroforese na detecção de antígenos nucleares extraíveis para o diagnóstico de doenças reumáticas sistêmicas The importance of counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the detection of extractable nuclear antigens for the diagnosis of systemic rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Siqueira Bruder

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Os antígenos nucleares extraíveis (ENAs são encontrados no soro da maioria dos pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica. Os principais ENAs estudados são SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 e Jo-1. Objeti-vou-se neste trabalho: a padronizar a técnica de contra-imunoeletroforese (CIE para a detecção de ENAs; b padronizar o substrato antigênico (ENAs para a CIE a partir de baço de cão; c comparar os resultados da CIE com as técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI e Elisa para esses antígenos. Para tal foram estudados 40 soros de pacientes com doença reumática sistêmica confirmada por exames clínico e laboratorial (sorológico e biópsia. Como controle negativo foram utilizados dez soros de doadores de sangue normais, e, como controles positivos, seis soros-padrão anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP, anti-Sm, anti-Scl-70, anti-Jo-1, para caracterizar os antígenos presentes no extrato de baço. Neste último foram detectados vários ENAs, exceto RNP e Scl-70. A técnica de CIE apresentou boas sensibilidade (70% e especificidade (100% em relação às outras técnicas (IFI e Elisa. A titulação dos soros pela CIE revelou positividade até diluições de 1:16 em 32,5% dos casos. Concluímos que a CIE e os antígenos extraídos de baço de cão podem ser utilizados na rotina laboratorial para triagem destes ENAs, com a vantagem, em relação à IFI, de poderem ser titulados.Extractable nuclear antigens (ENAs are detected in the sera of the majority of patients with rheumatic systemic disease. The main ENAs studied are SS-A/Ro, SS-B/La, RNP, Sm, Scl-70 and Jo-1. The aim of this work was: a to standardize the counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique (CIE to detect ENAs; b to standardize the extration of ENAs from dog spleen as a substract for CIE test; c to compare the results obtained by CIE with those of indirect immunofluorescence (IFI and Elisa for these antigens. Forty sera from individuals with rheumatic systemic disease confirmed by

  2. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  3. O Rio e as cidades: uma análise exploratória de dependências e alcances das comunidades do Arapiuns (Pará-Brasil) e da formação do urbano na Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Dal’Asta; Silvana Amaral; Antônio Miguel Vieira Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Considerando as comunidades ribeirinhas dos rios Arapiuns, Maró e Aruã, no SudoesteParaense como unidades socioespaciais que estruturam o fenômeno urbano na escala local, este artigo apresenta uma análise dos dados de campo que as descrevem. Questionáriossemiestruturados aplicados a 49 comunidades proveram 32 variáveis, usadas para compor cinco indicadores, que descrevem as condições de infraestrutura, saúde e educação, presença do estado, us...

  4. Long-Range Effects of Na(+) Binding in Na,K-ATPase Reported by ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, David A; Fedosova, Natalya U; Esmann, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses the question of long-range interactions between the intramembranous cation binding sites and the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding site of the ubiquitous ion-transporting Na,K-ATPase using (13)C cross-polarization magic-angle spinning (CP-MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. High-affinity ATP binding is induced by the presence of Na(+) as well as of Na-like substances such as Tris(+), and these ions are equally efficient promoters of nucleotide binding. CP-MAS analysis of bound ATP with Na,K-ATPase purified from pig kidney membranes reveals subtle differences in the nucleotide interactions within the nucleotide site depending on whether Na(+) or Tris(+) is used to induce binding. Differences in chemical shifts for ATP atoms C1' and C5' observed in the presence of Na(+) or Tris(+) suggest alterations in the residues surrounding the bound nucleotide, hydrogen bonding, and/or conformation of the ribose ring. This is taken as evidence of a long-distance communication between the Na(+)-filled ion sites in the membrane interior and the nucleotide binding site in the cytoplasmic domain and reflects the first conformational change ultimately leading to phosphorylation of the enzyme. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements with the nucleotide analogue eosin show that the dissociation rate constant for eosin is larger in Tris(+) than in Na(+), giving kinetic evidence of the difference in structural effects of Na(+) and Tris(+). According to the recent crystal structure of the E1·AlF4(-)·ADP·3Na(+) form, the coupling between the ion binding sites and the nucleotide side is mediated by, among others, the M5 helix.

  5. Scintillation efficiency measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) below the DAMA/LIBRA energy threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jingke; Shields, Emily; Calaprice, Frank; Westerdale, Shawn; Froborg, Francis; Suerfu, Burkhant; Alexander, Thomas; Aprahamian, Ani; Back, Henning O.; Casarella, Clark; Fang, Xiao; Gupta, Yogesh K.; Ianni, Aldo; Lamere, Edward; Lippincott, W. Hugh; Liu, Qian; Lyons, Stephanie; Siegl, Kevin; Smith, Mallory; Tan, Wanpeng; Kolk, Bryant Vande

    2015-07-01

    The dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal depends on the NaI(Tl) scintillation efficiency of nuclear recoils. Previous measurements for Na recoils have large discrepancies, especially in the DAMA/LIBRA modulation energy region. We report a quenching effect measurement of Na recoils in NaI(Tl) from 3 to 52 keVnr, covering the whole DAMA/LIBRA energy region for dark matter-Na scattering interpretations. By using a low-energy, pulsed neutron beam, a double time-of-flight technique, and pulse-shape discrimination methods, we obtained the most accurate measurement of this kind for NaI(Tl) to date. The results differ significantly from the DAMA reported values at low energies but fall between the other previous measurements. We present the implications of the new quenching results for the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal.

  6. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  7. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  8. Materials presented at the 27 All-Polish Seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its application; Materialy 27 ogolnopolskiego seminarium na temat magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego i jego zastosowan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J.W. [comp.

    1995-12-31

    In this report the contributions to the 27 All-Polish seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Application are presented. They cover wide range of problems as NMR instrumentation, the NMR and spin relaxation theory, image analysis and computerized control systems for NMR spectrometers. The results of investigation using NMR on different scientific fields are also presented.

  9. Materials presented at the 26. All-Polish Seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its application; Materialy 26 ogolnopolskiego seminarium na temat magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego i jego zastosowan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J W [comp.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the contributions to the 26. All-Polish seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Application are presented. They cover wide range of problems as NMR instrumentation, the NMR and spin relaxation theory, image analysis and computerized control systems for NMR spectrometers. The results of investigation using NMR on different scientific fields are also presented.

  10. Materials presented at the 27 All-Polish Seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its application; Materialy 27 ogolnopolskiego seminarium na temat magnetycznego rezonansu jadrowego i jego zastosowan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennel, J W [comp.

    1996-12-31

    In this report the contributions to the 27 All-Polish seminar on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and its Application are presented. They cover wide range of problems as NMR instrumentation, the NMR and spin relaxation theory, image analysis and computerized control systems for NMR spectrometers. The results of investigation using NMR on different scientific fields are also presented.

  11. Comportamento do ergorreflexo na insuficiência cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernanda Canhadas Belli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Grande número de evidências tem sugerido a existência de uma rede de reflexos que se tornam hiperativos secundariamente a alterações músculo-esqueléticas que ocorrem na síndrome insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Estes, aliados aos reflexos cardiovasculares simpato-inibitórios, suprimidos na síndrome, podem contribuir para a intolerância ao exercício físico. A hiperativação dos sinais originados dos receptores localizados nos músculos esqueléticos (mecanoceptores - metaborreceptores é uma hipótese proposta recentemente para explicar a origem dos sintomas de fadiga e dispneia e os efeitos benéficos do treinamento físico na síndrome da IC. Na IC, outras alterações nos sistemas de controle reflexo, que não são mutuamente exclusivos, contribuem para dispneia. Estimulação inapropriada dos barorreceptores arteriais com consequente falta de inibição da descarga do metaborreflexo muscular e quimiorreflexo carotídeo e aumento da vasoconstricção renal com liberação de angiotensina II pode também ser considerada. Apesar das alterações funcionais dos reflexos terem sido usadas de maneira independente para ilustrar a excitação simpática observada na IC, a interação entre esses reflexos em condições normais e patológicas, especialmente sua contribuição para o estado simpato-excitatório encontrado na IC, não tem sido amplamente estudados. Assim, o problema se ambos os receptores musculares (mecano e metaborreceptores estão envolvidos na gênese da exacerbação do ergorreflexo observado na IC ainda fica a ser resolvido. Dessa forma, essa revisão tem por objetivo integrar os conhecimentos a respeito do mecano e metaborreflexo (ergorreflexo na síndrome da insuficiência cardíaca bem como esclarecer a influência da terapêutica medicamentosa da IC no ergorreflexo.

  12. Nuclear rights - nuclear wrongs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, E.F.; Miller, F.D.; Paul, J.; Ahrens, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. The titles are: Three Ways to Kill Innocent Bystanders: Some Conundrums Concerning the Morality of War; The International Defense of Liberty; Two Concepts of Deterrence; Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control; Ethical Issues for the 1980s; The Moral Status of Nuclear Deterrent Threats; Optimal Deterrence; Morality and Paradoxical Deterrence; Immoral Risks: A Deontological Critique of Nuclear Deterrence; No War Without Dictatorship, No Peace Without Democracy: Foreign Policy as Domestic Politics; Marxism-Leninism and its Strategic Implications for the United States; Tocqueveille War.

  13. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  14. A angústia dos corpos indóceis: prostituição e conflito armado na Colômbia contemporânea The anguish of indocile bodies: prostitution and the armed conflict in contemporary Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Nieto Olivar

    2008-01-01

    Uma das estratégias de controle usadas pelos grupos armados no marco da agudização do conflito na Colômbia é o controle e a "gerência" da prostituição (e da sexualidade em geral) nos territórios de dominação. O que significa ser prostituta no contexto de controle armado masculino na Colômbia contemporânea? Quais as possibilidades da vivência dos direitos humanos nas mulheres trabalhadoras sexuais nesse contexto? Essas perguntas surgem da vivência próxima da história da Lady entre os anos 2003...

  15. Esquecer Peirce? Dificuldades de uma teoria da comunicação que se apoia no modelo lógico e na religião (parte 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Marcondes Filho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Grande parte das teorias da comunicação está fora de moda. A semiótica, especialmente a peirceana, aparece como uma das opções mais atuais na área. Entretanto, ela não dá conta das exigências do momento porque está presa a um referencial lógico-matemático que a leva ao logocentrismo e à metafísica, apresenta trilogias vacilantes, sugere um diagrama dificilmente aplicável a conceitos filosóficos abstratos, apóia-se na religião, e last but not least, está sendo usada para compromissos escusos com as novas formas de poder.

  16. IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people; La cooperation technique de l`AIEA. Un partenariat pour le developpement. La science nucleaire au service de l`humanite; La cooperacion tecnica del OIEA. Un socio para el desarrollo. La ciencia nuclear al servicio de la gente; Tekhnicheskoe sotrudnichestvo magateh. Partner v tselyakh razvitiya. Yadernaya nauka na sluzhbe chelovechestva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D; Perez Vargaz, J

    1998-12-31

    This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource management, pollution control for a sustainable environment, nuclear medicine, and ensuring nuclear reactor safety

  17. Desmistificação da Linguagem Clara e Objetiva na Profissão de Secretariado Executivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Back

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo deteve-se à análise das publicações científicas da área – livros - e procurou investigar a problemática referente à linguagem. A análise das publicações científicas detectou “brechas” na linguagem usada nessa área. Salienta-se, aqui, o grande número de manuais, o que leva a uma prática técnica desse profissional, atuante somente como executor de tarefas. Daí a importância da mudança da linguagem dos manuais, já que ela constitui sujeitos (profissionais da área de Secretariado Executivo, e tem, no caso em questão, “construído” sujeitos dominados pelo verbo imperativo e não gestores de informações. Assim, é na perspectiva de gestor da informação que se vislumbra uma mudança na identidade desse profissional, através do uso da linguagem, visto que a linguagem constitui o sujeito e, desta forma, a identidade do profissional de Secretariado Executivo.DOI:10.7769/gesec.v4i1.125

  18. CIRFT Data Update and Data Analyses for Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Reliability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this research is to collect experimental data on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from pressurized water reactors (PWRs), including the H. B. Robinson Nuclear Power Station (HBR), Catawba Nuclear Station, North Anna Nuclear Power Station (NA), and the Limerick Nuclear Power Station (LMK) boiling water reactor (BWR).

  19. Artesanato na terceira idade: um estudo na cidade de Sinop no ano de 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Marlene Weber

    2015-04-01

    ão sobre a qualidade de vida na idade madura, envolvendo o criar e inovar. Algumas obras de Paulo Freire serão usadas como referências de educação, por suas ideias sempre muito atuais e motivadoras. Em especial, na primeira etapa da pesquisa, usaremos a obra Pedagogia da Autonomia, em que o autor nos fala da autonomia como um ato de pensar por si mesmo, buscar seu próprio conhecimento com liberdade para intervir no mundo em que vive. Para alcançar os objetivos desta pesquisa será realizado um Estudo de Caso do tipo Etnográfico, com entrevistas, observações e análise de documentos com os sujeitos da Terceira Idade que já realizam trabalhos artesanais, e também pessoas ligadas a Associação dos Artesões de Sinop, para esclarecer o Conceito de artesanato em nossa Cidade e seu valor cultural. A Pesquisa acontecerá em três momentos Fase exploratória, Fase de delimitação do estudo e de coleta de dados e Fase de análise sistemática dos dados e da elaboração do relatório, em que através da Triangulação serão discutidos e analisados os dados coletados.Palavras-chave: educação; terceira idade; artesanato; autonomia; Paulo Freire.

  20. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  1. O comércio intra-sectorial na indústria agro-alimentar nos países BRIC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Qiong

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Contabilidade, Fiscalidade e Finanças Empresariais Esta dissertação analisa a evolução do comércio intra-sectorial total e por tipos (comércio intra-sectorial horizontal e vertical) na indústria agro-alimentar do Brasi, Rússia, Índia e China (os chamados BRIC). É feita, também, a caracterização dos quatro países em termos do seu peso nas exportações e importações de produtos agro-alimentares. A metodologia usada utiliza o índice de Comércio intra-sectoriasl de Grubel e Lloyd (1...

  2. Um sistema de processamento escalável de consultas analíticas sobre data warehouses criptografados e armazenados na nuvem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudivan Cruz Lopes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sistemas de processamento de consultas para bancos de dados criptografados têm sido propostos como uma solução para proteger a confidencialidade de dados armazenados em servidores não confiáveis, tais como provedores de computação em nuvem, e para reduzir o impacto da criptografia no desempenho de consultas sobre dados criptografados. Pouca atenção, no entanto, tem sido dedicada em determinar como a escalabilidade provida pela computação em nuvem pode ser usada para melhorar o desempenho de consultas analíticas sobre Data Warehouses (DW criptografados. Nesse sentido, este artigo descreve um sistema de processamento escalável de consultas analíticas sobre DW criptografados armazenados na nuvem, em que são especificados os componentes arquiteturais que dão suporte a esta escalabilidade.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the local structure of (100-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-(x)BaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga Groszewicz, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present work is to identify what local structure features are relevant to the electrical properties of BNT-xBT. For this purpose, samples with the formula (100-x)(Bi 1/2 Na 1/2 )TiO 3 -(x)BaTiO 3 and a barium content of 0Na spin-lattice (T 1 ) relaxation times in BNT-xBT samples are investigated as a function of temperature.

  4. Polarization dependence of Na* + Na* associative ionization revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Meulen, H.P. v.d.; Morgenstern, R.; Hertel, I.V.; Meyer, E.; Witte, R.

    1986-01-01

    The dependence of the associative ionization process Na 3 2P3/2 + Na 3 2P3/2 → Na2+ + e- on the polarization of the laser light used for Na excitation was independently investigated in Utrecht and Berlin. The purpose of this paper is to clarify discrepancies between two other earlier experimental

  5. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  6. Analysis of minor incidents in the operation of nuclear power plants: a case study on the use of procedures in organizations dealing with hazardous technologies; Analise de microincidentes na operacao de usinas nucleares: estudo de caso sobre o uso de procedimentos em organizacoes que lidam com tecnologias perigosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguea [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE); Carvalho, Eduardo Ferro de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao

    2005-05-15

    Organizations that work with hazardous materials, such as nuclear power plants, offshore installations, and chemical and petrochemical plants, have risk management systems involving accident control and mitigation to ensure the safety of their facilities. These systems are based on physical devices, such as protective barriers, equipment and systems aimed at preventing the occurrence and propagation of accidents, and on human aspects such as regulations and procedures. This paper analyzes the use of a variety of procedures by nuclear power plant control room operators. The methodology consisted of analyzing the work of control room operators during the normal operations, shutdown, and startup of a nuclear power plant, and in full scale simulator training. This survey revealed that routine noncompliance to procedures was considered normal according to the operating rationale, which is based on technical, organizational and cultural factors. These findings indicate that the competencies nuclear power plant operators must possess far exceed proper technical training and the ability to follow written instructions. (author)

  7. Regressões Logísticas Múltiplas: fatores que influenciam sua aplicação na predição de classes de solos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Métodos mais eficazes para determinação do padrão de distribuição de classes de solo na paisagem precisam ser avaliados visando suprir a demanda por mapas de solo em escalas regional e global. Neste estudo, Regressões Logísticas Múltiplas foram utilizadas como modelos preditores em uma aplicação de Mapeamento Digital de Solos. Os modelos foram gerados utilizando um mapa de solos existente como variável dependente e atributos de terreno como variáveis independentes, o que possibilitou determinar a probabilidade de encontrar classes de solo na paisagem no primeiro e no segundo nível categórico do SiBCS. A qualidade dos mapas preditos foi verificada por meio da matriz de contingência. A classe dos Argissolos foi predita corretamente, em relação ao mapa original, em aproximadamente 85 %. As classes de solos hidromórficos (Planossolos e Gleissolos foram preditas corretamente em 75 %. Houve confundimento dos modelos para as classes que ocupam posições muito semelhantes na paisagem. Foi verificado também que classes de solo pouco representativas na paisagem não são adequadamente espacializadas em razão da sensibilidade dos modelos logísticos à proporção relativa das amostras usadas para treinar os modelos.

  8. O trabalho do agente comunitário na promoção da saúde: revisão integrativa da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Cristina Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma revisão integrativa que teve como objetivo avaliar as evidências disponíveis na literatura sobre o desenvolvimento de estratégias operacionalizadas pelos agentes comunitários de saúde em prol da promoção da saúde. Para a seleção dos estudos foram usadas três bases de dados: BDTD, LILACS e SciELO. Foram encontradas 2.179 publicações, das quais 58 foram selecionadas para análise. Os resultados foram sistematizados em três categorias empíricas: A promoção da saúde: desafios na reorientação do modelo assistencial, A prática educativa no cotidiano de trabalho dos ACS e A formação profissional na perspectiva da Atenção Primária em Saúde. Concluiu-se que a construção de um modelo assistencial baseado na promoção da saúde requer a incorporação de novas práticas formativas, assistenciais e institucionais.

  9. Cooperação Internacional para o Desenvolvimento em Ciência e Tecnologia: A Participação Brasileira na Organização Européia para Pesquisa Nuclear (CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pinto Duarte

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a different approach of International Cooperation on the Brazilian scientific and technological (S&T development process, based on the case of the cooperation among Brazil and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN. The studies lead to a suggestion of a new strategic approach of a system beginning starting at activities of international S&T interchange and collaborations as initial stage that lead to International Cooperation, seen as the only one capable of directly create S&T development. The case of the Brazilian activities at CERN shows that International Cooperation generates S&T development only with long term assured financial and institutional arrangements between Universities and Industries, supported by government policies and programs. The results point to the assumption that International Cooperation is an essential element for elaboration and execution of public policies that aim national development on science and technology.

