WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear world order

  1. Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N

    2007-02-05

    The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.

  2. Nuclear Policy and World Order: Why Denuclearization. World Order Models Project. Occasional Paper Number Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Richard A.

    The monograph examines the relationship of nuclear power to world order. The major purpose of the document is to stimulate research, education, dialogue, and political action for a just and peaceful world order. The document is presented in five chapters. Chapter I stresses the need for a system of global security to counteract dangers brought…

  3. Nuclear weapons proliferation as a world order problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.

    1977-01-01

    World-order concerns have intensified recently in light of mounting evidence that a weapons capability will soon be within easy reach of more and more governments and of certain nongovernmental groupings as well. One reliable source estimates that by 1985 as many as fifty countries could ''produce enough plutonium each year for at least several dozen nuclear explosives.'' In an even more immediate sense, ''economic competition among nuclear suppliers today could soon lead to a world in which twenty or more nations are but a few months from a nuclear weapons force.'' Three developments have created this ''world order'' sense of concern: (1) increased pace of civilian nuclear power deployment globally as a consequence of rising oil prices, unreliability of oil supplies, and reality of dwindling oil reserves in any case; (2) actuality of India's nuclear explosion in May 1974 which demonstrated vividly how any state that pursues a ''civilian'' program can also develop its own weapons capability; and (3) the intensification of competition for international nuclear sales which makes it increasingly evident that nonproliferation goals are no longer compatible with the pursuit of national commercial advantage; essentially, this reality has emerged from a break in the American monopoly over civilian nuclear technology and the willingness of French and German suppliers to provide all elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, including enrichment and reprocessing facilities,to any nation that feels it can afford to buy them; the German-Brazilian deal (worth at least $4 billion) has proven to be the equivalent in the commercial realm of India's ''peaceful'' nuclear explosion. Such developments disclose the alarming prospect that easier access to nuclear technology will make it relatively simple and thus more likely for a beleaguered government or a desperate political actor of any sort to acquire and possibly use nuclear weapons

  4. Nuclear weapons proliferation and the new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons has become the priority safety problem since the end of the cold war. The danger that new nuclear states may arise from the former Soviet Union, the limited effectiveness of existing control systems, the increased attractiveness of nuclear weapons for countries in which a 'safety vacuum' has developed since the withdrawal of American and Russian forces, as well as the danger that additional nuclear states (China, India, Pakistan) may become unstable or disintegrate, make it necessary to explore and show the ensuing risks. The study contains analyses from well-respected experts from Germany, Russia, Japan and the USA. They show how the changes in regional security situations could lead to nuclear risks under certain circumstances, and the likely international consequences. A second point of emphasis consens the feasibility of new approaches or instruments in international non-proliferatic policy. New possibilities for the improvement of excisting control systems and the extension of international consensus on an intensification of the non-proliferation regime are offered by the changes in world politics. (orig.) [de

  5. Nuclear Strategy and World Order: The United States Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beres, Louis Rene

    The current U.S. nuclear strategy goes beyond the legitimate objective of survivable strategic forces to active preparation for nuclear war. The Reagan administration strategy rejects minimum deterrence and prepares for a nuclear war that might be protracted and controlled. The strategy reflects the understanding that a combination of counterforce…

  6. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  7. World status - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1984-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power are not so much anti-nuclear public opinion, but more the decrease of electricity consumption growth rate and the high cost of building reactors. Because of these factors, forecasts of world nuclear capacity have had to be reduced considerably over the last three years. The performance of reactors is considered. The CANDU reactor remains the world's best performer and overall tends to out-perform larger reactors. The nuclear plant due to come on line in 1984 are listed by country; this shows that nuclear capacity will increase substantially over a short period. At a time of stagnant demand this will make nuclear energy an important factor in the world energy balance. Nuclear power stations in operation and under construction in 1983 are listed and major developments in commercial nuclear power in 1983 are taken country by country. In most, the report is the same; national reactor ordering cut back because the expected increase in energy demand has not happened. Also the cost-benefit of nuclear over other forms of energy is no longer as favourable. The export opportunities have also declined as many of the less developed countries are unable to afford reactors. (U.K.)

  8. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2017-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information from around the world concerning nuclear industry. The most relevant ones are the following. AREVA NP and EDF have created a new society EDVANCE to combine their engineering teams in the fields of reactor core design and construction. The German Constitutional Court considers as illegal the nuclear fuel tax that was implemented in 2010 to balance public finance and fund the remediation of the Ass salt mine. In France on the Tricastin AREVA's site the ATLAS laboratory has opened its doors, it is the laboratory that will perform all the environmental and industrial analyses of this site. In Japan the reactors 3 and 4 of the Takahama power plant have resumed operations. Today 5 nuclear power reactors are operating on Japanese soil. The Indian government has announced its intention to build heavy water cooled nuclear reactors based on an Indian design. 22 reactors are operating in India representing a total of 6780 MW and 5 others are being built. According to the 'SMR Start' consortium public-private partnership contracts have to be promoted in order to launch the small modular reactor (SMR) technology. (A.C.)

  9. World nuclear energy paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.; Hansen, U.; Jaek, W.; Beckurts, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    In examing the world nuclear energy paths, the following assumptions were adopted: the world economy will grow somewhat more slowly than in the past, leading to reductions in electricity demand growth rates; national and international political impediments to the deployment of nuclear power will gradually disappear over the next few years; further development of nuclear power will proceed steadily, without serious interruption but with realistic lead times for the introduction of advanced technologies. Given these assumptions, this paper attempts a study of possible world nuclear energy developments, disaggregated on a regional and national basis. The scenario technique was used and a few alternative fuel-cycle scenarios were developed. Each is an internally consistent model of technically and economically feasible paths to the further development of nuclear power in an aggregate of individual countries and regions of the world. The main purpose of this modeling exercise was to gain some insight into the probable international locations of reactors and other nuclear facilities, the future requirements for uranium and for fuel-cycle services, and the problems of spent-fuel storage and waste management. The study also presents an assessment of the role that nuclear power might actually play in meeting future world energy demand

  10. World supply of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, Michel.

    1981-01-01

    At the end of 1980 nuclear energy accounted for 9% of the world production of electricity stemming from 262 power stations, utilising mainly the process of water reactors and representing an installed capacity of 142 GWe. This production, apparently limited, already represents the equivalent of 150 million TOE. The 600 nuclear power stations in service, under construction or ordered represent a total of 450 GWe. In 1985, their production ought to cover 15% of the world requirements of electricity, which corresponds to a doubling of the share of nuclear energy within 6 years. During these recent years, the development of nuclear energy has undergone a significant slowing down and the number of orders for new nuclear power stations has dropped considerably in particular in the United States. Considering the time required and the available industrial capacity, the accumulated capacity which could be installed worlwide by 1990 could attain 530 GWe, equivalent to 650 MTOE covering 24% of the world production of electricity and 7% of the world consumption of primary energy. A determined effort for the end of this century could end up by the installation of 1200 GWe of capacity, generating 1.5 GTOE. The share of nuclear energy would then represent 35% of the production of electricity [fr

  11. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  13. World nuclear outlook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  14. World nuclear outlook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  15. A World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the mission and tasks of the World Nuclear University (WNU) established to build worldwide knowledge and support the effective use of nuclear techniques for solving the global human and environmental problems of 21 century and thereby support the global sustainable development. In this respect the WNU would build Human resources, Technical knowledge and Public Support. A Network of educational and research institutions with strong programmes in nuclear science and engineering will be created. The WNU Head quarters and Regional Centers will: 1) Facilitate agreement on curriculum and WNU certification curriculum 2) Develop and administer scholarships; 3) Foster educational exchanges within WNU family institutions; 4) Build core faculty for summer 1/2 year Masters degrees; 5) Co-ordinate research, grants and knowledge management research; 6) Operate think tank and public information service; 7) Emphasise key areas such as safeguards systems and the nuclear-renewable-hydrogen economy; 8) Oversee world-wide human resources pool; 9) Orchestrate alumni support for nuclear technology. The possible participants and possible location of the Regional Centres are given

  16. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P-A.

    1990-01-01

    A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show the prese......A new ordering vector k=(2π/a)(0, 2/3, 2/3) for fcc antiferromagnets has been found by neutron-diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear-spin system of a 65Cu single crystal. The corresponding reflection together with the previously observed (100) Bragg peak show...

  17. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. China has announced the construction between 2020 and 2025 of the biggest particle accelerator in the world. The Finn government has agreed with the project of a spent fuel storage center, it was the last administrative step before the launching of the construction works. The quality of the steel of the pressure vessel of the Olkiluoto EPR has been assessed by the Finn nuclear safety authority (STUK). The French nuclear safety authority (ASN) has launched a test program for assessing the resistance of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR as a consequence of the recent discovery of defects in the composition of the steel. A robot called SX1 has been designed to measure radiation in a continuous way by strolling about in a nuclear facility. As a consequence of a tense relationship with Russia, the Turkish government has stopped the construction (by Rosatom) of the Akkuyu nuclear plant. The Belgian government and the Electrabel company have signed an agreement for a 10 year extension of the operating life of the Doel 1 and 2 reactors. Chinese authorities have approved the construction of 4 new third generation reactors. (A.C.)

  18. From the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers pieces of information concerning nuclear industry worldwide. The most relevant are the following ones. CGN (China General Nuclear) will launched in 2017 the construction of a prototype of a small transportable modular reactor whose purpose is to produce electricity on a remote place like an island or aboard a boat for long-term missions. The Wylfa reactor (490 MWe) was decommissioned on December 30., 2015. Wylfa was the last Magnox type reactor operating in the world. In France a campaign of information and iodine drug dispatching has been launched for people living near nuclear power plants. The global cost of the CIGEO project whose aim is the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes has been estimated to 25 billions euros including construction costs, operating costs over a 100 year period and dismantling costs. The European Commission has warned France that the financial provisions made for the dismantling of nuclear facilities and the processing of the consequent wastes are not sufficient to cover the future costs. 4 reactors with a power of 1400 MWe each, are being built on the Barakah site in Abu Dhabi, works are on time and the first unit may operate end 2016. Wikileaks has accused AREVA of not taking all necessary measures for the protection of its employees at the Bakouma mine. AREVA denies the charges and affirms that regulations and safety requirements are the same as for its French sites whatever the country. The initiative 'Nuclear for Climate' gathering pro-nuclear associations worldwide, intends to remind the international community that nuclear energy is an important tool to fight climate change. The French site for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes is facing saturation in the very short term while the volume of such wastes is expected to soar in the next decades as the dismantling programmes will gain in importance. A new policy for the management of such wastes is needed. (A.C.)

  19. Energy and the New World Order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two major trends determine energy demand and supply; population growth and economic growth. This type of analysis very often forgets political and military events, both global and regional. This paper presents the major events influencing energy during the cold war and after the break-up of the USSR in so called ''New World Order'' which have politically and military determined energy supply and demand or, better to say, its price. The main accent is on oil and such events as the OPEC oil embargo in 1973 and the Gulf War in 1991. The relationship between oil and the other forms of primary energy production (coal, nuclear energy) as well as with energy in traffic and transportation are presented. All options in the period that we like to designate with the expression ''New World Order'' one discussed. (author)

  20. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  1. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  2. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  3. Nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grippi, Sidney

    2006-01-01

    The chapter reports the nuclear energy beginning in the world including a chronology of the atomic bomb birth, the annual growth rate of electronuclear energy in the world, a comparison of energy production in thermoelectric bases

  4. The New World Information Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    1979-01-01

    Argues for a reordering of the present conception of world information transmission dominated by the developed nations and characterized by imbalances in the political, legal, and technico-financial spheres. (JMF)

  5. World nuclear performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlheim, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    This update, which appears regularly in each issue of Nuclear Safety, surveys the operations of those power reactors in the world, which have been issued operating licenses. Table I shows the number of such reactors and their net capacities as of June 30, 1992, the end of the three-month period covered in this report Table 2 lists the unit capacity and forced outage rate for each licensed reactor for each of the three-months covered in each report and the cumulative values of these parameters at the end of the covered quarter since the beginning of commercial operation. The Maximum Dependable Capacity (MDC) Unit Capacity (in percent) is defined as follows: (Net electrical energy generated during the reporting period x 100) divided by the product of the number of hours in the reporting period and the MDC of the reactor in question. The forced outage rate (in percent) is defined as: (The total number of hours in the reporting period during which the unit was inoperable as the result of a forced outage x 100) divided by the sum (forced outage hours + operating hours)

  6. Nuclear order in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annila, A.J.; Clausen, K.N.; Lindgård, P.-A.

    1990-01-01

    The new antiferromagnetic reflection (02/32/3) has been found by neutron diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear spin system of a 65CU single crystal. The corresponding three-sublattice structure has not been observed previously in any fcc antiferromagnet.......The new antiferromagnetic reflection (02/32/3) has been found by neutron diffraction experiments at nanokelvin temperatures in the nuclear spin system of a 65CU single crystal. The corresponding three-sublattice structure has not been observed previously in any fcc antiferromagnet....

  7. The unstoppable world nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    To meet energy needs and curb climate change, the number of reactors will continue to increase because more and more countries are going the need nuclear power. At present, there are 436 nuclear reactors in the world that produce 16% of the electricity, and another 48 units are under construction in all, 31 countries in the world use nuclear power to produce electricity, and some countries that do not have reactors, e.g. Poland and Italy, are seriously planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix. Global nuclear development is a reality; energy and environmental challenges have led to new support for nuclear power, which is a safe, stable emission-free source. (Author)

  8. World interest in nuclear desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear power will be used in a desalination plant for the first time in a USSR plant now nearing completion. Studies are in progress to expand the concept of linking the power to chemical industries. These and other developing ideas were subjects of keen discussion by world experts at an Agency conference on nuclear desalination in Madrid. (author)

  9. A virtual nuclear world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salve, R.

    1998-01-01

    The way in which virtual reality technology has so dramatically developed over the last few years has opened up the possibility of its application to various industrial processes. This article describes the possible uses of such a technique in nuclear power plants in various phases such as design, construction, operation or dismantling. (Author)

  10. World nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A coloured pull-out wall chart is presented showing the fuel cycle interests of the world. Place names are marked and symbols are used to indicate regions associated with uranium or thorium deposits, mining, milling, enrichment, reprocessing and fabrication. (UK)

  11. World nuclear performance report 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  12. World nuclear performance report 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  13. Performances of nuclear installations in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, Z.T.

    1999-01-01

    During the last years the operators of nuclear power plants in the world, have realized numerous improvements. This success is imputable to several factors, especially an important data exchange. The Chernobyl accident, in 1986, provoked the creation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (W.A.N.O.). It allowed to exchange information and to develop cooperation in order to go beyond cultural barriers, linguistics and policies. Then, operators in the world have brought important improvements in matter of safety, reliability. (N.C.)

  14. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  16. World nuclear developments after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1987-01-01

    1986 will inevitably go down in history as the year of Chernobyl, the consequences of which must be delays in and even withdrawals from the development of nuclear power. On the credit side, the Soviet Union has done a rapid and remarkable job in sealing the damaged reactor and rehabilitating the station and the area while improving the safety of its total program. Equally effective has been the response of the IAEA. In terms of nuclear power's claim as a major source of energy, nothing has changed as a result of Chernobyl. 15% of the world's electricity is now produced from nearly 400 power reactors. In comparison with any other energy form nuclear energy must rank high in terms of economy, safety and environmental effects. What has changed is the public perception of nuclear power, and the effort world-wide which will need to be made to restore public confidence

  17. Nuclear power in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Current trends in the interest in nuclear power development confirm important changes in opinions around the world about nuclear power's future. Much of the expansion of nuclear power in the sustainable development scenarios takes place in developing countries. For these countries to introduce nuclear power, they need to pass through three main steps: energy planning, infrastructure development and then deployment. The paper gives an overview of the IAEA's activity in this area. In order to meeting the energy needs of developed and developing countries, developing a global vision for nuclear energy, assessing and clarifying the afford ability and acceptability requirements for large-scale nuclear energy use in the 21st century in both developed and developed countries, facilitating international cooperation in developing different types of new generation nuclear energy systems which meet these requirement, and facilitating international discussions aimed at establishing enhanced institutional system acceptable to both developed and developing countries

  18. World Council of Nuclear Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisseu, Andre

    2007-01-01

    WONUC is an association of Trade Unions, Scientific Societies and Social Organizations of the employees, workers and professionals of the nuclear energy related industries and technologies; integrated by 35 Countries and 1.8 millions members. This paper expose the products and services that WONUC provide for the promotion of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and the result of their work around all the world

  19. USSR orders computers to improve nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Control Data Corp (CDC) has received an order valued at $32-million from the Soviet Union for six Cyber 962 mainframe computer systems to be used to increase the safety of civilian nuclear powerplants. The firm is now waiting for approval of the contract by the US government and Western Allies. The computers, ordered by the Soviet Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE), will analyze safety factors in the operation of nuclear reactors over a wide range of conditions. The Soviet Union's civilian nuclear program is one of the largest in the world, with over 50 plants in operation. Types of safety analyses the computers perform include: neutron-physics calculations, radiation-protection studies, stress analysis, reliability analysis of equipment and systems, ecological-impact calculations, transient analysis, and support activities for emergency response. They also include a simulator with realistic mathematical models of Soviet nuclear powerplants to improve operator training

  20. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  1. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of 109 Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 μT. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs

  2. Nuclear magnetic ordering in silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefmann, K

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear antiferromagnetic ordering has been observed by neutron diffraction in a single crystal of {sup 109}Ag. The critical temperature is found to 700 pK, and the critical field is 100 {mu}T. From the paramagnetic phase a second order phase transition leads into a type-I 1-k structure with long range order. The experiments have taken place at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin in collaboration with the low Temperature Laboratory in Helsinki, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde. The present report is a Ph.D. thesis which has been successfully defended at the Niels Bohr Institute. Besides the results of the nuclear ordering experiments the thesis contains a description of the theoretical background for nuclear magnetism and a review of earlier nuclear ordering experiments as well as theoretical work. The principles for studying polarized nuclei with use of polarized and unpolarized neutrons are presented, as well as the results of such experiments. (au) 11 tabs., 59 ills., 143 refs.

  3. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  4. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under three nuclear supply scenarios. Two of these scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries with free market economies (FME countries). A No New Orders scenario is presented only for the United States. These nuclear supply scenarios are described in Commercial Nuclear Power 1990: Prospects for the United States and the World (DOE/EIA-0438(90)). This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the FME projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2030 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2040, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  5. Nuclear energy in Europe and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, H.H.; Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim

    1982-01-01

    The author provides an account of opinions expressed at the 1982 Euratom Congress on the world's economical situation, public views on nuclear energy, the energy problem of the third world an on the development status of nuclear technology. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  7. Nuclear energy education scenario around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, Roberta de Carvalho; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: praroberta@uol.com.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear energy has been used as a source of clean energy with many benefits. Nevertheless, it is still addressed with prejudice. The atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during World War II (1945), the Three Mile Island accident (1979), Chernobyl accident (1986), the crash of the cesium-137 in Goiana, Brazil (1987), and the recent accident in Fukushima (2011) may have been responsible for the negative image of nuclear energy. Researches on education have been conducted with students concerning the conceptual and practical issues of nuclear energy. This work aims to review the literature about nuclear energy education around the world in both, elementary school and high school. Since most educational researches on nuclear energy were published after 1980, this literature review covered the researches that have been published since 1980. The data were presented in chronological order. The results from the literature review provided a clear visualization of the global nuclear energy educational scenario, showing that the theme is still addressed with prejudice due to an incorrect view of nuclear energy and a limited view of its benefits. Concerning the science textbooks, the literature reports that the theme should be better addressed, encouraging students to research more about it. The data from this literature review will serve as a reference for a future proposal for a teaching training program for Brazilian science/physics high school teachers using a new teaching approach. (author)

  8. 2006 nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    At the turn of 2006/2007, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply, or were being commissioned, in 31 countries of the world. This is seven plants less than at the turn of 2005/2006. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 389.5 GWe, the aggregate net power, to 370.5 GWe. This indicates a slight decrease of gross power by some 0.15 GWe compared to the level the year before, while the available net power increased, also slightly, by approx. 0.2 GWe. The Tarapur 3 nuclear generating unit in India, a D 2 O PWR of 540 MWe gross power, was newly commissioned. In 2006, 8 nuclear power plants in Europe (4 in the United Kingdom, 2 in Bulgaria, 1 each in the Slovak Republic and in Spain) discontinued power operation for good. 29 nuclear generating units, i.e. 6 plants more than at the end of 2005, were under construction in late 2006 in 9 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 25.5 GWe. Worldwide, some 40 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases, contracts have already been signed. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2006 achieved another top ranking level of approx. 2,660 billion kWh (2005: approx. 2,750 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-1 fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated gross production has reached approx. 56,875 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 12,399 reactor years. (orig.)

  9. 1999 Nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesselmann, C.

    2000-01-01

    Last year, 1999, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply and under construction, respectively, in 33 countries. A total of 436 nuclear power plants with an aggregate net power of 350.228 MWe and an aggregate gross power of 366.988 MWe were in operation in 31 countries. Four units with an aggregate of 2.900 MWe, i.e. Civaux 2 in France, Kaiga 2 and Rajasthan 3 in India, and Wolsung-4 in the Republic of Korea, went critical for the first time or started commercial operation after having been synchronized with the power grid. After 26 years of operation, the BN 350 sodium cooled fast breeder was permanently decommissioned in Kazakhstan. The plant not only generated electricity (its capacity was 135 MWe) but also supplied process heat to a seawater desalination plant. In 1999, however, it did not contribute to the supply of electricity. In Sweden, unit 1 of the Barsebaeck nuclear power station (600 Mwe net) was decommissioned because of political decisions. This step entails financial compensation payments and substitute electricity generating capacity made available to the power plant operators. Net electricity generation in 1999 amounts to approx. 2.395 Twh, which marks a 100 TWh increase over the preceding year. Since the first generation of electricity from nuclear power in 1951, the cumulated world generation amounts to nearly 37.200 TWh of electricity, and experience in the operation of nuclear power plants has increased to 9414 years. Last year, 38 plants were under construction. This slight increase is due to the start of construction of a total of seven projects: Two each in Japan, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan, and one in China. Shares of nuclear power differ widely among the operator countries. They reach 75 per cent in France, 73 per cent in Lithuania, and 58 per cent in Belgium. With a share of approx. 20 per cent and more than 720 TWh, the US is the largest producer worldwide of electricity from nuclear power. As far as the aggregate

  10. World's trends in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.

    2005-01-01

    Since the exhort of the International Atomic Energy Agency, in 1955, to promote the pacific uses of nuclear energy, countries that had developed military nuclear programs extended their research and training programs to cover pacific uses. Consequently, many programs on Nuclear Engineering and Nuclear Chemistry were established in those countries as well as in many others interested exclusively in the civil applications. Obviously, the new graduated curricula had the purpose to fulfil the manpower requirements of the growing nuclear market, so much in the power as in the applications fields, always keeping the high academic level required by the research and development of this technology. The slowing down in the nuclear power demand, evident in the nineties, caused a diminution in the matriculation in Nuclear Engineering degrees while that in Nuclear and Radiochemistry remained almost constant. Anyway, countries with defined nucleo electric programs took the necessary steps calling, frequently, for foreign personnel. Besides the nuclear power stagnation, the global growing of environmental pollution compelled several countries to transform their old Nuclear Centers in new Centers for Energy and Environmental Research, with the purpose to promote the research and development of all types of primary energy; in general, these new centers maintain their support to Nuclear and Radiochemistry activities. An important characteristic of these organisations (discussed in this work) is the collaboration they offer to universities for thesis work and experimental courses in these increasingly related fields. In fact, before the immediate world's problems of greenhouse and water scarcity, as well as the future demand of electricity, nuclear power returns as the long term solution and a bridge toward the Hydrogen Economy; however, better reactor's designs are required to fulfil such objectives. By now, analytical nuclear methods have proved their usefulness for pollutants

  11. 2009 nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    At the end of 2009, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 30 countries of the world. This is 1 plant less than at the end of 2008. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 391.5 GWe, the aggregate net power, to 371.3 GWe. This capacity numbers are a little bit less than one year before (gross: 392.6 GWe, net: 372.2 GWe). Two units were commissioned in 2009; 1 unit in India (Rajasthan 5) and 1 unit in Japan (Tomari 3). Three nuclear power plant were shut down permanently in 2009 in Japan (Hamaoka 1 and Hamaoka 2) and in Lithuania (Ignalina 2). 52 nuclear generating units, i.e. 9 plants more than at the end of 2008, were under construction in late 2009 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 51.2 GWe. Worldwide, some 80 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 130 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2009 achieved another reasonable ranking level of approx. 2,558 billion kWh (2008: approx. 2,628 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 60,500 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 13,950 reactor years. (orig.)