  10. Estrategias de reperfusión usadas en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo con elevación persistente del segmento ST en un hospital general: Reperfusion strategies in patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent ST-segment elevation in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Borda-Velásquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las estrategias de reperfusión en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo ST elevado (SCASTE atendidos en el departamento de emergencia de un hospital general, y determinar el tiempo para realizar dichas estrategias a través de los tiempos puerta-aguja (P-A, puerta-balón (P-B, electrocardiograma (ECG y total de isquemia. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo transversal en pacientes con diagnóstico de SCASTE en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia (HNCH desde el 1° de enero de 2011 al 31 de enero de 2013. Se registraron las características demográficas y clínicas, tiempos de reperfusión miocárdica, de síntomas, para toma de ECG. Los factores asociados fueron analizados por análisis bivariado. Resultados: Cuarenta y cinco pacientes fueron elegibles. La edad media fue 60,5 ± 10,98 años, 88,8% fueron varones. El tiempo medio de hospitalización fue 9,79 ± 10,36 días. Se encontró obesidad (IMC ≥ 30 en 61,3%; hipertensión en 40,9%: tabaquismo en 43,1%; y diabetes mellitus II (DM II en 25%. El tiempo medio P-A de 57 ± 54,1 minutos; en 28,1% se administró el agente trombolítico antes de los 30 minutos. Angioplastia fue realizada en un paciente con un tiempo P-B de 440 minutos. El tiempo total de isquemia (TTI medio fue 244 ± 143,9 minutos. Conclusiones: Las estrategias de reperfusión fueron usadas en 71,1% de pacientes, siendo trombólisis la más usada; sin embargo, el tiempo P-A se encontró fuera del rango óptimo

  11. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This fact sheet answers specific questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant number sign 1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  12. Nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report answers questions about the Department of Energy's possible acquisition and conversion of a partially completed commercial nuclear power plant to a nuclear materials production facility. The nuclear power plant is the Washington Nuclear Plant No.1 owned by the Washington Public Power Supply System and is located on DOE's Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  14. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  15. Nuclear resisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The booklet contains six papers by different authors, under the headings: dangers along the nuclear fuel cycle; the nuclear profiteers; the nuclear state is a police state; a non-disposable future (renewable energy sources, energy conservation); nuclear weapons - out of control; man made madness. (U.K.)

  16. NAKUPOVANJE NA SPLETU

    OpenAIRE

    Visenjak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  17. Nuclear links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in sections: introduction; energy and the third world; world energy consumption 1978; oil -the energy dilemma; nuclear chains - introduction; uranium; Namibia; enrichment and reprocessing; countries with enrichment and reprocessing facilities; waste; conclusion; why take the nuclear option; third world countries with nuclear reactors; the arms connection; government spending and human resources 1977 (by countries); nuclear power - the final solution; the fascists; world bank; campaigns; community action in Plogoff; Australian labour movement; NUM against nuclear power; Scottish campaign; students against nuclear energy; anti-nuclear campaign; partizans; 3W1 disarmament and development; campaign ATOM; CANUC; 3W1; SANE. (U.K.)

  18. Nano-sized precipitated formations in irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sugonyako, Anton V.

    2007-01-01

    The interest in the formation of radiation damage in alkali halides and in particular, in NaCl, is stimulated by the fact that rock-salt in stable geological formations is a prominent candidate medium for storage of high-level waste (HLW) of nuclear power plants. Since the 1950s, scientists and

  19. Estudo da influência de resíduos catalíticos na degradação de plásticos reciclados (Blenda HDPE/PP e PET provenientes de lixo urbano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Amélia S. F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação derivada do processamento, uso, descarte, lavagem e reprocessamento foram caracterizados neste estudo. Para o HDPE/PP pós-consumo, a degradação foi estudada em função da presença de garrafas de HDPE/LDPE reprocessadas (recicladas e da presença de tampas e rótulos de LDPE e PP. Esses materiais mostraram uma influência significativa na degradação total de HDPE/PP apenas quando presentes em conjunto. Os resíduos que apresentaram menor estabilidade termo-oxidativa foram os rótulos e tampas de LDPE e PP. As análises usadas na caracterização da influência destes resíduos foram espectroscopia do Infra-vermelho (IR e Calorimetria Diferencial Exploratória (tempo de indução oxidativa - OIT. Além disso, a degradação do PET foi estudada em função das condições de lavagem e da presença de resíduos de soda cáustica e adesivo. Foram usadas medidas de viscosidade intrínseca e de titulação para caracterizar estas variáveis. Foi observado que apesar do uso de altas temperaturas (80 ºC durante a lavagem, a extensão de tempo desta etapa (5 ou 15 min não afetou a degradação do PET, pelo menos não em níveis detectáveis pelas análises. No entanto, a remoção do resíduo de adesivo mostrou uma influência significativa na degradação catalítica do PET.

  20. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, L.; Dragulescu, E.; Dudu, D.; Racolta, P.M.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2002-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers etc., we decided to promote positron annihilation techniques. In order to achieve this goal we started a project of dedicated positron sources produced at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We have used the nuclear reaction 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na and deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper presents the main steps of this procedure like: general conditions required for 22 NaCl sources, reactive chamber and characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures to separate Na from Mg after the irradiation and geometrical or mechanical requirements for dedicated NaCl source for positron annihilation spectrometry. In the e + lifetime measurements the e + 'death - stop' signals are always provided by γ - quanta generated by the e + e - annihilation and the 'birth - start' signals may be obtained from 'prompt' γ - quanta emitted from the NaCl source (the 1.275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in the sealed quartz vials in dry places and will be dropped between the studied materials before use in positron spectrometry. (authors)

  1. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, L.; Dragulescu, E.; Dudu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2003-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers etc., we decided to promote positron annihilation techniques. In order to achieve this goal we started a project of dedicated positron sources produced at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We have used the nuclear reaction: 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na with deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper presents the main characteristics of this procedure, as follows: general conditions asked for 22 NaCl sources, reactive chamber and characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures for separating Na from Mg after the irradiation and geometrical or mechanical requirements for dedicated NaCl source for positron annihilation spectrometry. In the e + lifetime measurements, the e + end - start signals may be obtained from prompt γ -quanta emitted from the NaCl source (1. 275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in quartz sealed ampoules in dry places and will be dropped between the study materials before the use in positron spectrometry. (authors)

  2. 22 Na positron source for annihilation positron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimpeanu, Catalina; Craciun, Liviu; Dragulescu, Emilian; Dudu, Dorin; Racolta, Petre Mihai; Voiculescu, Dana; Miron, N.

    2005-01-01

    To extend the nuclear physics applications and to perform the study of vacancy - type defects in metals, semiconductors, polymers, etc., we developed new positron annihilation techniques. In line with this goal we started a project for production of positron sources at the IFIN-HH U-120 Cyclotron. We made use of the nuclear reaction: 24 Mg(d,α) 22 Na with deuterons of 13 MeV energy. The paper present the main steps of this procedure which are: establishing the conditions required for 22 NaCl sources, for the parameters of reaction chamber and the characteristics of Mg target, parameters for the irradiation, radiochemical procedures for separation of Na from Mg after irradiation as well as the geometrical and mechanical requirements for the NaCl source. In the e + lifetime measurements the e + 'stop' signals are always provided by gamma - quanta generated by the e + e - annihilation and the 'start' signals are obtained from 'prompt' gamma - quanta emitted by the NaCl source (1.275 MeV photons). The 22 NaCl stock solution obtained by radiochemical separation will be kept in quartz sealed ampoules. (authors)

  3. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  4. Results on leptonic probes from NA50

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borenstein, S R; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; Cruz, J; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu, T

    2003-01-01

    The NA50 Collaboration has performed a new measurement of the J/ psi yield in Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon in improved experimental conditions. Our preliminary analysis of the year 2000 data sample, while confirming the onset of anomalous suppression and the non saturation of the J/ psi /Drell-Yan cross-section ratio, shows that peripheral Pb-Pb interactions follow the normal nuclear absorption pattern, which has in turn been established more precisely thanks to high statistics p-A data. (11 refs).

  5. Study of microstructure and mechanical properties of ceramics composites alumina-zirconia reinforced with yttria for inert coating of metal matrices used in the petroleum industry; Estudo de microestrutura e propriedades mecanicas de compositos ceramicos alumina-zirconia reforcado com itria para revestimento inerte de matrizes metalicas usadas na industria petrolifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontual, J.O.; Silva, N.D.G.; Ferreira, R.A.S.; Yadava, Y.P., E-mail: juliaopontual@hotmail.com, E-mail: yadava@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2014-07-01

    The storage and transportation of crude oil is complicated due to the hostile environment provided by this. Under these conditions, it is imperative to search for alternative solutions, using an inert coating to protect from corrosion caused by crude oil. In this work, alumina-zirconia ceramic composites with 5-20%w zirconia and 1 - 2%w yttria were produced through thermomechanical process. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered material was carried out by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were analyzed by Vickers hardness tests. Currently, the pads are submerged in crude oil and after 30-60 days will be removed and sent for stability test.(author)

  6. Imobilização da lacase em micropartículas de quitosana obtidas por spray drying e usadas na construção de biossensores Immobilization of laccase in microparticles of chitosan obtained by spray drying and used in the biosensors construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Rosane Welter Zwirtes de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors based on laccase immobilized on microparticles of chitosan crosslinked with tripolyphosphate (biosensor I and glyoxal (biosensor II obtained by spray drying for the determinations of rutin in pharmaceutical formulations were developed. Under optimized operational conditions (pH 4.0, frequency of 30 Hz, pulse amplitude of 40 mV and scan increment of 2.0 mV two analytical curves were obtained for both biosensors showing a detection limit of 6.2x10-8 mol L-1 for biosensor (I and 2.0x10-8 mol L-1 for biosensor (II. The recovery of rutin from pharmaceutical sample ranged from 90.7 to 105.0% and the lifetime of these biosensors were 4 months (at least 400 determinations.

  7. Sepsis does not alter red blood cell glucose metabolism or Na+ concentration: A 2H-, 23Na-NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, R.S.; Song, S.K.; Ling, C.S.; Ackerman, J.J.; Karl, I.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of sepsis on intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) and glucose metabolism were examined in rat red blood cells (RBCs) by using 23Na- and 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Sepsis was induced in 15 halothane-anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats by using the cecal ligation and perforation technique; 14 control rats underwent cecal manipulation without ligation. The animals were fasted for 36 h, but allowed free access to water. At 36 h postsurgery, RBCs were examined by 23Na-NMR by using dysprosium tripolyphosphate as a chemical shift reagent. Human RBCs from 17 critically ill nonseptic patients and from 7 patients who were diagnosed as septic were also examined for [Na+]i. Five rat RBC specimens had [Na+]i determined by both 23Na-NMR and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). For glucose metabolism studies, RBCs from septic and control rats were suspended in modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing [6,6-2H2]glucose and examined by 2H-NMR. No significant differences in [Na+]i or glucose utilization were found in RBCs from control or septic rats. There were no differences in [Na+]i in the two groups of patients. The [Na+]i determined by NMR spectroscopy agreed closely with measurements using ICP-AES and establish that 100% of the [Na+]i of the RBC is visible by NMR. Glucose measurements determined by 2H-NMR correlated closely (correlation coefficient = 0.93) with enzymatic analysis. These studies showed no evidence that sepsis disturbed RBC membrane function or metabolism

  8. AS METÁFORAS DA MORTE NA POESIA BRASILEIRA: UM ESTUDO À LUZ DA LINGUÍSTICA COGNITIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Calixto de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a partir de uma visão sistematicamente cognitiva da metáfora, com base nos pressupostos da teoria da metáfora conceitual (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1980, 1999; LAKOFF; TURNER, 1989; LAKOFF, 1987,1993; KÖVECSES, 2005, apresentamos um inventário de dez metáforas conceituais usadas no licenciamento do conceito MORTE na construção de poesias de autores da literatura brasileira de diferentes escolas literária. O seu foco principal está na análise das relações das metáforas conceituais inventariadas com os diferentes modelos culturais que integram as construções textuais analisadas. Tal empreendimento possibilitou a identificação e descrição de diversificados modelos cognitivos/culturais subjacentes à construção do conceito MORTE, os quais, em linhas gerais, revelam tanto a concepção ocidental de morte como um fato inevitável da condição humana, quanto uma releitura dessa condição por meio da capacidade criativa dos poetas de (reapresentar a morte sob diferentes facetas nem sempre tão aterrorizantes, provavelmente numa tentativa de atenuar o terror que lhe é característico pela sua natureza de mistério.Palavras-chave: Metáfora conceitual. Conceito Morte. Poesia

  9. As metáforas da morte na poesia brasileira: um estudo à luz da linguística cognitiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Calixto de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, a partir de uma visão sistematicamente cognitiva da metáfora, com base nos pressupostos da teoria da metáfora conceitual (LAKOFF; JOHNSON, 1980, 1999; LAKOFF; TURNER, 1989; LAKOFF, 1987,1993; KÖVECSES, 2005, apresentamos um inventário de dez metáforas conceituais usadas no licenciamento do conceito MORTE na construção de poesias de autores da literatura brasileira de diferentes escolas literária. O seu foco principal está na análise das relações das metáforas conceituais inventariadas com os diferentes modelos culturais que integram as construções textuais analisadas. Tal empreendimento possibilitou a identificação e descrição de diversificados modelos cognitivos/culturais subjacentes à construção do conceito MORTE, os quais, em linhas gerais, revelam tanto a concepção ocidental de morte como um fato inevitável da condição humana, quanto uma releitura dessa condição por meio da capacidade criativa dos poetas de (reapresentar a morte sob diferentes facetas nem sempre tão aterrorizantes, provavelmente numa tentativa de atenuar o terror que lhe écaracterístico pela sua natureza de mistério.Palavras-chave: Metáfora conceitual. Conceito Morte. Poesia

  10. Seasonal variation in the environmental background level of cosmic ray produced 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Hideki; Igarashi, Shuichi

    1998-01-01

    22 Na (half life 2.6 year) is produced by cosmic rays, nuclear test and reactor. 7 Be (half life 53.3 day) is produced in atmosphere by reaction. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio is good factor to observe the mixing process between stratosphere and troposphere atmosphere. The seasonal variation of 7 Be and 22 Na deposition, the ratio and the background level of 22 Na deposition were observed in Fukui city and reported in this paper. Very large reasonable change of 22 Na deposition was observed, especially the largest peak in winter. Because the concentration of cosmic-ray-produced nuclear in precipitation and the amount of precipitation were large in winter. 22 Na produced by the previous nuclear test was attenuated. The present 22 Na is only produced by cosmic rays, indicating the background level. 22 Na deposition at Fukui was 0.42Bq m -2 y -1 , one ten-thousandth of 7 Be deposition. 7 Be/ 22 Na activity ratio was changed in season and the largest peak was shown in autumn. In this reason, atmosphere showed relatively short residence time in the lower part of stratosphere, Mixture and exchange of atmosphere between stratosphere and troposphere were the most active in autumn. (S.Y.)

  11. The nuclear reaction model code MEDICUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibishia, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The new computer code MEDICUS has been used to calculate cross sections of nuclear reactions. The code, implemented in MATLAB 6.5, Mathematica 5, and Fortran 95 programming languages, can be run in graphical and command line mode. Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been built that allows the user to perform calculations and to plot results just by mouse clicking. The MS Windows XP and Red Hat Linux platforms are supported. MEDICUS is a modern nuclear reaction code that can compute charged particle-, photon-, and neutron-induced reactions in the energy range from thresholds to about 200 MeV. The calculation of the cross sections of nuclear reactions are done in the framework of the Exact Many-Body Nuclear Cluster Model (EMBNCM), Direct Nuclear Reactions, Pre-equilibrium Reactions, Optical Model, DWBA, and Exciton Model with Cluster Emission. The code can be used also for the calculation of nuclear cluster structure of nuclei. We have calculated nuclear cluster models for some nuclei such as 177 Lu, 90 Y, and 27 Al. It has been found that nucleus 27 Al can be represented through the two different nuclear cluster models: 25 Mg + d and 24 Na + 3 He. Cross sections in function of energy for the reaction 27 Al( 3 He,x) 22 Na, established as a production method of 22 Na, are calculated by the code MEDICUS. Theoretical calculations of cross sections are in good agreement with experimental results. Reaction mechanisms are taken into account. (author)

  12. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  14. The System for Controlling Source and Special Nuclear Material at the Eurochemic Reprocessing Plant; Systeme de Controle des Matieres Nucleaires Brutes et Speciales a l'Usine de Traitement D'Eurochemic; Sistema kontrolya nad iskhodnym i spetsial'nym yadernym materialom na zavode evrokhimicheskoj kompanii po regeneratsii yadernogo topliva; Control de Materiales Nucleares Basicos y de Materiales Fisionables Especiales en la Planta de Regeneracion de la Eurochemic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, W.; Schueller, W. [EUROCHEMIC, MOL (Belgium)

    1966-02-15

    adecuado de los materiales nucleares basicos y de los materiales fisionables especiales, las instalaciones de la compaliia estaran divididas en diversas zonas de balance de materiales. Toda entrada y salida de materiales de estas zonas quedara registrada. Teniendo en cuenta su importancia en relacion con el balance global de materiales, se han fijado distintos requisitos en materia de precision basados en una escala de valores que los autores describen brevemente. Periodicamente se efectuaran inventarios de material a fin de proceder al balance de asientos. Se exponen los correspondientes procedimientos de inventario. Los autores describen los libros utilizados en la contabilidad de los materiales nucleares y enuncian los principios en que se basa el sistema de contabilidad. (author) [Russian] Kompanija Evrohimik v nastojashhee vremja stroit zavod po pererabotke jadernogo topliva okolo Molja (Bel'gija). Summirujutsja glavnye harakteristiki zavoda i razlichnyh stadij obrabotki. Dlja provedenija nadlezhashhego kontrolja nad ishodnym i special'nym jadernym materialom ustanovki kompanii razdeleny na zony material'nogo balansa. Opredeljajutsja vse peremeshhenija v jeti zony i iz nih. B zavisimosti ot vazhnosti jetih materialov dlja obshhego material'nogo balansa ustanovleny razlichnye trebovanija v otnoshenii tochnosti v sootvetstvii so shkaloj vazhnosti, kotoraja kratko opisyvaetsja. Dlja pravil'nogo sostavlenija zhurnal'nogo balansa periodicheski provodjatsja fizicheskie inventarizacii. Izlagajutsja sootvetstvujushhie metody inventarizacii. Daetsja kratkoe opisanie zhurnalov ucheta jadernyh materialov i principov sistemy u cheta. (author)

  15. Atletismo na escola : realidade?

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Alessandro Oliveira de

    2012-01-01

    O correr, saltar, lançar e arremessar são elementos básicos do atletismo, sendo fundamentais para o ser humano, devido ao favorecimento do desenvolvimento físico e motor. Sendo um dos conteúdos principais do desporto e da educação física escolar, foi realizado um estudo relacionado à prática do atletismo na escola, na qual o objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar se entre os professores de educação física da rede pública de ensino fundamental de 5ª a 8ª séries, da cidade satélite de Samambaia ...

  16. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  17. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  18. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  20. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1986-01-01

    This loose-leaf collection is made up of five didactically prepared units covering the following subjects: basic knowledge on nuclear energy, nuclear energy in relation to energy economy, site issues, environmental compatibility of nuclear energy, and nuclear energy in the focus of political and social action. To this was added a comprehensive collection of material: specific scientific background material, a multitude of tables, diagrams, charts etc. for copying, as well as 44 transparent charts, mostly in four colours. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  2. Manchester nuclear physics report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the experimental research of the Manchester University Nuclear Physics Group for the period August 1987 - December 1988. The experiments have been performed at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility, mostly using the gamma-ray arrays and the Recoil Separator. However, experiments using the Daresbury Isotope Separator, the Oxford Folded Tandem and the new charged particle detector array are also reported. Studies of gamma decaying states in 21 Ne and 23 Na are reported. The spectroscopy of medium mass nuclei includes the investigation of the Gamow-Tellar decay of 98 Cd. Fourteen studies of the spectroscopy of nuclei with A ≥ 100 are reported. Fission studies and instrumentation and computer developments are also included. (U.K.)

  3. Consumo de cafeína e prematuridade Caffeine intake and prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Adriana Gomes de Souza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A cafeína (1, 3, 7-trimetilxantina é uma metilxantina que facilmente atravessa a barreira placentária, com quantidades substanciais passando para o líquido amniótico, sangue do cordão umbilical, plasma e urina dos neonatos. As maiores fontes de cafeína são café, chá, chocolate e refrigerantes do tipo cola. Além disso, cerca de mil drogas prescritas e 2 mil drogas não prescritas contêm cafeína, e 25 dessas drogas podem ser usadas na gravidez. Embora estudos em animais indiquem que a cafeína leve à diminuição no crescimento intrauterino fetal, redução do peso ao nascer, reabsorção fetal e teratogênese, nos estudos epidemiológicos os achados são, ainda, inconclusivos. Pelo fato de os alimentos com cafeína serem amplamente consumidos na gravidez, é importante avaliar se o uso dessa substância está associado com a redução da idade gestacional. Este artigo examina o conhecimento atual do consumo de cafeína durante a gravidez, abordando os estudos epidemiológicos sobre a associação entre consumo de cafeína e prematuridade, as fontes de cafeína e seu consumo na gravidez, a bioquímica, a fisiopatologia e a plausibilidade biológica da associação e as principais limitações dos estudos sobre cafeína e prematuridade.Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine is a methylxanthine that easily crosses the placental barrier, substantial amounts passing into the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood, and the plasma and urine of the neonates. The main sources of caffeine are coffee, tea, chocolate and cola soft drinks. Moreover, about 1000 prescribed drugs and 2000 non-prescribed drugs contain caffeine, and 25 of these drugs can be used during pregnancy. Although animal studies indicate that caffeine leads to a decrease in fetal intrauterine growth, low birth weight, fetal re-absorption and teratogenesis, these findings are still inconclusive in the epidemiological studies. Since foods containing caffeine are widely consumed

  4. Análise das propagandas dos medicamentos isentos de prescrição veiculadas em revistas para prescritores na área médica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Danciguer Guanaes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta uma análise da qualidade das propagandas de medicamentos isentos de prescrição destinadas à classe médica, baseado na nova RDC no 96, de 17 de dezembro de 2008. Para análise coletou-se 16 fascículos da Revista Brasileira de Medicina (RBM a partir de agosto 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Para averiguação da qualidade, elaborou-se um questionário dividido em três partes. Ao todo 160 peças publicitárias foram encontradas, em que 27 delas eram referentes aos medicamentos isentos de prescrição, contemplando nove indústrias farmacêuticas. Observou-se que nenhuma das peças publicitárias cumpriu na íntegra as novas regras exigidas na legislação vigente (RDC 96/08, apresentando infrações desde identificação da mesma até as proibições de figuras humanas e mensagens subjetivas. Portanto, concluiu-se que: há necessidade de implantação de um instrumento mais efetivo de fiscalização, a fim de melhorar à qualidade das propagandas para poderem ser usadas como fonte fidedigna de informação e atualização aos prescritores.

  5. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of alleged terrorist plans to build a 'dirty bomb' have heightened longstanding concerns about nuclear terrorism. This briefing outlines possible forms of attack, such as: detonation of a nuclear weapon; attacks involving radioactive materials; attacks on nuclear facilities. Legislation addressing these risks and the UK's strategy for coping with them are also considered

  6. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  7. Nuclear alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Anti-nuclear demonstrations against the deployment of new US missiles were held in Nato Europe. As no agreement has yet been reached at the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces talks in Geneva, the deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe has started

  8. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  9. Nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on nuclear decommissioning was presented by Dr H. Lawton to a meeting of the British Nuclear Energy Society and Institution of Nuclear Engineers, 1986. The decommissioning work currently being undertaken on the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR) is briefly described, along with projects in other countries, development work associated with the WAGR operation and costs. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear physics with polarized heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fick, D.; Grawert, G.; Turkiewicz, I.M.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized heavy ion beams ( 6 Li, 7 Li, 23 Na) have been in use as tools for the investigation of nuclear scattering and nuclear reactions for almost two decades. This review attempts to survey the research activities in this field with reference to nuclear structure, nuclear dynamics and reaction mechanisms. Besides reviewing the results from full quantum mechanical coupled channels analyses of data, special attention is paid to handwaving arguments and semiclassical pictures as a complementary way of obtaining a better understanding of the relevant physics. (orig.)

  12. Technical cooperation for the pacific uses of nuclear technology in Latin America and Caribbean: the experience of regional agreement ARCAL; Cooperacao tecnica para os usos pacificos da tecnologia nuclear na America Latina e no Caribe: a experiencia do acordo regional ARCAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli Junior, Francisco

    2017-11-01

    This thesis studies the international technical cooperation in the field of peaceful applications of the nuclear technology, focusing on the experience of Latin American countries, where the Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean, also known as ARCAL, is in force. The study adopts as theoretical approach the concept of state capacities, particularly with regard to the institutional capacities applicable to the ARCAL Agreement. Within this approach, three dimensions of analysis are adopted: the institutional dimension, the governance dimension and the focus on outcomes. The evaluation of the ARCAL Agreement is carried out in order to confirm if the intended role to promote regional technical cooperation in the nuclear sector is being implemented. The methodological approach adopted the case study model. It starts with the analysis of the institutional evolution of the Agreement, and identifies variables articulating with the three dimensions above mentioned. The empirical data were collected in two stages. In the first stage it were performed 29 interviews carried out by the author with the technical and staff members of the Department of Technical Cooperation of IAEA, in Vienna, Austria, headquarter of IAEA. The other stage involved an electronic questionnaire submitted to the national coordinator of ARCAL in 14 countries, in a universe of 21 member states. The conclusion of the research points to the fact that the ARCAL Agreement has incorporated, throughout its trajectory, elements of the institutional capacities which are still in the process of development. They give to the Agreement the potential to induce the development of the state capacities of the respective countries in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. (author)

  13. The J/$\\psi$ normal nuclear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Arnaldi, R; Atayan, M; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Castanier, C; Castor, J; Chaurand, B; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Comets, M P; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Grigorian, A A; Grigorian, S; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; kanyan, H; ldzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavicheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Cormick, M M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Riccati, L; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, M F; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, E; Villatte, L; Willis, N; Wu T

    2005-01-01

    We present a new determination of the ratio of cross-sections (J/psi) /DY as expected for nucleus-nucleus reactions if J/psi would only be normally absorbed by nuclear matter. This anticipated behaviour is based on proton-nucleus data exclusively, and compared, as a function of centrality, with updated S-U results from experiment NA38 and with the most recent Pb-Pb results from experiment NA50.

  14. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  15. Nuclear orientation and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present generation of on-line nuclear orientation facilities promises to revolutionize the gathering of nuclear structure information, especially for the hitherto poorly known and understood nuclei far from stability. Following a brief review of the technological developments that have facilitated these experiments, the nuclear spectroscopic information that can be obtained is summarized. Applications to understanding nuclear structure are reviewed, and challenges for future studies are discussed. (orig.)

  16. "Avaliação da poluição atmosférica por metais na região metropolitana de São Paulo utilizando a Bromélia Tillandsia Usneoides L. como biomonitor"

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudio Ailton Nogueira

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. é uma bromélia que vive em árvores ou em outros substratos inertes, absorvendo água e nutrientes diretamente do ambiente, sem apresentar raízes. Devido às suas características morfológicas e fisiológicas, esta espécie acumula os poluentes presentes na atmosfera. No presente trabalho, Tillandsia usneoides foi usada como biomonitor de poluição atmosférica por metais em São Paulo, Brasil, que é a maior cidade da América do Sul, com uma população de cerca de 18 milhões de ...

  17. Mechanochemical transformations in Li(Na)AlH4-Li(Na)NH2 systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotko, Oleksandr; Zhang Haiqiao; Ugurlu, Ozan; Wiench, Jerzy W.; Pruski, Marek; Scott Chumbley, L.; Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2007-01-01

    Mechanochemical transformations of tetrahydroaluminates and amides of lithium and sodium have been investigated using gas volumetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy. In a transformation of LiAlH 4 and LiNH 2 taken in an 1:1 molar ratio, the amount of released hydrogen (6.6 wt.% after 30 min ball milling) was higher than in any known one pot mechanochemical process involving a hydrogen-containing solid. A total of 4.3 wt.% of hydrogen is released by the NaAlH 4 -NaNH 2 system after 60 min ball milling; and 5.2 wt.% H 2 is released when LiAlH 4 and NaNH 2 or NaAlH 4 and LiNH 2 are ball milled for 90 min and 120 min, respectively. All transformations proceed at room temperature. The mechanism of the overall transformation MAlH 4 (s) + MNH 2 (s) → 2MH(s) + AlN(s) + 2H 2 (g) was identified based on detailed spectroscopic analysis of the intermediate (M 3 AlH 6 ) and final products of the ball milling process

  18. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  19. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  20. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  1. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  2. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  3. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  4. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  5. NMR studies of Na+-anion association effects in polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenbaum, S.G.; Pak, Y.S.; Wintergill, M.C.; Fontanella, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    23 Na nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on poly (propylene oxide) (PPO) and siloxane based polymer electrolytes containing various sodium salts at a single nominal concentration are reported. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electrical conductivity studies were carried out on the PPO materials. The NMR-determined mobile Na + concentrations and DSC results provide evidence for ionic aggregation effects which, for some samples, result in salt precipitation at elevated temperatures. 23 Na chemical shifts observed in solid state NMR due to mobile Na + -anion interactions influence ionic transport as well as the number of available carriers. (author). 19 refs.; 7 figs

  6. Production of no carrier added residue free /sup 22/Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britto, J L.Q. de; Bastos, M A.V.; Silva, R.F. da; Silva, A.G. da

    1988-05-02

    A method for the production of no carrier added and residue free /sup 22/Na, was developed via the /sup 24/Mg(d,..cap alpha..)/sup 22/Na nuclear reaction applying 14 MeV deuterons and a high current MG-Cu target. The yield for the reaction was measured and the chemical separation was performed using a Dowex 50WX8 resin in H/sup +/ form. The overall yield was higher than 98%. Residue could not be detected. All experiments were carried out at IEN's CV-28 cyclotron. (author) 13 refs.; 2 figs.

  7. Portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bairong; Dong Binjiang; Zeng Liping; Shen Tingyun

    2000-01-01

    The author describes a portable in situ NaI(Tl) γ spectroscopy system, which consists of a NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, an integrative spectroscopy card, a notebook computer and spectroscopy software. The spectrometer addresses applications in environmental or nuclear accident in situ γ spectroscopy measurements, and gives valid quantitative results of radionuclide concentrations per unit volume (Bq/kg) or unit area (Bq/cm 2 ) in the soil and absorbed dose rate in air at 1 m above ground (Gy/h)

  8. Envolvimento pulmonar na polimiosite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Direndra Hasmucrai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Introdução: A polimiosite (PM e a dermatomiosite são classificadas como miopatias inflamatórias idiopáticas. O envolvimento pulmonar por PM é pouco frequente, estando descrito na literatura em cerca de 10% de casos.Os autores apresentam um caso de uma mulher de 75 anos, com queixas de febre, perda ponderal, artralgias, mialgias e diminuição simétrica e proximal da força muscular com impotência funcional dos membros superiores e inferiores, com início um mês antes do internamento. Apresentava infiltrados pulmonares na telerradiografia de tórax. Após estudo exaustivo estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico de envolvimento pulmonar na forma de pneumonia organizativa por PM. Efectuou-se corticoterapia e terapêutica com micofenolato com melhoria clínica, analítica e radiológica. Conclusão: Neste caso, foi a alteração na telerradiografia de tórax numa doente sem sintomatologia respiratória que levou ao estudo exaustivo até ao diagnóstico de PM, realçando mais uma vez a importância da telerradiografia no rastreio de patologias de outros foros. Abstract: Introduction: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are classified as idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Interstitial lung disease is rare and is described in the literature in about 10% of cases.The authors describes a case of 75 year old woman presenting with one month evolution of fever, weight loss, arthralgia, myalgia and symmetric and proximal muscle weakness of upper and lower limbs. Nonspecific interstitial changes was found in chest X-ray. After exhaustive study, the diagnosis of pulmonary envolvement in the form of organizing pneumonia by polymyositis, was established. Glucocorticoids and mycophenolate were prescribed with good clinical, analytical and radiological outcome. Conclusion: In this case, it was the changes in the chest X-ray in a patient without respiratory symptomatology, that conducted to exhaustive study to polymyositis diagnosis, enhancing once again the

  9. Dissolution of targets for the production of Mo-99: Part 1. Influence of NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO3 and NaNO2 on the dissolution time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda da C.; Mindrisz, Ana C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with global crisis in the production of radioisotope 99 Mo, which product of decay, 99 mTc, is the tracer element most often used in nuclear medicine and accounts for about 80% of all diagnostic procedures in vivo, since September 2008 Brazil is developing the project called Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). Within the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) the construction of the RMB, is seen as a long term solution to meet all domestic demand relative to the supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. In the process to be studied to obtain 99 Mo from irradiated UA1 x -A1 LEU targets employing alkaline dissolution, processing time should be minimized, considering the short half life of 99 Mo and 99 mTc, about 66 h and 6 h, respectively. That makes dissolution time a significant factor in the development of the process. This paper presents the results of alkaline dissolution of scraps of Al, used to simulate the dissolution process of UA1 x -A1 targets. Al corresponds to about 79% of the total weight of the UA1 x -A1 target. The effect of NaOH concentration on dissolution time for the interval of 1 to 3.5 mol.L-1 was studied, keeping the molar ratio in 1Al:2.16NaOH and the initial temperature of 88 degree C. The influence of reagent composition over dissolution time was studied using three different solutions: a) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH, b) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH/NaNO 3 and c) 3 mol.L -1 NaOH/NaNO 2 , keeping the same molar ratio and temperature. The results showed that the dissolution time decreases with increasing NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO 3 or NaNO 2 in the NaOH solution reduces both dissolution time and volume of gases released. (author)

  10. Theoretical analysis of nuclear reactors (Phase III), I-V, Part IV, Influence of isotopic composition of nuclear fuel on the reactivity with constant flux; Razrada metoda teorijske analize nuklearnih reaktora (III faza) I-IV, IV Deo, Uticaj promene izotopnog sastava goriva na reaktivnost uz konstantan fluks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pop-Jordanov, J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-01-15

    Part one of this report presents a series of differential equations describing the nuclear fuel depletion during reactor operation. This series of differential equations is extended to describe the fission products. This part includes equations for effective multiplication factor k{sub eff} and reactivity {rho} as a function of irradiation {tau}. Part two includes results obtained on the analog computer PACE 231 R, and related to Calder Hall type reactor. Part three covers detailed preparation of the series of equations for solution by using the analog computer. Part four includes the list of references related to this task.

  11. Nuclear blackmail and nuclear balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book raises pointed questions about nuclear saber rattling. More than a dozen cases since the bombing of Hiroshima and Magasaki in which some sort of nuclear threat was used as a sparring technique in tense confrontations are cited. Each incident is described and analyzed. Two theories offered to explain America's use of nuclear threats, the balance of interest theory and the balance of power theory, are contrasted throughout the book. This book helps to fill the gap in the understanding of nuclear weapons and their uses, while pointing out that nuclear bravado could lead to an unintended unleashing of these weapons

  12. Comparison of Five Nuclear Isolation Buffers for Flow Cytometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jocky

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... species. A systematic comparison of nuclear lysis buffers has been ... All experiments were carried out with 3 replicates (n = 3) per treatment. ... Na2EDTA, 0.5 mM spermine.4HCl, 80 mM KCl, 20 mM NaCl, 0.1%. (v/v) Triton ...

  13. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1983-06-01

    We all want to prevent the use of nuclear weapons. The issue before us is how best to achieve this objective; more specifically, whether the peaceful applications of nuclear energy help or hinder, and to what extent. Many of us in the nuclear industry are working on these applications from a conviction that without peaceful nuclear energy the risk of nuclear war would be appreciably greater. Others, however, hold the opposite view. In discussing the subject, a necessary step in allaying fears is understanding some facts, and indeed facing up to some unpalatable facts. When the facts are assessed, and a balance struck, the conclusion is that peaceful nuclear energy is much more part of the solution to preventing nuclear war than it is part of the problem

  14. Use of Gray code in PBIL algorithm for application in recharge of nuclear fuels; Utilização do código Gray no algoritmo PBIL para aplicação na recarga de combustíveis nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nast, Fernando N.; Silva, Patrick V.; Meneses, Anderson A. M., E-mail: anderson.meneses@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Oeste do Para (UNIOESTE), Santarem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Inteligencia Computacional; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao de Processos

    2017-07-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (OGCIN) problem, or design optimization of Load Patterns (PCs) are denominations for the optimization problem associated with the refueling operation in a reactor nuclear. The OCGIN is considered a problem of difficult resolution, considering aspects of combinatorial optimization and calculations of analysis and physics of reactors. In order to validate algorithms for the OGCIN solution, we use benchmark problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), because it is considered, like OGCIN, an NP-difficult problem. In the present work, we implemented the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm with binary coding and Gray coding and applied them to the optimization of the symmetric PCV Oliver30 and Rykel48 asymmetric PCV and implemented only the Gray coding in the OGCIN application of the cycle 7 of the Angra-1 Nuclear Plant, where we compared its performance with binary coding in. The results on average were 1311 and 1327 ppm of Boron for the binary and Gray codifications respectively, emphasizing that the binary codification obtained a maximum value of 1330 ppm, while the Gray code obtained a value of 1401 ppm, showing superiority, since the Boron concentration is an indicator of the PC cycle extension.

  15. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  16. Measurement of exchangeable sodium: 22Na or 24Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.; Edmonds, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    A case is made for the use of 22 Na in low activities in preference to 24 Na for routine diagnostic estimation of exchangeable sodium, and is based chiefly on considerations of availability, cost and radiation dosimetry. A method in which only 37 kBq (1 μCi) 22 Na is administered orally is shown to be sufficiently accurate and to possess distinct advantages in terms of cost and convenience with a committed radiation dose no greater than that for a measurement using 24 Na. (author)

  17. Recent advances in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Woo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the major fields of nuclear medicine practice. Myocardial perfusion studies using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have played a crucial role in the management of coronary artery diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) has also been considered an important tool for the assessment of myocardial viability and perfusion. However, the recent development of computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies and growing concerns about the radiation exposure of patients remain serious challenges for nuclear cardiology. In response to these challenges, remarkable achievements and improvements are currently in progress in the field of myocardial perfusion imaging regarding the applicable software and hardware. Additionally, myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) is receiving increasing attention owing to its unique capability of absolute myocardial blood flow estimation. An F-18-labeled perfusion agent for PET is under clinical trial with promising interim results. The applications of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) to cardiovascular diseases have revealed details on the basic pathophysiology of ischemic heart diseases. PET/MRI seems to be particularly promising for nuclear cardiology in the future. Restrictive diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis, are effectively evaluated using a variety of nuclear imaging tools. Considering these advances, the current challenges of nuclear cardiology will become opportunities if more collaborative efforts are devoted to this exciting field of nuclear medicine

  18. Nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1998, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) performed 38 inspections, 25 of them were performed in co-operation with IAEA inspectors. There is no fresh nuclear fuel at Bohunice A-1 NPP at present. Fresh fuel of Bohunice V-1 and V-2 NPPs is inspected in the fresh fuel storage.There are 327 fresh fuel assemblies in Mochovce NPP fresh fuel storage. In addition to that, are also 71 small users of nuclear materials in Slovakia. In most cases they use: covers made of depleted uranium for non-destructive works, detection of level in production plants, covers for therapeutical sources at medical facilities. In. 1995, NRA SR issued 4 new licences for nuclear material withdrawal. In the next part manipulation with nuclear materials, spent fuel stores and illegal trafficking in nuclear materials are reported

  19. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  20. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  1. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panait, A.

    1994-01-01

    This is a general report presenting the section VII entitled Nuclear Power of the National Conference on Energy (CNE '94) held in Neptun, Romania, on 13-16 June 1994. The problems addressed were those relating to electric power produced by nuclear power plant, to heat secondary generation, to quality assurance, to safety, etc. A special attention was paid to the commissioning of the first Romanian nuclear power unit, the Cernavoda-1 reactor of CANDU type. The communications were grouped in four subsections. These were: 1. Quality assurance, nuclear safety, and environmental protection; 2. Nuclear power plant, commissioning, and operation; 3. Nuclear power plant inspection, maintenance, and repairs, heavy water technology; 4. Public opinion education. There were 22 reports, altogether

  2. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  4. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  5. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  6. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Ross.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is treated under the headings: nuclear energy -what is it; fusion (principles; practice); fission (principles); reactor types and systems (fast (neutron) reactors as breeders; fast reactors; thermal reactors; graphite-moderated thermal reactors; the CANDU reactor; light water reactors - the BWR and the PWR); the nuclear fuel cycle (waste storage; fuel element manufacture; enrichment processes; uranium mining); safety and risk assessment; the nuclear power industry and the economy (regulating authorities; economics; advantages and disadvantages). (U.K.)