  12. 2010 nuclear power world report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    At the end of 2010, 443 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 30 countries of the world. This are 6 plants more than at the end of 2009. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 396,118 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 375,947 MWe. This capacity numbers are a little bit more than one year before (gross: 391,551 MWe, net: 371,331 MWe). Six unites were commissioned in 2010; 2 units in China and India each and one unit in the Republic of Korea and Russia each. One unit, the Fast Breeder Pilot Reactor Monju in Japan, was connected to the grid after a long-term shutdown. One nuclear power plant, the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor Phenix in France, was shut down permanently in 2010. 62 nuclear generating units, i.e. 9 plants more than at the end of 2009, were under construction in late 2010 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 63,998 MWe. Worldwide, some 90 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 120 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2010 achieved another reasonable ranking level of approx. 2,627.5 billion kWh (2009: approx. 2,558 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 63,100 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 14,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  13. Changing world of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, N.Z.; Payne, J.; Tompkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    Efforts to integrate the Washington meetings of the American Nuclear Society and the Atomic Industrial Forum included joint plenary sessions and combined criticism of DOE actions regarding the selection of a second repository for radioactive wastes. The meetings also looked beyond the Chernobyl accident to point out that some countries can no longer reject nuclear power, but the industry must develop post-accident plans for plants in order to reduce risks. Speakers warned against over-reacting and the need to keep emergency planning flexible. Other speakers concluded that the Chernobyl design was not so much at fault as the decision to build larger versions of the standardized design. The pursuit of excellence in plant design and performance, the need to resolve regulatory problems involving the inclusion of nuclear plants in utility rate bases, and the economics of low-level waste disposal, were other topics covered

  14. Nuclear power world report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear power world report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-07-15

    At the end of 2013, 435 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number decreased by 2 units compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 398,861 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 378,070 MWe (gross: 392,793 MWe, net: 372,572 MWe, new data base as of 2013: nameplate capacities). Four units were commissioned in 2014; three units in China and one in India. Eight units were shut down permanently in 2013; 2 units in Japan, and four units in the USA. Two units in Canada were declared permanently shut-down after a long-term shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units - 2 more than at the end of 2012 - were under construction in late 2013 in 15 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73,814 MWe and net power of approx. 69,279 MWe. Six new projects have been started in 2013 in four countries (Belarus, China, the Republic of Korea, and the United Arab Emirates). Worldwide, some 125 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2013 achieved a level of approx. 2,364.15 billion (109) kWh (2012: approx. 2,350.80 billion kWh). Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 70,310 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,400 reactor years. (orig.)

  16. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This analysis report presents the projected requirements for uranium concentrate and uranium enrichment services to fuel the nuclear power plants expected to be operating under two nuclear supply scenarios. These two scenarios, the Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases, apply to the United States, Canada, Europe, the Far East, and other countries in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas (WOCA). A No New Orders scenarios is also presented for the Unites States. This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the WOCA projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel; discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix D includes domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper Reference cases and through 2036, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case

  17. Oil crisis and the emerging world order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, T. (Univ. of Quebec, Montreal); Burns, T.R.; Deville, P.

    1977-08-01

    The paper outlines a conceptual framework for understanding and analyzing the structuring of an institutional order. Particular attention is given to developments that make institution restructuring likely--for instance power shifts which favor actors with a different vision or model of an appropriate institutional order. The framework is applied in a brief historical study of the development of post-World War II international economic institutions and current developments associated with the ''oil crisis.'' This conceptual framework and historical investigation provides a basis on which to formulate propositions, indicating potential sources of conflict and cooperating and certain ambiguities and dynamics of current institution restructuring in the international system. The paper concludes by outlining several action guidelines for structuring new global cultural forces and institutional forms related to bringing about a New International Economic Order. 43 references.

  18. Clean energy : nuclear energy world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This book explains the nuclear engineering to kids with easy way. There are explanations of birth of nuclear energy such as discover of nuclear and application of modern technology of nuclear energy, principles and structure of nuclear power plant, fuel, nuclear waste management, use of radiation for medical treatment, food supplies, industry, utilization of neutron. It indicates the future of nuclear energy as integral nuclear energy and nuclear fusion energy.

  19. Introduction: interregional relations in the world order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Bacaria

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyse factors which, since the end of last century, have made interregional relations very important to understand the world geopolitical and economic order. Interregional relations are defined as those which pertain to relations between regions or between a given state and a given region, or within a megaregion. This evolution results from: the growing demand in the emerging economies and the interaction among them, a new framework of interregional economic relations, and the development of new commercial channels. Finally, this paper will introduce the different articled included in this issue.

  20. INTERNET and information about nuclear sciences. The world wide web virtual library: nuclear sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this work author proposes to constitute new virtual library which should centralize the information from nuclear disciplines on the INTERNET, in order to them to give first and foremost the connection on the most important links in set nuclear sciences. The author has entitled this new virtual library The World Wide Web Library: Nuclear Sciences. By constitution of this virtual library next basic principles were chosen: home pages of international organizations important from point of view of nuclear disciplines; home pages of the National Nuclear Commissions and governments; home pages of nuclear scientific societies; web-pages specialized on nuclear problematic, in general; periodical tables of elements and isotopes; web-pages aimed on Chernobyl crash and consequences; web-pages with antinuclear aim. Now continue the links grouped on web-pages according to single nuclear areas: nuclear arsenals; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear aspects of biology (radiobiology); nuclear chemistry; nuclear company; nuclear data centres; nuclear energy; nuclear energy, environmental aspects of (radioecology); nuclear energy info centres; nuclear engineering; nuclear industries; nuclear magnetic resonance; nuclear material monitoring; nuclear medicine and radiology; nuclear physics; nuclear power (plants); nuclear reactors; nuclear risk; nuclear technologies and defence; nuclear testing; nuclear tourism; nuclear wastes; nuclear wastes. In these single groups web-links will be concentrated into following groups: virtual libraries and specialized servers; science; nuclear societies; nuclear departments of the academic institutes; nuclear research institutes and laboratories; centres, info links

  1. Nuclear physics in colourful worlds. Quantumchromodynamics and nuclear binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Brown, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    When quantumchromodynamics (QCD) is generalized from SU(3) to an SU(N c ) gauge theory, where N c is the number of colours, it depends on only two parameters: N c and the bare quark mass m q . A more general understanding of nuclear physics can be achieved by considering what it would be like in worlds with the number of colours different from 3, and bare quark masses different from the 'empirical' ones. Such an investigation can be carried out within a framework of meson-exchange interactions. The empirical binding energy of nuclear matter results from a very near cancellation between attractive and repulsive terms which are two orders of magnitude larger and may be expected to depend sensitively on the parameters of QCD. It is indeed found that our world is wedged into a small corner of the two-dimensional manifold of m q versus N c . If the number of colours were decreased by one, or the bare quark masses raised by more than 20%, nuclear matter would become unbound. By tracing the origin of this state of affairs, one obtains a clearer picture of the relative importance of various effects on the behaviour of the bulk nuclear matter. In particular, correlations like those embodied in the Coester band of saturation points appear to have a broader degree of validity than is implied by fits to the actual physical world only. (orig.)

  2. Emerging nuclear suppliers in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of new supplier states of nuclear technology within the Third World has raised concern, if those nuclear supplier states will promote an unrestricted and uncontrolled transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries and augment the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. The article analyses the nuclear export capacities, nuclear exports and the export policy of Argentina, Brazil and India. Argentina is considered as the most important emerging nuclear supplier state in the Third World. Nuclear exports have to be authorisized by the government in all three states and will be covered by IAEA-safeguards in the recipient country. The three states will exercise restraint in the transfer of sensitive nuclear technology. Nuclear exports of Argentina, Brazil and India so far will not augment the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Nuclear danger in the modern world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulejmenov, O.O.

    2000-01-01

    It is noted, that nowadays a nuclear danger proceeds from nuclear depositions of countries having own nuclear weapons. Since Kazakhstan is one of the first country in the world which fulfilled regulations of Lisbon Protocol and liquidated own nuclear potential, author regards that Kazakhstan have moral right for initiating process of attachment to Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty by countries having nuclear weapon. Now for Kazakhstan there are urgent problems: financing of post-conversion processes; re-cultivation of territory contaminated by residuals from nuclear weapons test; rehabilitation of population health, damaged from test of mass destruction weapon. Scientists of Kazakhstan estimated damage from nuclear test on Kazakstan territory in 10 billion dollars. It is necessary international efforts of all public organizations of the world for all world sites. One of the financing source could be means from reduction of nuclear arms production

  4. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report contains an analysis of the sensitivities of the nuclear fuel cycle projections to different levels and types of projected nuclear capacity, different enrichment tails assays, higher and lower capacity factors, changes in nuclear fuel burnup levels, and other exogenous assumptions. The projections for the United States generally extend through the year 2020, and the (WOCA) World Outside Centrally Planned Economic Areas projections, which include the United States, are provided through 2010. The report also presents annual projections of spent nuclear fuel discharges and inventories of spent fuel. Appendix E includes aggregated domestic spent fuel projections through the year 2020 for the Lower and Upper References cases and through 2037, the last year in which spent fuel is discharged, for the No New Orders case. Annual projections of spent fuel discharges through the year 2037 for individual US reactors in the No New Orders cases are included for the first time in Appendix H. These disaggregated projections are provided at the request of the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management

  5. Disarmament Education as World Order Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1982-01-01

    Disarmament education has been exposed to wider public attention because of the launching of the World Disarmament Campaign, an education effort intended to involve the world's citizens in thinking about disarmament. Factors important to this movement are discussed. (CJ)

  6. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report: 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, Christopher; Lenssen, Nicholas; Froggatt, Antony; Willis, John; Kondakji, Assad; Schneider, Mycle

    1992-05-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. This first WNISR Report was issued in 1992 in a joint publication with WISE-Paris, Greenpeace International and the World Watch Institute, Washington

  7. Nuclear power in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poneman, D.

    1982-01-01

    This book explores the increasingly urgent issue of nuclear power policies in developing countries. It examines the motives which drive nuclear policies in the developing world and explores how security and economic objectives, domestic politics, and foreign influence shape nuclear policies, enriching the analysis with examples from South American, African and Asian experiences. (author)

  8. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hosokawa, Komei; Thomas, Steve; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Hazemann, Julie; Bradford, Peter A.

    2013-07-01

    Two years after the Fukushima disaster started unfolding on 11 March 2011, its impact on the global nuclear industry has become increasingly visible. Global electricity generation from nuclear plants dropped by a historic 7 percent in 2012, adding to the record drop of 4 percent in 2011. This World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2013 (WNISR) provides a global overview of the history, the current status and the trends of nuclear power programs worldwide. It looks at nuclear reactor units in operation and under construction. Annex 1 provides 40 pages of detailed country-by-country information. A specific chapter assesses the situation in potential newcomer countries. For the second time, the report looks at the credit-rating performance of some of the major nuclear companies and utilities. A more detailed chapter on the development patterns of renewable energies versus nuclear power is also included. Annex 6 provides an overview table with key data on the world nuclear industry by country. The 2013 edition of the World Nuclear Industry Status Report also includes an update on nuclear economics as well as an overview of the status, on-site and off-site, of the challenges triggered by the Fukushima disaster. However, this report's emphasis on recent post-Fukushima developments should not obscure an important fact: as previous editions (see www.WorldNuclearReport.org) detail, the world nuclear industry already faced daunting challenges long before Fukushima, just as the U.S. nuclear power industry had largely collapsed before the 1979 Three Mile Island accident. The nuclear promoters' invention that a global nuclear renaissance was flourishing until 3/11 is equally false: Fukushima only added to already grave problems, starting with poor economics. The performance of the nuclear industry over the year from July 2012 to July 2013 is summed up in this report

  9. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moden, R.; O'Brien, B.; Sanders, L.; Steinberg, H.

    1985-01-01

    Projections of uranium requirements (both yellowcake and enrichment services) and spent fuel discharges are presented, corresponding to the nuclear power plant capacity projections presented in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984: Prospects for the United States and the World'' (DOE/EIA-0438(85)) and the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984:'' (DOE/EIA-0383(84)). Domestic projections are provided through the year 2020, with foreign projections through 2000. The domestic projections through 1995 are consistent with the integrated energy forecasts in the ''Annual Energy Outlook 1984.'' Projections of capacity beyond 1995 are not part of an integrated energy foreccast; the methodology for their development is explained in ''Commercial Nuclear Power 1984.'' A range of estimates is provided in order to capture the uncertainty inherent in such forward projections. The methodology and assumptions are also stated. A glossary is provided. Two appendixes present additional material. This report is of particular interest to analysts involved in long-term planning for the disposition of radioactive waste generated from the nuclear fuel cycle. 14 figs., 18 tabs

  10. The world nuclear industry status report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Froggatt, A

    2007-11-15

    lifetime of 40 years for all operating reactors and those that are currently under construction and have calculated how many plants would be shut down year by year. The exercise enables an evaluation of the number of plants that would have to come on-line over the next decades in order to maintain the same number of operating plants. In addition to the units currently under construction with a scheduled start-up date, 69 reactors (42,000 MW) would have to be planned, built and started up until 2015 - one every month and a half - and an additional 192 units over the following 10-year period - one every 18 days. The result has not changed from the 2004 analysis. Even if Finland and France build a European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), China went for an additional 20 plants and Japan, Korea or Eastern Europe added one or the other plant, the overall worldwide trend will most likely be downwards over the next two or three decades. With extremely long lead times of 10 years and more, it is practically impossible to maintain or even increase the number of operating nuclear power plants over the next 20 years, unless operating lifetimes would be substantially increased beyond 40 years on average. There is currently no basis for such an assumption. Lack of trained workforce, massive loss of competence, severe manufacturing bottlenecks (a single facility in the world, Japan Steel Works, can cast large forgings for reactor pressure vessels) lack of confidence of international finance institutions, strong competitors from highly dynamic natural gas and renewable energy systems exacerbate the aging problems of the industry. Two years after construction start, the world's largest nuclear builder's show case pilot project, AREVA's EPR reactor Olkiluoto-3 in Finland, is two years behind schedule and euro 1.5 billion (50%) beyond budget. In June 2005, the trade journal Nuclear Engineering International published the analysis of the 2004 Edition of the World Nuclear

  11. The world nuclear industry status report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Froggatt, A.

    2007-11-01

    for all operating reactors and those that are currently under construction and have calculated how many plants would be shut down year by year. The exercise enables an evaluation of the number of plants that would have to come on-line over the next decades in order to maintain the same number of operating plants. In addition to the units currently under construction with a scheduled start-up date, 69 reactors (42,000 MW) would have to be planned, built and started up until 2015 - one every month and a half - and an additional 192 units over the following 10-year period - one every 18 days. The result has not changed from the 2004 analysis. Even if Finland and France build a European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), China went for an additional 20 plants and Japan, Korea or Eastern Europe added one or the other plant, the overall worldwide trend will most likely be downwards over the next two or three decades. With extremely long lead times of 10 years and more, it is practically impossible to maintain or even increase the number of operating nuclear power plants over the next 20 years, unless operating lifetimes would be substantially increased beyond 40 years on average. There is currently no basis for such an assumption. Lack of trained workforce, massive loss of competence, severe manufacturing bottlenecks (a single facility in the world, Japan Steel Works, can cast large forgings for reactor pressure vessels) lack of confidence of international finance institutions, strong competitors from highly dynamic natural gas and renewable energy systems exacerbate the aging problems of the industry. Two years after construction start, the world's largest nuclear builder's show case pilot project, AREVA's EPR reactor Olkiluoto-3 in Finland, is two years behind schedule and euro 1.5 billion (50%) beyond budget. In June 2005, the trade journal Nuclear Engineering International published the analysis of the 2004 Edition of the World Nuclear Industry Status Report under their

  12. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  13. Nuclear: Energy of the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology

    2007-08-01

    Full text: The 10 t h conference on the nuclear science and technology was held on 16-17 August 2007 in Bangkok. This conference contain paper on non-power applications of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry. These application include irradiation of food for des infestation tram technologies used in diagnosis and therapy and radiation chemistry important to industrial processes. Some technologies which evolved from the development of nuclear power industry are also discussed

  14. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony

    2004-12-01

    Fifty years ago, in September 1954, the head of the US Atomic Energy Commission stated that nuclear energy would become 'too cheap to meter': The cost to produce energy by nuclear power plants would be so low that the investment into electricity meters would not be justified. By coincidence the US prophecy came within three months of the announcement of the world's first nuclear power plant being connected to the grid in.. the then Soviet Union. In June 2004, the international nuclear industry celebrated the anniversary of the grid connection at the site of the world's first power reactor in Obninsk, Russia, under the original slogan '50 Years of Nuclear Power - The Next 50 Years'. This report aims to provide a solid basis for analysis into the prospects for the nuclear power industry. Twelve years ago, the Worldwatch Institute in Washington, WISE-Paris and Greenpeace International published the World Nuclear Industry Status Report 1992. In the current international atmosphere of revival of the nuclear revival debate - it has been a periodically recurring phenomenon for the past twenty years - two of the authors of the 1992 report, now independent consultants, have carried out an updated review of the status of the world nuclear industry. The performance of the nuclear industry over the past year is summed up in this report

  15. World warms to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect and global warming is a major environmental issue. The nuclear industry has taken this opportunity to promote itself as providing clean energy without implication in either the greenhouse effect or acid rain. However, it is acknowledged that nuclear power does have its own environment concerns. Two questions are posed -does nuclear power contribute to carbon dioxide emissions and can nuclear power provide a realistic long-term solution to global warming? Although nuclear power stations do not emit carbon dioxide, emissions occur during the manufacture of reactor components, the operation of the nuclear fuel cycle and especially, during the mining and processing of the uranium ore. It is estimated that the supply of high grade ores will last only 23 years, beyond that the carbon dioxide emitted during the processing is estimated to be as great as the carbon dioxide emitted from an coal-fired reactor. Fast breeder reactors are dismissed as unable to provide an answer, so it is concluded that nuclear technology has only a very limited role to play in countering global warming.(UK)

  16. World nuclear directory. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the directory is to provide a comprehensive, worldwide guide to organizations which conduct, promote, or encourage research into atomic energy. The term research is interpreted fairly generously. The directory is intended to be a reference source useful to scientists and administrators in the nuclear field, to information workers, librarians, journalists, market researchers, and others. It therefore includes nuclear research institutes; government departments; public corporations; industrial firms; electricity generating boards; learned and professional societies; and universities, polytechnics, and other institutes of higher education with nuclear departments. (author)

  17. The World Nuclear University - A pillar of the nuclear renaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigon, Jean-Louis [World Nuclear University Working Groups, Carlton House, 22a St. James' s Square, London SW1Y 4JH (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The World Nuclear University was founded with the support of four leading international nuclear institutions - two of them inter-governmental organisations (IAEA and OECD/NEA), the other two bodies serving the industry and its operators (WNA and WANO). Inaugurated in September 2003 on the 50. anniversary of President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace speech, the WNU started working a year later upon the arrival of the first staff members. Today there is a tremendous disparity in the nuclear industry between the pace of the unfolding nuclear renaissance, which is gathering momentum by the day, and the slower pace at which we are educating a new generation of nuclear scientists and engineers. The WNU aims to be instrumental in creating a network of leading institutions of nuclear learning in order to help fill this gap. The emerging worldwide partnership aims to: - Enhance nuclear education amongst its members, - Establish globally accepted standards in academic and professional qualification, and - Elevate the prestige of the nuclear profession. Prior to the establishment of WNU, many leading educational institutions of nuclear learning had already launched cooperation on a regional basis, as follows (country or region/network): United States/NEDHO (Nuclear Engineering Department Head Organization); Canada/UNENE (University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering in Canada); Asia/ANENT (Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology); Europe/ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network); Russia/WNU Russian Branch. Thus the WNU can be seen to a certain extent as a 'network of networks', although it should be stressed that many of the current WNU members did not belong to already existing networks. By creating a global network, the WNU avoids the duplication of efforts and limits the total number of staff required. The WNU does not lose sight of the fact, however, that local problems should be solved locally. Ten Working Groups share between them the

  18. The World Nuclear University - A pillar of the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigon, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    The World Nuclear University was founded with the support of four leading international nuclear institutions - two of them inter-governmental organisations (IAEA and OECD/NEA), the other two bodies serving the industry and its operators (WNA and WANO). Inaugurated in September 2003 on the 50. anniversary of President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace speech, the WNU started working a year later upon the arrival of the first staff members. Today there is a tremendous disparity in the nuclear industry between the pace of the unfolding nuclear renaissance, which is gathering momentum by the day, and the slower pace at which we are educating a new generation of nuclear scientists and engineers. The WNU aims to be instrumental in creating a network of leading institutions of nuclear learning in order to help fill this gap. The emerging worldwide partnership aims to: - Enhance nuclear education amongst its members, - Establish globally accepted standards in academic and professional qualification, and - Elevate the prestige of the nuclear profession. Prior to the establishment of WNU, many leading educational institutions of nuclear learning had already launched cooperation on a regional basis, as follows (country or region/network): United States/NEDHO (Nuclear Engineering Department Head Organization); Canada/UNENE (University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering in Canada); Asia/ANENT (Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology); Europe/ENEN (European Nuclear Education Network); Russia/WNU Russian Branch. Thus the WNU can be seen to a certain extent as a 'network of networks', although it should be stressed that many of the current WNU members did not belong to already existing networks. By creating a global network, the WNU avoids the duplication of efforts and limits the total number of staff required. The WNU does not lose sight of the fact, however, that local problems should be solved locally. Ten Working Groups share between them the activities of the

  19. Nuclear security in a transformed world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Dean, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the wake of the failed coup attempt in the Soviet Union, the world stands hopeful that a new era of international peace and cooperation lies ahead. President Bush's unilateral reductions in tactical nuclear weapons and in the alert levels of US forces, coupled with President Gorbachev's largely reciprocal actions, are important steps toward realizing that hope. While bold in the context of recent arms control history, however, these actions are modest in the face of the current enormous opportunity and the shifting threats the world now faces. Even with these welcome unilateral actions, the likely continued presence of thousands of nuclear weapons throughout many of the Soviet republics, the temporary uncertainty over central government command during the coup, and fuller knowledge of Iraq's aggressive efforts to build a nuclear bomb serve as stark reminders that the danger of nuclear catastrophe has not disappeared. Although a deliberate attack by the Soviet Union against the US or Europe is now almost inconceivable, nuclear weapons continue to pose significant threats to US security and world peace. These threats fall into three broad categories: a persistent risk of regional nuclear war involving countries other than the Soviet Union that are already in possession of nuclear weapons or capable of building them; the spread of nuclear weapons to other countries; accidental or unauthorized use. To meet this new challenge, three key steps must be taken: reduce dramatically Soviet and US nuclear arsenals; negotiate restrictions on the arsenals of other nuclear powers; strengthen the nuclear nonproliferation regime

  20. The Ukraine crisis and the nuclear order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    The cooling of relations between the West and Russia in the face of the Ukraine crisis could well have negative consequences for the international nuclear order, both for Ukraine strictly speaking and for the global non-proliferation regime. It is first of all worth noting that Ukraine, which became an independent nation State following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991, inherited considerable strategic (comprising between 1300 and 1600 warheads depending on the source) and tactical nuclear arsenals, making it, based on the cited figures, the third largest nuclear power in the world. Yet in December 1994, in the margins of the CSCE Summit in Budapest, it agreed, not without some reluctance, to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a non- Nuclear-Weapon State in exchange for positive and negative security assurances from the 5 Nuclear- Weapon States, which included, amongst others, recognition of its sovereignty and its territorial integrity. In June 1996, its entire nuclear arsenal was transferred to Russia. This historical fact is not lost on any of the actors in the present crisis, and there is nothing to prevent one from thinking that Ukraine, in the case of an infringement upon its vital interests, might question its commitment to nuclear disarmament. Beyond this risk, there is concern that the entirety of the nuclear non-proliferation regime may be weakened. At the bilateral level, the pursuit of the reduction of the Russian and U.S. nu-clear arsenals launched in the framework of the 2010 New START Treaty could be seriously com-promised if, as feared, the time for confidence and transparency between Moscow and Washing-ton is over. The development of direct dialogue must be closely followed over the course of the coming months. At the multilateral level, the NPT, whose next Review Conference will take place in 2015, could be exploited by certain States on the grounds that denuclearization is a fragile process that might be called into

  1. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  2. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie

    2012-07-01

    Twenty years after its first edition, World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2012 portrays an industry suffering from the cumulative impacts of the world economic crisis, the Fukushima disaster, ferocious competitors and its own planning and management difficulties. The report provides a global overview of the history, the current status and trends of nuclear power programs in the world. It looks at units in operation and under construction. Annex 1 also provides detailed country-by-country information. A specific chapter assesses the situation in potential newcomer countries. For the first time, the report looks at the credit-rating performance of some of the major nuclear companies and utilities. A more detailed chapter on the development patterns of renewable energies versus nuclear power is also included. The performance of the nuclear industry over the 18 months since the beginning of 2011 is summed up in this report

  3. World nuclear fuel market. Eighteenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The papers presented at the eighteenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged separately. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: world uranium enrichment capacity and enriched uranium inventories; the impact of new enrichment technologies; predictions of future market trends; non-proliferation aspects of nuclear trade; and a debate as to whether uranium can be successfully traded on a commodities exchange

  4. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  5. World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) is an aggregate demand-based partial equilibrium model used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to project long-term domestic and international nuclear energy requirements. WINES follows a top-down approach in which economic growth rates, delivered energy demand growth rates, and electricity demand are projected successively to ultimately forecast total nuclear generation and nuclear capacity. WINES could be potentially used to produce forecasts for any country or region in the world. Presently, WINES is being used to generate long-term forecasts for the United States, and for all countries with commercial nuclear programs in the world, excluding countries located in centrally planned economic areas. Projections for the United States are developed for the period from 2010 through 2030, and for other countries for the period starting in 2000 or 2005 (depending on the country) through 2010. EIA uses a pipeline approach to project nuclear capacity for the period between 1990 and the starting year for which the WINES model is used. This approach involves a detailed accounting of existing nuclear generating units and units under construction, their capacities, their actual or estimated time of completion, and the estimated date of retirements. Further detail on this approach can be found in Appendix B of Commercial Nuclear Power 1991: Prospects for the United States and the World

  6. World nuclear generating capacity 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the annual summary of world nuclear generating capacity for 1994. A global summary is first provided, reviewing total installed capacity and growth in installed capacity over the next five years. A more detailed discussion of the nuclear efforts in 34 countries follows, with a tabular listing of nuclear projects in each of these countries. The listing includes reactor supplier, reactor type, size, current status, and date of commercial operation

  7. Nuclear energetics all over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, T.

    2000-01-01

    The actual state and tendencies of nuclear power further development for different world regions have been presented and discussed. The problem of safety of energetic nuclear reactors, radioactive waste management and related problems have been discussed in respect of regulations in different countries. The economical aspects of nuclear energetics in comparison with different fossil fuel power plants exploitation costs has been presented as well. The official state of international organizations (IAEA, WANO, HASA etc.) have been also shown in respect to subject presented

  8. Order, chaos and nuclear dynamics: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1990-08-01

    This is an introductory lecture illustrating by simple examples the anticipated effect on collective nuclear dynamics of a transition from order to chaos in the motions of nucleons inside an idealized nucleus. The destruction of order is paralleled by a transition from a rubber-like to a honey-like behaviour of the independent-particle nuclear model. 10 refs., 6 figs

  9. The new competition in the world market for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The current revival in the world market for nuclear reactors, notwithstanding Fukushima, completes the re-composition of the world's nuclear industry that started in the early 1990's and which has displaced nuclear power's centre of gravity towards Asia. In this new context, the capability to provide full-fledged financing for the buyers and to set up consortia that may include the operator have become major advantages at this stage, relegating to a lower order the ability to supply reactors with a high level of safety. (author)

  10. List of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.

    1984-01-01

    This list published once a year presents, subdivided into countries, data on all nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, or for which a contract has been placed, referring to the following aspects: Year the contract has been placed, name and/or size, owner or operator, design type, manufacturers, net output, first year of commercial operation, and total electricity output up to the data June 30, 1984. Two additional tables present a survey on the world's nuclear power plants, also grouped by countries, and the largest commercially used nuclear power plants of the world. (UA) [de

  11. Nuclear: a world without worker?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Pierre; Maziere, M.

    2014-01-01

    After having recalled some characteristics of the electro-nuclear sector in terms of employment (direct and indirect jobs, average age, number of persons controlled on the radiological level, exposure with respect to work location), the author outlines that workers of this sector are seldom evoked whereas investments, incidents and accidents are generally the main evoked and commented topics. He proposes some explanations about this image of the nuclear sector. He reports an incident which occurred in Marcoule and outlines how a set of imperfectly managed events resulted in this incident. He also outlines the importance of the role of workers and the difficulty to make the right choice in such situations. As a conclusion, the author draws some lessons, and particularly outlines that the commitment of workers should be put forward

  12. Corporate planning in the new world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasjo, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    The planning process at IPL Energy Inc. was discussed. IPL Energy is the largest natural gas distribution company which has the world's longest and most complex liquid pipeline. The three business units at IPL Energy are: gas distribution, pipelines, and international investment. Each uses different strategies for growth opportunities. The process wherein the plans from the various business units are formulated, leavened with corporate level vision, enriched by the addition of an international dimension, and merged into a complex strategic plan for the company as a whole has been described. The need for flexibility, and the importance of constant attention to the three Cs -competencies, culture and communications - were emphasized

  13. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide, there were 249 power reactors in operation at the end of 1980, with a net electrical capacity of about 142 GW. In Canada the ten reactors in operation had a combined capacity of about 5.5 GW. Another 14 under construction will produce an additional 9.9 GW. Four Canadian reactors were in the world's top ten in terms of capacity factor in 1980, and six were in the top ten in terms of lifetime performance. Data tabulated for the Canadian reactors are: location, power, operator, date of first power. For the rest of the world, a table gives the number of reactors of each type and their capacity. (N.D.H.)

  14. Nuclear power in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power has a future that will only be fully realised if it is shown to be a solution to some of the world's most pressing energy, and associated environmental, problems. This can only be done if nuclear power itself ceases to be perceived as a problem by the public, interest groups, governments and financial institutions. In public relations terms, this means removing the persistent distortions and misconceptions about the nuclear industry. Environmentally, it involves showing that nuclear power is the only alternative energy source which does not contribute to climate change, preserves rare minerals and recycles its raw materials. Governments must be persuaded to see that nuclear power is the only economic answer to the growing energy demand arising from increased industrialisation and population growth. Financiers need convincing that nuclear power is the investment of the future and generators that it is the lowest cost economic and environmental option. The future of nuclear power depends on meeting these challenges. (UK)

  15. The World Nuclear University: New partnership in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    The important role which the IAEA plays in assisting Member States in the preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge and in facilitating international collaboration in this area has been recognized by the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency in resolutions GC(46)/RES/11B, GC(47)/RES/10B, GC(48)/RES/13 and GC(50)/RES/13. A continued focus of IAEA activities in managing nuclear knowledge is to support Member States to secure and sustain human resources for the nuclear sector, comprising both the replacement of retiring staff and building of new capacity. The IAEA assists Member States, particularly developing ones, in their efforts to sustain nuclear education and training in all areas of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, which is a necessary prerequisite for succession planning, in particular through the networking of nuclear education and training, including activities of the World Nuclear University (WNU) and the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT). The report on the attached CD-ROM, The World Nuclear University: New Partnership in Nuclear Education, gives an overview of the history of the development of the World Nuclear University and related IAEA activities and contains an analysis and recommendations from the first WNU Summer Institute, held in 2005 in the USA

  16. Eternal peace and world citizen order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolić Marinko V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author examines the key principles of Kant's conception of eternal peace and the possibility of an international legal order grounded in Reason. The central segment of the paper consists of an analysis of the problem of mediation between Kant's normative theory and political practice.

  17. World survey of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, nuclear power was still expanding worldwide, but in a climate of increasing short-term uncertainty. During 1987, 23 new reactors started supplying electricity, for a total of 415, of which 13 were prevented from producing. Total installed capacity was 295 GWe. A further 111 power reactors, to supply 102 GWe, were under construction. The widely differing situations in the following countries are discussed: USA, Italy, France, Belgium, F.R. Germany, UK, China, Japan, Taiwan, S. Korea, India, USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German D.R., Hungary, Romania, Argentina

  18. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of the Elecnuc booklet summarizes in tables all numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the PRIS database managed by the IAEA. The following aspects are reviewed: 2004 highlights; main characteristics of reactor types; map of the French nuclear power plants on 2005/01/01; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 2004; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by reactor-type group; nuclear power plants under construction on 2004; evolution of nuclear power plant capacities connected to the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2004; performance indicator of PWR units in France; trend of the generation indicator worldwide; 2004 load factor by owners; units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2004; status of licence renewal applications in USA; nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2004; shutdown reactors; exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; exported nuclear power plants under construction or order; exported and national nuclear capacity under construction or order; recycling of plutonium in LWR; Mox licence plant projects; Appendix - historical development; acronyms, glossary

  19. World Health Organization on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report published by the World Health Organization in cooperation with, and at the instigation of, the Belgian authorities, is summarised. The report was prepared by an international multidisciplinary working group, and concentrated on the somatic and genetic risks from ionising radiation, the environmental effects of nuclear power from the mining of uranium to the disposal of waste and the probability and consequences of accidents, sabotage and theft of nuclear materials. In general positive to nuclear power, the report nevertheless recommends for RESEARCH AND EVALUATION IN SEVERAL SECTORS: The duties of the authorities in providing full and open information on the consequences of the exploitation of nuclear power are emphasised. (JIW)

  20. Nuclear news from the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The Monju breeder reactor (Japan) has diverged again after a shutdown period of 14 years. This prototype reactor was stopped in 1995 after a sodium leak from its cooling system had initiated a fire. The construction works of the third power reactor on Brazilian soil has begun on the Angra site. The Chinese advanced research reactor (CARR - 60 MWth) diverged for the first time on May 2010 the 13., its design nears that of the Australian Opale reactor. The first reactor of the Ling Ao Phase 2 has been commissioned, this reactor is the first Chinese model (CPR-1000) to be built, it is the fruit of the technological transfer agreements that were signed in 1992 and 1995 with Framatome. The Finn government has given its agreement for the extension of the storing capacity in deep geological layers of the Posiva Oy center, this capacity is now of 9000 tonnes of uranium. Russia and Namibia have signed an agreement for the exploration and exploitation of uranium mines. The 2 first BWR-type reactors (1350 MW) on American soil will be constructed in the state of Texas. Russia and Turkey have signed an agreement for the construction of the first nuclear power plant in Turkey, this plant will be composed of 4 reactors. A study shows that there is no supplementary health hazards in the surroundings of nuclear power plants in Spain. (A.C.)

  1. International environmental law and world order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guruswamy, L.D.; Palmer, G.W.R. Sir; Weston, B.H.

    1995-01-01

    A litany of dismal happenings - global warming, ozone layer depletion, desertification, destruction of biodiversity, acid rain, and nuclear and water accidents - are but some of the subjects covered by this book, a problem-solving casebook authored by three educators. This new book makes the obvious but important point, that environmental issues are not limited by national boundaries. The book is divided into three parts. The first three chapters of part I discuss the basic principals of traditional international law without any reference to environmental issues. Part II, comprised of seven chapters, deals with hypothetical problems that affect various aspects of the environment vis-a-vis the norms, institutions, and procedures through which the international legal system operates. The book concludes with two chapters dealing with future environmental concerns. The book focuses on issue-spotting, problem-solving, and synthesis over the assimilation and comprehension of raw, disembodied knowledge. The book helps to manage our common future on this planet, for which we will need a new global regime based essentially on the extension into international life of the rule of law, together with reliable mechanisms for accountability and enforcement that provide the basis for the effective functioning of national societies

  2. Nuclear signals in magnetically ordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatchenko, V.A.; Tsifrinovich, V.I.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains a review of theoretical and experimental investigations in the field of nuclear magnetism in magnetically ordered media. The semiclassical theory of nuclear spins motion is developed that takes into consideration three main features of magnetically ordered media: Suhl-Nakamura interaction, quadrupole interaction and microscopic inhomogeneity of nuclear frequencies. The detailed classification of nuclear spin echo signals is given for standard conditions of experiments, when the Suhl-Nakamura interaction is small in comparison with the NMR line width. The extremal states of the electron - nuclear magnetic system are described in detail: the coexistence of NMR and FMR, nuclear ferromagnetism and NMR at fast remagnetization of a ferromagnet. 157 refs., 20 figs

  3. International Orders in the Early Modern World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia, the Mi...... and scholars of international relations, international relations theory, international history, early modern history and sociology.......This book challenges the Eurocentric foundations of modern International Relations scholarship. Its primary empirical focus is the early modern era, when European primacy had yet to develop in many parts of the globe. It presents a series of regional case studies from experts on East Asia......, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, and Russia to explore patterns of cross-cultural exchange and civilizational encounters. The authors analyze a series of regional international orders which were primarily defined by local interests, agendas and institutions, with European interlopers often playing...

  4. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Thomas, Steve; Porritt, Jonathon

    2015-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. Japan without nuclear power for a full calendar year for the first time since the first commercial nuclear power plant started up in the country 50 years ago. Nuclear plant construction starts plunge from fifteen in 2010 to three in 2014. 62 reactors under construction - five fewer than a year ago - of which at least three-quarters delayed. In 10 of the 14 building countries all projects are delayed, often by years. Five units have been listed as 'under construction' for over 30 years. Share of nuclear power in global electricity mix stable at less than 11% for a third year in a row. AREVA, technically bankrupt, downgraded to 'junk' by Standard and Poor's, sees its share value plunge to a new historic low on 9 July 2015-a value loss of 90 percent since 2007 China, Germany, Japan-three of the world's four largest economies-plus Brazil, India, Mexico, the Netherlands, and Spain, now all generate more electricity from non-hydro renewables than from nuclear power. These eight countries represent more than three billion people or 45 percent of the world's population. In the UK, electricity output from renewable sources, including hydropower, overtook the output from nuclear. Compared to 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol on climate change was signed, in 2014 there was an additional 694 TWh per year of wind power and 185 TWh of solar photovoltaics- each exceeding nuclear's additional 147 TWh

  5. Great expectations. Projections of nuclear power around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Alan; Rogner, Hans-Holger; Gritsevskyi, Andrii

    2009-01-01

    In its 2008 edition of Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period to 2030, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has again revised its projections for nuclear power upwards. Every year since 1981 the IAEA has published 2 updated projections for the world's nuclear power generating capacity, a low projection and a high projection. The low projection is a down to earth, business-as-usual projection. The high projection takes into account government and corporate announcements about longer-term plans for nuclear investments as well as potential new national policies, e.g., to combat climate change. The results for the 2008 projections are presented. In the low projection, the projected nuclear power capacity in 2030 is 473 GW(e), some 27% higher than today's 372 GW(e). In the high projection, nuclear capacity in 2030 is 748 GW(e), double today's capacity. But while projections for nuclear power's future rose, its share of the world's electricity generation today dropped from 15% in 2006 to 14% in 2007. The main reason is that while total global electricity generation rose 4.8% from 2007 to 2008, nuclear electricity actually dropped slightly. The overall message from the IAEA's 2008 edition of Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period to 2030 is that global electricity use will grow significantly, that nuclear power will have to expand more rapidly than it has done recently in order to maintain its share, and that nuclear power can meet the challenge. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  7. The world nuclear power engineering. 1998 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preobrazhenskaya, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this article consists in the analysis of the state and prospects of the world nuclear power engineering development. The data on the ratio and value of electrical energy obtained at the NPPs in the world in 1998, the specific capital expenditures on the NPPs construction by 2005, the forecast for the capacity of all NPPs by 2020 are presented. The progress in developing nuclear power engineering conditioned by improvement of the NPPs operation, optimization of their life-cycle and developing of new NPPs projects is noted [ru

  8. Prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession, and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries.

  9. Nuclear energy and the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of cooperation between the developed and developing countries with regard to nuclear power is discussed. Moves towards global interdependence were strengthened when OAPEC was set up with proposals for cooperation and depletion of world reserves of gas and oil will encourage this. Developing countries will increasingly look to nuclear power to meet their energy needs, particularly in the light of depleting oil and gas reserves, their increasing cost and the possible 'greenhouse effect' produced by fossil fuels. International cooperation concerning uranium reserves, reprocessing and technology transfer may need World Bank funding. (U.K.)

  10. Mega-order. God save the nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This article comments the perspectives and consequences of the order for two nuclear reactors by Great-Britain. These EPR reactors will be operated by EDF and are an opportunity as well as a relief for Areva: it is the first order for an EPR reactor since 2007. This contract which arrives after studies started in 2011 is also very good news for the whole French nuclear sector

  11. The World Nuclear University Summer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, D.; McIntyre, M.

    2007-01-01

    The World Nuclear University (WNU) Summer Institute is a six weeks intensive training program aimed to develop a global leadership in the field of nuclear sciences and technologies. The topics covered include global setting, international regimes, technology innovation and nuclear industry operations. This event has been held annually since 2005. Mark McIntyre and Dominic Rivard attended this activity as a personal initiative. In this paper they will present the WNU and its Summer Institute, share their participation experience and discuss as well of some technical content covered during the Institute, highlighting the benefits this brought to their careers. (author)

  12. The Problem of World Order in Western IR Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Victorovna Soljanova

    2016-01-01

    The article "Problem of world order in modern Western studies" is the study of one of the most debated issues in the science of international relations - world order. Discussion of the structure of world order is underway in various countries, both at the state level and in the expert community. Some researchers insist on the fact that after the end of the cold war, the collapse of the bipolar model of international relations, the world has become unipolar. Others argue that the increase in t...

  13. Nuclear power: 2004 world report - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Last year, 2004, 441 nuclear power plants were available for power supply in 31 countries of the world. Nuclear generating capacity attained its highest level so far at an aggregate gross power of 385,854 MWe and an aggregate net power of 366,682 MWe, respectively. Nine different reactor lines are operated in commercial nuclear power plants. Light water reactors (PWR and BWR) again are in the lead with 362 plants. At year's end, 22 nuclear power plants with an aggregate gross power of 18,553 MWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 17,591 MWe were under construction in nine countries. Of these, twelve are light water reactors, nine are CANDU-type reactors, and one is a fast breeder reactor. So far, 104 commercial reactors with powers in excess of 5 MWe have been decommissioned in eighteen countries, most of them low-power prototype plants. 228 nuclear power plants of those in operation, i.e. slightly more than half, were commissioned in the 1980es. Nuclear power plant availabilities in terms of capacity and time again reached record levels. Capacity availability was 84.30%, availability in terms of time, 85.60%. The four nuclear power plants in Finland continue to be world champions in this respect with a cumulated average capacity availability of 90.30%. (orig.)

  14. The nuclear spread: a Third World view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A.

    1980-01-01

    The view of the Third World of nuclear power and international relations is contrasted with that of the superpowers. Aspects considered include the Non-Proliferation Treaty, factors for and against proliferation, regional and international environments, vertical versus horizontal proliferation. (U.K.)

  15. Map of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A pull-out wall chart is presented showing on a coloured map the locations of the world's nuclear power plants and indicating the type of reactor and number of units. The information is also included in an accompanying table which lists the stations alphabetically. (U.K.)

  16. German nuclear expansion: state, capital, world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper intends to discuss the technological development as it happened in Germany or, better, it places in the scene of world market, where it did. In the attention center is the big achievement of pacific use of atomic technology: the nuclear power plants, which the new energy is used in electric generation. (C.M.)