  7. Contribuições do uso do controle estatístico de processos na análise do desempenho na indústria química

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Saldanha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A competitividade do mercado obriga as empresas a trabalhar de forma incessante na redução de custos e melhoria da qualidade. Uma maneira de atingir tais objetivos é através da otimização dos processos produtivos pela substituição de matérias-primas ou melhorando a produtividade dos recursos. Nesse sentido, esta pesquisa analisou o desempenho de um processo produtivo de uma empresa gaúcha aplicando o Controle Estatístico do Processo. A primeira fase do estudo foi identificar o problema que estava ocorrendo, e na sequência foram realizadas as coletas de dados e posteriormente a análise. Na etapa de análise, foram usadas ferramentas como o histograma, a carta de controle das médias e amplitudes, além da análise de capacidade do processo através dos índices de Cp e Cpk. Os principais resultados da pesquisa evidenciam que o processo investigado não apresenta um comportamento estatístico satisfatório, determinando ações de melhoria para a empresa implantar. The market competition forces companies to work relentlessly on cost reduction and quality improvement. One way to achieve these goals is through the optimization of production processes by replacing raw materials or improving resource productivity. Thus, this research analyzes the performance of a production process of a gaucho company applying Statistical Process Control. The first phase of the study was to identify the problem that was occurring, and following the data collection and subsequent analysis were performed. In the analysis stage, tools like the histogram, control chart of averages and ranges were used, and analysis of process capability indices through Cp and Cpk. The main results of the research show that the process investigated does not present a satisfactory statistical behavior, determining actions to improve the company deploy.

  8. Nuclear Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferguson, Joseph; Tarleton, Gael

    2004-01-01

    .... This event was an opportunity for policy makers, security analysts, nuclear scientists and engineers, regional experts, and military planners to share perspectives and identify those issues requiring...

  9. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and software, including myocardial perfusion imaging, offer increased accuracy in the detection, diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  11. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  12. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  13. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  14. Abuso sexual na infância: compreensão a partir da Epidemiologia e dos Direitos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan França Junior

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as possibilidades e limites das abordagens epidemiológica e de direitos humanos da questão do abuso sexual na infância (ASI. Para tanto, examina-se a literatura epidemiológica sobre magnitude e fatores de risco, concluindo-se que o ASI é de grande magnitude; afeta principalmente jovens, em especial mulheres; não sendo episódico ou isolado nas vidas das pessoas e das comunidades e que seus determinantes são, em grande parte, desconhecidos. Discutem-se os problemas desta produção e indicam-se as razões possíveis para seus limites. A análise de direitos humanos compreendeu o exame do caráter intersubjetivo do direito, da natureza da esfera (privada ou pública relativa ao direito e às forças que determinam a adesão de sujeitos a uma determinada norma jurídica. Nesta perspectiva, conclui-se que direito a viver e desenvolver-se livre do abuso sexual na infância é um direito da liberdade e integridade (autonomia privada. Há mecanismos explícitos na legislação nacional que vedam este comportamento, mas com baixa eficácia e cobertura populacional. As condições de operação do direito brasileiro fazem com que as crianças sejam socialmente vulneráveis ao ASI. Conclui-se que estas abordagens, embora distintas, podem ser usadas de modo complementar com vistas à ação intersetorial para a erradicação do ASI.

  15. Abuso sexual na infância: compreensão a partir da Epidemiologia e dos Direitos Humanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan França Junior

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as possibilidades e limites das abordagens epidemiológica e de direitos humanos da questão do abuso sexual na infância (ASI. Para tanto, examina-se a literatura epidemiológica sobre magnitude e fatores de risco, concluindo-se que o ASI é de grande magnitude; afeta principalmente jovens, em especial mulheres; não sendo episódico ou isolado nas vidas das pessoas e das comunidades e que seus determinantes são, em grande parte, desconhecidos. Discutem-se os problemas desta produção e indicam-se as razões possíveis para seus limites. A análise de direitos humanos compreendeu o exame do caráter intersubjetivo do direito, da natureza da esfera (privada ou pública relativa ao direito e às forças que determinam a adesão de sujeitos a uma determinada norma jurídica. Nesta perspectiva, conclui-se que direito a viver e desenvolver-se livre do abuso sexual na infância é um direito da liberdade e integridade (autonomia privada. Há mecanismos explícitos na legislação nacional que vedam este comportamento, mas com baixa eficácia e cobertura populacional. As condições de operação do direito brasileiro fazem com que as crianças sejam socialmente vulneráveis ao ASI. Conclui-se que estas abordagens, embora distintas, podem ser usadas de modo complementar com vistas à ação intersetorial para a erradicação do ASI.

  16. Use of Piaget's theory in preschool nutrition education Uso da teoria de Piaget na educação nutricional de pré-escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Başkale

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The preschool period is a time when children learn many concepts and develop life-long habits. In that period, children learn about appropriate and balanced nutrition and acquire good eating habits for later years. Piaget determined that children's cognitive development is important for their understanding of and learning about the world around them. Piaget's theory can be used as a guide in nutrition education. In fact, it helps to design effective nutrition education appropriate for the developmental stages of childhood. The purpose of this article is to describe Piaget's theory and nutrition education based on this theory. This article will discuss how Piaget's theory is to be used in the development of nutritional habits of preschool children and will make an attempt to provide a viewpoint for those who provide nutrition education.O período pré-escolar é uma época na qual a criança aprende muitos conceitos e desenvolve hábitos que persistem a vida toda. Nesta época, a criança aprende sobre nutrição adequada e balanceada e adquire bons hábitos alimentares para os anos seguintes. Piaget estabeleceu que o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma criança é importante para a compreensão e o aprendizado do mundo que a cerca. A teoria de Piaget pode ser usada como um guia na educação nutricional. De fato, a teoria ajuda a elaborar uma educação nutricional apropriada para os estágios de desenvolvimento infantis. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever a teoria de Piaget e a educação nutricional com base nesta teoria. Este artigo discutirá como a teoria de Piaget pode ser usada no desenvolvimento dos hábitos nutricionais de pré-escolares na tentativa de apresentar um panorama aos profissionais envolvidos com a educação nutricional.

  17. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  18. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  19. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  20. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  1. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  2. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  3. Stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Yunshang; Lei Zhangyun; Zen Yu; Gong Hua

    1996-01-01

    A detecting system using NaI(Tl) is widely used in research and industry of nuclear science and other fields. For providing the high accuracy and working well under inclement environment, the stability of detecting system using NaI(Tl) is very important. The variation of environment temperature, the change of counting rate and long time continuous working of detector will cause un-negligible effect on the measurement. Three approaches were used. They are: 1) temperature control (It makes the effect of the variation of environment temperature on the measurement negligible.); 2) spectrum stabilizing (It adjust the peak position of the spectrum when the counting rate changes.); and 3) auto-checking and adjusting (It adjusts the drift of the NaI(Tl) detecting system when it works continuously)

  4. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  6. Nuclear violence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been paid in the past decade or so to the characteristics of terrorists and their apparent goals and objectives, capabilities, and evolving strategy and tactics with respect to nuclear terrorism. In contrast, little has been said about the procedural aspects of nuclear terrorism, and even less about the way in which such endeavors can fail. This latter omission is important because it bears directly on the ability to evaluate credibly the potential for nuclear terrorism. Here, the author addresses the requirements inherent in acquiring a nuclear explosive capability by three routes: separation of plutonium from irradiated light or heavy water reactor (LWR or HWR) fuel, processing, or use of separated fissile material, and theft of a nuclear weapon. In addition, he deals with other potential acts of nuclear terrorism: sabotage of power reactors, uranium enrichment facilities and spent nuclear fuel in transport, and dispersal of radioactive materials, in particular, plutonium. He specifically does not look at the design or production of a nuclear weapon. Finally, the discussion here assumes that the terrorist is subnational; that is, a nation is not involved. Also, the discussion of subnational participation does not address the possibility of collusion with insiders

  7. Nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 2 of the document contains some details about the existing Brazilian nuclear installations. Also, safety improvements at Angra 1 and aspects of Angra 2 and 3 are reported

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  9. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This brochure is intended as a contribution to a better and more general understanding of one of the most urgent problems of present society. Emphasis is laid on three issues that are always raised in the nuclear debate: 1) Fuel cycle, 2) environmental effects of nuclear power plants, 3) waste disposal problems. (GL) [de

  10. Nuclear pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramade, Francois

    1979-01-01

    In this chapter devoted to nuclear pollution the following topics were studied: fundamentals of radiobiology (ecological importance of the various radioisotopes, biological effects of ionizing radiations); ecological effects of radioactive fallout (contamination of atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, oceans). The electronuclear industry and its environmental impact. PWR type reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, contamination of trophic chains by radionuclides released in the environment from nuclear installations [fr

  11. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  12. Nuclear facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed as follows: the case for using nuclear energy (Britain's energy needs; energy policy); safety; transport of spent fuel; radiation (natural radioactivity); environment (land use of nuclear power plants; storage and disposal of radioactive wastes). (U.K.)

  13. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  14. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  15. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  16. Nuclear haematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masjhur, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used 32 P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used 32 P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  17. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing threat by terrorists for a possible nuclear attack is particularly alarming in recent years. The likelihood of such an event is highly uncertain but cannot be ruled out. The consequence of such an event would be highly disastrous and the implications could be far-reaching both socially and politically. It is feared that significant amount of nuclear weapons materials may be kept under poor security. Therefore, there is a greater demand with utmost priority to curb nuclear terrorism by adapting proper security measures. One of the most important measures is to stop illicit trafficking of nuclear materials which are the source of building nuclear explosive devices. According to the IAEA illicit trafficking database (ITDB) report, a total number of 252 incidents were reported in 2006, of which 150 occurred in 2006 and the remaining 102 had taken place prior to that year, mainly in 2005

  18. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  20. Nuclear privatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country's two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain's nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross

  1. Nuclear haematology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjhur, J S

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear techniques have been applied to study diagnose and treat various haematological disorders for more than five decades. Two scientists are regarded as pioneers in this field, i.e. John Lawrence who in 1938 used {sup 32}P to treat chronic myeloid leukaemia and George Hevessy who used {sup 32}P labelled erythrocytes to measure blood volume in 1939. At present, many nuclear medicine procedures are available for diagnosis and therapy of a variety of haematological disorders. Although nuclear techniques are somewhat complex, they give direct and quantitative assessment of the kinetics of blood elements as compared to other non-isotopic haematological tests. Basically, equipment required for nuclear haematology is very simple such as well scintillation counters to measure radioactivity in blood samples. More sophisticated equipment like rectilinear scanner or gamma camera is required when imaging is necessary. An overview of the basic principles and clinical applications of nuclear haematology is given

  2. Establishment of criteria for classification of area remediation measures contaminated after an eventual radiation accident in Angra dos Reis, RJ, nuclear power plant; Estabelecimento de criterios para a classificacao de medidas de remediacao de areas contaminadas apos um eventual acidente nuclear na usina de Angra dos Reis (RJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Diogo Neves Gomes da

    2016-07-01

    When a radiological or nuclear accident that leads to the release of radioactive material to the environment occurs, it is important to implement protective and remediation measures in order to reduce human exposure to radionuclides. Therefore, it is necessary that the procedures to be chosen by the affected country authorities are the most efficient ones, which can only be defined based on previously established criteria. In Brazil, since the radiological accident in Goiania, in 1987, the development of tools to support decision-making in emergencies of this nature was started. The main objective of this work was to establish an acting basis for contaminated areas, in order to protect the individuals of public in case of any accident related to Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant, in the municipality of Angra dos Reis (RJ), which leads to contamination to the environment and the consequent exposure of local population or from more distant regions to ionizing radiation. Initially, the high-risk areas near the location of the nuclear power plant were defined. Typical urban environments found in the main cities of these municipalities were surveyed, including homes, streets and recreation areas. The main characteristics of the study area were evaluated using images from Google Earth® and web pages of the municipalities. After the types of areas to be simulated were selected, these were quantified in terms of the number of residents, the size of the streets, and the number of trees, among others, per unit area. Considering the different housing characteristics for the selected municipalities, six main standard scenarios were developed for urban areas, including homes with different shielding, buildings and parks. The simulation of the procedures for each scenario was made with SIEM model, developed by the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), formed by the integration of various models including CORAL, focusing on agricultural areas

  3. Nuclear Structure Research at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, P. E.; Andreyev, A.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Boston, A. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Cline, D.; Cooper, R. J.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D.; Dashdorj, D.; Demand, G. A.; Dimmock, M. R.; Drake, T. E.; Finlay, P.; Gagon-Miosan, F.; Gallant, A. T.; Green, K. L.; Grint, A. N.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Harkness, L. J.; Hayes, A. B.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Lee, G.; Leslie, J. R.; Martin, J.-P.; Mattoon, C.; Mills, W. J.; Morton, A. C.; Mythili, S.; Nelson, L.; Newman, O.; Nolan, P. J.; Padilla-Rodal, E.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Porter-Peden, M.; Ressler, J. J.; Roy, R.; Ruiz, C.; Savajols, H.; Sarazin, F.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, D. P.; Scraggs, H. C.; Strange, M. D.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Wan, J. M.; Whitbeck, A.; Williams, S. J.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2007-04-01

    The radioactive beam laboratory at TRIUMF is currently the highest power ISOL facility in the world. Taking advantage of the high-intensity beams, major programs in nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure, and weak interaction studies have begun. The low-energy area, ISAC-I, is capable of delivering beams up to mass 30 at approx 1.7 MeV/u or 60 keV up to the mass of the primary target, whereas ISAC-II will ultimately provide beams up to mass 150 and approx 6.5 MeV/u. Major gamma -ray spectrometers for nuclear structure research consist of the 8pi spectrometer at ISAC-I, and the TIGRESS spectrometer now being constructed for ISAC-II. Results from recent experiments investigating the beta -decay of nuclei near N=90 and Coulomb excitation of 20,21Na are presented that highlight the capabilities of the spectrometers.

  4. Recurso digital na aprendizagem dos surdos: leitura e a escrita = Digital resource in learning of the deaf: reading and writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues, Cristiane Lumertz Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo sobre a inclusão, sobre as leis e aborda a educação no desenvolvimento do surdo, discutindo o uso do recurso digital durante esse processo. O estudo descreve por meio de uma pesquisa qualitativa os resultados alcançados através de respostas adquiridas numa entrevista realizada com alunos surdos. Visa compreender como esse indivíduo utiliza o recurso digital, em especial para poder pensar como ele poderia usufruir da educação a distância, considerando as limitações da sua deficiência. Os resultados obtidos na entrevista, com os alunos surdos, apontam que a maior dificuldade está nos textos escolhidos para as aulas, por serem longos e porque eles não dominam completamente a língua portuguesa, pois a língua deles é libras, isso torna a leitura mais difícil e trabalhosa. Também, se levantou algumas sugestões, para o uso de maneira mais qualificada, das ferramentas usadas no meio digital, com o objet ivo de melhorar a aprendizagem dos alunos

  5. Transnacionalidade dos princípios da não-violação de privacidade na internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benedelli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo esclareceralguns mitos em relação à internet, principalmentesobre que não se poderia ter uma regulamentaçãodo Estado e que haveria liberdade absoluta nesseespaço. Então, como conseqüência desses mitos,a internet poderia ser usada de maneira indevida,causando uma aparente desordem nessa rede, comoa vulneração à intimidade, que leva à ofensa à honrados indivíduos. No entanto, é apresentado, aqui,que o ciberespaço tem mais regulamentos do quese supunha, haja vista que os princípios discutidosestão presentes na maioria dos EstadosDemocráticos de Direito.This article has as objective to clarifysome myths in relation to the internet, mainly onthat if it could not have a regulation of the Stateand that would have absolute freedom in thisspace. Then, as consequence of this myth, theInternet is used in improper way, causing anapparent clutter in this net, as the vulneração tothe privacy, that it leads to the offence to thehonor of the individuals. However, it is presented,here, that net has more regulations of what wasassumed, it has seen that the principles arguedhere are gifts in the majority of the DemocraticStates of Right.

  6. Paganismo e cristianismo na correspondência entre Agostinho de Hipona e Nectário de Calama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário Gonçalves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as cartas trocadas pelo bispo católico Agostinho de Hipona e o pagão Nectário de Calama por ocasião dos distúrbios ocorridos em junho de 408. O enfoque do trabalho é perceber as estratégias retóricas usadas pelos correspondentes a fim de demarcar suas respectivas posições diante do conflito. Do lado pagão, Nectário se esforça para defender seus correligionários e poupá-los das punições previstas na lei; do lado cristão, Agostinho procura justificar a disciplina dos culpados, tentando mostrar que elas estão de acordo com a caridade cristã. A correspondência revela o ambiente de conflito entre cristãos e pagãos no início do século V, no qual o cristianismo considerado ortodoxo conta com o apoio do poder Imperial, enquanto os grupos dissidentes se encontram em desvantagem e precisam fazer uso de diversas táticas que visam afirmar sua identidade e resistir ao predomínio católico.

  7. Quantitative model of evaluation of the contribution of each radioactive source in the individual external dose Hx in nuclear medicine service personnel; Modelo quantitativo de avaliacao da contribuicao de cada fonte radioativa na dose individual externa Hx em trabalhador de servico de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Nathalie Canhameiro; Tinois, Eduardo; Koga, Katia Hiromoto; Bezerra, Aline da Silva; Ferreira, Vinicius Capistrano; Azevedo, Thaisa Resende; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta, E-mail: soniamoriguchi@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    2016-07-01

    Assess whether the activities performed in the Nuclear Medicine service are significant in the total dose received by the workers and their relative contributions. Methods: measured independent variables: number of scintigraphies remaining in the examination room (N); eluted activity (E); Total activity marked in pharmaceuticals kits (K); num-ber of times that was scheduled to work in the Hot room (Q); Variable dependent measured: cumulative effective dose in the period 10/2012 to 04/2013 added to each worker, obtained by information registered daily and monthly on activities and doses received in the period. Held Multiple Linear Regression (D = a + β{sub 1} N + E + β{sub 2} β{sub 3} K + β{sub 4} Q) with α = 0.05 significance level. It was concluded that the independent variables N (p = 0.097) and E (p = 0.086) did not significantly interfere with the Cumulative dose in the period. The K variables (p = 0.017) and Q (p = 0.028) were significant in the proposed model. (author)

  8. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  9. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  10. Studies in Low-Energy Nuclear Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Brune; Steven M. Grimes

    2010-01-13

    This report presents a summary of research projects in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and structure, carried out between March 1, 2006 and October 31, 2009 which were supported by U.S. DOE grant number DE-FG52-06NA26187.

  11. Emprego experimental da placa de compósito poli-hidroxibutirado/hidroxiapatita na fixação femoral em gatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.L. Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o compósito de poli-hidroxibutirado (PHB 70% e hidroxiapatita (HA 30% na forma de placas para fixação óssea em gatos. Foram usadas placas do compósito com 60mm de comprimento por 10mm de largura e espessura variando de 3mm no centro a 5mm nas extremidades, com seis orifícios. A placa do compósito foi empregada na fixação de osteotomia de fêmur em quatro gatos, totalizando seis intervenções. Verificou-se a ruptura de cinco placas (83,3% até o quarto dia e de uma placa (16,7% aos 21 dias, quando se observou um calo ósseo exuberante. O resultado da implantação da placa no gato mostrou que o compósito não possui resistência suficiente para ser empregado como placas de fixação de fêmur em gatos.