  17. Nuclear weapons and the World Court ruling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    based on the initiatives by non-governmental organizations, the World Health Organisation (WHO) Assembly asked the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion in 1993 whether, considering the environmental and health consequences, the use of nuclear weapons by a state in war or other armed conflict would be a breach of its obligations under international law. The World Court decided that it was not able to give an advisory opinion as requested, because of the fact that questions of use of force and such like were beyond the scope of specialized agencies like the WHO. The Court has ruled that the international community, especially the five nuclear weapon states have not only an obligation to negotiate a treaty for total nuclear disarmament, but also have an obligation to conclude such treaty. We may expect that the nuclear weapon states will cynically disregard the ruling of the World Court as they have been doing to the basic obligation itself in pursuit of nuclear hegemony. But the remaining 150 countries or so also bear a responsibility to keep nudging the recalcitrant states into implementing their commitments to disarm

  18. Safe nuclear power for the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Lyon, C.F.; Redick, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is clear that using nuclear power for the generation of electricity is one way of reducing the emissions of CO 2 and other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Equally clear is the fact that the reduction can be magnified by converting domestic, commercial, and industrial power-consuming activities from the direct use of fossil fuel sources to electrical energy. A major area for future progress in limiting CO 2 emissions is in the Third World, where population growth and expectations for a higher social and economic standard of living portend vast increases in future energy use. A number of problems come to mind as one contemplates the widespread expansion of nuclear energy use into the Third World. The authors propose a method involving the marriage of two currently evolving concepts by which nuclear electrical generation can be expanded throughout the world in a manner that will address these problems. The idea is to form multinational independent electric generating companies, or nuclear electric companies (NECs), that would design, build, operate, and service a standardized fleet of nuclear power plants. The plants would be of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design, now under development at Argonne National Laboratory, and, in particular, a commercial conceptualization of the IFR sponsored by General Electric Company, the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM)

  19. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    this report is intended to provide a convenient summary of the world's major nuclear physics accelerator facility with emphasis on those facilities supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE). Previous editions of this report have contained only DOE facilities. However, as the extent of global collaborations in nuclear physics grows, gathering summary information on the world's nuclear physics accelerator facilities in one place is useful. Therefore, the present report adds facilities operated by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as well as the leading foreign facilities, with emphasis on foreign facilities that have significant outside user programs. The principal motivation for building and operating these facilities is, of course, basic research in nuclear physics. The scientific objectives for this research were recently reviewed by the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee, who developed a long range plan, Nuclei, Nucleons, and Quarks -- Nuclear Science in the 1990's. Their report begins as follows: The central thrust of nuclear science is the study of strongly interacting matter and of the forces that govern its structure and dynamics; this agenda ranges from large- scale collective nuclear behavior through the motions of individual nucleons and mesons, atomic nuclei, to the underlying distribution of quarks and gluons. It extends to conditions at the extremes of temperature and density which are of significance to astrophysics and cosmology and are conducive to the creation of new forms of strongly interacting matter; and another important focus is on the study of the electroweak force, which plays an important role in nuclear stability, and on precision tests of fundamental interactions. The present report provides brief descriptions of the accelerator facilities available for carrying out this agenda and their research programs

  20. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Ayukawa, Yurika; Burnie, Shaun; Piria, Raffaele; Thomas, Steve; Hazemann, Julie; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2014-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2014 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. A 20-page chapter on nuclear economics looks at the rapidly changing market conditions for nuclear power plants, whether operating, under construction, or in the planning stage. Reactor vendor strategies and the 'Hinkley Point C Deal' are analyzed in particular. The performance on financial markets of major utilities is documented. The WNISR2013 featured for the first time a Fukushima Status Report that triggered widespread media and analyst attention. The 2014 edition entirely updates that Fukushima chapter. The Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter that provides comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation has been greatly extended by a section on system issues. How does nuclear power perform in systems with high renewable energy share? Is this the end of traditional baseload/ peak-load concepts? Finally, the 45-page Annex 1 provides a country-by-country overview of all 31 countries operating nuclear power plants, with extended Focus sections on China, Japan, and the United States

  1. World electricity: will nuclear doubts affect growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Vladimir.

    1986-01-01

    The world has shown a healthy appetite for electricity even during the years of high energy prices. Between 1970 and 1985 worldwide electricity production increased by 92%, from 4,906.7 terawatt hours (TWh) to 9,421.7 TWh (1TWh = 10 9 KWh). In the same period total world energy consumption rose by 44.8% from 220.2 exajoules to 318.8 EJ (1 EJ = 23.88 million tonnes of oil equivalent). The major part of this growth occurred in the 1970s. Over the last five years, from 1980 to 1985, world energy consumption inched forward only by 7.2%, while notwithstanding widespread economic recession, electricity production advanced by 16.1%, with nuclear power responsible for an increasing share. These figures are tabulated and analysed on a worldwide regional basis. The amount of electricity produced by nuclear power plants is given, and the situation in particular countries noted. The projected future electricity demand and future nuclear electricity generating capacity are given. The effect of the Chernobyl incident is assessed. It may prove to be the beginning of the end of nuclear energy or just an unfortunate hiccough in its progress. (U.K.)

  2. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Rodriguez, Juan C.; Ruedinger, Andreas; Stienne, Agnes

    2017-09-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2017 (WNISR2017) provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. The WNISR2017 edition includes a new assessment from an equity analyst view of the financial crisis of the nuclear sector and some of its biggest industrial players. The Fukushima Status Report provides not only an update on onsite and offsite issues six years after the beginning of the catastrophe, but also the latest official and new independent cost evaluations of the disaster. Focus chapters provide in-depth analysis of France, Japan, South Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States. The Nuclear Power vs. Renewable Energy chapter provides global comparative data on investment, capacity, and generation from nuclear, wind and solar energy. Finally, Annex 1 presents a country-by-country overview of all other countries operating nuclear power plants

  3. World's energy appetite may crave nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Anderson, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    As scientists come to agree that global warming is a real phenomenon, it may be time to jumpstart the stalled nuclear industry. World population is expected to double by the end of the 21st century, and the lion's share of growth will be in developing nations. open-quotes More people and more economic activity will require more energy,close quotes say William Fulkerson, a senior fellow at the Joint Institute for Energy and the Environment in Knoxville, Tennessee, and Truman D. Anderson, formerly director of planning at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are only three viable options to fossil fuel plants, the authors say: nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and such renewable energy sources as solar and wind. The advantages of nuclear energy are well known, the authors say. open-quotes It emits no greenhouse gases, and potentially it can be expanded almost without limit anywhere in the world, providing the controversies that surround it can be resolved.close quotes However, to garner public acceptance, a new generation of supersafe nuclear reactors, invulnerable to terrorism and conversion to weapons, will need to be developed, the authors say

  4. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  5. Development and management of world nuclear power in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It deals with development and management of nuclear power of foreign countries by the 1st of January 2012 with tables and figures, which includes outline of investigation, operation experience of nuclear power plant of the world, the cardinal number according to the type of operating power plant of the world, using Mox of the world and site of nuclear power plant of the world. There are list of world nuclear power plant, explanation of abbreviations, address book of nuclear power plant of the world and table and figure of major nuclear fuel cycle.

  6. 2004 world nuclear power report - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Last year, 2003, 439 nuclear power plants were available for electricity generation in 31 countries of the world. With an aggregate gross capacity of 380,489 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 361,476MWe, nuclear generating capacity reached its highest level so far. Nine different reactor lines are operated in the commercial nuclear power plants. Light water reactors (PWR and BWR) continue to be in the lead with 355 plants. Twenty-nine nuclear power plants with an aggregate gross capacity of 24,222 MWe and an aggregate net capacity of 23,066 MWe were under construction in eleven countries. Of these, twenty are light water reactors, and seven are CANDU-type reactors. Ninety-nine commercial reactors with a capacity in excess of 5 MWe have so far been decommissioned in eighteen countries, most of them prototype plants of low power. 228 plants, i. e. slightly more than half of the number of plants currently in operation, were commissioned in the 1980s. The oldest commercial nuclear power plant in the world, Calder Hall unit 1, was disconnected from the power grid for good in its 48th year of operation in 2003. For the first time in ten years, the availability in terms of time and capacity of nuclear power plants has decreased from 83,80% in 2002 to 80.50%, and from 84.60% to 81.50%, respectively, in 2003. The main causes are prolonged outages of high-capacity plants in Japan as a consequence of administrative restrictions. The four nuclear power plants in Finland continue to be at the top of the list worldwide with a cumulated average availability of capacity of 90.30%. (orig.)

  7. 2002 Nuclear Power World Report - Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Last year, in 2002, 441 nuclear power plants were available for power supply in 31 countries in the world. With an aggregate gross power of 377,359 MWe, and an aggregate net power of 359,429 MWe, respectively, the nuclear generating capacity reached its highest level so far. Nine different reactor lines are used in commercial facilities. Light water reactors (PWR and BWR) contribute 355 plants, which makes them the most common reactor line. In twelve countries, 32 nuclear power plants with an aggregate gross power of 26,842 MWe and an aggregate net power of 25,546 MWe, respectively, are under construction. Of these, 25 units are light water reactors while eight are CANDU-type plants. In eighteen countries, 94 commercial reactors with more than 5 MWe power have been decommissioned so far. Most of these plants are prototypes with low powers. 228 of the nuclear power plants currently in operation, i.e. slightly more than half of them, were commissioned in the eighties. The oldest commercial nuclear power plant, Calder Hall unit 1, supplied power into the public grid in its 47th year of operation in 2002. The availability in terms of time and capacity of nuclear power plants rose from 74.23% in 1991 to 83.40% in 2001. A continued rise to approx. 85% is expected for 2002. In the same way, the non-availability in terms of time (unscheduled) dropped from 6.90% to 3.48%. The four nuclear power plants in Finland are the world's leaders with a cumulated average capacity availability of 90.00%. (orig.) [de

  8. Trouble at the world's nuclear dustbin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive discharges from the Windscale nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in England's lake district temporarily closed 15 miles of shoreline and continues to raise safety questions in this recreational area. The plant receives high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel from 36 power plants around the world for reprocessing. The site is also a storage point for 1550 tons of oxide waste waiting for additional reprocessing capacity. Pipelines carry 2.2 million gallons of low-level wastes into the Irish Sea each day. Five hundred pounds of weapons grade plutonium also entered the sea from a World War II munitions depot. Accidents have also contributed to the radioactive debris that has accumulated on sandy beaches. Pressure from Greenpeace and the Barrow Action Group helped to expedite an extensive cleanup program, but activity on the beaches is still highly restricted. British Nuclear Fuels remains undaunted by its negative public relations problems. 4 figures

  9. World nuclear performance report 2016. A new study by World Nuclear Association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    A larger number of nuclear power units are under construction than at any other time in the last 25 years, and with another ten new reactors coming online 2015 demonstrated improving new build performance all round. The existing global fleet, totally 439 by year-end, generated roughly 10 % of the world's electricity, making up around one-third of the world's low-carbon electricity supply. Nevertheless, there are challenges ahead for the global nuclear industry. The World Nuclear Association's vision for the future global electricity system consists of a diverse mix of low-carbon technologies - where renewables, nuclear and a fossil fuels work together in harmony to ensure a reliable, affordable and clean energy supply.

  10. World nuclear performance report 2016. A new study by World Nuclear Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A larger number of nuclear power units are under construction than at any other time in the last 25 years, and with another ten new reactors coming online 2015 demonstrated improving new build performance all round. The existing global fleet, totally 439 by year-end, generated roughly 10 % of the world's electricity, making up around one-third of the world's low-carbon electricity supply. Nevertheless, there are challenges ahead for the global nuclear industry. The World Nuclear Association's vision for the future global electricity system consists of a diverse mix of low-carbon technologies - where renewables, nuclear and a fossil fuels work together in harmony to ensure a reliable, affordable and clean energy supply.

  11. The World Nuclear University: Addressing global needs. London, 4 September 2003. Inauguration ceremony, World Nuclear University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    For some time, there has been a growing awareness of the need for succession planning in the nuclear industry, to ensure that we cultivate a new generation of young people with the proper education and skills to replace the aging nuclear workforce as its members retire. Today's inauguration of the 'World Nuclear University' (WNU) is the most substantive action taken to date to address this need. This is a challenge, because the widespread perception clearly exists that nuclear energy is a dying field. The IAEA, with its constituency of 135 Member States, is hopeful that this will truly become a World Nuclear University. Almost 2 billion people, nearly one third of the population of the planet, remain without access to modern energy supplies - a shortfall that could be addressed, at least in part, by nuclear energy. But any major expansion in the future use of nuclear power will only be feasible if the nuclear industry is successful in developing innovative reactor and fuel cycle technology - as well as operational and regulatory approaches - that effectively address concerns related to cost competitiveness, safety and security, proliferation resistance and waste disposal. And global development needs go well beyond the electricity sector. The IAEA's recognition of these situations underlies our assistance to Member States, through which we try to address areas of high national priority wherever nuclear technology provides the best option for success. A significant part of that effort lies in the development of human capacity - through training and education in how to apply nuclear technology safely and effectively. 'Atoms for Peace' is a vision nearly five decades old, focused on using nuclear science for the advancement of humankind. It is my hope that this 'World Nuclear University' can be an effective instrument towards the achievement of that vision

  12. Review of world nuclear power programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, S.

    1978-01-01

    Political, economic and environmental decisions are still affecting the growth of nuclear power generation throughout the world, but there are signs that proven past performance and increasing prices of energy from conventional sources are becoming overriding factors. In the USA, some uncertainty has been created by the moratorium on reprocessing enacted by the 1978 Non-Proliferation Act. The uncertainty has spread to importers of nuclear fuel and technology, but there is increasing international acceptance of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Isotope separation capacity to be installed by the US government, by the joint European organization Urenco and by the French Eurodif should ease the supply of fuel. There is little progress on waste-management policy in the USA, but in Germany a company (DWK) has been formed and a site for a rocksalt repository has been designated at Gorleben. In the UK the Windscale inquiry has a positive significance for nuclear energy generally as well as for reprocessing. An inquiry in Sweden has also come to positive conclusions. The status of nuclear energy in these and a number of other countries is discussed in terms of political and national policies. (N.D.H.)

  13. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  14. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Hazemann, Julie; Katsuta, Tadahiro; Ramana, M.V.; Fairlie, Ian; Maltini, Fulcieri; Thomas, Steve; Kaaberger, Tomas

    2016-07-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2015 provides a comprehensive overview of nuclear power plant data, including information on operation, production and construction. The WNISR assesses the status of new-build programs in current nuclear countries as well as in potential newcomer countries. Nuclear power generation in the world increased by 1.3%, entirely due to a 31% increase in China. Ten reactors started up in 2015-more than in any other year since 1990-of which eight were in China. Construction on all of them started prior to the Fukushima disaster. Eight construction starts in the world in 2015-to which China contributed six-down from 15 in 2010 of which 10 were in China. No construction starts in the world in the first half of 2016. The number of units under construction is declining for the third year in a row, from 67 reactors at the end of 2013 to 58 by mid-2016, of which 21 are in China. China spent over US$100 billion on renewables in 2015, while investment decisions for six nuclear reactors amounted to US$18 billion. Eight early closure decisions taken in Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan and the U.S. Nuclear phase-out announcements in the U.S. (California) and Taiwan. In nine of the 14 building countries all projects are delayed, mostly by several years. Six projects have been listed for over a decade, of which three for over 30 years. China is no exception here, at least 10 of 21 units under construction are delayed. With the exception of United Arab Emirates and Belarus, all potential newcomer countries delayed construction decisions. Chile suspended and Indonesia abandoned nuclear plans. AREVA has accumulated US$11 billion in losses over the past five years. French government decides euro 5.6 billion bailout and breaks up the company. Share value 95 percent below 2007 peak value. State utility EDF struggles with US$ 41.5 billion debt, downgraded by S and P. Chinese utility CGN, EDF partner for Hinkley Point C, loses 60% of its share value

  15. Data feature: World nuclear power plant capacity 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    At this point, the future of the nuclear power industry remains largely in doubt. The gloomy predictions about global warming have done little to convince politicians and the public of the benefits of nuclear power. Meanwhile, the setbacks to nuclear have continued apace: The United States has failed to take the expected lead in ordering new nuclear plants. And President-elect Bill Clinton does not consider nuclear a major part of his energy strategy. The situation looks equally bleak in other countries. Canada's biggest utility, Ontario Hydro, was forced under intense political pressure to defer its ambitious nuclear expansion program until after the year 2010. In Europe, the suspension of France's Superphenix fast-breeder reactor in June could stop progress on the technology indefinitely. And the Finnish parliament dropped plans for expansion of nuclear power from its national energy strategy. Developing and semi-industrialized countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, have shown little progress, taking upwards of twenty years to complete plants already under construction. Nuclear's problems seem always to hinge on economics. Nuclear has little chance of revival during the current global recession, especially in countries fighting for their long-term economic survival. That is why NUKEM believes nuclear power will not grow much in the CIS and Eastern Europe beyond the projects already in the advanced stages of construction. What's more, the longer countries such as Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and Finland keep their nuclear expansion plans on hold, the harder it will be to get the political support to restart them. So far in 1992, only two nuclear plants, with a combined capacity of 1,520 MWe, have gone into commercial operation. One more 1,330 MWe reactor may start up by year's end. By then, NUKEM expects world nuclear plant capacity to stand at 330.3 GWe

  16. Towards the New World Order: Theoretical Interpretations and Practical Implementations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Efremova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of political and economic regulation of contemporary global transformations, taken in the context of the New World Order discourse, attracts attention in Russia and abroad alike. Considering this problem, British analysts Ken Booth and Nickolas Wheeler underline three major approaches to security dilemma, namely, fatalist, mitigator, and transcender logics. Followers of the fatalist approach (neo-realists, globalists believe that world order is a zero-sum game, where interstate interactions are mostly confrontational, and their pattern depends on the current balance of power. Mitigators (neo-liberals, functionalists, constructivists, etc. insist that the emerging world order is a win-win game, where nations opt for investing some of their sovereignty into newly created international institutions (regimes and organizations, hoping that conventional rules adopted by them would help to decrease international uncertainty, which otherwise might lead to confrontation. Transcenders (neo-Marxists, feminists, anarchists, federalists, etc. consider the existing world order an archaic one, calling for a new, fair and humane pattern of international relations. According to their logic, the new world order is the end of the game among sovereign states, because it derives from the idea of humankind not divided by national boundaries but united into a global transnational society.

  17. Nuclear power development around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippon, Simon.

    1986-01-01

    In 1985, in the world as a whole, 43 power reactors with a total capacity of 42.7 GWe entered into regular commercial operation. Such is the dearth of orders, that by 1992 there may be no power reactors commissioned in the non-communist world, yet there are some encouraging prospects for the mid to late nineties. Performance, developments, prospects and political climate in the following areas are considered: USA, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Finland, Japan, Taiwan, Republic of Korea, India, China, USSR, Egypt, Turkey and South America

  18. Nuclear power for the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.R.; Arungu-Olende, S.

    1980-01-01

    Two new technical developments greatly expand the potential market for nuclear reactors in the Third World by making them technically feasible for small electrical systems: a 200-megawatt-electric (MWe) prefabricated pressurized water reactor that can be mass-produced to provide electricity at costs approaching those realized by more common 1,000-MWe models; and a highly sophisticated sequential-logic control system for electrical-transmission systems. Together, these developments could expand the potential market for nuclear reactors in the developing countries by an additional 100 units or more in this century. In so doing, they threaten to retard development of the indigenous technological infrastructure that is critically important to less-developed countries

  19. From the nuclear world, no.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers information from around the world and concerning nuclear industry. The most relevant is the following. The British government has given its agreement for the construction of 2 EPR by EDF Energy at Hinkley Point. The Hinkley Point project will generate more than 1700 jobs in France. The EPR being built in Finland will operate in 2018. The electrical car is sustainable only in the countries where low-carbon electricity production is important which is the case of France thanks to nuclear energy. In the framework of the ICERR cooperation, 2 research reactors of CEA: Isis (Saclay) and RJH (being built at Cadarache) and their experimental facilities will be used by Slovenia, Tunisia and Morocco through joint research projects. In China 6 AP1000 units will be built on 3 sites in the Yangtze region. China and Turkey have signed an agreement concerning the organisation of nuclear safety authority. In Turkey a site for a 3. nuclear power plant is being selected. (A.C.)

  20. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  1. The Problem of World Order in Western IR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victorovna Soljanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Problem of world order in modern Western studies" is the study of one of the most debated issues in the science of international relations - world order. Discussion of the structure of world order is underway in various countries, both at the state level and in the expert community. Some researchers insist on the fact that after the end of the cold war, the collapse of the bipolar model of international relations, the world has become unipolar. Others argue that the increase in the number of centers of power and the need for a multilateral approach to solving global problems (terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, environmental and climate issues talking about the formation of multipolarity. However, it should be recognized that currently no widely accepted theoretical and conceptual apparatus, which complicates not only the study of the world order, but makes it impossible to search for common approaches of the international community in solving the problems associated with global development, new challenges and threats. The author of this article seeks to research and analyze the various theoretical paradigms (neo-realism, neo-liberalism, institutionalism, neo-marxism, etc. and concepts to form a coherent picture of the structure of the world system, its main features and to offer readers the vision of the concept of "world order". Thus, the article notes that the multidimensional structure of the modern system of international relations established after the end of the cold war is so complex that none of the concepts can claim to accurate interpretation of the world order. The modern system differs from systems of the past centuries. Characteristics inherent in it (on the one hand, the increasing global processes in economy, politics, culture, etc., on the other, the attraction to return to the concept of "nation state", the closure of borders, the disintegration, require new approaches to the study of world

  2. Wintel and Beyond: Leadership in the Net World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Melissa M.; Brown, Clair; Linden, Greg

    2004-01-01

    The separate vertical product segments of the electronics industry are converging into a Net World Order of multifunctional product categories. We lay out a stylized value chain for analyzing firm performance in the various horizontal segments of the Net World Order. We measure firm performance with ROI data for the 1990s, and find that high-performing companies can emerge in any segment. We then turn our attention to the future and sketch the key elements of value creation and capture in the...

  3. List of the nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebin, J.

    1980-12-01

    The world list of nuclear power stations concerns all the units definitely ordered, whether in operation, definitely shut down, in any stage of construction or even put back to an indefinite date. Cancelled power stations are mentioned, save those cancelled during the present year. Shut down power stations are included in 'power stations ordered' but are deducted as from the date of closure. The complex of power stations is divided into two lists: List A (classified by name of builder) and List B (classified by country) [fr

  4. A New World Information Order for Better Human Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    Many studies, particularly the report of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (ICSCP), have tried to define a new world information order for better human understanding. What appears to be needed is the establishment of a new, open-ended, conceptual framework leading to a freer, more efficient, more equitable,…

  5. A Small State Maneuvering in the Changing World Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Camilla T. N.

    2016-01-01

    , especially the Danish approach to the BRICs, has developed in recent years, I show how Denmark – a small state – is trying to maneuver in the changing world order through a “creative agency” approach characterized by pragmatic low-profile activism. I develop a neoclassical realist framework and use...

  6. Order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Judgment of the State Administrative Court of Baden Wuerttemberg in head notes including: The authority of the Minister-President to give general guidelines includes the right to issue single directives; in matters of prime political significance he can take measures to realize such aims. - It is no extraneous consideration for the supervisory board under atomic energy law to point out in an order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown that the disallowed operation of a nuclear plant conflicts with the obligation of the state to provide protection and constitutes a penal offence. Further a discourse on the assignment of discretionary powers under Paragraph 19 Section 3 Clause 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  7. World: 2508 nuclear tera-watts hour in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the nuclear power plants have produced 2508 tera-watts hour, that is to say 16% of the normal electricity production or 35% of the European electric production. At the end of 1999, 443 reactors were in operation, 53 were in building and 13 put in an order in the world. 5 reactors have been coupled to the network in South Korea, in France, in India, in Slovakia and 2 have been definitively stopped (Kazakhstan and Sweden). 1999 has seen the beginning of construction for 8 reactors (China, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan). The nuclear power has covered 40 % of needs for 8 countries: France (75%), Lithuania (73%) Belgium (58%), Sweden (46%), Slovakia (45%), Ukraine (43.5%), South Korea ( 43%), Bulgaria ( 41.5%). 18 countries have used nuclear energy to cover at least 25% of their needs. (N.C.)

  8. World list of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twice each year Nuclear News sends a questionnaire to each utility or agency on this list, asking for corrections or additions to the information listed. In cases where a response is not received, we try to follow up by phone or facsimile, though this is not always possible for plants outside the United States. The criterion for listing a unit is that either an order or a letter of intent has been signed for the reactor. In cases where the definition of open-quotes letter of intentclose quotes may be ambiguous, or where a special situation exists, the judgment of the utility is followed as to whether a plant should be included

  9. World order, globalization, and the question of sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stupar Milorad J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In light of world globalization, three visions of the world order have been examined. The naive cosmopolitanism has been examined first and then rejected as being unrealistic because it overlooks the reasons for state pluralism in the international order. On this naive view, the world state is the only source of sovereignty and the individual is the only focal point of moral concern. Second subject matter of our investigation were Kantian and Rawlsian views which still defend the state-centered view on international relations with peoples as a major subject of moral concern. However, on Rawls view, the principle of peoples' self-determination should be combined with the principles of universal morality which protect some individuals' fundamental rights thus enabling his theory to be classified into moderate liberal internationalism. Third, the idea of functional sovereignty as a foundation of the system of international sovereignty has been abandoned as being too unrealistic given recent tendencies in the world which associate the identities of individuals with cultures and civilizations rather than with practices and professions. Finally, some reasons have been given for preferring Rawlsian approach. The major reason is that there are close cultural ties between nations and their states and that this fact can contribute greatly to the resolution of coordination problem among states both internally and externally. .

  10. Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles and World Regional Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Schwenk-Ferrero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we have attempted to associate quantified impacts with a forecasted nuclear energy development in different world regions, under a range of hypotheses on the energy demand growth. It gives results in terms of availability of uranium resources, required deployment of fuel cycle facilities and reactor types. In particular, the need to achieve short doubling times with future fast reactors is investigated and quantified in specific world regions. It has been found that a crucial feature of any world scenario study is to provide not only trends for an idealized “homogeneous” description of the global world, but also trends for different regions in the world. These regions may be selected using rather simple criteria (mostly of a geographical type, in order to apply different hypotheses for energy demand growth, fuel cycle strategies and the implementation of various reactor types for the different regions. This approach was an attempt to avoid focusing on selected countries, in particular on those where no new significant energy demand growth is expected, but instead to provide trends and conclusions that account for the features of countries that will be major players in the world energy development in the future.

  11. A New World Energy Order is coming. Energy debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.; Guillet, J.; Birol, F.; Kramer, M.; Van Gool, M.

    2007-01-01

    Peter Odell, Professor Emeritus of International Energy Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands, recently wrote a remarkably succinct and provocative paper in which he described his vision of the new world energy order that is on the way in the form of eight propositions. The editors of this new magazine asked three experienced energy analysts as well as the CEO of a major energy company, the Dutch gas producer Gasunie, for a response

  12. Summary of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.

    1984-11-01

    This review of international practices for nuclear fuel reprocessing was prepared to provide a nontechnical summary of the current status of nuclear fuel reprocessing activities around the world. The sources of information are widely varied

  13. State-of-the-art of world nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Kh.

    1987-01-01

    World-wide development of nuclear power is reviewed in short. It noted, that by the 1970 the overall capacity of world nuclear power plants have been reached 24 GW and the cost of nuclear power became equal the cost of power generated at coal-fired stations. By the end of 1985 the LWR-type reactors generated 87 per sent of overale nuclear capacity. Especially considerable developmet of nuclear power have been achieved in France, where 50 per sent of power consumption is provided with nuclear power

  14. Nuclear power reactors in the world. April 2000 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear data presented in this annual publication are based on actual statistical data collected by the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). Energy and electricity data for 1999 are estimated since latest available information from the Statistical Office of the United Nations is for 1997. Population data originate from the 'World Population Prospects' (revision 1999) published by the Population Division of the UN Statistical office, and the 1999 values are estimates. The future growth of energy, electricity and nuclear power up to 2020 is presented as low and high estimates in order to encompass the uncertainties associated with the future. These estimates should be viewed as very general growth trends whose validity must constantly be subjected to critical review

  15. Principles for reforming the nuclear order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkovich, G.

    2008-01-01

    The creation of a rules-based regime for managing nuclear technology and preventing its proliferation for weapons purpose is a historically remarkable achievement. Its foundation is the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system established in the late 1950's, which reflected the recognition that nuclear material and technology needed to be closely monitored with common standards if the benefits of atomic energy were to be widely and safely shared. The cornerstone of this regime is the 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), which recognized that preventing the spread of nuclear weapons required the provision of major incentives to states that might otherwise seek these weapons. These incentives were security - agreement by 'your' neighbors not to acquire nuclear weapons, and by the established nuclear-weapon states to protect you - technological cooperation, and the promise of a more equitable nuclear future when no one possesses nuclear weapons. (author)

  16. Reactors of different types in the world nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonov, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the world nuclear power is briefly reviewed. It is noted that PWR reactors have decisive significance in the world power. The second place is related to gas-cooled graphite-moderated reactors. Channel-type heavy water moderated reactors are relatively important. Nuclear power future is associated with fast liquid-metal cooled breeder reactors

  17. Is a nuclear weapon-free world desirable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shows that a nuclear weapon-free world would probably be more dangerous than today's world because benefits of the existence of nuclear weapons are probably more important that the risks related to their existence. He outlines that nuclear deterrence has been very efficient for these last 65 years. He states that the disappearance of nuclear weapons could be envisaged only after a large transformation of safety conditions, but that such transformations are actually not at all under way. It would indeed require peaceful and democratic world governance

  18. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-10

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Iran plans world's fourth biggest nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Power requirements of projected power generation to 1992, and fuel reserves, in Iran are submitted. The current nuclear programme is outlined. 34000 MWe of nuclear power is planned for the end of the century. (U.K.)

  20. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, ''burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs

  1. [The social status of women. For a new world order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffenic, A

    1985-01-01

    Curiosity about the place of women in development and solidarity with women's organizations in different economies prompt consideration of the individual and collective possibilities for women in public life and of the social status of women. Recent histories of Third World countries as reported in UN conferences held in Tunisia, Portugal, and New Delhi in 1982-83 and Western experience are the basis for identification of constraints in the development of women's movements and alternatives for participation of women in a new world order. Women have always contributed to the life and economic development of their countries, often in activities not recognized as economic, but they are excluded from processes of institutionalization and their presence is very rare at the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Women organized themselves and participated in the liberation movements of India, Malaysia, Libya, and Egypt, but were later relegated to their customary low status. Among the structural and ideological factors impeding access of women to political power and a true social status are cultural nationalism and religious ideology. Socialization is 1 of the processes by which members of a society acquire a common fund of knowledge, but norms produced by the dominant ideology, in this case male, pose a problem to dominated groups concerning the nature of their particularity. Such groups can strive for integration at the price of risking loss of identity, or they can contest the rules, situating themselves at the margin of the "laws" or rules. The essential question concerns the possibility of women rethinking the process and contents of socialization. A new system is required of perceptions, evaluations, and actions founded on new human values. In this perspective the women's movement would contribute to the realization of a new world order. Theories of equality, to comprehend reality in its entirety, must include equality while developing the concept of differences

  2. The third-world response to anti-nuclear proliferation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulose, T.T.

    1978-01-01

    The discriminatory aspect of the NPT and its implications for the nuclear have-nots are discussed. India's refusal to sign the NPT and misgivings it has created in the 'Nuclear haves' are explained. It is emphasised that India should retain the nuclear option, even though the option at present stands renounced voluntarily, in order to bargain with the nuclear weapons powers for nuclear disarmament. India may even give up PNEs as a price in return for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. It has also been pointed out that the nuclear weapons powers and other nuclear suppliers are using the NPT as a political weapon, to deny technical details to the developing nations. The approach of the nuclear haves to the NPT is technical and that of the nuclear have-nots is political. Third world's demand is that nuclear proliferation must be differentiated from the dissemination of nuclear technology. (M.G.B.)

  3. Nuclear power and international cooperation - perceptions of the third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The views of the Third World that need to be given consideration in international nuclear policy-making are presented in the following topical sections: background summary of developing countries energy needs and sources, incentives for nuclear power development in developing countries, the need for nuclear cooperation, the Non-proliferation Treaty, erosion of confidence of the recipient states in the reliability of international cooperation agreements, and perceptions of the Third World regarding energy and proliferation

  4. The UN Charter and the New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Evgenievna Grishaeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of the adoption of the UN Charter. The rules and principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, form the basis of modern law and order, the preservation of peace and allow to overcome international conflicts. The United Nations is a multilateral international organization and the efficiency of its operations affect the consistency of the positions of the Member States, the degree of interaction in the UN Security Council. The credibility of the UN and its legitimacy, breadth of competence and representativeness allow staff to play an indispensable role in global politics, economic and humanitarian cooperation. In order to maintain the stability of the present world order is necessary to keep the preservation of the basic foundations of international law, the improvement of international legal categories in order to eliminate double standards in law enforcement. Cooperation in the framework of the UN is necessary in solving regional conflicts, countering new challenges and threats to international security. On this depends the effectiveness of the United Nations.

  5. Nuclear technology and the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    The early 21st century has magnified the dangers posed by proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Nonetheless, cooperative efforts to thwart this trade have grown considerably more difficult and the challenges more complicated. The ubiquitous nature of dual-use technology, the application of terrorist tactics for mass destruction on 9/11, the emergence of a more unilateralist US foreign policy, and the world's ever-expanding economic relations have all made more arduous the task of stemming proliferation of WMD, their precursors, and delivery systems. All of these challenges have been highlighted in recent years, but it is the last of these - the changing nature of the global economy- that is perhaps least analyzed but also most essential to improving international cooperation on nonproliferation. Many of today's proliferation concerns are familiar problems exacerbated by accelerating levels of international trade and investment. For example, controlling sensitive exports has become more complicated as officials, industry leaders, and nonproliferation experts must struggle simultaneously to find ways to ensure the flow of exports to legitimate buyers and supply chain partners who increasingly span the globe. Similarly, competitive enterprises today place a premium on rapid delivery and the speed of transactions. This in turn has increased pressures placed on officials around the world to reduce the time they spend evaluating each licensing decision, even as these assessments become more difficult as global investors move deeper into the developing world. Furthermore, the emergence of developing economies as second-tier suppliers with the potential to transship critically sensitive technologies to third parties is another complicating factor and a consequence of the globalizing economy. Science, technology, and industry research and development activities with dual-use applications are also becoming increasingly international endeavors, facilitated

  6. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Nuclear power : world and Australia - a long-term view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G W.K.

    1989-01-01

    Developments in world and Australian activities relating to nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle are reviewed. Main issues addressed include environment, energy sources, uranium mining, enrichment, reactor design, fuel reprocessing and waste disposal. The benefits for Australia through its involvement in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle are also discussed.

  8. Virtual nuclear capabilities and deterrence in a world without nuclear weapons. VERTIC research report no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paloczi-Horvath, G.

    1998-01-01

    items specific to nuclear weapons. The nuclear disarmament treaty need not take specific account of implicit VND. It would entail only a tacit intellectual understanding that, in the early years after complete and timetabled nuclear disarmament, an NWS or DFNWS might retain the de facto capability to re-arm. An explicit VND regime would require intrusive and effective verification and enforcement measures and clearly defined regulations concerning their application. Implicit VND would not have such a 'regime' and would be verified in the same manner as a nuclear disarmament treaty and would hence not require separate arrangements. This report suggests that an implicit VND posture might help guarantee observance of a nuclear disarmament treaty during the early years after going to 'zero', by representing the ability of treaty signatories to re-arm in response to nuclear weapon 'break out'. Any form of VND risks becoming a permanent state of affairs after arsenals are reduced to 'zero'. For this reason, a fully-implemented nuclear disarmament treaty cannot be regarded as the end of efforts to contain, and eventually eliminate, states parties' ability to recreate their arsenals. It would be necessary for a nuclear disarmament treaty to include a codicil on restraint in official public statements about nuclear and delivery system capabilities in order not to undermine an implicit VND posture. The objective would be to move beyond implicit VND to unambiguous nuclear disarmament over a defined period, so that this form of assumed deterrence is no longer needed. In any case, VNC would remain a permanent fact of life in a nuclear weapon-free world after going to 'zero'. Therefore, a time-limited security architecture should be part of the nuclear disarmament treaty, specifying exactly how long states can retain the nuclear weapons-related capabilities underpinning any VND posture

  9. Nuclear threshold countries in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the nuclear-technological capacities and the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation in the six nuclear threshold countries: Argentina, Brazil, India, Pakistan, Israel and South Africa. All six states have developed sensitive nuclear facilities that are not covered by IAEA-safeguards. The risk of nuclear proliferation in Argentina and Brazil is considered at present as non-existent. The economic and especially the nuclear cooperation between the two states and the mutual visits of the unsafeguarded nuclear facilities has promoted a process of confidence building and political detente between them. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation in the Middle East is considered high. It is estimated that Israel already has built up a nuclear weapons arsenal. The growing political influence of nationalistic groups in India and Pakistan, that favour a course of confrontation between the two states, have augmented the risk of nuclear proliferation in both states. South Africa is economically and militarily clearly dominating its black ruled neighbours. The Apartheid-regime is at present negociating with the nuclear weapons states about its adherence to the NPT, but demands political, economic and military concessions in exchange for its adherence to the treaty. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Directory of nuclear power plants in the world, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Haruo

    1985-01-01

    This book presents technical information and estimates trends of load factors and construction costs of nuclear power plants. Particularly road maps indicating plants are drawn in, which would be practical in visiting them. The data used here are directly confirmed by operators in every part of the world. Therefore, they reflect up-to-date nuclear power developments and its future. This allows wide and exact understanding of world's nuclear power. Chapter 1 presents nuclear power growth around the world and estimates forecasts based on information from electric power companies: nuclear power growths and the growths in the number of reactors around the world, in WOCA (World outside the Centrally Planned Economies Area), in CPEA (Centrally Planned Economies Area) are analyzed in detail. Chapter 2 presents nuclear power plants on maps by country. The maps show exact locations of nuclear power plants with local cities around them, rivers and lakes. For convenience, symbols are given to aid in identifying the types of reactors. Chapter 3 presents general information of nuclear power plants. Also the addresses of operators, all segments of nuclear power supply industries and nuclear organizations are included. For convenience, the index of nuclear power plants is added. Chapter 4 presents technical information, road maps in large scales and photographs of nuclear power plants in the world. The road maps show exact locations of plants. Chapter 5 presents operating experiences, load factors, refuelling and maintenance outages. The trends of data are analyzed both regionally (WOCA, CPEA) and world-widely. Chapter 6 presents trends of construction costs, component costs as percent of total construction costs and direct costs, and construction durations. (J.P.N.)

  11. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  12. Nuclear weapons, a danger for our world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1977-01-01

    This report is about an exhibition about the danger of the increasing amount of nuclear-weapons and was presented in the occasion of the second special meeting of the UN General Assembly (1982). This report describes the causes of a nuclear-war and analyses the causes of the bomb-drop of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as possible causes of a bombing of New York City and long-term-consequences of nuclear radiation. Furthermore it lists problems with a higher priority than the armament of nuclear-arms. (kancsar)

  13. The role of nuclear power in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The role of nuclear energy in the world is discussed from the near term and long term. For the period through the mid 1980s sufficient nuclear capacity is considered critical to forestall serious shortages of oil and possible high prices leading to economic stagnation. Over the next 30-35 years it is estimated that world nuclear power will reach a capacity of approx. 3 million megawatts electrical when world electrical capacity will be about 8 million megawatts. With this nuclear capacity and if a annual growth rate of 5% is achieved for coal, oil and gas would remain at their present rate of consumption and would be increasingly reserved for specialized uses where substitution is not feasible. Caution is stressed, however, especially in using long term forecasts except for overall guidance and even in short term projections frequent up-dating and revision is recommended. The factors which have inhibited nuclear power growth are discussed including: 1) rapidly rising capital costs and financing problems, 2) rising and uncertain fuel cycle costs, 3) uncertainties in licensing and public acceptance. Despite the foregoing, nuclear power still retains an economic edge over fossil-fired units in substantial portions of the world. Assuming satisfactory solution of its major problems it is estimated that about 27-40% of the electrical capacity of developing countries will be nuclear by the year 2000. This nuclear capacity will comprise approx. 20% of the world's total nuclear power capacity around the turn of the century. (orig.) [de

  14. Ideologeme "Order" in Modern American Linguistic World Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibatova, Aygul Z.; Vdovichenko, Larisa V.; Ilyashenko, Lubov K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the topic of modern American linguistic world image. It is known that any language is the most important instrument of cognition of the world by a person but there is also no doubt that any language is the way of perception and conceptualization of this knowledge about the world. In modern linguistics linguistic world image is…

  15. World Nuclear Association Design Change Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, John Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This presentation treats of design change management in the regulation of nuclear fleets. It covers activities of the WNA/CORDEL/Design Change Management Task Force, including views on the roles of vendors, owner's groups, utility and design authority, WANO and the regulators. The presentation highlights differences of capabilities between large utilities with strong technical staff and smaller utilities that require support and expertise from others. It also notes the current expectation that licensees are solely responsible for the safety of the design and operation of their plants and for maintaining a full understanding and knowledge of the design within licensee's own organization in an internal entity called design authority. It encourages regulators to re-examine this expectation for design changes, arguing that while large utilities maybe be able to deal with design changes, the smaller utilities may be challenged due to their small size and lack of appropriate expertise. It further notes that the original designer must be involved in the management of design changes. In addition, the presentation emphasizes benefits of standardization in design and regulatory expectations internationally, including the benefits of increasing safety and economy. The author provides that the CORDEL Working Group uses international standardization to mean that each vendor's design can be built by a vendor, and ordered by a utility, in every country and be able to meet national regulations without significant changes other than adaptations to meet site requirements. In this discussion, he highlights the aircraft industry as an example and notes the need for internationally agreed mechanisms for design change as well as the need for formal, agreed (internationally) role for the designer to play throughout the fleet lifetime

  16. The world nuclear market and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-07-01

    This market study of the nuclear industry presents: 1 - the dynamics of nuclear markets: organisation of the nuclear industry (fuel cycle, reactors), market analysis and key figures (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor manufacturing, spent fuel reprocessing), strengths in presence and competition structure (companies ranking, market shares, positioning); 2 - nuclear renaissance and its basis: a suitable answer to the present day energy and environmental challenges (carbon-free energy and low volatility of fuel price), conjunction of favourable conditions (security of fuel supplies, political support, necessity of plants renewal), three main uncertainties (waste management, safety aspect, public opinion weight); 3 - perspectives of development at the 2030 prospects: data (scope of renaissance, market size), sector reconfiguration scenarios (evolution of competition, reconfiguration paths, concentration trend); 4 - analysis of the strategy of 13 companies, suppliers of the nuclear industry, with their key figures, positioning and strategy (production capacity, partnerships, external growth investments, new technical developments etc.). (J.S.)

  17. Current status and prospects of France's nuclear sector and France's vision of the nuclear renaissance throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugat, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Industrial companies are merging of forging alliances, and are competing for the securing of a stable supply of uranium resources; different states are discussing in order to establish partnership or cooperation agreements, on both the bilateral or multilateral side. in other words, the nuclear scene is more changing and active than ever. This burst of activity is motivated by the renewed interest in the nuclear energy throughout the world. In order to meet the expectation of more and more people wanting to have access to energy, nuclear energy has to face important challenges: the highest level of safety is required, the nuclear waste must be dealt with in a responsible and sustainable way, and the trust and acceptance of the public must be consolidated. France, being a long time supporter of nuclear energy is of course an actor of this Renaissance, and is strengthening its nuclear sector in order to meet the criteria expressed above. i will detail in my speech what are the steps taken in france in order to do so, and share my view of what should be a sustainable development of nuclear energy in the world, providing electricity while keeping a clean record on safety and non proliferation matters. We are clearly at a turning point in the history of nuclear energy, perfectly illustrated by the shift in the position of a quite large number of environmentalists, considering now nuclear as a sound option in order to produce base load energy without emitting greenhouse effect gas. Given the constraints at stake, it seems clear that more and more countries will turn to nuclear for their energy needs. It is up to us, the advanced countries in this field, gathered here today in Korea, to help this happen. It is up to us to lead the way, and show the world that electricity can be produced from nuclear with the highest standards of safety at competitive come along with no additional threat regarding non proliferation issues. All the major nuclear countries, including of

  18. Nuclear energy in the world future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.; Jaek, W.

    1983-01-01

    Starting from the actual position in the electricity market nuclear energy will grow up to the stabilizing factor in this field. The market penetration of breeding and fusion systems, therefore, will be the next important milestones of nuclear energy development. On the other hand nuclear energy as well as the electric grid itself are good examples for the reconstruction of the non-electric energy market which is dominated by resource and environmental problems. To overcome these problems the installation of a refining step for fossil energy resources and a new transport system besides the electric grid are the next steps toward a crisis-proof energy supply system. (orig.) [de

  19. After the world court opinion: Towards a world without nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, D.

    1998-01-01

    With the World Court advisory opinion on the treat or use of nuclear weapons, a new moment has arrived in the 51-year history of atomic bomb. The highest legal body in the world has said that governments must not only pursue but conclude negotiations leading to total nuclear disarmament. Both a sharp focus and a comprehensive action are required in developing public support and political action towards a safer, more peaceful world. Three-pronged interrelated course of action is proposed: a Nuclear Weapon Convention; reduction in conventional arms and control of arms trade; and new spending priorities or sustainable development

  20. The nuclear spread: a third world view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, A.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following sections: introduction to Non-Proliferation Treaty; background factors (context in which nuclear weapon states, non-nuclear weapon states and prominent hard-core potential proliferators must operate); the NPT constituency; proliferation factors for and against duality of decisions; vertical vs horizontal proliferation; implications for the NPT regime; a new approach; the 1980 agenda; regional security; the South Asian scene. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear power plants 1995 - a world survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The atw Statistics Report compiled by atw lists 428 nuclear power plants with 363 397 gross MWe in operation in 30 countries in late 1995. Another 62 units with 55 180 gross MWe were under construction in 18 countries. This adds up to a total of 490 units with an aggregate 418 577 MWe. In the course of 1995 four units in four countries started commercial operation. In the survey of electricity generation in 1995 for which no information was made available from China and Kasachstan, a total of 417 nuclear power plants were covered. In the year under review they generated an aggregate 2 282 614 GWH, which is 3.4% more than in the previous year. The highest nuclear generation again was recorded in the USA with 705 771 GWh, followed by France with 377 021 GWh. The Grohnde power station in Germany attained the maximum annual production figure of 11 359 GWh. The survey includes nine tables indicating the generating performance of each nuclear power plant, the development of electricity generation in nuclear plants, and status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1995 arranged by countries, types of reactors, and reactor manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  2. A nuclear-weapon-free world and true disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvini, G.

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary note about is important to consider when discussing hopes of achieving a nuclear-weapon-free world. Without a serious effort to establish intelligent, powerful bodies to control and judge the behavior of the nations on Earth, whatever they future weapons may be, the objective to reach a nuclear-weapon-free world may even succeed, but it is not enough to stop wars and death. Even more than that: if taken alone, as the 'Great Way', it could prove negative, for it could slow down the general effort to achieve peace on out planet. A nuclear-weapon-free world is of course a very good idea but two points must be discussed: how to achieve the nuclear-weapon-free world; and what will happen afterwards. Some considerations on the second point are made

  3. World market of nuclear fuel: new capabilities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maks, A.; Kening, R.