  12. Avaliação da acupressão auricular na síndrome do ombro doloroso: estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Zanelatto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome do Ombro Doloroso (SOD é definida como dor e limitação funcional decorrente do acometimento de estruturas estáticas e dinâmicas do ombro, como ligamentos, cápsula e músculos. É uma das queixas mais comuns e incapacitantes do sistema musculoesquelético na população em geral com uma prevalência estimada entre 15 a 25%. Este estudo objetivou avaliar os resultados da acupressão auricular quando usada como terapia no tratamento da Dor crônica, secundária à SOD, quanto ao efeito analgésico e terapêutico satisfatório e o tempo estimado de tratamento. Para a obtenção do objetivo foi realizado um Estudo de Caso que teve como intervenção a acupressão auricular com esferas de cristais e como indicador de resultado o questionário Penn Shoulder Score (PSS - Brasil. Os dados foram analisados qualitativa e quantitativamente. Conclui-se que a auriculoterapia é uma importante técnica terapêutica, pois o estudo demonstrou uma melhora na pontuação total do PSS - Brasil em 34,3%.

  13. Influência das fibras de aço e das adições minerais na fissuração de tirantes de concreto armado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Oliveira Júnior

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é investigada a influência das fibras de aço e das adições minerais (sílica ativa e cinza volante na fissuração de tirantes de concreto armado. Fibras de aço com gancho nas extremidades e relação de aspecto igual a 65 foram usadas nas frações volumétricas de 0,75%, 1,00% e 1,50%. Dezesseis tirantes de 800 mm de comprimento e seção transversal quadrada de 150 mm de lado reforçados com uma barra de aço CA-50 de 20 mm de diâmetro foram submetidos à tração axial para determinação das aberturas das fissuras. Os resultados mostraram que as fibras reduziram a abertura média de fissuras em até 75% e que as adições minerais melhoraram o comportamento do concreto na fissuração. As aberturas de fissuras foram comparadas aos valores sugeridos pelas recomendações das normas brasileira, americana e européia, que se mostraram inadequadas para estimar a abertura de fissuras em concretos reforçados com fibras.

  14. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  15. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  16. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1984-01-01

    Do we need nuclear energy. Is it safe. What are the risks. Will it lead to proliferation. The questions are endless, the answers often confused. In the vigorous debates that surround the siting and operation of nuclear power plants, it is all too easy to lose sight of the central issues amid the mass of arguments and counter-arguments put forward. And there remains the doubt, who do we believe. This book presents the facts, simply, straightforwardly, and comprehensibly. It describes the different types of nuclear reactor, how they work, how energy is produced and transformed into usable power, how nuclear waste is handled, what safeguards are built in to prevent accident, contamination and misuse. More important, it does this in the context of the real world, examining the benefits as well as the dangers of a nuclear power programme, quantifying the risks, and providing an authoritative account of the nuclear industry worldwide. Technically complex and politically controversial, the contribution of nuclear energy to our future energy requirements is a crucial topic of our time. (author)

  17. Nuclear Hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The global spread of nuclear reactors for the production of energy seems inevitable. Nuclear power plants will be supplied--if not by the United States, then by one of several other exporters. But other aspects of this development are less certain. One is the relationship between proliferation of nuclear energy plants and that of nuclear weapons. Another is the actual constraint that such vulnerable potential targets as nuclear power plants would have on would-be aggressors. In the last analysis, this would depend on the rationality of a nation's leadership. What can be said for the concept of nuclear power plants as potential hostages is that by installing a reactor on its territory, a country increases its vulnerability to grave, possibly unacceptable damage in the event of war. As a result, that nation's leaders might be inclined to raise the threshold of their sensitivity to provocation by neighbors and to restrain their own inclinations toward aggression. Admittedly this is a frail substitute for robust international agreements, but in the present order of things it is not a trivial consideration. Many incidents once regarded by the great powers as easi belli have more recently been either resolved by diplomacy or ignored altogether. The idea must not be pressed too far. The export of a nuclear power plant to a Third World country cannot be advocated simply as a means to constrain its own military adventurism. Aside from the promise of a vast increase in energy supply for developing nations, nuclear powered generating stations could actually improve relations among countries. The risk of widespread radioactive contamination by nuclear power plants hit by even conventional bombs could introduce a positive new element into the military calculations of powers outside the NATO-Warsaw Pact arena. As they balance military and diplomatic solutions to local conflicts, moderation rather than bellicosity might become the better part of valor

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  19. Nuclear inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, Therese

    1997-01-01

    Since the end of the East-West confronting, the nuclear weapon issue has been focused in an international debate with obvious repercussions in Europe, because it is the European continent which indicated first the significance of nuclear deterrence. This debate refers first upon the past, as the German unification allowed capturing numerous documents of Warsaw treaty which revealed the intentions and the plans of Soviet Union during the cold war, and secondly concerns the future, since the role of nuclear weapons must be re-thought in a new context. This is the subject of this book, which refers also to the problem of the nuclear proliferation in the world and evolution of different countries in a political and regional context. The extension of the non-proliferation treaty for an undefined duration, in May 1995, is a incontestable victory because this treaty rules the renouncement to nuclear weapons of 185 countries. However, it does not solve most sensible problems like the Iraq case, for which a specific inspection regime has been instituted, or the case of Iran, which is suspected to acquire the bomb, although no clear evidence has been provided up to now. This is also the case of Israel, India and Pakistan which allege plainly their willingness of keeping open, from security reasons, their nuclear option. The content is displayed in five chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The role of the nuclear weapons after the cold war; 3. The nuclear proliferation at crossroads; 4. Undefined extension of the NPT, a striking but fragile victory; 5. Conclusions. An appendix containing the text of the Nuclear Weapon Non-Proliferation Treaty and a chronology are added

  20. The NA60 experiment results and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Heuser, J M; Banicz, K; Borer, K; Buytaert, J; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chenn, W; Cheynis, B; Cicalò, C; Colla, A; Cortese, R; David, A; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Devaux, A; Drees, A; Ducroux, L; Enyo, H; Ferretti, A; Floris, M; Force, P; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guettet, N; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Keil, M; Kluberg, L; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Lozano-Bahilo, J; Manso, F; Masoni, A; Neves, A; Ohnishi, H; Oppedisano, C; Parracho, P; Puddu, G; Radermacher, E; Rosinsky, P; Scomparin, E; Seixas, J; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sonderegger, P; Tieulent, R; Usai, G L; Vardanian, H; Veenhof, R; Wöhri, H K

    2003-01-01

    The NA60 experiment takes place at the SPS at CERN, to study the production of open charm and prompt dimuons in collisions induced by proton and heavy ion beams on nuclear targets. For this task, several novel detector systems were added to the dimuon spectrometer and zero-degree calorimeter, which were previously used in the NA50 experiment. The main upgrade is a new silicon pixel vertex spectrometer. It tracks the charged particles that are produced through the collisions in the target and allows us to match their trajectories and momenta with those of the muons that are measured behind the hadron absorber in the muon spectrometer. Besides improving considerably the dimuon mass resolution, the vertex telescope measures the offset of each muon track with respect to the interaction point. This allows us to select events where charm mesons were produced. We present in this article first results from dimuon data that were acquired in Summer 2002 with a 400 GeV proton beam. A silicon microstrip telescope was use...

  1. Síntese de zeólita tipo NaA a partir de caulim para obtenção de zeólita 5A através de troca iônica Synthesis of NaA zeolites from kaolin for obtaining 5A zeolites through ion exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Melo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A síntese de zeólitas com o intuito de utilizá-las posteriormente como materiais adsorventes exige rigoroso controle das variáveis de processamento. Para cada tipo diferente de zeólita, existem variáveis de processo distintas para obtenção do tipo específico desejado. Neste trabalho os objetivos foram obter zeólita NaA partindo de caulim, para posteriormente obter zeólita 5A por meio de troca iônica com esta zeólita anteriormente sintetizada. Estas zeólitas, por sua vez, podem ser usadas como adsorventes altamente seletivos para adsorver, por exemplo, metais pesados de efluentes industriais. Os resultados obtidos foram satisfatórios, a metodologia utilizada mostrou-se eficiente. A partir do metacaulim comercial utilizado, obteve-se com sucesso zeólita tipo NaA, e por meio de trocas iônicas obteve-se zeólita 5A. A porcentagem de sódio trocada na zeólita final foi 61,4%.Zeolites synthesis as adsorbing materials requires accurate control of the variables. There are distinct process variables for obtaining specific desired types depending on each different kind of zeolite to be synthesized. This paper was aimed at obtaining NaA zeolites from kaolin in order to obtain zeolites A afterwards through ionic exchange with the previously synthesized zeolite. These zeolites can then be used as highly selective adsorbents to adsorb, for instance, heavy metals in industrial effluents. The results obtained were satisfactory, the methodology was efficient. From the commercial metakaolin used NaA zeolite was obtained successfully, and through ionic exchanges 5A zeolite was obtained. The exchangeable sodium percentage in the final zeolite was 61.4%.

  2. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  3. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladky, S.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet appeared in a series on technical history. It tries to communicate some of the scientific, technical and social stresses, which have been connected with the application of nuclear energy since its discovery. The individual sections are concerned with the following subjects: the search for the 'smallest particles'; the atomic nucleus; nuclear fission; the 'Manhattan Project'; the time after this - from the euphoria of the 1950's via disillusionment and change of opinion to the state of nuclear energy at the start of the 1980's. The booklet contains many details and is generously illustrated. (HSCH) [de

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxo, Armand.

    1977-01-01

    The reasons and conditions of utilizing nuclear power in developing countries are examined jointly with the present status and future uses already evaluated by some organizations. Some consequences are deduced in the human, financial scientific and technological fields, with provisional suggestions for preparing the nuclear industry development in these countries. As a conclusion trends are given to show how the industrialized countries having gained a long scientific and technological experience in nuclear energy can afford their assistance in this field, to developing countries [fr

  6. Nuclear questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlfeld, W.

    1977-01-01

    This brochure 'nuclear problems' deals with the attitude of the protestant church in the region around the northern Elbe towards further quantitative economic growth, esp. nuclear energy, with the following essays: preaching the Gospel in an environment in danger: the Christian occident and the problems of the third world, facing the problems of exhausted supplies, the role of the prophet, problem of environment - a problem of theology, the political dimension, against ATW, signal Brokdorf, strange effects (defense of the church from unqualified teachings by non-professionals), Christian liberty, church and nuclear energy, violence and robes. (HP) [de

  7. Rotterdam Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    In 1965 Rotterdam Nuclear received an order for the design, supply of materials, manufacture, testing, inspection and preparation for shipment of one 450MW Boiling Water Reactor pressure vessel. This was one of the first orders for a reactor pressure vessel, ever obtained by a European Manufacturer. The Company has since supplied 19 reactor pressure vessels for nuclear power stations, having a total weight of about 10,000,000kg. The nuclear power stations in which these are installed represent an electrical output of about 15,000MW and they are located in seven different countries (USA, Spain, Switzerland, Argentina, Sweden, Germany and the Netherlands). (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  9. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Hondt, P.

    1998-01-01

    The research and development programme on nuclear fuel at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. The objective of this programme is to enhance the quantitative prediction of the operational limits of nuclear fuel and to assess the behaviour of fuel under incidental and accidental conditions. Progress is described in different domains including the modelling of fission gas release in LWR fuel, thermal conductivity, basic physical phenomena, post-irradiation examination for fuel performance assessment, and conceptual studies of incidental and accidental fuel experiments

  10. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wethe, Per Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Today we know two forms of nuclear energy: fission and fusion. Fission is the decomposition of heavy nuclei, while fusion is the melting together of light nuclei. Both processes create a large surplus of energy. Technologically, we can currently only use fission to produce energy in today's nuclear power plants, but there is intense research worldwide in order to realize a controlled fusion process. In a practical context, today's nuclear energy is a sustained source of energy since the resource base is virtually unlimited. When fusion technology is realized, the resource supply will be a marginal problem. (AG)

  11. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  12. Prospection of implementation of distance learning for the course on fundamentals of Nuclear Physics at the graduate course of IPEN using free software infrastructure; Prospeccao de implementacao de ensino a distancia para a disciplina de fundamentos de fisica nuclear na pos-graduacao do IPEN utilizanto infraestrutura de software livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tondim, Jose Egidio Marin

    2009-07-01

    In modern society, the utilization of technological resources and of the internet are of fundamental importance in ali areas and as such the educational activities have to follow this evolution. In this context, distance learning is a fundamental tool for educational development, being innovative and stimulating , offering a variety of resources that are complementary to the activities of the students. Also it is important to point out that distance learning can be brought to remote regions, of difficult access in many cases, so allowing a wide dissemination of knowledge and also implying in lower costs. The objective of this work is the prospection of the interest and viability of implantation of distance learning in the course on Fundamentals of Nuclear Physics at the pos-graduate course of IPEN, using free software infra-structure , by means of a pilot project on distance learning. The work was developed in three phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire was applied to the students , with the aim of finding out about their profiles and interest in distance learning, before they had contact with the pilot project. In the second phase, other students were interviewed , also with the objective of knowing their opinion about distance learning ,but after they had access to the pilot project. Finally,the professors of the graduate course of IPEN were consulted, also by means of a questionnaire, in order to know about their interest in the utilization of distance learning. The results obtained in the present work show that distance learning is a welcome pedagogical resource for students as well for teachers; these results will subsidize the future implementation of distance learning in the pos-graduate course of IPEN. (author)

  13. Stimulated nuclear spin echos and spectral diffusion in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, N.M.; Engelsberg, M.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental results of stimulated nuclear spin echos decay in glasses are presented. The measurements were performed in B 2 O 3 glasses, at the 23Na and 11 B resonance lines. The data analysis allows the study of Spectral diffusion at an inhomogeneous nuclear magnetic (NMR) resonance line, broadened for a desordered system of nuclear spins. A model is proposed to explain the time constants, and the particular form of the decay. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. LS1 Report: NA62 readies for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 10 September, the last NA62 straw tracker chamber was lowered into position in the experiment. This feat brings almost 8 years of CERN construction and design to a close, as the tracker has gone from the drawing board to construction and installation.   The final straw tracker module is lowered into position in NA62. The NA62 straw tracker is one of a kind. As the first of its scale to be placed directly into the vacuum tank of an experiment, it will allow NA62 physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with high precision. "From the first design to the final plug-in and testing, CERN teams have been 100% involved in developing this unique tracker," says Hans Danielsson, NA62 straw project leader. "We worked in close collaboration with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Russia, who helped develop the straw tracker technology and will participate in the running of the detector now that construction and installa...

  15. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher

    1982-01-01

    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  17. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  18. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  19. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This report discusses concepts in nuclear theory such as: neutrino nucleosynthesis; double beta decay; neutrino oscillations; chiral symmetry breaking; T invariance; quark propagator; cold fusion; and other related topics

  20. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  1. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  4. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  6. Nuclear shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, R.C.; Nienart, L.F.; Toelcke, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for preparing melt-processable nuclear shielding compositions from chloro-fluoro substituted ethylene polymers, particularly PCTFE and E-CTFE, containing 1 to 75 percent by weight of a gadolinium compound. 13 claims, no drawings

  7. Nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    The energy demand complexion of this country is always changing and promises to change in the future. The nuclear industry is responding to changing energy demands through standards writing activities. Since the oil embargo of 1973, there has been a change in the mix of fuels contributing to energy growth in this country; virtually all of the energy growth has come from coal and nuclear power. The predicted expansion of coal use by 1985, over 1977 level, is 37%, while the use of oil is expected to decline by 17%. Use of nuclear power is expected to increase 62% from the 1977 level. The feasibility of using nuclear energy to meet the needs of the USA for electric power is discussed

  8. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  9. Nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, T.

    1981-01-01

    The nuclear fission process is pedagogically reviewed from a macroscopic-microscopic point of view. The Droplet model is considered. The fission dynamics is discussed utilizing path integrals and semiclassical methods. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  11. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  12. Compact device for the extraction of sup(99m)TcO4Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliego, O.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1982-01-01

    A non automatic device for the extraction of sup(99m)TcO 4 Na by liquid-liquid extraction method is described. It has been developed at the Laboratory of Labelled Molecules of the CNEA and was installed at the Nuclear Medicine Centre of the Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin. The solutions of sup(99m)TcO 4 Na are used for the labelling of radiopharmaceuticals and also for making radiodiagnosis. (author) [es

  13. A utilização da difração de neutrões na determinação do perfil de tensões residuais em revestimentos por soldadura The use of neutron diffraction for the determination of the in-depth residual stresses profile in weld coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Marques

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de difração de neutrões é usada neste artigo para estudar amostras ferríticas, revestidas comaços inoxidáveisausteníticos através de soldadura por arco submerso. Este procedimento é frequentemente usado no fabrico de equipamentos de processo para as indústrias química e nuclear, por facilidade de execução e razões económicas. A principal desvantagem deste processo de revestimento é a fissuração que frequentemente ocorre na interface material base/soldadura, potenciada pela presença de tensões residuais resultantes da operação de soldadura, a qual pode ser minimizada com a realização de tratamentos térmicos de relaxação de tensões. As amostras foram produzidas a partir de placas em aço ao carbono, tendo uma das superfícies sido revestida com dois tipos de aço inoxidável. Para a primeira camada foi usado um elétrodo EN 12072 - S 23 12 2 L e para a segunda e a terceira camadas foi usado um elétrodo EN 12072 - S 19 12 3 L. Após a soldadura, as amostras foram submetidas a um tratamento térmico de relaxação de tensões, durante 1 hora, à temperatura de 620ºC. Os perfis de tensões residuais obtidos por difração de neutrões evidenciam a relaxação de tensões residuais após o tratamento térmico realizado. A técnica de difração de neutrões revelou-se muito adequada na avaliação de tensões residuais neste tipo de ligações.The neutron diffraction is a non-destructive technique, particularly suitable for the analysis of residual stress fields in welds. The technique is used in this article to study ferritic samples, coated by submerged arc welding using stainless steel filler metals. This procedure is often used for manufacturing process equipment for chemical and nuclear industries, for ease of implementation and economic reasons. The main disadvantage of that processes is the cracking phenomenon that often occurs at the interface between the base material and coatings, which can be

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  16. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  20. Nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, Jacky; Fabre, Rene.

    1981-01-01

    This article sums up the Research and Development effort at present being carried out in the five following fields of applications: Health physics and Radioprospection, Control of nuclear reactors, Plant control (preparation and reprocessing of the fuel, testing of nuclear substances, etc.), Research laboratory instrumentation, Detectors. It also sets the place of French industrial activities by means of an estimate of the French market, production and flow of trading with other countries [fr

  1. Nuclear hadrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geesaman, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of hadron dynamics in the nucleus is illustrated to show the importance of nuclear medium effects in hadron interactions. The low lying hadron spectrum is considered to provide the natural collective variables for nuclear systems. Recent studies of nucleon-nucleon and delta-nucleon interactions are reviewed, with emphasis on the type of experimental phenomena which signal the importance of the many-body dynamics. 28 references

  2. Seguro Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.C.C. de.

    1978-04-01

    A description of the constitutive elements of insurance and its features in the field of law, and special legislation about the matter are given. The relationship between the liability of the nuclear power plant operator and the international conventions about civil liability on nuclear damage is discussed. Some considerations on damage reparing in the United States, Germany, France and Spain are presented. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  3. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  5. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  6. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  7. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  8. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Several issues concerning nuclear energy in France during 1996 are presented: permission of a demand for installing underground laboratories in three sites (Marcoule, Bure and Chapelle-Baton); a report assessing the capacity of Superphenix plant to operate as a research tool; the project of merging between Framatome and Gec-Alsthom companies; the revision of a general report on nuclear energy in France; the issue of military plutonium management

  9. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  10. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  11. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  12. Nuclear cardiac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear medicine and cardiology has continued to produce a surfeit of interesting, illuminating, and important reports involving the analysis of cardiac function, perfusion, and metabolism. To simplify the presentation, this review is broken down into three major subheadings: analysis of myocardial perfusion; imaging of the recent myocardial infarction; and the evaluation of myocardial function. There appears to be an increasingly important relationship between cardiology, particularly cardiac physiology, and nuclear imaging techniques

  13. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  14. Nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This report examines nuclear technology in Canada, with emphasis on Quebec, as a means of revitilizing industry. The historical, present day, and future states of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited are examined. Future research programs are discussed in greatest detail. These range from disposal of porcine wastes to new applications for electricity to nuclear medical techniques (to cite only a few examples). The executive summary is written in English. (23 fig., 16 tab.)