    1992-01-01

    History of beginning, state and development prospects of the world market of nuclear fuel are considered. In detail is discussed the role of countries, being at the former USSR territory, in the uranium production and its market deliveries

  4. Nuclear power: 2006 world report - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Last year, 2006, 437 nuclear power plants were available for power supply in 31 countries, 7 plants less than in 2005. One unit was commissioned for the first time, 8 nuclear power plants were decommissioned for good in 2006. At a cumulated gross power of 389,488 MWe and a cumulated net power of 370,441 MWe, respectively, worldwide nuclear generating capacity has reached a high level so far. Nine different reactor lines are operated in commercial plants: PWR, PWR-VVER, BWR, CANDU, D 2 O PWR, GCR, AGR, LWGR, and LMFBR. Light water reactors (PWR and BWR) continue to top the list with 358 plants. By the end of the year, 10 countries operated 29 nuclear power plants with an aggregate gross power of 25,367 MWe and an aggregate net power of 23,953 MWe, respectively. Of these, 21 are light water reactors, 5 are CANDU-type reactors, 2 are fast breeder and 1 a LWGR. 123 commercial reactors with an aggregate power in excess of 5 MWe have so far been decommissioned in 19 countries. Most of them are prototype plants of low power. About 70% of the nuclear power plants in operation, namely 304 plants, were commissioned in the eighties and nineties. The energy availability and operating availability factors of the nuclear power plants again reached peak levels: 82% for energy availability, and 83% for operating availability. The 4 nuclear power plants in Finland continue to be in the lead worldwide with a cumulated average operating capacity factor of 94%. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear power. 2008 world report - evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, 438 nuclear power plants were available for power supply in 31 countries, 1 plant less than in 2007. No unit was commissioned for the first time, 1 nuclear power plant was decommissioned for good in 2008. At a cumulated gross power of 392,597 MWe and a cumulated net power of 372,170 MWe, respectively, worldwide nuclear generating capacity has reached a high level. Nine different reactor lines are operated in commercial plants: PWR, PWR-VVER, BWR, CANDU, D2O PWR, GCR, AGR, LWGR, and LMFBR. Light water reactors (PWR and BWR) continue to top the list with 358 plants. By the end of 2008, in 14 countries 43 nuclear power plants with an aggregate gross power of 39,211 MWe and an aggregate net power of 36,953 MWe were under construction. Of these, 37 are light water reactors, 3 are CANDU-type reactors, 2 are fast breeder and 1 D2O-PWR. 124 commercial reactors with an aggregate power in excess of 5 MWe have so far been decommissioned in 19 countries. Most of them are prototype plants of low power. About 70% of the nuclear power plants in operation, namely 304 plants, were commissioned in the eighties and nineties. The energy availability and operating availability factors of the nuclear power plants reached good levels: 80.80% for operating availability and 80,00% for energy availability. The four nuclear power plants in Finland continuecontinue to be in the lead worldwide with a cumulated average operating capacity factor of 91,60%. (orig.)

  6. Can world answer the new nuclear necessity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2003-09-01

    Thanks to climatic change policies and to the prospective studies about the depletion of oil and gas reserves, a new chance will be given to nuclear energy. However, even if the nuclear industry has become more transparent, more attentive to the public preoccupations, and permanently looking for a demonstration of its safety, the institutional bases of its re-start up (the participating decision processes and the competing framework of electric markets) are much less favourable than those of its initial technological development. The future of nuclear energy is not warranted except if a strong consensus happens in dominating countries about the real or assumed catastrophic consequences of the greenhouse effect and if this sudden awareness changes the public opinion about the specific risks of nuclear energy and radioactive wastes. The uncertainty which will remain during, at least, the next 15 years will greatly complicate the choices of the nuclear industry and of the governments. For this reason, a paradoxical effort has to be made for the promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  7. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  8. Nuclear safeguards and security in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badolato, E.V.

    1986-01-01

    Two major crises of 1986 - the Chernobyl nuclear accident and international terrorism have had the effect of making what everyone does even more critically important for U.S. national security and for the security of the world. Chernobyl can be a starting point for efforts to make nuclear power systems safer and more benign. It also poses very basic questions for nuclear arms control activities. A fundamental objective of the Administration's arms control policy is to achieve substantial and equitable reductions in U.S. and Soviet nuclear forces with effective verification. However, Chernobyl served to remind the U.S. once again of the obsessive secretiveness of the Soviet Union and the difficulties of obtaining information on Soviet nuclear weapon activities. All of this points to the importance of developing improved monitoring technologies and obtaining Soviet agreement on on-site inspection. Nuclear safeguards and security developments in response to a changing world are the topic of discussion in this paper

  9. Nuclear power for Third World countries: A necessary evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratsch, U.

    1984-01-01

    The possible role of nuclear energy for typical spheres of life and energy-related services in the Third World is discussed, starting alternatives to nuclear energy in each case. The sequence of the life spheres shows a categorization of the energy need as rural and urban. (DG) [de

  10. New nuclear projects in the world. Sustainable Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P. T.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has experienced a major boom in the last few years, primarily because it is a non-CO 2 emitting energy source, it can be produced at competitive costs and it can boost a country's security of supply. there are still two issues to be addressed in relation to the currently used technologies: the degree to which the energy content of nuclear fuel is used, and wastes. A solution to both these aspects would ut nuclear power in the category of sustainable energy. The article provides details on current nuclear plans in the wold, the impact of the Fukushima accident on different countries nuclear plans and the European initiatives for sustainable nuclear energy development. (Author)

  11. Nuclear Society of Russia: Ten years in the world nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gagarinski, A.Yu.

    2000-07-01

    A nuclear society, which is a nongovernmental organization of nuclear professionals, appeared in the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s--when social conditions for such a society had matured. Deep changes in the entire country's social consciousness had promoted the specialists understanding of the need to unite in order to overcome the nuclear community's dissociation, the monopoly of the nuclear ministry, and the secrecy syndrome of all nuclear issues. The new public association announced the guiding principles of its activities to be openness and glasnost and completeness and truthfulness of information supplied to decision makers and to the society as a whole. Important to the information system of the NSR are topical meetings and seminars on quite varied but always actual problems of nuclear energy use, often with foreign participation. The variety of these NSR meeting subjects is illustrated by the titles of several meetings of the last 2 yr: Safety Culture in Nuclear Power, Youth and the Plutonium Challenge, Nuclear Fuel for Mankind, Nuclear Power in Space, Radiation Legacy of the Former-USSR, the Murmansk International Forum Nuclear Fleet and Ecology, and many others. A special place among NSR seminars belongs to the annual meeting, Nuclear Energy and Public Opinion, the Russian analog of the European PIME conference. Starting from distribution of ENS periodicals--the Nuclear Europe Worldscan magazine and Nucleus information sheet--among its members, the NSR soon began publishing its own Informational Bulletin (since 1989). Note that in the first years of the Nuclear Society's existence, it has been possible to publish periodicals, conference proceedings, and even books in English. Unfortunately, financial difficulties of the last years have frozen this most useful activity, which the NSR, however, hopes to resume. In the last period, the materials of the international information agency NucNet, which provides both regular information for

  12. Nuclear Society of Russia: Ten years in the world nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gagarinski, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    A nuclear society, which is a nongovernmental organization of nuclear professionals, appeared in the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s--when social conditions for such a society had matured. Deep changes in the entire country's social consciousness had promoted the specialists understanding of the need to unite in order to overcome the nuclear community's dissociation, the monopoly of the nuclear ministry, and the secrecy syndrome of all nuclear issues. The new public association announced the guiding principles of its activities to be openness and glasnost and completeness and truthfulness of information supplied to decision makers and to the society as a whole. Important to the information system of the NSR are topical meetings and seminars on quite varied but always actual problems of nuclear energy use, often with foreign participation. The variety of these NSR meeting subjects is illustrated by the titles of several meetings of the last 2 yr: Safety Culture in Nuclear Power, Youth and the Plutonium Challenge, Nuclear Fuel for Mankind, Nuclear Power in Space, Radiation Legacy of the Former-USSR, the Murmansk International Forum Nuclear Fleet and Ecology, and many others. A special place among NSR seminars belongs to the annual meeting, Nuclear Energy and Public Opinion, the Russian analog of the European PIME conference. Starting from distribution of ENS periodicals--the Nuclear Europe Worldscan magazine and Nucleus information sheet--among its members, the NSR soon began publishing its own Informational Bulletin (since 1989). Note that in the first years of the Nuclear Society's existence, it has been possible to publish periodicals, conference proceedings, and even books in English. Unfortunately, financial difficulties of the last years have frozen this most useful activity, which the NSR, however, hopes to resume. In the last period, the materials of the international information agency NucNet, which provides both regular information for the analysis of

  13. Brave new worlds for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, Derek.

    1979-01-01

    This article of a general nature discusses the radioisotopes produced by the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Commercial Products Division. Cobalt treatment units are being used successfully throughout the world and cobalt units are becoming increasingly important in sterilizing medical supplies. This technology may be extended to kill bacteria and insects responsible for food spoilage. (TI)

  14. Performances of nuclear installations in the world; Performances des installations nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, Z.T. [World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-01-01

    During the last years the operators of nuclear power plants in the world, have realized numerous improvements. This success is imputable to several factors, especially an important data exchange. The Chernobyl accident, in 1986, provoked the creation of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (W.A.N.O.). It allowed to exchange information and to develop cooperation in order to go beyond cultural barriers, linguistics and policies. Then, operators in the world have brought important improvements in matter of safety, reliability. (N.C.)

  15. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  16. Paths to a nuclear world with reliable safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of safeguards in the nuclear industry in reducing proliferation is surveyed. Several basic topics relative to proliferation which are discussed are: (1) ''the recognition that 'proliferation' encompasses at least four different issues which may require distinct approaches and policies;'' (2) ''in the context of the regulatory process by which the perceived risks to society are managed;'' (3) ''in the context of the realistic options and objectives for an attainable world nuclear structure;'' and (4) ''in the perception of the public and of decision-makers of the attainable reduction in risks - and at what costs - and the recognition of the extent to which some costs have already been accrued.'' Options open to the world are: (1) a structured nuclear world, (2) an unstructured nuclear world, or (3) a benign energy world. Current US policy of denial of nuclear energy by indefinite delay is seen as indirectly pointing the US toward option 1 or 3, as the basic cause of American economic decline, and as a root cause of many international tensions resulting from the US decline. Certain alternate approaches to a breeder-type reactor program or to fuel reprocessing which should contribute to a more proliferation-resistant nuclear program are briefly discussed

  17. INIS: Nuclear information helping the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atieh, T.

    2005-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System of the IAEA, called INIS is the leading information source on peaceful application of nuclear sciences and technology. It is based on international cooperation and decentralized responsibilities. The INIS secretariat cooperates with 114 national and 19 international centres. INIS comprises more than 2.6 mill bibliographic references and more than 600 non-conventional full text papers. INIS assists the user to locate information in his/her field of interest over the time and informs about colleagues as well as the locations of research. INIS offers a single point of access to current and historical information, reliable and value-added information, ensures worldwide visibility for the researcher and addresses the need of developing and developed countries

  18. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment for the Lower and Upper Reference case scenarios were obtained from the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration. Most of these projections were developed using the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) model

  19. The World Nuclear University and its Summer Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysova, Irina [World Nuclear Association - WNA, Summer Institute of the World Nuclear University - WNU, 22a Saint James' s Sq., SW1Y 4JH London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The World Nuclear University is a global partnership committed to enhancing international education and leadership in the peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology. The central elements of the WNU partnership are: - The global organizations of the nuclear industry: WNA and WANO; - The inter-governmental nuclear agencies: IAEA and OECD-NEA; - Leading institutions of nuclear learning in some thirty countries. The WNU was inaugurated in 2003 as a non-profit corporation. Operationally, the WNU is a public-private partnership. On the public side, the WNUCC's multinational secretariat is composed mainly of nuclear professionals supplied by governments; the IAEA further assists with financial support for certain WNU activities. On the private side, the nuclear industry provides administrative, logistical and financial support via the WNA. WNU activities fall into six programmatic categories: 1. Facilitate Multinational Academic Cooperation. 2. Build Nuclear Leadership. 3. Foster Policy Consensus on Institutional and Technological Innovation. 4. Enhance Public Understanding. 5. Shape Scientific and Regulatory Consensus on Issues Affecting Nuclear Operations. 6. Strengthen International Workforce Professionalism. This presentation will describe the WNU programmes addressed to young professionals. Among such programmes, the flagship of the WNU is the WNU Summer Institute. This unique six-week course occurs in a different country each year, offering an inspiring career opportunity for some 100 outstanding young nuclear professionals and academics from around the world. The WNU-SI programme combines an extensive series of 'big picture' presentations from world-class experts with daily team-building exercises. In the process, WNU Fellows become part of a global network of future nuclear leaders. Other WNU programmes for younger generation in the nuclear industry will also be briefly covered in this presentation. (author)

  20. Nuclear power plants in the world - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2009 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2010/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2009), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2009, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2009, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2009, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2009, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2009, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2009, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  1. Elecnuc - Nuclear power plants in the world - 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2008 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2008/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2008), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2008, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear powe plants by country at the end 2008, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2008, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2008, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2008, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2008, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  2. ELECNUC Nuclear power plants in the world - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in a series of tables the figures relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. Data come from the IAEA's PRIS database and from specific I-tese studies. The following aspects are reviewed: 2012 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2012/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2012); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2012; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2012; Performance indicator of french PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2012; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2012; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2012; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2012; COL (Combined Licence) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  3. Status and Trends of Nuclear Power World-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Spiegelberg-Planer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The reliable and adequate supply of energy, especially electricity, is necessary not only for economic development but to enhance the quality of life. Nuclear power is a proven technology which already supplies about 17% of the world''s electricity generation. In 1995, seven countries produce more than 40% of their electricity from nuclear power plants: Lithuanian, France, Belgium, Sweden, Bulgaria, Slovak and Hungary. It is quite clear that many countries are heavily reliant on nuclear power and are well beyond the point where nuclear power could be replaced by some other source, so, nuclear power remains one of the few technologically proven, economically promising and environmentally benign energy sources. An important factor in the continued development of nuclear power is the extent to which nuclear generated electricity remains economically competitive. Factors such as plant availability, standardisation of systems, components and equipment, as well as the cost of equipment to meet safety and environmental regulations play also an important role in determining the relative competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Many operating organizations have already impressive results in the reduction of plant unavailability. The number of nuclear power plants currently operating with annual availability factor exceeding 85% is increasing. Good performance of some operators should establish performance targets for operators everywhere. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the only international and almost complete information system, the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) with nuclear power plant status and performance data. This paper presents the current status of nuclear power plants, according to information contained in the IAEA. It discusses the plant performance indicators available in PRIS and the improvement trend in the performance of nuclear power plants based on these indicators. It also presents the future trends of nuclear power focusing

  4. Nuclear energy and the modern world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is an autonomous organization within the United Nations system, with its headquarters in Vienna, Austria. Its objectives, as defined in its Statute, are to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world', and to 'ensure, so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose'. This issue of the Bulletin contains a series of articles describing some of the ways in which the Agency works to fulfil its role. (author)

  5. World nuclear capacity and fuel cycle requirements, November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and projections of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, fuel cycle requirements, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2030 are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987). The projections of uranium requirements also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment

  6. The Peace Paradigm [And] Housing and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order [And] Hunger and World Order: Shaping a Moral Vision. The Whole Earth Papers, Vol. 1, No. 1-4, Fall, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, James; And Others

    This document is comprised of four papers which explore issues related to world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "The Peace Paradigm," explores recent changes in social and political…

  7. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL's Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents

  8. Managing nuclear weapons in a changing world: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Center for Security and Technology Studies was established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to support long-range technical studies on issues of importance to US national security. An important goal of the Center is to bring together Laboratory staff and the broader outside community through a program of technical studies, visitors, symposia, seminars, workshops, and publications. With this in mind, the Center and LLNL`s Defense Systems Program sponsored a conference on Managing Nuclear Weapons in a Changing World held on November 17--18,1992. The first day of the meeting focused on nuclear weapons issues in the major geographical areas of the world. On the second day, the conference participants discussed what could be done to manage, control, and account for nuclear weapons in this changing world. Each of the talks and the concluding panel discussion are being indexed as separate documents.

  9. WRENDA 83/84. World request list for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piksaikin, V.

    1983-11-01

    WRENDA 83/84 is the eighth edition of the World Request List for Nuclear Data. This list is produced from a computer file of nuclear data requests, maintained by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The requests are provided by official bodies, such as national nuclear data committees, through four regional data centers serving all Member States of the IAEA. Each request included indicates: that the estimated accuracy of the nuclear data available does not satisfy the requirements encountered, and that, consequently, new data measurements and/or data evaluations with improved accuracy are highly desirable. WRENDA is intended to serve as a guide to experimentalists, evaluators and administrators when planning nuclear data measurement and evaluation programs. The requests in this edition come from 15 different countries and one international organization. (author)

  10. Nuclear power: a route out of world crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, Eric.

    1981-01-01

    Presentations at the Eleventh World Energy Conference in September 1980 are highlighted, with the emphasis on nuclear energy. High oil prices have adversely affected the economies of many countries, but especially the less developed countries (LDC). The extent to which nuclear power can help the LDCs in the near future is limited by the size of their electricity grids. In the more developed countries, the discussion of nuclear energy is dominated by perceived need and public acceptance. The crisis of confidence in nuclear energy is not completely global. Both France and the COMECON countries have ambitious long-range plans, including nuclear combined heat and power units, and the more advanced developing countries, such as Argentina, Brazil, Korea and Mexico, are also pressing ahead with nuclear programs. (NDH)

  11. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Finaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  12. 1984 availability of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1985-01-01

    This survey of the availability of the world's nuclear power plants in 1984 coveres 250 units (the CMEA countries excluded) with an aggregate 184,500 MWe, which are arranged by types of reactor and geographic distribution. The utilization of nuclear power plant capacity attained an average of 66% in 1984, which is an increase by 3 percentage points in the utilization of capacity over the previous year's level (63%). Capacity utilization in pressurized water reactors 1984 (69%) was 4 percentage points higher than it was in boiling water reactors (65%). The ranking list of the world's nuclear power plants is headed by one heavy water reactor and one gas cooled reactor each (98%), followed by five generating units, i.e., two pressurized water reactors, two boiling water reactors, and one heavy water reactor (all 95%). The best German nuclear power plants were Grafenrheinfeld (89%, position No. 20) and Unterweser and Stade (88%, position No. 25). (orig.) [de

  13. World nuclear atlas. A step toward energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, Corinne; Laborde, Xemartin

    2015-01-01

    Illustrated by more than 120 maps and figures, this book proposes an overview of the world nuclear industry, of its development, and of the various strategies chosen within the perspective of energy transition. It proposes an overview of the status of nuclear energy in the world (presentation of the nuclear energy, development during the X X century, uranium production, fuel production and processing, the nuclear reactor industry), addresses the main controversies (health and environmental impact, waste management, opacity of the information, major accidents), the new challenges faced by the nuclear sector (a difficult assessment of huge costs, competition with renewable energies, a competitive environment, a technological uncertainty, transparency and democracy), the solutions chosen by big countries (USA, China, India, Japan, Europe, the German energy transition), and proposes a focus on France which is the only country which chose an all-nuclear strategy (history, nuclear installations, main actors, the myth of the French energy independence, the post-Fukushima French fleet, the case of the Fessenheim reactor, the EPR in question, the challenge of waste storage with the Cigeo project, the debate on the nuclear cost)

  14. The prospects for the world nuclear energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Over the last few years projections of nuclear power generating capacity growth for the next two decades have progressively decreased. Dwindling load growth, increasing load lead time, costs of delays and high cost inflation, industrial recession and fuel cycle delays are discussed as the main causes of the setback. The state of the fuel cycle business in the world market is examined and data are presented and discussed for predicted world supply and demand. Nuclear plans and fuel policies and requirements are then examined for individual countries. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear energy - stabilising factor in the world economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legassov, V.; Feoktistov, L.; Kouzmine, I.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most important factors for international stability is the development of the economy, reducing the risk of local armed conflicts which could escalate into world-wide nuclear war. Economic progress which plays such a vital part is in turn heavily dependent on energy supplies. The article takes a brief look at the role of nuclear power in this context. (B.M.S.)

  16. Nuclear power plants in the world as of June 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., has carried out the survey twice every year on the nuclear power stations in operation, under construction, ordered and in planning stage in the world, and this report is the summary of the results. In this survey as of June 30, 1980, the nuclear power stations in operation in the world were 233 plants, those under construction were 229 plants, those ordered were 52 plants, and those in planning stage were 130 plants. The total was 644 plants with the total capacity of 542.2 million kWe. As compared with the number at the end of 1979, 8 nuclear power stations with 5.79 million kWe capacity started the operation in six months. The cancellation of nuclear power station projects occurred only in U.S.A., and 3 plants under construction and 5 ordered plants were cancelled. It was decided to close down one plant each in West Germany, France and U.S.A. The countries surveyed this time were 41, same as before. The countries where nuclear power stations have been operated were 22. In terms of the installed capacity of nuclear power stations in operation, U.S.A. was the leader, followed by Japan, USSR, France, West Germany and Great Britain in this order. Communist countries have strong ambition to construct nuclear power stations. On the trend of respective countries in the first half of 1980, the outline is described. (Kako, I.)

  17. Prestigious nuclear research organization orders Silicom's cutting-edge server adapters

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Silicom Ltd today announced that one of the world's largest and most prestigious nuclear research organization has placed an initial order for its Gigabit Ethernet Server Adapters. Silicom's high-performance adapters will be deployed in the organization's state-of-the-art particle physics laboratory servers to help them attain reliable gigabit transfer rates" (1/2 page).

  18. Nuclear power in the Western world to 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, N.

    1983-01-01

    In this report we present our current view of the likely growth of nuclear power in the Western World to 2020. The results of the study indicate that the high nuclear growth rates predicted in the mid-1970s were far too optimistic. In the majority of countries which looked to nuclear power in the years following the first oil price rise of 1973, programmes for nuclear expansion have been reduced as a result of falling electricity demand, escalating costs and technical problems. In some cases the nuclear option has been abandoned completely. To the end of the century our nuclear capacity estimates, made on a country-by-country basis, reflect the general uncertainty regarding nuclear power now felt by many power utility planners. Within this general picture, exceptions emerge, however, France being the most notable. For the long-term we have assumed that the contribution made by nuclear power to energy supply will increase, as pressures on fossil fuel prices grow and energy imports become a major barrier to economic growth. However, this is not a sanguine pro-nuclear picture, as we admit a great deal of uncertainty into our estimates, and acknowledge that some countries will continue to reject nuclear power. Rather, we believe it to be a pragmatic view of the future which attempts to address the problems that constraints on energy inevitably bring, while recognising the economic, social and institutional difficulties that are a peculiar feature of this particular source of energy supply. (author)

  19. The Application of Nuclear Technology for a Better World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Technology is widely used in different areas and sector of our economy to better man kind and his environment. Peaceful applications of nuclear technology have several benefits to the world today. It is widely believed that nuclear technology is mainly used mainly for the production of electricity (Nuclear Power Plants – NPPs). Many are not aware of the other numerous benefits of nuclear technology. Nuclear technology can be applied in different fields for numerous benefits. Different sectors Nuclear Technology application can improve the living standard of man and his environment: – Food and Agriculture; – Medicine; – Industrial; – Energy; – Education; — Research and Development; – Environment. The benefits of the application of nuclear technology cannot be over emphasised. These benefits range from the improved quality of purified water we drink, the textiles we wear, improved quality of stored grains for preservation of foods, water analyses, improved transportation system work, drugs production, medical tests and analysis, clean environment through radioisotope techniques etc. The application of nuclear technology also gives a safer, greener, healthier and pollution free environment and atmosphere for human habitation. In my poster, the numerous benefits of the various applications of Nuclear Technology will be clearly enumerated and heighted. (author)

  20. World-wide termination of nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirin, W.

    1991-01-01

    It is easy to require the widely discussed termination of nuclear energy application, but it is hardly possible to realise it, unless one is prepared to accept enormous economic and ecological problems. The article investigates, whether the other energy carriers or energy saving methods, respectively, would be in a position to replace the nuclear energy. Thereby the aspects of securing the supply and its economy are of considerable importance. The author describes furthermore the effects of terminating nuclear energy on the growing world population and the economy of trading countries. Ecological problems that may also be aggravated are dealt with, too. (orig.) [de

  1. The feasibility of nuclear power development in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhars, A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many Arab countries have manifested an interest in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology. This intent, however, was viewed by many commentators through geopolitical and security lens. In contrast with this view, this paper argues for the feasibility and desirability of nuclear power development in the Arab world based on sound economic considerations and economic development needs. The first part of the paper will, therefore, examine the reasons behind the initiatives currently being developed to acquire nuclear energy. The second part will highlight the promise of nuclear power development. The concluding section will illustrate how recognition of the economic motivation for investing in nuclear power generation is important to avoid a misrepresentation of intentions. (Author)

  2. The 'World Institute for Nuclear Security' - News note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2008-12-01

    This article comments the creation of the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS) in September 2008 in Vienna. The creation of this institution is the result of a project initiated by the USA in 2004. The author recalls the process which leaded to this creation: workshops organised by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) and the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), creation of a coordination committee, and expert meeting in Baden. He indicates how the WINS is financed (by the NTI, the US DoE, and Norway) and its future costs. He briefly describes its structure and operation, its mission, scope and activities (11 fields of activity have been defined). He recalls the various international instruments (conventions, resolutions, institutions, initiatives) related to nuclear security and to the struggle against nuclear threat and terrorism, and indicates how the WINS considers them (an insufficient and inefficient, but existing support). He finally indicates issues to be addressed to better define the WINS' role

  3. World electricity generation, nuclear power, and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Striking changes have characterized the world's production and use of energy over the past 15 years. Most prominent have been the wide price fluctuations, politicization of world oil prices and supply, along with profound changes in patterns of production and consumption. This report, based on a study by energy analysts at Science Concepts, Inc., in the United States, traces changes in world energy supply since 1973-74 - the time of the first oil ''price shocks''. In so doing, it identifies important lessons for the future. The study focused in particular on the role of the electric power sector because the growth in fuel use in it has been accomplished without oil. Instead, the growth has directly displaced oil. In the pre-1973 era, the world relied increasingly on oil for many energy applications, including the production of electricity. By 1973, more than on-fourth of the world's electricity was produced by burning oil. By 1987, however, despite a large increase in electric demand, the use of oil was reigned back to generating less than 10% of the world's electricity. Nuclear power played a major role in this turnaround. From 1973-87, analysts at Science Concepts found, nuclear power displaced the burning of 11.7 billion barrels of oil world-wide and avoided US $323 billion in oil purchases

  4. Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

  5. World energy needs and their impact on nuclear reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foell, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    This presentation will place primary emphasis upon energy demand. The presentation will cover the following areas: energy reserves and resources; energy demand: past and future (mid-and long-term); industrialized regions of the world; developing countries: Mexico and Iran as examples; and potential impact on nuclear development

  6. The situation of nuclear power in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents a world panorama of nuclear power for electricity generation purposes. The economic aspects, the fuel cycle market, the reactor technology development, as well as environmental aspects are presented. This report is updated annually and the present issue covers the situation up to December 1993. (F.E.). 196 refs, 23 figs, 28 tabs

  7. New competition in the world market of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2005-01-01

    As nuclear orders are picking up a little, there are strengths competing against one another in the world industry of reactors, an industry that has been deeply affected for twenty years, by the smallness of the market and the reorganization of the electromechanical industry. Competition remains particularly difficult, even though, in terms of exports, national markets in industrialized countries such as the American market and European market are now open to foreign newcomers. One of the reasons of the difficulty is the increased commercial competition based on advanced reactor techniques untested due to strong faith in technology leading to forget the learning difficulties of older reactor types. On a narrow market, demanding and with very specific political interference, the reasoning is not like on an ordinary capital equipment market. Each builder tries to sell by relying on the assets it has in addition to the offered price and related services: industrial reputation and experience that play confusedly when untested advanced reactors are competing with one another, credit terms offered by the State and the government's influence on the market of emerging economies, the backing o the State's financial insurance in the event of risks taken in the sale of turnkey untested reactors. In the competition of the five manufacturers in the export market, American builders do not seem to have the best place, though even the leading position of Framatome ANP shows some limits. (author)

  8. World nuclear generating capacity and uranium requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The outlook for the world nuclear power industry through 2005 is more positive than some may believe. Installed nuclear electric generating capacity is forecast to grow at an average rate of 2.4 percent per year, and reach 448 gigawatts electric (GWe) by 2005. Consequently, annual world uranium requirements also will grow, reaching over 200 million pounds equivalent U 3 O 8 by 2005. This article presents data and summarizes installed nuclear generating capacity and charts its increase as a function of time through the year 2005. This data is also charted by reactor type as well as reactor status: under construction, planned, or estimated future construction. In a similar fashion, the data is also charted by country and continent. Historical and projected data is also given for capacity factor

  9. An experience in World Nuclear University-Summer Institute 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzilawati Mohd Sarowi

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: World Nuclear University-Summer Institute (WNU-SI) has been held annually since 2005 in Cristchurh College, Oxford, London. This six weeks course is attended by 80-90 young professionals, or fellow from 20-25 countries across the world. The WNU-SI is designed not only to discuss the full spectrum of issues surrounding nuclear energy, but also emphasis on team building, cultural awareness and the development of leadership potential in multinational environment. Interestingly, the mentors play their role base on their experience in leading the nuclear industry throughout the globe. At the end of the course, the participant could understand the most important issues address in the industry with global perspective, experience and learn from practical teamwork internationally. Finally, this course is believed to be a step in developing a worldwide network among the fellows to support each other in their careers. This paper will discuss the experience gained in WNU-SI 2012. (author)

  10. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalick, S.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1980-08-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  11. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrides are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpaint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  12. Impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Jansen, P.; Kessler, G.; Klumpp, P.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to examine the impact of fusion-fission hybrids on world nuclear future. The primary objectives of this investigation have been: (1) to determine whether hybrids can allow us to meet the projected nuclear component of the world energy demand within current estimates of uranium resources with or without fast breeders, and (2) to identify the preferred hybrid concept from a resource standpoint. The results indicate that hybrids have the potential to lower the world uranium demand to values well below the resource base. However, the time window for hybrid introduction is quite near and narrow (2000-2020). If historical market penetration rates are assumed, the demand will not be met within the resource base unless hybrids are coupled to the breeders. The results also indicate that from a resource standpoint hybrids which breed their own tritium and have a low blanket energy multiplication are preferable. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear power plants in the world, as of December 31, 1983. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    A List of Nuclear Power Plants all over the world is made every year by JAIF, based on an annual survey on reactors in operation, under construction, on oder, and planned throughout the world. The English version of the List is published now for the second time. The present survey was to find the present status of the world's nuclear power plants as of the end December 1983 as well as changes or new developments during 1983 in the countries listed. The results of the survey are 302 reactors in operation for 198,508.6 MWe, 210 reactors under construction for 205,852 MWe, 13 reactors on order for 10,038 MWe and 134 planned reactors for 134,902 MWe, a total of 659 reactors and a total gross nuclear power generating capacity of 549,300.6 MWe. (author)

  14. Nuclear Installations (Jersey) Order 1980 SI No. 1527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Order extends to the Bailiwick of Jersey with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. These provisions relate to the duty in respect of the carriage of nuclear matter, to the right to compensation for breach of that duty and to the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. This Order came into operation on 3 November 1980. (NEA) [fr

  15. Nuclear power plants in the world as of June 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In this list of nuclear power plants, the result is summarized when Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., performed the survey of the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, ordered and at planning stage in the world, which is the first survey of twice a year. The nuclear power plants in operation in the world were 267, amounting to the total capacity of more than 168 million kWe, those under construction were 243 and more than 232 million kWe, those ordered were 32 and more than 31 million kWe, and those at the planning stage were 137 and more than 138 million kWe. The total was 679 and more than 570 million kWe. In this half year, 3 plants with 2651 MWe capacity started operation, while two shut down plants were removed from the list. The People's Republic of China was added, but Norway was removed, accordingly 41 countries engaged in nuclear power generation. Due to the stagnation of world economy and the relaxation in the demand and supply of petroleum, the future progress of nuclear power generation is uncertain. In light water reactors, the trend toward PWRs in future is observed. FBRs are still slight but tend to increase. The situation of nuclear power generation in Japan and main foreign countries is reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Six month suspension of Tsuruga nuclear power plant ordered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report first describes on brief review of the troubles at Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station. All these accidents or troubles were settled within the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, and none was reported either to the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy (ANRE) of Ministry of International Trade and Industry, which is responsible for the supervision of nuclear power plants, or even to the head of Japan Atomic Power Co. (JAPCO). JAPCO criticized itself for the failure to recognize the importance of proper communication. It has been decided that Mr. Suzuki, President of JAPCO, will be succeeded by Mr. Okabe, Managing Director of Tokyo Electric Power Co. It was ordered that the operation of the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station should be suspended for six months, in accordance with the Reactor Regulation Law, because of the violation of the safety regulations. The final report of ANRE said that ANRE has determined to make maximum efforts to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants, in order to prevent the recurrence of such an accident, and to restore public confidence in nuclear power plants. Nuclear Safety Commission declared that there would be no present or future effect of the radiation leakage on the local people. Local people's organization is lodging complaint against JAPCO. It is expected that the talks between the Ministries of Home Affairs and International Trade and Industry will center on the strengthening of contacts between nuclear power plants and local self-government bodies. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. The bomb, the dark side of the nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collin, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The reality of the nuclear world can be summarized in few words: a world arsenal of 26000 bombs, enough uranium and plutonium and the know-how to make much more, multiple non-proliferation and weapons limitation treaties which have troubles regulating the diffusion of this technology, indelible environmental and sanitary marks left by 2059 tests, governments secretly wishing to assume this supreme power attribute, a black market, spies and dealers, but also: opponents, political leaders, local representatives and non-governmental organizations who militate for a nuclear weapon-free world. However, this burning question paradoxically remains obscure to citizens and its obscure aspect is relayed by media and politicians. This book aims at decoding the wheels of the international nuclear weapons situation: from the five official nuclear powers to the proliferation actors, from the defense policies to the risks of accidents and the stakes of disarmament, from the bomb fabrication to its devastating effects. It shows how this ultimate weapon has durably pervaded the defense policies and strategies of countries who own it, and how difficult it will be to reconsider this situation

  18. Nuclear astrophysics of worlds in the string landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, Craig J.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by landscape models in string theory, cosmic nuclear evolution is analyzed allowing the standard model Higgs expectation value w to take values different from that in our world (w≡1), while holding the Yukawa couplings fixed. Thresholds are estimated, and astrophysical consequences are described, for several sensitive dependences of nuclear behavior on w. The dependence of the neutron-proton mass difference on w is estimated based on recent calculations of strong isospin symmetry breaking, and is used to derive the threshold of neutron-stable worlds, w≅0.6±0.2. The effect of a stable neutron on nuclear evolution in the big bang and stars is shown to lead to radical differences from our world, such as a predominance of heavy r-process and s-process nuclei and a lack of normal galaxies, stars, and planets. Rough estimates are reviewed of w thresholds for deuteron stability and the pp and pep reactions dominant in many stars. A simple model of nuclear resonances is used to estimate the w dependence of overall carbon and oxygen production during normal stellar nucleosynthesis; carbon production is estimated to change by a fraction ≅15(1-w). Radical changes in astrophysical behavior seem to require changes in w of more than a few percent, even for the most sensitive phenomena

  19. World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production: Eight years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojacek, J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Nuclear University School of Uranium Production was established by DIAMO, state enterprise in 2006 year under the auspices of the World Nuclear University in London in partnership with international nuclear organizations – OECD/NEA and IAEA. Using the expertise and infrastructure of DIAMO State Enterprise, in conjuction with national and international universities, scientific institutions, regulatory authorities and other individual experts, the “school” covers its mission with the aim to provide world-class training on all aspects of uranium production cycle to equip operators, regulators and executives with the knowledge and expertise needed to provide expanded, environmentally-sound uranium mining throughout the world: • to educate students on all aspects of uranium production cycle including exploration, planning, development, operation, remediation and closure of uranium production facilities; • to improve the state of the art of uranium exploration, mining and mine remediation through research and development; • to provide a forum for the exchange of information on the latest uranium mining technologies and experiences – best practices.

  20. Necessity of nuclear energy in energetic world context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1981-01-01

    Different opinions on nuclear energy make the middle citizen feel confounded and wonder hundreds of questions to wwhich an easy reply is not found. May be if nuclear energy is really necessary, the first of these questions, without noticing that necessity is a vague concept with a double interpretation. To some, those support a total change in the actual society into more primitive situations, the energy pattern the world has chosen -both the East and West models- is annoying, and they consider a pattern based on ''soft energies''to be the solution to the social scheme they imagined. To others, those who think on an economic, industrial and social development in the countries, it should be based on a strong energy pattern, which could supply what the world needs more and more, nuclear energy is, at least nowadays, an unavoidable necessity and an inevitable option. The document shown has been prepared on the conclusions of the most recent works on the subject, and it is deduced from all of them what everybody considers to be the future energy demand for the year 2000 and its distribution into energy sources, nuclear energy includes. The two basic parameters for tAe valuation of this demand are the increasing of population and gross national product. Available energy resources are mentioned on the document and, mainly, the nuclear capacity of each country. (author) [es

  1. Nuclear magnetic ordering in PrNi5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, M.

    1980-11-01

    The specific heat of the hyperfine enhanced nuclear magnetic system PrNi 5 has been measured from 0.2 mK to 100 mK and in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The system was found to order at (0.40+-0.02) mK. From the study of the measured thermodynamic quantities in various magnetic fields, we obtain various information, the order at T=0 K is ferromagnetic, the hyperfine enhancement factor 1+K=(12.2+-0.5), the enhanced nuclear magnetic moment is (0.027+-0.004)μsub(B) and a nuclear exchange parameter μsub(j)Ksup(N)sub(ij)/ksub(B)=(0.20+-0.04) mK. The nature of the interactions which cause the ordering is discussed, together with the magnetic properties of the system deduced from the analysis. (orig.)

  2. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  3. Nuclear order in silver at pico-Kelvin temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemensmeyer, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Lefmann, K.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear order in silver is observed by neutron diffraction at pico-Kelvin temperatures. The structure is a type-I antiferromagnet with critical field of 100 mu T. The entropy-field phase diagram was determined using the spin-dependent absorption.......Nuclear order in silver is observed by neutron diffraction at pico-Kelvin temperatures. The structure is a type-I antiferromagnet with critical field of 100 mu T. The entropy-field phase diagram was determined using the spin-dependent absorption....

  4. Combustion Engineering adjusts to slump in nuclear orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1980-01-01

    It is three years since Combustion Engineering (C-E) received an order for a nuclear steam system supplier and it could be three or four years before a new order is placed. Although C-E will not work through its current backlog until the late 1990s, the lack of new business and the needs for backfitting are having a major impact on the way the company operates. C-E's determination to stay in the nuclear business is as strong as ever. (author)

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubacq, F.; Tailland, C.

    1997-04-01

    This small booklet provides information about all type of nuclear power plants worldwide. It is based on the data taken from the CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The content comprises: the 1996 highlights, the main characteristics of the different type of reactors in operation or under construction, the map of the French nuclear power plant sites, the worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1996, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction or on order (by groups of reactor-types), the power capacity evolution of power plants in operation, the net and gross capacity of the power plants on the grid, the commercial operation and grid connection forecasts, the first achieved or expected power generation supplied by a nuclear reactor for each country and the power generation from nuclear reactors, the performance indicator of the PWR units in France, the trends of the power generation indicator worldwide, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, decommissioned and exported worldwide, the schedule of steam generator replacements, and the MOX fuel plutonium recycling programme. (J.S.)

  6. Nuclear power reactors in the world. Apr 1985 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This is the fifth edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, which replaces the Agency's publication Power Reactors in Member States. This bulletin contains the following summarized information on nuclear power reactors in the world: General information as of the end of 1984 on reactors operating or under construction and such additional information on planned and shutdown reactors as is available; Performance data on major reactor types operating in the Agency's Member States. The information is collected by the Agency by circulating questionnaires to the Member States through the designated national correspondents. The replies are used to maintain computerized files on general and design data of and operating experience with reactors

  7. Capitalism and the New World Order of the 21st Century Age | Ugwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Post-Cold War Capitalists'-based Vision here being called a 'New World Order', especially, in its current practices, as it has been imposed on the rest of the world by the G8 nations and assisted by the World Bank, IMF, United Nations, WTO and NATO, is a 21st Century Imperialist Rule constantly being communicated to ...

  8. Nuclear research reactors in the world. May 1987 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This is the second edition of Reference Data Series No.3, Nuclear Research Reactors in the World, which replaces the Agency's publications Power and Research Reactors in Member States and Research Reactors in Member States. This booklet contains general information, as of the end of May 1987, on research reactors in operation, under construction, planned, and shut down. The information is collected by the Agency through questionnaires sent to the Member States through the designated national correspondents. 11 figs, 19 tabs

  9. THE WORLD GENDER ORDER: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF THE CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Arsenyevitch Pantserev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a scientific asses-sment of the major activities that have been organized over the last twenty years by the international community to achieve genuine equality between women and men. the gender theory applies the methodology and methods specific to the allied fields of knowledge. Nevertheless, the scientific literature describes approaches that are specific to women and gender studies. These are, for example, the empirical, normative and analytical approaches. The first regards feminism as a purely empirical measurement of international relations; the second includes the feminist research in the agenda for social and political development in the international arena; the third consi-ders gender as a scientific category and uses it in identifying the gender dimension of the theory of international relations and to better understand all components of these relations. The latter analytical approach is pursued by the authors of this paper. The authors proved that many provisions of Action Plan adopted by the Inter-Parliamentary Council in Paris (1994, as well as the Beijing Declaration and the Beijing Platform for Action (Beijing, 1995, have not yet been implemented, although certain positive shifts are already evident. In a number of European, Asian and African states, women have become more involved in domestic and foreign policy of their respective countries. The article demonstrated how the women’s participation in public life, particularly in the area of decision-making, is expanded and how the principle of equal division of powers and responsibilities between men and women is implemented in everyday life, at work and in the public realm. The authors concluded that we can hardly expect any substantial changes in this sphere in the foreseeable future and that the new international gender order is a form of social utopia that is unlikely to be realized in the nearest future. Article submissions may be

  10. A Physicist's Journey In The Nuclear Power World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Chauncey

    2000-03-01

    As a participant in the development of civilian nuclear power plants for the past half century, the author presents some of his insights to its history that may be of interest to today's applied physicists. Nuclear power development has involved a mixture of creative vision, science, engineering, and unusual technical, economic, and social obstacles. Nuclear power programs were initiated during the euphoric era of public support for new science immediately following World War II -- a support that lasted almost two decades. Subsequently, nuclear power has had to face a complex mix of public concerns and criticism. The author's involvment in some of these circumstances will be anecdotally described. Although the physics of fission and its byproducts remains at the heart of all nuclear reactor designs, its embodiment in practical energy sources has been shaped by the limitations of engineering primarily and economics secondarily. Very influential has been the continuing interplay with the military's weapons and propulsion programs, and the government's political policies. In this respect, nuclear power's history provides a learning experience that may be applicable to some of the large scale demonstration projects that physicists pursue today.

  11. International co-operation for reactor safety: the World Association of Nuclear Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckered, T.

    1989-01-01

    On 5 and 6 October 1987, senior representatives of most of the world's nuclear operators met in Paris with Lord Marshall of the UK Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) as Chairman. They resolved to strengthen the existing links and co-operation among nuclear operators by setting up the World Association of Nuclear Operators (Wano). The mission of the association is to be: 'to maximize the safety and reliability of the operation of nuclear power stations by exchanging information, encouraging comparison and stimulating emulation among nuclear power station operators.' The formation of Wano presents some information technology problems of a rather special kind that have to be solved before Wano can begin operation. The representatives at the Paris meeting therefore appointed a steering committee under Lord Marshall's chairmanship to formulate detailed proposals. The leaders of the world's nuclear operators will meet again in Moscow on 15-17 May 1989 in order to ratify the steering committee proposals and appoint the first Wano Board of Governors. A small interim secretariat is already working in London. (author)

  12. Nuclear desalination in the Arab world. Part I: Relevant data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekhemar, S.; Karameldin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Middle Eastern and North African countries suffer from a shortage of fresh water resources. Statistical analysis shows that fresh water resources in these countries constitute less than 13% of the average world resources per capita. In the Arab world, the rapid increase in population and an increase in living standards led to a greater demand for fresh water and electricity. Accordingly, the Arab world has assumed (a leading role in the) desalination industry, contributing about 60% of total world production. Desalination processes are highly power intensive. Thus, different types of energies are used to bridge the gap between these processes and the general increased demand in production. Projections for water and electricity demand in the Arab world, up to 2030, are made according to population and its growth rates. The present study (according to these projections) indicates that population in the Arab world will double by the year 2030. At that time, domestic and industrial water demand will be 360 million m 3 d -1 ; meanwhile, electrical power consumption will be 4.5 trillion kWh d -1 . Accordingly, the Advanced Inherent Safe Nuclear Power Plants adapted for water-electricity co-generation could meet the demand, as a clean energy source. (author)

  13. A PERSONAL, DEBATABLE AND TIMELY VIEW ON WORLD ORDER: HENRY KISSINGER – HENRY KISSINGER – WORLD ORDER, PENGUIN PRESS, NEW YORK, 2014 - Book review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORIN BONCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of World Order had been much more present in the scientific debates and mass-media before 1990 when the world economy were more or less bipolar and the ideas of a dynamic balance of power and of spheres of influence were logically justified. After 1990 at the end of the Cold War a rather false perception became prevalent, particularly in the Western countries, projecting a unipolar world gradually witnessing a universalization of the Western style liberal democracy. This was epitomized in Francis Fukuyama’s book “The End of History and the Last Man”.

  14. Nuclear power programs in the world's developed and developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czibolya, L.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of nuclear power in the world's energy balance related to fossile energy sources is discussed. The general trend of declination of the national power programs could be observed from the seventies as a result of the oil crisis and the economic recession. The main features of the national energy programs including the ratio of the different energy sources in the power supply, the distribution of power production among the different types of nuclear reactors, the time schedules of the national nuclear power programs are reviewed through the examples of some developed and developing countries: USA, FRG, Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, India, and the Republic of Korea. (V.N.)