  15. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  16. Nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    On 27 May 1986 the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present second part of the committee's report describes proposals for measures to prevent and deal with similar accidents in the future. The committee's evaluations and proposals are grouped into four main sections: Safety and risk at nuclear power plants; the Norwegian contingency organization for dealing with nuclear accidents; compensation issues; and international cooperation

  17. Nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    All scientists and technologists are agreed that the coal based fuel cycle is somewhere between 50 to 300 times more dangerous than the uranium fuel cycle. Under these circumstances it is not difficult to show that on a more quantitative basis, the nuclear industry, in all countries, has an unblemished safety record when compared with other energy sources. Various hazards and benefits of nuclear power are analyzed in this paper comparing with other energy sources. (Liu)

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear

  19. Influência da temperatura e da duração do molhamento foliar na severidade do míldio da cebola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Marcuzzo

    Full Text Available RESUMO No presente trabalho foram estudadas, em condições controladas para o desenvolvimento de um modelo climático baseado na influência da temperatura (10, 15, 20 e 25°C e da duração do molhamento foliar (6, 12, 24 e 48 horas na severidade do míldio da cebola incitado por Peronospora destructor. A densidade relativa de lesões foi influenciada pela temperatura e pela duração do molhamento foliar (P<0,05. A doença foi mais severa na temperatura de 15°C. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão não linear. A função beta generalizada foi usada para ajuste dos dados de severidade e temperatura, enquanto uma função logística foi escolhida para representar o efeito do molhamento foliar na severidade do míldio da cebola. A superfície de resposta obtida pelo produto das duas funções foi expressa por SE = 0,1506 * (((x-80,0614 * ((30-x0,1419 * (0,71642/(1+0,56954 * exp (-0,04460*y, onde SE, representa o valor da severidade estimada (0,1; x, a temperatura (ºC e y, o molhamento foliar (horas. Este modelo climático deverá ser validado em condições de campo para aferir o seu emprego como um sistema de previsão computacional para o míldio da cebola

  20. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, K.E.; Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of assessed and consistent phase equilibria and thermodynamic data for major glass constituents used to incorporate high-level nuclear waste is discussed in this paper. The initial research has included the binary Na 2 O-SiO 2 , Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 systems. The nuclear waste glass is assumed to be a supercooled liquid containing the constituents in the glass at temperatures of interest for nuclear waste storage. Thermodynamic data for the liquid solutions were derived from mathematical comparisons of phase diagram information and the thermodynamic data available for crystalline solid phases. An associate model is used to describe the liquid solution phases. Utilizing phase diagram information provides very stringent limits on the relative thermodynamic stabilities of all phases which exist in a given system

  2. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  3. Nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    It is expected that nuclear power generation will reach 49 million kW in 1985 and 129 million kW in 1995, and the nuclear fuel having to be supplied and processed will increase in proportion to these values. The technical problems concerning nuclear fuel are presented on the basis of the balance between the benefit for human beings and the burden on the human beings. Recently, especially the downstream of nuclear fuel attracts public attention. Enriched uranium as the raw material for light water reactor fuel is almost monopolized by the U.S., and the technical information has not been published for fear of the diversion to nuclear weapons. In this paper, the present situations of uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal and the future problems are described according to the path of nuclear fuel cycle. The demand and supply of enriched uranium in Japan will be balanced up to about 1988, but afterwards, the supply must rely upon the early establishment of the domestic technology by centrifugal separation method. No problem remains in the fabrication of light water reactor fuel, but for the fabrication of mixed oxide fuel, the mechanization of the production facility and labor saving are necessary. The solution of the capital risk for the construction of the second reprocessing plant is the main problem. Japan must develop waste disposal techniques with all-out efforts.

  4. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  5. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, J.

    1990-01-01

    This set of questions is based on an inquiry from the years 1987 to 1989. About 250 people af all age groups - primarily, however, young people between 16 and 25 years of age - were asked to state the questions they considered particularly important on the subject of nuclear energy. The survey was carried out without handicaps according to the brain-storming principle. Although the results cannot claim to be representative, they certainly reflect the areas of interest of many citizens and also their expectations, hopes and fears in connection with nuclear energy. The greater part of the questions were aimed at three topic areas: The security of nuclear power-stations, the effects of radioactivity on people and the problem of waste disposal. The book centres around these sets of questions. The introduction gives a general survey of the significance of nuclear energy as a whole. After this follow questions to do with the function of nuclear power stations, for the problems of security and waste disposal - which are dealt with in the following chapters - are easier to explain and to understand if a few physical and technical basics are understood. In the final section of the book there are questions on the so-called rejection debate and on the possibility of replacing nuclear energy with other energy forms. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Makoto; Hamasaki, Manabu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Hoshide, Akihiko; Katayama, Kimio; Nozawa, H.; Karigome, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    In recent days, energy security is becoming a major global concern and it has been recognized that a major reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions is required to combat climate change. Considerable expansion and new introduction of nuclear power generation are currently being planned and considered for the further in various parts of the world. Nuclear technologies of the latest 10 years in Japan were reviewed with their characteristics, advancement and future perspective. Steady efforts have been made to construct new nuclear power stations with computer-aided engineering system and modular and prefabricated structures, extend the interval of periodic inspections under the new inspection system that should improve both safety and reliability, implement advanced measures against aging and develop the next-generation light water reactors including a medium small reactor. Export of nuclear power plants has been promoted with international business alliance or cooperation. Activities to close nuclear fuel cycle to ensure sustainable nuclear energy utilization have been promoted. Decommissioning technologies for Tokai power station have been developed and accumulated know-how will be utilized in light water reactors. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Nuclear watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Parish, T.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979 the accident at Three Mile Island brought nuclear power to the forefront of national attention. Over the last five years there have been no new orders for nuclear plants, construction costs and lead times have increased drastically, and numerous plants have been cancelled. In the coming years many new plants will come on line, and the first round of nuclear plant retirements will begin. Thus, the new set of issues faced by utilities are whether to complete plants currently under construction, how to recover the cost of abandoned plants, how to handle the potential rate shock of bringing costly plants into rate base, and how to accomplish decommissioning and retirement of nuclear plants. This paper presents and analyzes these issues. First, the history of the nuclear electric generation industry is reviewed. Next a case study illustrating the cost momentum built into nuclear power plant construction is presented. The issues involved in plant cancellation are discussed. Finally, a case study involving rate phase-in strategies is analyzed. 1 reference, 7 figures

  8. VPLIV OSEBNOSTI NA STILE VODENJA

    OpenAIRE

    Vučak, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Nekatere naše vrline krasijo zlate lastnosti, druge pa kvarijo sivi odtenki. Če bi ljudje razumeli in spoznali svojo osebnost, ter osebnostne tipe drugih ljudi, bi se problemi pri komunikaciji občutno zmanjšali. Takrat bi namreč lažje uvideli, zakaj je nekdo reagiral na način, kot je ali zakaj je nekdo dejal to, kar je. Smisel tega je, da spoznamo svoje dobre lastnosti, ki jih lahko še bolj razvijemo, slabe pa poskušamo nadzorovati in tako zmanjšati njihov vpliv. Iskanje uspešnih in učink...

  9. SPOLNO NADLEGOVANJE NA DELOVNEM MESTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rubič, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  10. FORMAÇÃO HUMANA OU PRODUÇÃO DE RESULTADOS? TRABALHO DOCENTE NA ENCRUZILHADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda Evangelista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A metáfora da “encruzilhada” foi usada por Fernando de Azevedo, nos anos de 1920, para obscurecer os diferentes interesses de classes sob o litígio “tradicionais e renovadores” e definir o sentido burguês da escola pública. A encruzilhada de classe, então elidida por Azevedo, permanece e a essencial relação Capital-Trabalho tem sido dissolvida na designação “rico e pobre”. O debate proposto refere-se à encruzilhada do trabalho docente: produção de resultados ou formação humana. Baseadas em análises de documentos educacionais de Organizações Multilaterais, do Aparelho de Estado e numa literatura nacional e internacional, problematizamos as políticas destinadas aos professores, como as de recrutamento, avaliação, formação e gestão. Objetivamos colaborar para o esforço de compreender o horizonte do trabalho docente: compromisso com a educação da classe trabalhadora, promoção da contrainteriorização do projeto burguês, desalienação, formação da consciência crítica nos cursos de formação docente e nas lutas sociais, construção de um projeto histórico a contrapelo das demandas capitalistas. Concluímos que os professores são combatidos porque podem ensinar crianças, jovens e adultos a pensar historicamente de modo que questionem as relações sociais capitalistas e possam se ver como arquitetos do futuro, tendo como norte outra ordem social.

  11. Active transport of Na+ by reconstituted Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyrev, A.A.; Svinukhova, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of ATP, CTP, ITP, GTP, and UTP to support ouabain-sensitive accumulation of Na + by proteoliposomes with a reconstituted Na/K-pump was investigated. At a low [Na + ]/[K + ] ratio in the medium (20 mM/50 mM), a correlation is observed between the proton-accepting capacity of the nucleotide and its effectiveness as a substrate of active transport. To test the hypothesis of the importance of the presence of a negative charge in the 1-position of the purine (3-pyrimidine) base of the nucleotide for mutual transitions between the Na- and K-conformations of Na,K-ATPase they used two analogs of ATP: N 1 -hydroxy-ATP, possessing proton acceptor capacity, and N 1 -methoxy-ATP, in the molecule of which the negative charge is quenched by a methyl group. The first substrate supports active accumulation of Na + in proteoliposomes at the same rate as ATP, whereas the second substrate is relatively ineffective

  12. Aqueous partial molar heat capacities and volumes for NaReO4 and NaTcO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemire, R.J.; Saluja, P.P.S.; Campbell, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, data are required to model the equilibrium thermodynamic behavior of key radionuclides at temperatures above 25 degree C. A flow microcalorimeter/densimeter system has been commissioned to measure heat capacities and densities of solutions containing radioactive species. Measurements for solutions of aqueous NaReO 4 (a common analogue for NaTcO 4 ) were made at seven temperatures (15 to 100 degree C) over the concentration range 0.05 to 0.2 mol·kg -1 . Subsequently, measurements were made for NaTcO 4 solutions under similar conditions. The heat capacity and density data are analyzed using Pitzer's ion-interaction model, and values of the NaReO 4 partial molar heat capacities are compared to literature values based on integral heats of solution. The agreement between the two sets of NaReO 4 data is good below 75 degree C, but only fair at the higher temperatures. Values of the partial molar volumes have also been derived. The uncertainties introduced by using thermodynamic data for ReO 4 - , in the absence of data for TcO 4 - , are discussed

  13. O uso de drogas anti-reumáticas na gravidez Use of anti-rheumatic drugs during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Levy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A prescrição de drogas anti-reumáticas em pacientes férteis deve ter em conta o conhecimento atual sobre os efeitos na concepção, gestação e lactação. Um aconselhamento que levasse em consideração os riscos e benefícios do planejamento da gravidez, quando possível, seria o ideal. Com a incorporação de novas substâncias e o aparecimento constante de novos dados na literatura, esse assunto deve ser continuamente atualizado. O estagiamento de acordo com o fator de risco estabelecido pelo FDA é algumas vezes contraditório em relação a nossa prática, em parte porque os estudos em modelos animais podem não ser diretamente aplicáveis a humanos. A terapia com agentes modificadores da resposta biológica é aparentemente segura durante a gestação, considerando-se que tais agentes sejam compostos por moléculas grandes, incapazes de atravessar a placenta. Antiinflamatórios não-esteroidais (incluindo os inibidores específicos de COX-2 podem prejudicar a implantação do óvulo, mas o seu uso é possível no caso da gestação estar em curso, devendo ser evitados após 32 semanas do início da gravidez, quando estão relacionados com complicações fetais. Os inibidores específicos de COX-2 devem ser evitados pelo risco de malformação renal. Aspirina em baixa dose pode ser usada seguramente, quando indicada durante a gravidez. Há preferência pelas heparinas de baixo peso molecular, desde que a não fracionada apresente maior risco de induzir trombocitopenia e sangramento. A hidroxicloroquina é usada e de fato recomendada em gestantes com lúpus, com benefícios para a paciente e sem risco fetal. Varfarina é teratogênica se usada da 6ª a 9ª semana de gestação, mas pode ser usada durante o segundo e terceiro trimestres até a 34ª semana, quando deve ser interrompida com o intuito de evitar sangramento fetal. A imunoglobulina endovenosa é recomendada em casos difíceis de síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolipídeo e vem

  14. Efeito da técnica de polimento na topografia de superfície e na transmitância da resina composta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Moura de Azevedo Souza

    Full Text Available Introdução: Clinicamente, é comum observar os efeitos de estratificação de restaurações de compósito apenas após o polimento. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da técnica de polimento na transmitância de luz e na topografia de superfície de uma resina composta. Material e método: Amostras da resina Filtek Z-350 XT (cor A1E foram confeccionadas em matriz metálica. Uma das superfícies das amostras recebeu acabamento com brocas de 12 lâminas e polimento através de uma das seguintes técnicas: SL (Sof-Lex, EH (Enhance e DH (DHPro. Ausência de polimento foi usada como controle. Após o polimento, as amostras deviam apresentar espessura final de 1 mm. A transmitância de luz foi avaliada através do espectrofotômetro, sendo considerada apenas a luz no espectro visível. A topografia de superfície foi avaliada através de interferometria a laser, com os parâmetros Sdq (híbrido, St (amplitude máxima e As (média de picos e vales. Os dados (n=5 foram submetidos a ANOVA e teste SNK. O teste de correlação de Pearson correlacionou Sdq, St e Sa à transmitância (α=0,05. Resultado: Todos os sistemas de polimento aumentaram a transmitância de luz em relação ao controle, não havendo diferença entre estes. Apenas as amostras polidas com SL e DH apresentaram maiores valores de Sdq que o Controle. Já para os parâmetros St e Sa, EH mostrou menores valores que o controle. Sdq e St mostraram correlação significativa com transmitância. Conclusão: Todos os sistemas de polimento foram efetivos em aumentar a transmitância, sendo a redução dos valores Sdq e St relacionada a esta modificação.

  15. Beam monitoring at NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    Claus Goessling working on the beam Cerenkov counter of NA2. The muon beam enters from left the hall EHN2 and the last element of the beam transport. On background is the access door on the Jura side.

  16. Risbjerg: Historisk stemmeskred med NA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    2007-01-01

    ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007......ANALYSE: NA flytter 12,3 pct. af stemmerne i majs meningsmålinger - historisk mange vælgere på en måned, skriver professor Risbjerg. Udgivelsesdato: 3. juni 2007...

  17. Na via do Behemoth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Rabinovitch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O momento nazista permanece um enigma impensado de que a cultura contemporânea continua cativa. O autor levanta a hipótese de que a persistência desse enigma e seus estragos duráveis se devem à insistência dos pensamentos político, sociológico e filosófico em construírem o nazismo à luz da metáfora hobbesiana do Leviatã. Propõe retomar a questão do nazismo sob a perspectiva do Behemoth, antônimo do Leviatã. Para tanto, sugere a necessidade de retornar a Freud e à psicanálise, balizas de um possível novo pensamento do político que escrutine a destrutividade nazista. Propõe ainda sondar as homologias entre nazismo, corjas e máfias, com base na figura da " heroicização da violência" que lhes seria comum. E avança um modelo " econômico" : a quimera, suscetível de capturar o caráter heterotópico e heterocrônico de sua construção criminosa.The paths of Behemoth. The Nazi moment remains as the thoughtless enigma of which contemporary culture is still captive. The author raises the hypothesis where the persistency of this enigma and its durable damages are due to the insistence of the political, social and philosophical thoughts in building the Nazism at the view of the Hobbesian metaphor of Leviathan. It is here proposed to resume the Nazism matter under Behemoth's perspective, antonym to Leviathan. For such, it is suggested a necessity to look back at Freud and the psychoanalysis, structured by a possible new political thought which scrutinizes the destructivity of the Nazism. It is also here proposed to gaze at the homologies between Nazism, mafias and gangs, with a base in the figure of " violence as a heroically act" that are their common ground. The author also advances an economical model: the chimera susceptible to capture the heterotopic and heterochronic character of its criminal construction.

  18. Altura do joelho como medida alternativa confiável na avaliação nutricional de idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Elizabeth CLOSS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Avaliar o uso da altura do joelho como medida alternativa confiável na avaliação nutricional de idosos atendidos em um ambulatório de geriatria.Métodos:Estudo transversal com idosos atendidos em ambulatório de geriatria de um hospital universitário, entre novembro de 2009 e novembro de 2010. Variáveis investigadas: gênero, idade, peso, estatura, altura do joelho, estatura estimada através das equações de Chumlea, índice de massa corporal para as medidas de estatura aferida e estimada e classificado segundo Lipschitz, e dados sociodemográficos. Na análise descritiva dos dados foram usadas medidas de tendência central, dispersão e proporção; a homogeneidade entre as medidas foi verificada através do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e do gráfico de Bland e Altman e a concordância entre a avaliação nutricional baseada no índice de massa corporal calculado a partir da estatura aferida e a avaliação nutricional baseada no índice de massa corporal calculado a partir da estatura estimada foi avaliada através do coeficiente Kappa ponderado com pesos quadráticos.Resultados:Foram avaliados 186 idosos com média de idade de 74,3±7,1 anos. A média do índice de massa corporal aferido e estimado foi 28,96±5,86 kg/m2e 27,95±5,47 kg/m2, respectivamente, e a prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 59,7% para o índice de massa corporal aferido e 53,2% para o estimado. Foi observada uma boa concordância (Kappa=0,79; p<0,001 entre as duas avaliações.Conclusão:Os resultados mostraram ser possível utilizar a altura do joelho na estimativa da estatura para cálculo do índice de massa corporal em idosos atendidos em ambulatório, alternativa útil para aqueles que apresentam limitações na aferição das medidas, sendo esta uma medida alternativa importante na avaliação nutricional de idosos.

  19. Modification of the short osmotic resistance test for evaluating the functional integrity of boar spermatozoa Teste de resistência osmótica modificado (sort modificado na avaliação da integridade funcional do espermatozóide de suíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.F. Nascimento

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho descreve-se a técnica do teste de resistência osmótica modificado (SORT modificado e sua eficiência na avaliação da integridade da membrana do acrossoma do espermatozóide do varrão. Modificaram-se as soluções usadas nos testes de resistência osmótica atuais, eliminando-se também a incubação em solução isosmótica (300 mOsml. Esta foi substituída pela percentagem de NAR das amostras de morfologia espermática.

  20. Estudo comparativo entre clonidina associada à bupivacaína e bupivacaína isolada em bloqueio de plexo cervical para endarterectomia de carótida Estudio comparativo entre la clonidina asociada a la bupivacaína y la bupivacaína aislada en bloqueo de plexo cervical para endarterectomía de carótida A comparative study between bupivacaine and clonidine associated with bupivacaine in cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Pinto Neto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio de plexo cervical permite avaliação neurológica durante a endarterctomia, além de manter analgesia pós-operatória. A clonidina é agonista alfa2 com efeito analgésico em diferentes bloqueios. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o efeito analgésico da clonidina com bupivacaína em relação à bupivacaína isolada em bloqueio de plexo cervical. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes de forma aleatória e duplamente-encoberta divididos em dois grupos: G1 recebeu 1,5 mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína a 0,375% associados a 150 ¼g de clonidina (2 mL e G2, 1,5 mg.kg-1 de bupivacaína a 0,375% associados à solução fisiológica (2 mL. Foram avaliados: frequência cardíaca e pressão arterial nos momentos 0 (bloqueio, 30, 60, 90 e 120 minutos; necessidade de complementação anestésica; momento para primeira complementação analgésica; quantidade de analgésico usada e intensidade da dor nos momentos 0 (término da operação, 30, 60, 120, 240 e 360 minutos. RESULTADOS: A complementação anestésica com lidocaína foi de 3,8 mL no G1 e 3,6 mL no G2 sem diferença estatística significativa. O momento para a primeira complementação foi de 302,6 ± 152,6 minutos no G1, e de 236,6 ± 132,9 minutos no G2, sem diferença significativa. Não houve diferença na dose de dipirona e tramadol usada. Não houve diferença na intensidade da dor entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: A associação de 150 ¼g de clonidina à bupivacaína em bloqueio de plexo cervical para endarterectomia de carótida não promoveu melhora significativa do efeito analgésico avaliado por intensidade da dor, primeira complementação analgésica e quantidade de analgésico complementar.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo de plexo cervical permite la evaluación neurológica durante la endarterectomía, además de mantener la analgesia postoperatoria. La clonidina es agonista alfa-2 con un efecto analgésico en diferentes bloqueos. El objetivo de

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  2. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  3. Nuclear recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speth, G.

    1978-01-01

    The private sector's growing doubts about nuclear power plants, as reflected in the decline in new orders and the number of rescinded orders, will result in an estimated total of under 300 nuclear power plants by the year 2000 rather than the 1200 to 1500 that were projected several years ago. The decline is a result of construction and equipment costs and a lower operating efficiency than anticipated. The growth of electricity demand also declined after 1974 and, although it is increasing again, there are concerns about future growth rates. Besides its noncompetitive position relative to coal, nuclear plant construction suffers from restrictive policies based on the uncertainties of safety, security, waste disposal, and proliferation. Unless these problems can be resolved, many consider nuclear power to be an impractical option as an energy source. The Council on Environmental Quality supports policies that will permit further nuclear or coal development only after a clear demonstration of technical and institutional capacity to handle these problems. A commitment to solar technology is urged

  4. Nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-zaelic, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fusion can be relied on to solve the global energy crisis if the process of limiting the heat produced by the fusion reaction (Plasma) is successful. Currently scientists are progressively working on this aspect whereas there are two methods to limit the heat produced by fusion reaction, the two methods are auto-restriction using laser beam and magnetic restriction through the use of magnetic fields and research is carried out to improve these two methods. It is expected that at the end of this century the nuclear fusion energy will play a vital role in overcoming the global energy crisis and for these reasons, acquiring energy through the use of nuclear fusion reactors is one of the most urge nt demands of all mankind at this time. The conclusion given is that the source of fuel for energy production is readily available and inexpensive ( hydrogen atoms) and whole process is free of risks and hazards, especially to general health and the environment . Nuclear fusion importance lies in the fact that energy produced by the process is estimated to be about four to five times the energy produced by nuclear fission. (author)

  5. Nuclear methods in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Physicists have created remarkably sophisticated instruments for the performance of experiments. With variable phase lags many of these have become useful in technology. In the medical field NMD techniques have become commonplace under the rubric of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Particle physics has developed sophisticated detectors for both charged and neutral particles. Many of these also have been adapted to medical uses. In both radiology and nuclear medicine, pixel detectors based on designs originating at large-scale colliders, are becoming highly useful in replacing film and NaI as the primary means of X-ray and (-ray detection. Coupled with high-speed work stations, these new techniques allow exciting new imagining modalities. Many of these are based on the handling of digital images originally developed for astronomy. Thus, once again, fundamental science is making large contributions to the development of technology. In this talk, various examples of developments in digital mammography and digital detectors for nuclear medicine will be given. The possibilities for telemedicine will be discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the π-γ force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted

  7. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  8. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  9. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  10. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  11. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  12. Informal Progress Report Contract Number: DE-FG03-02NA00074/A000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, Carl R.; Grimes, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B127 We report on work performed under contract DE-FG03-03NA00074 since January 1,2003. The research is in the area of low energy nuclear reactions and nuclear structure. The progress on research on level densities and improvement to R-Matrix calculations are presented. The preparations to begin high resolution experiments on p-shell nuclei are reviewed

  13. Problems and prospects of nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karelin, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    A consideration is given to problems associated with operating nuclear power plants in many countries and building new NPPs. A special attention is given to safety operation of nuclear plants, to reprocessing and transportation of spent nuclear fuel as well as to radioactive waste disposal. In connection with difficulties in solving the above-mentioned problems a proposition is made to resume work on designing NPPs with the use of nuclear liquid salt reactors based on molten fuel fluoride salts. Advantages and disadvantages of fuel compositions of LiF-BeF 2 -UF 4 -(ThF 4 ) are listed. It is recommended that fundamental studies be carried out into such compositions as KF + CsF; BaF 2 + KF + NaF; AlF 3 + Na 3 AlF 6 , eutectics on the basis of tin and zinc fluorides and their complex salts of M x Sn(Zn)F y . An international program is suggested to be developed to find some way out of crisis of nuclear power industry using research efforts in homogeneous liquid salt nuclear underground reactors with a U(233)-Th fuel cycle [ru

  14. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  15. Nuclear politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Tony.

    1986-01-01

    Written by an arts graduate journalist this is intended for a non-technical general readership. It chronicles the history of the nuclear power industry in Britain from its beginnings, which were inextricably tied to the development of the atomic bomb, to the Sellafield investigation and Sizewell public inquiry. In particular the government decisions which have influenced the present structure and state of the industry are criticised. With important decisions about to be made the author questions the accountability of the nuclear industry and the government's ability to understand the complex technical aspects of the industry. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.

    Declaring nuclear preparedness 'immoral' helps to recreate the pacifism of 50 years ago. War itself is a dilemma, not the weapons with which it is waged. We must ask of the anti-war proposals: whom do they benefit. On the whole people concerned are ordinary citizens who are fearful of nuclear incineration. But marching with them is a spectrum of forces with other motivations and purposes. In a real life situation of international tension or crises, numbers of weapons in combination with their particular charateristics could mean the difference between peace and outbreak of war.

  17. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotter, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    The recent, terrifying threat of a major calamity at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island power plant near Harrisburg reverberated across practically the whole of the civilised world. An almost incredible sequence of human and mechanical failures at this installation had stopped just short of disaster and had brought the unthinkable perilously close to happening. The accident had sprayed radioactive waste into the air and had led to the large scale evacuation of people from the endangered area, disrupted hundreds of thousands of lives and caused a crippling setback to the nuclear industry. In this article the author discusses the impact the Harrisburg incident has had on the nuclear industry

  18. Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, T.M.; Shaffer, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    The birth of nuclear cardiology has generally been attributed to a 1927 experiment during which a radium salt was injected in one arm vein and the circulation time calculated by recording the arrival of the radioactivity in the opposite arm. This simple experiment lead to the radiocardiogram in the late 1940s that was used to measure left ventricular function and, later, cardiac output. This chapter provides a brief overview of nuclear cardiology. Methodology is presented when it is important for the understanding of test results. The use of these studies in the diagnosis and evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular disease is emphasized

  19. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, J.B.L. de.

    1980-01-01

    All stages of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed with respect to the present situation and future perspectives of supply and demand of services; the prices and the unitary cost estimation of these stages for the international fuel market are also mentioned. From the world resources and projections of uranium consumption, medium-and long term analyses are made of fuel availability for several strategies of use of different reactor types. Finally, the cost of nuclear fuel in the generation of electric energy is calculated to be used in the energetic planning of the electric sector. (M.A.) [pt

  20. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  1. The nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of knowledge and technical aspects regarding nuclear energy. It presents the phenomenon of radioactivity and its measurement and thresholds, describes the fuel cycle, presents the different principles and types of nuclear reactors, and more precisely the pressurized water reactors and their various models (900, 1300, 1400 and 1600 MW). It presents other reactors: boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, high temperature reactors, fourth generation reactors. It addresses the issues of wastes and releases, presents the OSPAR convention, the issues of management and safety. It presents the national safety bodies (ASN, IRSN, HCTISM) and international bodies

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  3. Nuclear energy and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, E.

    1982-01-01

    This book originated in the training courses for teachers of grammar- and secondary schools in Dillingen (Bavaria). The aim of these courses is to become informed about the latest state in one field of physics. The lectures are well-known experts in the respective fields. In the latest study (1980) of the National Academy of Sciences the experts came to the conclusion that without further development nuclear power plants the utilization of too much coal would become necessary and involve irreversible environmental damage (see chapter 6). There are two important obstacles impeding the further extension of nuclear energy. The first problem to be solved is the processing and storage of radioactive waste. This is a more technical task and can be treated in a satisfactory way. The second obstacle is less easy to take as the population has to be convinced that a nuclear power plant can be operated with almost unbelievable safety (see chapter 5) and be shut down safely in the case of incidents. The most promising possibility of controlled nuclear fusion as energy source is still many decades- if feasible at all- away from being performed (see chapter. 7). In the Soviet Union 25% of the electric energy production shall be proceed from nuclear power plants by the year 1990. (orig./GL) [de

  4. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  5. Financiranje projekata na pomorskom dobru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Tasić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Koncesije otvaraju vrlo osjetljiva politička, ekonomska i pravna pitanja u mnogim državama svijeta. Samo definiranje pojma koncesije često je komplicirana i ne sasvim jasna zadaća. OECD je prihvatila definiciju koncesije kao: ’’davanje prava privatnom trgovačkom društvu da može gospodarski upravljati određenom infrastrukturnim uslugama i za to zarađivati naknadu. Koncesionar dobija u posjed određene objekte (ali vlasništvo na tim objektima ostaje u rukama države te ih koristi u svrhu obavljanja određene djelatnosti ili usluge sukladno odredbama ugovora’’. Hrvatsko pravo definira koncesije načelno kao pravo stečeno temeljem ugovora o koncesiji, a sukladno uvjetima sadržanim u odluci o davanju koncesije (koju je donijelo odgovarajuće upravno tijelo, a u odnosu na pomorsko dobro, specifično, kao pravo državne vlasti da može dio pomorskog dobra, koje je inače dobro izvan pravnog prometa (res extra commercium, isključiti iz opće uporabe bilo dijelom ili u cijelosti, i dati ga fizičkoj ili pravnoj osobi na gospodarsko korištenje sukladno određenim prostornim planovima. Građevine i drugi objekti izgrađeni na pomorskom dobru čine njegov sastavni dio. Zakonom je jasno određeno da nikakva stvarna prava nisu dopuštena na pomorskom dobru, uključivo i na objektima izgrađenima na njemu. Projekti na pomorskom dobru često uključuju velike infrastrukturne projekte, razvoje luka i marina, koji iziskuju značajna financijska sredstva. Banke koje financiraju takve projekte zahtijevaju organiziran i transparentan zakonski okvir koncesija, slobodu ugovaranja, pravnu zaštitu svih strana uključenih u projekt (uključivo i mogućnost međunarodne arbitraže. (...

  6. Recikliranje plastenk na kreativen način

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Plastenke, poleg ostalih plastičnih izdelkov, v zadnjih letih predstavljajo pravo katastrofo za okolje. Domnevamo, da se le redko kdo vpraša, kaj se zgodi z njo po tem, ko je iz nje zaužil še zadnjo kapljico vode. Plastenka je lahko kot večina ostalih komunalnih odpadkov ponovno uporabljena, reciklirana, sežgana ali odložena na deponijo. V primeru nespoštovanja Zakona o varstvu okolja pa pristane v naravi, pogosto v morju, kjer prav počasi razpada in negativno vpliva na celoten ekosistem. V d...

  7. All new for NA62

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    This week sees the start of the first run of the new NA62 experiment. This will be a unique opportunity for the collaboration to test its new beam, new detectors and new data acquisition system before the physics run in 2014. Speaking to the Bulletin, the NA62 technical coordinator Ferdinand Hahn shares the many challenges that the various teams faced to be on time for beam. Ready, steady, start!   A Large Angle Veto detector (white) in place in the NA62 decay volume (blue). With components from almost all the detectors in place downstream of the decay point of the mother particles – the kaons – and of the KTAG detector that tags the kaons before they decay, NA62 is ready for its first technical run. This unique run will test all the equipment as well as the trigger and the data acquisition systems. “This year, we will have about five weeks of beam from the SPS before the long shutdown of all the CERN machines,” says Ferdinand Hahn, NA62 Technical Co-...

  8. Corpo e sexualidade na gravidez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalúcia Matos Araújo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo etnográfico que teve como objetivo compreender como as gestantes vivenciam os processos fisiológicos do seu corpo durante a gestação e a sua repercussão na sexualidade. A pesquisa envolveu sete mulheres residentes em bairro popular de São Paulo. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se observação participante e entrevista com questões norteadoras. Os dados foram apresentados na forma de narrativa e posteriormente organizados nas categorias: Percebendo as transformações corporais; Convivendo com as mudanças no corpo; Sentimentos e sensações na vida sexual durante a gestação e imaginando o corpo e a sexualidade após a gestação. As mulheres referiram-se às transformações do corpo como desconfortos e expressaram a preocupação de que fossem definitivas. Expressaram o desejo de que, após o parto, o corpo volte a ser como era e que volte a sentir desejo sexual. O reconhecimento destes fatos constitui-se numa ferramenta primordial na adequação das práticas profissionais.

  9. Nuclear crime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Ferchland, B.

    1993-01-01

    The article discusses the legal provisions (Criminal Code (StGB), weapons Control Act) applicable in Germany to combat illegal trading of nuclear fuels and other readioactive materials. The authors conclude that part of the provisions are not in live with the rights and duties of the police, and they evolve near-practice proposals for remedy and legal improvement. (hP) [de

  10. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  11. Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With simple and accessible explanations, this book presents the physical principles, the history and industrial developments of nuclear energy. More than 25 years after the Chernobyl accidents and few months only after the Fukushima one, it discusses the pros and cons of this energy source with its assets and its risks. (J.S.)

  12. Nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.H.; Reid, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear imaging, utilizing relatively low photon energy emitting isotopes, allows an assessment of anatomic configuration and organ function. This method of imaging is predicted on the utilization of physiologically active radioisotope-labeled compounds or biologically active radioisotopes. Localization of such isotopes in normal or abnormal concentrations may be due to varying physiological or pathological mechanisms

  13. Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    A brief indication is given of the United Kingdom nuclear power programme including descriptions of the fission process, the Magnox, AGR and PWR type reactors, the recycling process, waste management and decommissioning, safety precautions, the prototype fast reactor at Dounreay, and the JET fusion experiment. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  15. Nuclear films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, Peter.

    1985-01-01

    This booklet is a resource for the study of feature films that highlight the theme of nuclear war. It provides basic credits and brief indication of the theme, treatment, quality and particular notable aspects; and a series of questions raised by the film. Seventy feature films and thirty documentaries are examined

  16. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  17. Nuclear fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction to nuclear fragmentation, with emphasis in percolation ideas, is presented. The main theoretical models are discussed and as an application, the uniform expansion approximation is presented and the statistical multifragmentation model is used to calculate the fragment energy spectra. (L.C.)

  18. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  20. Thermodynamic description of Tc(iv) solubility and carbonate complexation in alkaline NaHCO3-Na2CO3-NaCl systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, A; Yalçıntaş, E; Gaona, X; Polly, R; Dardenne, K; Prüßmann, T; Rothe, J; Altmaier, M; Geckeis, H

    2018-03-28

    The solubility of 99 Tc(iv) was investigated in dilute to concentrated carbonate solutions (0.01 M ≤ C tot ≤ 1.0 M, with C tot = [HCO 3 - ] + [CO 3 2- ]) under systematic variation of ionic strength (I = 0.3-5.0 M NaHCO 3 -Na 2 CO 3 -NaCl-NaOH) and pH m (-log[H + ] = 8.5-14.5). Strongly reducing conditions (pe + pH m ≈ 2) were set with Sn(ii). Carbonate enhances the solubility of Tc(iv) in alkaline conditions by up to 3.5 log 10 -units compared to carbonate-free systems. Solvent extraction and XANES confirmed that Tc was kept as +IV during the timeframe of the experiments (≤ 650 days). Solid phase characterization performed by XAFS, XRD, SEM-EDS, chemical analysis and TG-DTA confirmed that TcO 2 ·0.6H 2 O(am) controls the solubility of Tc(iv) under the conditions investigated. Slope analysis of the solubility data in combination with solid/aqueous phase characterization and DFT calculations indicate the predominance of the species Tc(OH) 3 CO 3 - at pH m ≤ 11 and C tot ≥ 0.01 M, for which thermodynamic and activity models are derived. Solubility data obtained above pH m ≈ 11 indicates the formation of previously unreported Tc(iv)-carbonate species, possibly Tc(OH) 4 CO 3 2- , although the likely formation of additional complexes prevents deriving a thermodynamic model valid for this pH m -region. This work provides the most comprehensive thermodynamic dataset available for the system Tc 4+ -Na + -Cl - -OH - -HCO 3 - -CO 3 2- -H 2 O(l) valid under a range of conditions relevant for nuclear waste disposal.

  1. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  2. O retorno da estimulação cerebral na terapêutica dos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos: o papel da estimulação magnética transcraniana na prática clínica The answer of the transcranial magnetic stimulation in the brain desordes: transcranial magnetic stimulation in the clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Fregni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT é uma nova técnica capaz de estimular o cérebro humano com algumas vantagens sobre as já existentes. A EMT é indolor, não-invasiva, simples de ser aplicada e, mais importante, é considerada de baixo risco para pesquisas em seres humanos. Essa nova ferramenta tem sido proposta para ser usada como tratamento de diversas doenças neurológicas e psiquiátricas. A EMT pode atuar modulando a excitabilidade cortical no cérebro humano. Portanto, essa técnica pode ser usada no tratamento de patologias cerebrais que cursem com alterações de excitabilidade cortical, como epilepsia, acidente vascular cerebral, distonia, doença de Parkinson, depressão e esquizofrenia. Alguns desses transtornos têm sido extensivamente estudados, tal como a depressão, porém os resultados ainda não permitem a aplicação desse método na prática clínica. Entretanto, no futuro, a EMT pode se tornar uma poderosa ferramenta na terapêutica em neuropsiquiatria. O objetivo do autor nesta revisão foi de apresentar os princípios básicos da EMT e discutir os resultados preliminares dos estudos publicados sobre o uso dessa técnica no tratamento das doenças psiquiátricas e neurológicas.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a new technique capable of stimulating the brain with some advantages over existing ones. TMS is painless, non-invasive, simple to apply and, more importantly, it is considered of low risk for research in human. This new tool has been proposed to be used in several neurologic and psychiatric diseases. The mechanism of TMS action might be based on the modulation of cortical brain excitability. Therefore, brain disorders with cortical excitability dysfunction such as epilepsy, stroke, distonia, Parkinson disease, depression and schizophrenia may be benefited from this method. Some of these disorders have been extensively studied during the last decade - such as depression - but the results to date

  3. Environmental background level of cosmic ray produced 22Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, H.; Oonishi, M.; Matsuura, H.

    1993-01-01

    The annual deposition rate of cosmogenic 22 Na has been studied at Fukui City, Japan, to obtain the current background level. The deposition rate was found to range from 0.16 to 0.22 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean value of 0.20 Bq m -2 y -1 for the years 1986-1990. The author's results agree fairly well with those observed for the years 1975-1977 in Tokyo. The 22 Na concentration in rain water was also estimated. The mean value for this period was found to be 0.09 mBq litre -1 , which is about one-third of that detected during the latter half of the 1950's. The high levels of environmental 22 Na in the 1950's are attributed to the many nuclear weapon tests conducted at that time. At present, however, the 22 Na from these weapons tests has practically decayed and the concentration in rain water has decreased to the natural background level. (Author)

  4. Longitudinal polarization of positrons in 22Na decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalsey, M.; Girard, T.A.; Rich, A.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of previously reported measurements of the longitudinal polarization (P/sub L/) of positrons in the allowed and unique second forbidden weak decays of 22 Na. The measurements were performed relative to the allowed decay of 68 Ga by application of time-resolved spectroscopy of the n = 1 hyperfine states of positronium formed in powder media. Assuming the theoretical value P/sub L/( 68 Ga) = β(0.999 +- 0.001), the results are P/sub L/( 22 Na, 3 + →2 + ) = β(+1.003 +- 0.011) and P/sub L/( 22 Na, 3 + →0 + ) = β(+1.00 +- 0.05). The allowed decay result (combined with other 22 Na experimental data on the decay rate, the capture ratio, the spectral shape, the βγ directional correlation, and the weak magnetic form factor) yields a determination of the full weak form factor structure of the transition through second order in recoil. The experimental value for the capture ratio is currently considered to be anomalously low compared to theoretical estimates. Our polarization result is not, however, sufficiently accurate to definitively favor one or the other value. The forbidden decay result, together with model-dependent nuclear structure calculations, restricts the contribution of previously neglected higher-order corrections to the allowed decay to be less than 10 -8

  5. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  6. gigapanorama of NA 62 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    The image shows the new rare Kaon decay experiment at CERN, called NA62. The NA62 experiment is 270 metres long and includes a 120-metre-long vacuum tank, shown here, housing several of the particle detectors. (Note: the experiment axis is a straight line, the curving of the tank is an optical effect of the photo.) Kaons are particles that decay into lighter elementary particles. The kaon decay processes are mostly well known, except for some very rare decay modes. For example, NA62 is investigating a rare decay predicted by the Standard Model in which a kaon decays into one pion and two neutrinos. This process occurs only once every 10 billion decays. The understanding of such ultra-rare decays are of great importance because they test the Standard Model in energy ranges not accessible by direct measurements. They are therefore complementary to the measurements at the LHC. ultra high definition on demand (photolab@cern.ch).

  7. Armas na escola: que fazer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo de Lima

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Um aluno portava um revólver na sala de aula de uma escola de Maringá (O Diário, 30/07/2010. Ele pegou arma do pai, sem que este soubesse, para se proteger de garotos que o intimidavam. Trata-se de um caso isolado ou é hora de a escola tomar medidas preventivas? Semanas antes, tiros foram disparados dentro de uma faculdade da mesma cidade. O autor dos disparos está preso, e a faculdade tenta apagar as marcas com publicidade positiva na Tv. Em Campo Mourão, cidade a cerca de uma hora de Maringá, duas meninas foram mortas e enterradas na escola.

  8. OGLAŠEVANJE NA FACEBOOKU

    OpenAIRE

    Renko, Katica

    2013-01-01

    V magistrskem delu smo se seznanili z oglaševanjem na Facebooku. S pregledom gradiva, ki nam je ponujeno, smo preverili pogoje, načine, oblike … oglaševanja, ki pa smo jih s pregledom situacije v praksi preverili in dopolnili. Ob zaključku dela lahko rečemo, da je oglaševanje preko FB enostavnejše, cenejše, dostopnejše, omogoča nam ažurnost in samo komunikacijo z naslovniki, ki so potencialni kupci naših ponudb. Množični mediji nam omogočajo mnogotero obliko oglaševanja. Izbrana oblika ponuja...

  9. The nuclear controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walske, C.; Dobkin, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with the nuclear controversy, especially in the United States. To a certain extent the nuclear debate has become heavily politicised. Public opinion and anti-nuclear groups are mentioned as well as nuclear disarmament

  10. COMPOSIÇÃO CENTESIMAL E MINERAL DA ALFARROBA EM PÓ E SUA UTILIZAÇÃO NA ELABORAÇÃO E ACEITABILIDADE EM SORVETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Rebeca SABATINI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfarroba (Ceratonia siliqua L. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical comum no semi-árido, que se desenvolve em lugares secos, onde difi cilmente outras plantas poderiam sobreviver. Suas vagens produzem uma farinha que pode ser usada na alimentação humana, semelhante ao cacau. Este trabalho teve por objetivos determinar a composição centesimal e o conteúdo mineral da alfarroba em pó, bem como avaliar a viabilidade da alfarroba na elaboração e aceitabilidade de um sorvete. Os resultados demonstraram que a alfarroba em pó é rica em carboidratos (76,6%, rica em proteínas (4,79%, pobre em lipídios (0,48% e apresenta alto teor de fi bras (5,68%. Com relação aos minerais analisados, o conteúdo de K, Cu, Fe e Mn atendem com mais de 20% das DRIs para um adulto. O sorvete elaborado foi avaliado sensorialmente por 127 provadores não treinados utilizando a escala hedônica (de “gostei extremamente” a “desgostei extremamente”, com relação aos atributos aparência, sabor, textura e aspecto global. O índice de aceitabilidade foi superior a 87% para todos os atributos, indicando a boa aceitabilidade do produto desenvolvido. Desta forma, conclui-se que a alfarroba em pó pode ser utilizada como ingrediente na elaboração de sorvetes, contribuindo no desenvolvimento de novos produtos alimentícios.

  11. Processos cognitivos na leitura inicial: relação entre estratégias de reconhecimento de palavras e alfabetização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mourão Monteiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das correspondências grafema-fonema fornece um sistema mnemônico que contribui para a formação dos leitores iniciantes, favorecendo o desenvolvimento da fluência e da compreensão na leitura. Entretanto, muitas crianças apresentam dificuldade no processo de mapeamento automático da escrita das palavras e de sua pronúncia e podem necessitar de muito mais treino para atingir um nível normal de aprendizagem da leitura. Esta pesquisa examinou as estratégias de reconhecimento de palavras escritas manifestadas por crianças que enfrentam dificuldades no processo de alfabetização, em um teste de leitura controlado por critérios linguísticos relacionados às propriedades das palavras, tais como a estrutura interna da sílaba e os valores de grafemas independentes e dependentes de contexto na composição das palavras. A partir da caracterização das estratégias usadas pelas crianças, buscou-se saber em que medida elas impedem a identificação da pronúncia e do significado da palavra escrita. Concluiu-se que as dificuldades das crianças estão relacionadas a estratégias de leitura de palavras que evidenciam uma dissociação entre conhecimento das letras e desenvolvimento da consciência fonológica. Constatou-se, ainda, que o atraso no processo de aprendizagem dos alunos pode ter relação com o pouco conhecimento das regras de correspondências letra-som e com a dificuldade do mecanismo de decodificação na análise de estruturas silábicas não canônicas.

  12. Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the leading Bulgarian Institute for scientific investigations and applications of nuclear science. The main Institute's activities in the field of elementary particles and nuclear physics, high energy physics and nuclear energy, radiochemistry, radioecology, radioactive wastes treatment, monitoring of the environment, nuclear instruments development ect. are briefly described. Several examples for: environmental radiation monitoring; monitoring of the radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols, 99m Tc clinical use, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy application of IRT-2000 Research Reactor, neutron fluence for reactor vessel embrittlement, NPP safety analysis, nuclear fuel modelling are also presented

  13. β decay of Na32

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoon, C. M.; Sarazin, F.; Hackman, G.; Cunningham, E. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Koopmans, K. A.; Leslie, J. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Schwarzenberg, J.; Smith, M. B.; Svensson, C. E.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Washbrook, B.; Zganjar, E.

    2007-01-01

    The β-decay of Na32 has been studied using β-γ coincidences. New transitions and levels are tentatively placed in the level scheme of Mg32 from an analysis of γ-γ and β-γ-γ coincidences. The observation of the indirect feeding of the 2321 keV state in Mg32 removes some restrictions previously placed on the spin assignment for this state. No evidence of a state at 2117 keV in Mg32 is found. Previously unobserved weak transitions up to 5.4 MeV were recorded but could not be placed in the decay scheme of Na32.

  14. Corpo-escrita na esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Bialer, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo aborda a importância do trabalho de escrita na esquizofrenia. Toma-se como ponto de partida a formulação lacaniana sobre o esquizofrênico como aquele que não tem as funções dos órgãos do seu corpo dadas pelos discursos estabelecidos. A hipótese de que o trabalho sobre a letra pode permitir o tratamento do gozo debordante na esquizofrenia é analisada pelo estudo da obra do escritor esquizofrênico Robert Walser, a qual evidencia a viabilidade da construção de um corpo pela escrita n...

  15. Nuclear power without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, K.; Klein, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study leading experts summarize the work of a working group meeting during several years, and they represent the state of the art of the international discussion about the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. The technical basis of proliferation, the relations between energy policy and nuclear energy, as well as the development of the non-proliferation system up to the present are thoroughly studied. Special attention is paid to the further development of the instruments of the non-proliferation policy, and approaches and ways to improving the control of the fuel cycle, e.g. by means of multinational methods or by improving the control requirements are analyzed. Also the field of positive inducements and negative sanctions to prevent the proliferation as well as the question of ensured supply are elucidated in detail. A further section then analyzes the functions of the international organizations active in this field and the nuclear policy of the most important western industrial nations, the RGW-states and the threshold countries of the Third World. This volume pays special attention to the nuclear policy of the Federal Republic of Germany and to the possibilities and necessities of a further development of the non-proliferation policy. (orig.) [de

  16. Dissolution of targets for the production of Mo-99: Part 1. Influence of NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2} on the dissolution time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilo, Ruth L.; Araujo, Izilda da C.; Mindrisz, Ana C.; Forbicini, Christina A.L.G. de O., E-mail: rcamilo@ipen.br, E-mail: icaraujo@ipen.br, E-mail: acmindri@ipen.br, E-mail: cforbici@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Faced with global crisis in the production of radioisotope {sup 99}Mo, which product of decay, {sup 99}mTc, is the tracer element most often used in nuclear medicine and accounts for about 80% of all diagnostic procedures in vivo, since September 2008 Brazil is developing the project called Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). Within the Brazilian Nuclear Program (PNB) the construction of the RMB, is seen as a long term solution to meet all domestic demand relative to the supply of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. In the process to be studied to obtain {sup 99}Mo from irradiated UA1{sub x}-A1 LEU targets employing alkaline dissolution, processing time should be minimized, considering the short half life of {sup 99}Mo and {sup 99}mTc, about 66 h and 6 h, respectively. That makes dissolution time a significant factor in the development of the process. This paper presents the results of alkaline dissolution of scraps of Al, used to simulate the dissolution process of UA1{sub x}-A1 targets. Al corresponds to about 79% of the total weight of the UA1{sub x}-A1 target. The effect of NaOH concentration on dissolution time for the interval of 1 to 3.5 mol.L-1 was studied, keeping the molar ratio in 1Al:2.16NaOH and the initial temperature of 88 degree C. The influence of reagent composition over dissolution time was studied using three different solutions: a) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH, b) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH/NaNO{sub 3} and c) 3 mol.L{sup -1} NaOH/NaNO{sub 2}, keeping the same molar ratio and temperature. The results showed that the dissolution time decreases with increasing NaOH concentration and the addition of NaNO{sub 3} or NaNO{sub 2} in the NaOH solution reduces both dissolution time and volume of gases released. (author)

  17. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  18. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Mechanochemical transformations in Li(Na)AlH{sub 4}-Li(Na)NH{sub 2} systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolotko, Oleksandr [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Zhang Haiqiao [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Ugurlu, Ozan [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Wiench, Jerzy W. [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Scott Chumbley, L. [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States); Pecharsky, Vitalij [Ames Laboratory of the U.S. DOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States) and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2300 (United States)]. E-mail: vitkp@ameslab.gov

    2007-05-15

    Mechanochemical transformations of tetrahydroaluminates and amides of lithium and sodium have been investigated using gas volumetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and transmission electron microscopy. In a transformation of LiAlH{sub 4} and LiNH{sub 2} taken in an 1:1 molar ratio, the amount of released hydrogen (6.6 wt.% after 30 min ball milling) was higher than in any known one pot mechanochemical process involving a hydrogen-containing solid. A total of 4.3 wt.% of hydrogen is released by the NaAlH{sub 4}-NaNH{sub 2} system after 60 min ball milling; and 5.2 wt.% H{sub 2} is released when LiAlH{sub 4} and NaNH{sub 2} or NaAlH{sub 4} and LiNH{sub 2} are ball milled for 90 min and 120 min, respectively. All transformations proceed at room temperature. The mechanism of the overall transformation MAlH{sub 4}(s) + MNH{sub 2}(s) {sup {yields}} 2MH(s) + AlN(s) + 2H{sub 2}(g) was identified based on detailed spectroscopic analysis of the intermediate (M{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}) and final products of the ball milling process.

  20. Spectroscopy of Na-18: Bridging the two-proton radioactivity of Mg-19

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Assie, M.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Achouri, L.; Angelique, J. C.; Borcea, C.; Borcea, R.; Caceres, L.; Chudoba, V.; Pang, D. Y.; Ducoin, D.; Fallot, M.; Kamalou, O.; Kiener, J.; Lam, Y.; Lefevre, A.; Lotay, G.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Perrot, L.; Sánchez, A.; Rotaru, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 712, č. 3 (2012), s. 198-202 ISSN 0370-2693 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) RII3-CT-2004-506065 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : two-proton radioactivity * resonant elastic scattering * (19)mg * Na-18 * Ne-17 Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2012

  1. Evaluation of 1cm dose equivalent rate using a NaI(Tl) scintilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1990-01-01

    A method for evaluating 1 cm dose equivalent rates from a pulse height distribution obtained by a 76.2mmφ spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was described. Weak leakage radiation from nuclear facilities were also measured and dose equivalent conversion factor and effective energy of leakage radiation were evaluated from 1 cm dose equivalent rate and exposure rate. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    These notes have been prepared by the Department of Energy to provide information and to answer questions often raised about nuclear energy and the nuclear industry and in the hope that they will contribute to the public debate about the future of nuclear energy in the UK. The subject is dealt with under the headings; contribution of nuclear power, energy forecasts, nuclear fuels and reactor types, cost, thermal reactor strategy, planning margin, safety, nuclear licensing, unlike an atomic bomb, radiation, waste disposal, transport of nuclear materials, emergency arrangements at nuclear sites, siting of nuclear stations, security of nuclear installations, world nuclear programmes, international regulation and non-proliferation, IAEA safeguards arrangements in the UK, INFCE, and uranium supplies. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  4. I wonder nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Cheol

    2009-04-15

    This book consists seven chapters, which are powerful nuclear energy, principle of nuclear fission, nuclear energy in our daily life, is nuclear energy safe?, what is radiation?, radiation spread in pur daily life and radiation like a spy. It adds nuclear energy story through quiz. This book with pictures is for kids to explain nuclear energy easily.

  5. Nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The yearbook contains among others the figures of the nuclear insurance line. According to these these the DKVG (German nuclear power plant insurance association) has 102 member insurance companies all registered in the Federal Republic of Germany. By using reinsurance capacities of the other pools at present property insurance amounts to 1.5 billion DM and liability insurance to 200 million DM. In 1991 the damage charges on account of DKV amounted to 3.1 (1990 : 4.3) million DM. From these 0.6 million DM are apportioned to payments and 2.5 million DM to reserves. One large damage would cost a maximum gross sum of 2.2 billion DM property and liability insurance; on account of DKVG 750 million DM. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  7. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the nuclear reactor availability by enabling to continuously exchange fuels in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region during operation. Constitution: A control rod is withdrawn to the midway of a highly enriched uranium region by means of control rod drives and the highly enriched uranium region is burnt to maintain the nuclear reactor always at a critical state. At the same time, fresh uranium-slightly enriched uranium is continuously supplied gravitationally from a fresh fuel reservoir through fuel reservoir to each of fuel pipes in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region. Then, spent fuels reduced with the reactivity by the burn up are successively taken out from the bottom of each of the fuel pipes through an exit duct and a solenoid valve to the inside of a spent fuel reservoir and the burn up in the natural-slightly enriched uranium region is conducted continuously. (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  10. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Aitken, T.W.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The many diverse programmes of fundamental research and technical development at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) have continued at their usual hectic pace throughout the period 1988/89. An overview of the overall programme and of the Facility has been presented in the first volume of this report, along with an expanded discussion of some of the highlights of the year's work. This second volume presents the more technical and detailed reports on the progress and results of individuals proposals and hence will be of most interest to the more expert reader. The reports are grouped in terms of experimental studies aimed at probing the structure of individual nuclei or series of nuclei, studies devoted to probing the primary nuclear reaction mechanism itself, theoretical work and research devoted to the development of the accelerator, and experimental equipment/techniques. Overall, they provide a concise summary of the year's work at the NSF. (author)

  11. Review on Material Synthesis and Characterization of Sodium (Na) Super-Ionic Conductor (NASICON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpa, M. I.; Mayzan, M. Z. H.; Yabagi, J. A.; Nmaya, M. M.; Isah, K. U.; Agam, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Sodium (Na) Super Ionic Conductor (NASICON) has general formula Na1+ x Zr2P3- xSi x O12 (0 ≤x ≤ 3) derived from its parent compound, sodium zirconium phosphate NaZr2(PO4)3 (NZP) which belong to a rhombohedral crystal structure. This material consists of three-dimensional structure with interesting features such as low thermal expansion coefficient, thermal stability, gas sensor and nuclear waste immobilization that make it viable for industrial applications. Current study presents comprehensive studies on the synthesis and essential characteristics required to understand the theory behind the mechanism that justifies the study of NASICON structure and its application such as lithium ion rechargeable battery, gas sensor, and nuclear waste immobilization and so on.

  12. Assessment of maximal erythrocyte Na+, K+-ATPase activity in patients with various arterial hypertensions by using 23Na NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revazov, A.V.; Knubovets, T.L.; Sibel'dina, L.A.; Sumarokov, A.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1990-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of maximal erythrocyte Na + , K + -ATPase activity in 20 patients with hypertensive disease, 20 patients with secondary hypertension and 20 healthy donors. The investigation was made by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance using sodium nuclei. A significant decrease was found in Na + , K + -ATPase activity in the patients with hypertensive disease (9.0±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour) as compared with those with secondary hypertension (10.3±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour) and the controls (10.5±0.3 mg-equiv. per liter cells an hour), which supports the finding of impaired membrane morphology in hypertensive disease

  13. Nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrampres, J.

    2010-01-01

    Close cooperation with the Ministry of Industry with representation from the UNESA Safeguards Group, has meant that, after almost two years of intense meetings and negotiations, Spain has a specific plant to plant agreement for the application of Safeguards under this new method. This is an agreement which aims to be a benchmark for all other EU countries, as the IAEA tends to apply a generic agreement that, in many cases, majority interferes in the nuclear power plants own processes. (Author).

  14. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, T.; Price, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    The appendix to the Daresbury Annual report contains detailed summaries of experiments carried out, or in progress, for the period 1983/84, using the Nuclear Structure Facility tandem accelerator. The experimental work is carried out by University groups from the UK and abroad, and Daresbury Staff. Developments in instrumentation, and a report on the first year of scheduled operation of the Facility, are also given. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    2005-01-01

    This article is aimed at those professional scientists and engineers who believe that issues of international peace and security are too important to be left to the politicians. Nuclear Terrorism is a hostile act (or a threat of such an act) involving nuclear materials (fissile or radioactive) performed by a terrorist, a term which covers a wide range of individuals. What they all have in common is that, for some reason they have become motivated to hurt or destroy sections of society which they have come to regard as the enemy; their motivation varies enormously. They also vary enormously in the extent and nature of their technical/scientific education. There are 'PhD terrorists' and 'Peasant terrorists', and they differ greatly in the threat that they represent, and the steps which can appropriately be taken to counter it. The most serious threat comes from the potential ability of terrorists to steal or manufacture nuclear weapons of mass destruction (e.g. capable of causing thousands of deaths). Unless the underlying causes of terrorism can be quickly removed, we have a duty to mankind to make terrorist access to such weapons, and to the nuclear materials which are their essential ingredients, as difficult as possible. Improvements in the arrangements for denying unauthorised access to radioactive material should be made such that the protective measures made are proportionate to the number of Curies at risk and the likelihood of a terrorist initiative. The preventative measures, sadly, need to take account of the possibility that the terrorist will use lethal force to access the material. (author)

  16. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  17. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  18. Nuclear stethoscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, W.F.; Singer, I.; Hackworthy, R.A.; Morris, J.; Kelly, D.T. (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown (Australia))

    1983-05-14

    A portable, computerized nuclear probe designed to measure left ventricular function is described. The ejection fraction was reproducible and correlated well with that obtained by means of a gamma camera. The limitations of the machine are that it measures the global, rather than the segmental, function of the left ventricle and, when discrete large areas of regional dysfunction occur, the global ejection fraction may be overestimated. An advantage is that continuous beat-to-beat measurements are easily performed and displayed.

  19. Nuclear shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendergast, L.; Prendergast, P.; Prendergast, E.J.; Prendergast, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    An underground nuclear shelter, fabricated from a series of transverse metal hoop frames connected by longitudinal metal members and plates, is described. The shelter chamber has two hatches in the roof each with a shaft fitted with a shield cover. One shaft houses an air inlet and filter, the other is used for access. Two or more shelter units can be linked. (U.K.)

  20. Nuclear decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, H.

    1987-02-01

    Sufficient work has now been done, on a world-wide basis, to justify confidence that full decommissioning of nuclear installations, both plant and reactors, can be carried out safely and efficiently. Projects in several countries should confirm this in the next few years. In the UK, good progress has been made with the WAGR and supporting development work is finding solutions to resolve uncertainties. Estimates from several sources suggest that decommissioning costs can be kept to an acceptable level.