  15. Nuclear Power Reactors in the World. 2013 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Power Reactors in the World is an annual publication that presents the most recent data pertaining to nuclear power reactors in IAEA Member States. This thirty-third edition of Reference Data Series No. 2 provides a detailed comparison of various statistics through 31 December 2012. The tables and figures contain the following information: - General statistics on nuclear reactors in IAEA Member States; - Technical data on specific reactors that are either planned, under construction or operational, or that have been shut down or decommissioned; - Performance data on reactors operating in IAEA Member States, as reported to the IAEA. The data compiled in this publication is a product of the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). The PRIS database is a comprehensive source of data on all nuclear power reactors in the world. It includes specification and performance history data on operational reactors as well as on reactors under construction or in the decommissioning process. The IAEA collects data through designated national correspondents in Member States

  16. Nuclear Power Reactors in the World. 2014 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Power Reactors in the World is an annual publication that presents the most recent data pertaining to nuclear power reactors in IAEA Member States. This thirty-fourth edition of Reference Data Series No. 2 provides a detailed comparison of various statistics up to and including 31 December 2013. The tables and figures contain the following information: — General statistics on nuclear reactors in IAEA Member States; — Technical data on specific reactors that are either planned, under construction or operational, or that have been shut down or decommissioned; — Performance data on reactors operating in IAEA Member States, as reported to the IAEA. The data compiled in this publication is a product of the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). The PRIS database is a comprehensive source of data on all nuclear power reactors in the world. It includes specification and performance history data on operational reactors as well as on reactors under construction or in the decommissioning process. The IAEA collects this data through designated national correspondents in Member States

  17. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2010-2011. Nuclear Power in a Post-Fukushima World. 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Froggatt, Antony; Thomas, Steve; Hazemann, Julie; Mastny, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    started up, while two were added in 2009, five in 2010, and two in the first three months of 2011. During the same time period, 11 reactors were shut down. In the European Union, as of April 1, 2011, there were 143 reactors officially operational, down from a historical maximum of 177 units in 1989. In 2009, nuclear power plants generated 2,558 terawatt-hours (TWh) of electricity, about 2 percent less than the previous year. The industry's lobby organization the World Nuclear Association headlined 'another drop in nuclear generation' - the fourth year in a row. The role of nuclear power is declining steadily and now accounts for about 13 percent of the world's electricity generation and 5.5 percent of the commercial primary energy. In 2010, 16 of the 30 countries operating nuclear power plants (one fewer than in previous years due to the closure of the last reactor in Lithuania) maintained their nuclear share in electricity generation, while nine decreased their share and five increased their share. The average age of the world's operating nuclear power plants is 26 years. Some nuclear utilities envisage reactor lifetimes of 40 years or more. Considering that the average age of the 130 units that already have been closed is about 22 years, the projected doubling of the operational lifetime appears rather optimistic. One obvious effect of the Fukushima disaster is that operating age will be looked at in a quite different manner, as illustrated by the German government's decision to suspend operation of all reactors over 30 years old immediately following the start of the crisis. One scenario in this report assumes an average lifetime of 40 years for all operating and in construction reactors in order to estimate how many plants would be shut down year by year. This makes possible an evaluation of the minimum number of plants that would have to come on line over the coming decades to maintain the same number of operating plants. In addition to the units under construction

  18. Current nuclear non-proliferation policies in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Mitsuru

    1997-01-01

    Although a global nuclear confrontation between the U.S. and the Soviet Union has disappeared, many challenges to nuclear non-proliferation have emerged. Sources of concern, like a nuclear weapon program by Iraq and suspicions of North Korea have caused the adoption of a variety of political and technical measures in order to meet these challenges in the post-Cold War era. This paper describes the following ten policies for non-proliferation: 1) Strengthening the NPT; 2) Nuclear reduction; 3) CTBT and cut-off treaty; 4) Establishment of NWFZs; 5) Counterproliferation; 6) Strengthening the IAEA Safeguards; 7) Control and disposal of nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons; 8) Export control; 9) Registration of plutonium; and 10) Actions against nuclear smuggling. The first four measures can be said to be mainly political policies, the fifth measure (counterproliferation), can be categorized as basically a military policy, and the last five measures can be said to be technical. (J.P.N.)

  19. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  20. World atlas of nuclear industry: civil and military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Todays, with the energy supplies and global warming concerns, nuclear energy in making a come-back, witness the numerous nuclear programs launched or re-launched in the US, in Europe, China and India. In parallel, on the military side, the deterrence strategy remains in the center of security politics of big powers. This atlas takes stock of the overall issues linked with the nuclear technology: production, civil applications (power generation, medicine etc..), military usages (naval propulsion, weapons). It answers the main questions of this complex world, often dominated by secrecy: who does what in the nuclear domain in France? Is an accident, like the Chernobyl's one, possible today in Europe? What solutions for radioactive wastes? Do we take risks when we export our reactor technologies to Middle-East countries? Are we at the dawn of a new arms rush? What do international agreements foresee in this domain? Taking into account the costs, the hazards and the advantages of nuclear industry, the atlas shows that it is possible to establish solid technical and legal barriers between its civil and military sides. (J.S.)

  1. New Nuclear Fuel Disposition Opportunities in a Changed World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The world's economic, security, environmental, and technological situation has changed significantly in the last several years and these changes bring new opportunities for substantial policy improvements and redirections in the used nuclear fuel management arena. The passage of new energy legislation; the need for more US nuclear energy; growing state, national and international momentum for carbon emission and other air pollutant reductions; post September 11. Homeland Security threat reduction improvements; desires to improve global nuclear security; rapidly emerging needs for clean electricity supplies in developing countries; and the technological advancements in advanced fuel cycle technologies provide a substantial foundation for future enhancements and improvements in current used nuclear fuel management programs. Past progress, lessons learned, and new used fuel/waste management technological innovations coupled with current and future economic, security, and environmental issues can create new approaches that can help the Federal government meet its obligations while simultaneously addressing many of the difficult regional/state issues that have historically hindered progress. This paper will examine and integrate the synergy of these issues to explore options and discuss possible new opportunities in the vitally important area of spent fuel management and the entire back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. (authors)

  2. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  3. Review of nuclear power costs around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.; Karousakis, P.M.; Moynet, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of nuclear power costs around the world from studies carried out by the IAEA and by UNIPEDE. Emphasis is placed on trends within each country of key parameters which affect both investment costs and total power generation costs, including construction and project durations, size of units, regulatory environment, scope of project, fuel cycle costs and general economic conditions. A synthesis of these trends, taking into consideration both nuclear and coal-fired plant capital and fuel costs as they are estimated to evolve in the near and medium term, is presented in terms of nuclear-to-coal cost ratios for both plant investment costs and total generating costs. The plant investment costs are expressed as ''overnight'' or ''fore'' costs, in constant money, for plants expected to enter commercial operation in the early 1990s. Pertinent assumptions are based on conditions prevailing in the particular country under review. These studies indicate that in most countries nuclear plant investment costs are rising more rapidly than the costs for coal-fired plants. A major cause for the rapid rise in nuclear plant costs is the drastic lengthening of project duration in most countries. France, as a notable exception, has been able to maintain a stable and reasonably short project time. In spite of the rapidly escalating nuclear plant investment costs, nuclear electricity generation has an economic advantage over coal in Europe and Canada and is competitive with coal in the eastern and midwestern parts of the United States of America (USA). The availability of abundant, low-cost coal gives coal-fired generation an economic advantage in the western USA. (author)

  4. Market-sharing approach to the world nuclear sales problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribicoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The recent decisions by West Germany and France to sell nuclear fuel facilities to Brazil and Pakistan, respectively, mark the first sharp divergence by major industrial nations from long-established U.S. nonproliferation policy. Thus far, the U.S. has been ineffective in seeking to persuade Germany and France not to proceed with them. This indicates a serious weakness in the execution of American nonproliferation policy, which if left uncorrected, could result in the rapid spread of nuclear weapons material and capability around the world. It is clear that complex problems are raised by the concept of market-sharing. A principal advocate, Dr. Lawrence Scheinman from ERDA, says that traditional arguments against market-sharing do not qualify as reasons against the concept. He does identify three basic arguments against market-sharing, which the author discusses in this article, namely: (1) reactor market-sharing is contrary to U.S. anti-cartel policy and in violation of antitrust laws; (2) other nuclear supplier countries would reject a market-sharing arrangement; and (3) the recipient countries of the Third World would view it as a nuclear cartel and refuse to do business with it. The author advocates that at the very least, the U.S. should enter the next round of supplier negotiations prepared to propose multinational arrangements for closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and for making all weapons-grade material generated by the fuel cycle unavailable to any nation on a sovereign basis. The U.S. should also make clear that it would view with the gravest concern the continuation of the present export policies of West Germany and France

  5. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world; A situacao da energia nucleoeletrica no mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de [and others

    1996-12-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel.

  6. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Oct. 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  7. The situation of the nuclear energy in the world (Sep. 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-09-01

    This work presents an overview of the nuclear energy in the world. It approaches the following main topics: kinds of nuclear power plants; operation experience of the nuclear plants; environmental and social aspects of the nuclear energy; economic aspects of the nuclear energy; development of the reactors technology and supply of the nuclear fuel

  8. Nuclear Power Reactors in the World. 2016 Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Power Reactors in the World is an annual publication that presents the most recent data pertaining to reactor units in IAEA Member States. This thirty-sixth edition of Reference Data Series No. 2 provides a detailed comparison of various statistics up to and including 31 December 2015. The tables and figures contain the following information: — General statistics on nuclear reactors in IAEA Member States; — Technical data on specific reactors that are either planned, under construction or operational, or that have been shut down or decommissioned; — Performance data on reactors operating in IAEA Member States, as reported to the IAEA. The data compiled in this publication is a product of the IAEA’s Power Reactor Information System (PRIS). The PRIS database is a comprehensive source of data on all nuclear power reactors in the world. It includes specification and performance history data on operational reactors as well as on reactors under construction or in the decommissioning process. Data is collected by the IAEA via designated national correspondents in Member States

  9. From the Old to the New World of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuewer, Roger H.

    Physicists passed from the Old to the New World of Nuclear Physics in the two decades between the first and second world wars. The transition occurred against the background of the Great War, the postwar hyperinflation in Germany and Austria, and the greatest intellection migrations in history after the Nazi Civil Service law of 1933, the Anschlussof Austria in March 1938, and the Fascist anti-Semitic laws that fall. It involved Rutherford's discovery of artificial disintegration, Pettersson and Kirsch's challenge of it, and the concomitant rise and fall of Rutherford's satellite model of the nucleus; Gamow's quantum-mechanical theory of alpha decay and his liquid-drop model of the nucleus; the discoveries of deuterium and the deuteron, neutron, and positron, and the inventions of the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and the cyclotron; the influence of the seventh Solvay Conference; Joliot and Curie's discovery of artificial radioactivity; Pauli's neutrino hypothesis, Fermi's theory of beta decay, and his discovery of the efficacy of slow neutrons in producing nuclear reactions; Bohr's theory of the compound nucleus and Breit and Wigner's theory of neutron-nucleus resonances; and the discovery of nuclear fission, Meitner and Frisch's interpretation of it, and Bohr and Fermi revelation of both in America.

  10. Skyrme interaction to second order in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, N.

    2015-09-01

    Based on the phenomenological Skyrme interaction various density-dependent nuclear matter quantities are calculated up to second order in many-body perturbation theory. The spin-orbit term as well as two tensor terms contribute at second order to the energy per particle. The simultaneous calculation of the isotropic Fermi-liquid parameters provides a rigorous check through the validity of the Landau relations. It is found that published results for these second order contributions are incorrect in most cases. In particular, interference terms between s-wave and p-wave components of the interaction can contribute only to (isospin or spin) asymmetry energies. Even with nine adjustable parameters, one does not obtain a good description of the empirical nuclear matter saturation curve in the low density region 0\\lt ρ \\lt 2{ρ }0. The reason for this feature is the too strong density-dependence {ρ }8/3 of several second-order contributions. The inclusion of the density-dependent term \\frac{1}{6}{t}3{ρ }1/6 is therefore indispensable for a realistic description of nuclear matter in the Skyrme framework.

  11. Nuclear power reactors in the world. April 1990 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is the tenth edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, which is published once per year, to present the most recent reactor data available to the Agency. It contains the following summarized information: General information as of the end of 1989 on power reactors operating or under construction, and shut down; Performance data on reactors operating in the Agency's Member States, as reported to the IAEA. The information is collected by the Agency by circulating questionnaires to the Member States through the designated national correspondents. The replies are used to maintain computerized files on general and design data of, and operating experience with, power reactors. The Agency's power reactor information system (PRIS) comprising the above files provides all the information and data previously published in the Agency's Power Reactors in Member States and currently published in the Agency's Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States

  12. Nuclear power reactors in the world. Apr 1991 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This is the eleventh edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, which is published once per year, to present the most recent reactor data available to the Agency. It contains the following summarized information: General information as of the end of 1990, on power reactors operating or under construction, and shut down; performance data on reactors operating in the Agency's Member States, as reported to the IAEA. This information is collected by the Agency by circulating questionnaires to the Member States through the designated national correspondents. The replies are used to maintain computerized files on general and design data of, and operating experience with, power reactors. The Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) comprising the above files provides all the information and data previously published in the Agency's Power Reactors in Member States and currently published in the Agency's Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States. 5 figs, 19 tabs

  13. How many nuclear stocks in the world in 2015?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, G.

    2005-01-01

    The examination conference of the non-proliferation treaty which will take place in May 2, 2005, will be corrupted by the unanimous reprobation against the 5 states which are still perennializing their nuclear stocks, while they committed themselves to eliminate them. The sustain of the non-proliferation policy is crumbling down and the possibilities of clandestine activities are growing up. Instead of explaining their join reprobation against the policy of these states, the participants will probably spread the image of a divided, disillusioned, ineffective and at a loss world. It is not excluded that in the next 10 or 15 years, about 20 states will still have their nuclear weapons. (J.S.)

  14. Russian nuclear industry and the perspectives on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the NPP capacities in Russia is presented. Federal Target Program 'Development of the Nuclear Power Industry of Russia in 2007-2010 and till 2015' (Government Decree of October 06 2006) is adopted. The scope of financing under the Program till 2015 is €41bill., of which budget financing is €19 bln. The goals are: to launch 10 new NPP units and to start 10 more projects by 2015; to actively promote the Russian nuclear fuel cycle organizations production on the world markets; to expand NPP construction and and operation outside Russia. The institutional reform to meet the goals is presented. NPP with russian VVER projects worldwide are presented

  15. The world's nuclear future - built on material success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Sue

    2010-07-01

    In our energy hungry world of the twenty-first century, the future of electricity generation must meet the twin challenges of security of supply and reduced carbon emissions. The expectations for nuclear power programmes to play a part in delivering success on both counts, grows ever higher. The nuclear industry is poised on a renaissance likely to dwarf the heady days of the 1960s and early 1970s. Global supply chain and project management challenges abound, now just as then. The science and engineering of materials will be key to the successful deployment and operation of a new generation of reactor systems and their associated fuel cycles. Understanding and predicting materials performance will be key to achieving life extension of existing assets and underpinning waste disposal options, as well as giving confidence to the designers, their financial backers and governments across the globe, that the next generation of reactors will deliver their full potential.

  16. China and the post-cold-war nuclear world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuji, Keiji

    1997-01-01

    On May 15, 1995, only a few days after the indefinite extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, China tested a nuclear bomb. The rapid growth in China's defence spending is also alarming. Against the spirit of international non-proliferation regimes, China has sold missile components to Pakistan, a research reactor and an electromagnetic isotope separation facility to Iran. In addition to the repression of human rights domestically, in China as well as in Tibet, no one can ignore the possibility of a serious international conflict over the Spratly Islands. This paper examines whether China will pose a grave future threat to world peace or whether, fearing international isolation, it will become a guardian of the international non-proliferation regime. In other words, the paper aims to set straight the record of China's recent nuclear policy

  17. Hosting and operation of world nuclear University Radiation School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. J.; Nam, Y. M.; Sun, J. B.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, H. J.; Yoo, B. D.; Noh, S. P.; Lee, Y. K.

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this project is to cultivate new-generation global leaders in the radiation fields through hosting and managing WNU RT School and create globalization foundation in the radiation technology and industry. The scope of this project is to develop the WNU RT school programme, strengthen the promotion for oversea participants' involvement, open the WNU RT School on the endeavor, and thus analyze and evaluate the result of the WNU RT School. The WNU RT school, so as to change radiation-field young scientists in the world to new global leaders in the future, successfully opened from May 12 to June 1 at Deajeon. The WNU, WNA(World Nuclear Association) leads, managed the event, and KAERI, KINS, KHNP, and KRA co-holded the event as well. Many 39 scientists from Russia, Australia, Netherlands, and other 16 countries joined in the event and they were satisfied with a lot of lectures, practices, lab-training, etc.

  18. Progress to a nuclear-weapon-free world through tactical nuclear arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matseiko, Youri

    1999-01-01

    At a time when, after some years of passivity, nuclear disarmament is becoming more of an urgent item on the international agenda and receiving accordingly more attention on the part of politicians and non-governmental experts. This is partly reflected in the Report of the Canberra Commission, and the statement on nuclear weapons by international generals and admirals. At the same time some developments such as uncertainties with START II ratification and the process of NATO enlargement make the task of nuclear arms control even more demanding. What is needed now is to pursue at last without any further delay negotiations on effective measures relating to the cessation of the nuclear arms race and to nuclear disarmament. And these effective measures must include both strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Only a sustained commitment at the highest political level will legitimate serious discussions of the elimination option and ensure that resources and personnel are devoted to finding solutions to the problems associated with moving to zero, and to crafting appropriate transition strategies. In the absence of such a commitment, the nations of the world may never reach the point at which the desirability and feasibility of a nuclear-free world can be evaluated with greater certainty. This Pugwash Conference is trying to make a modest contribution in helping to make possible such a vitally important commitment

  19. Nuclear desalination in the Arab world - Part II: Advanced inherent and passive safe nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.; Samer S. Mekhemar

    2004-01-01

    Rapid increases in population levels have led to greater demands for fresh water and electricity in the Arab World. Different types of energies are needed to contribute to bridging the gap between increased demand and production. Increased levels of safeguards in nuclear power plants have became reliable due to their large operational experience, which now exceeds 11,000 years of operation. Thus, the nuclear power industry should be attracting greater attention. World electricity production from nuclear power has risen from 1.7% in 1970 to 17%-20% today. This ratio had increased in June 2002 to reach more than 30%, 33% and 42% in Europe, Japan, and South Korea respectively. In the Arab World, both the public acceptance and economic viability of nuclear power as a major source of energy are greatly dependent on the achievement of a high level of safety and environmental protection. An assessment of the recent generation of advanced reactor safety criteria requirements has been carried out. The promising reactor designs adapted for the Arab world and other similar developing countries are those that profit from the enhanced and passive safety features of the new generation of reactors, with a stronger focus on the effective use of intrinsic characteristics, simplified plant design, and easy construction, operation and maintenance. In addition, selected advanced reactors with a full spectrum from small to large capacities, and from evolutionary to radical types, which have inherent and passive safety features, are discussed. The relevant economic assessment of these reactors adapted for water/electricity cogeneration have been carried out and compared with non-nuclear desalination methods. This assessment indicates that, water/electricity cogeneration by the nuclear method with advanced inherent and passive safe nuclear power plants, is viable and competitive. (author)

  20. 77 FR 73509 - Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Emerging World Pharma, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 6, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Emerging World Pharma, Inc...

  1. World Nuclear Association position statement: Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    This WNA Position Statement summarises the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The paper's conclusion is that the safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating

  2. The first Summer Institute of the World Nuclear University - a personal record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denk, W.; Fischer, C.; Seidl, M.

    2005-01-01

    The first World Nuclear University Summer Institute was held at Idaho Falls, USA, between July 9 and August 20, 2005. The event was hosted by the Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering of Idaho State University (ISU) and by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), which has been planned to be the central nuclear technology research institution in the United States. The World Nuclear University (WNU) was founded in 2003 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA), the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), and the World Nuclear Association (WNA) as a global association fo scientific and educational institutions in the nuclear field. The first WNU Summer Institute was designed at IAEA in Vienna in the course of the following year and planned by the WNU Coordinating Centre in London. The six weeks of lectures and presentations arranged by the World nuclear University in Idaho Falls are described in detail from the participants' perspective. (orig.)

  3. Mechanism of nuclear cross-relaxation in magnetically ordered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buishvili, L L; Volzhan, E B; Giorgadze, N P [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Fiziki

    1975-09-01

    A mechanism of two-step nuclear relaxation in magnetic ordered dielectrics is proposed. The case is considered where the energy conservation in the cross relaxation (CR) process is ensured by the lattice itself without spin-spin interactions. Expressions have been obtained describing the temperature dependence of the CR rate. For a nonuniform broadened NMR line it has been shown that the spin-lattice relaxation time for a spin packet taken out from the equilibrium may be determined by the CR time owing to the mechanism suggested. When the quantization axes for electron and nuclear spins coincide, the spin-lattice relaxation is due to the three-magnon mechanism. The cross-relaxation stage has been shown to play a significant role in the range of low temperatures (T<10 deg K) and to become negligible with a temperature increase.

  4. Empirical information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy from an extended nuclear mass formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We establish a relation between the equation of state of nuclear matter and the fourth-order symmetry energy asym,4(A of finite nuclei in a semi-empirical nuclear mass formula by self-consistently considering the bulk, surface and Coulomb contributions to the nuclear mass. Such a relation allows us to extract information on nuclear matter fourth-order symmetry energy Esym,4(ρ0 at normal nuclear density ρ0 from analyzing nuclear mass data. Based on the recent precise extraction of asym,4(A via the double difference of the “experimental” symmetry energy extracted from nuclear masses, for the first time, we estimate a value of Esym,4(ρ0=20.0±4.6 MeV. Such a value of Esym,4(ρ0 is significantly larger than the predictions from mean-field models and thus suggests the importance of considering the effects of beyond the mean-field approximation in nuclear matter calculations.

  5. Building public confidence in the world's nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, C.D.

    1996-01-01

    Public confidence in the nuclear industry requires two things, which are trust and understanding. Trust is an emotional response based upon an instinctive reaction. Understanding, on the other hand, is an intellectual response based upon facts. To gain public confidence, both of these levels must be communicated and proactive strategies must be implemented to do this. To achieve this objective will require confidence and courage in communication programs. Each company operating in the nuclear sector must be proactive in building its individual reputation and must not retreat from controversy. Similarly, each industry body must continue the Herculean task of building understanding. The nuclear industry has powerful arguments. ICI, BP or Ford did not achieve their licences to operate by keeping their heads down, they achieved their current market positions by building a positive corporate reputation within their respective industrial contexts over many decades. In order to achieve a similar position for the nuclear industry and the companies, their examples must be followed. If it is continued to 'keep the heads down' in the trenches, public opinion will surely bury within it. (G.K.)

  6. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders AGENCY... Assistance Program (EAAP) and clarifying the definition of ``active shipping order.'' DATES: Effective Date... address that matter this rule amends in the payment calculation for semi-processed and reginned motes in 7...

  7. 2012 nuclear power world report; Kernenergie Weltreport 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-06-15

    At the end of 2012, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2011. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 392,793 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 372,572 MWe. This indicates a slight increase of gross and net capacity (gross: 389,367 MWe, net: 369,371 MWe) Two units were commissioned in 2012; 1 unit in China and the Republic of Korea each. Two reactors in Canada resumed commercial operation after a long-term shutdown. The units have been layed-up since the mid 1990ies. Four units were shut down permanently in 2012; 2 units in the United Kingdom, and one unit in Canada and Spain each. The shut-downs in the United Kingdom and Canada have been planned on a long-term base. 68 nuclear generating units - 5 more than at the end of 2011 - were under construction in late 2012 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 70,933 MWe and net power of approx. 66,244 MWe. 9 new projects have been started in 2012 in 3 countries (China, United Arab Emirates, USA). Worldwide, some 110 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2012 achieved a level of approx. 2,346.16 billion kWh (2011: approx. 2,497.1 billion kWh). The main cause for the lower production have been the permanent shut-downs of almost all nuclear power plants in Japan since the natural disaster on 11 March 2011. Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 67,946 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,050 reactor years. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear energy world Report 2012. September 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2013-11-15

    At the end of 2012, 437 nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2011. The aggregate gross power of the plants amounted to approx. 392,793 MWe, the aggregate net power, to 372,572 MWe. This indicates a slight increase of gross and net capacity (gross: 389,367 MWe, net: 369,371 MWe). Two units were commissioned in 2012; one unit in China and the Republic of Korea each. Two reactors in Canada resumed commercial operation after a long-term shutdown. The units have been layed-up since the mid 1990ies. Four units were shut down permanently in 2012; 2 units in the United Kingdom, and one unit in Canada and Spain each. The shut-downs in the United Kingdom and Canada have been planned on a long-term base. 68 nuclear generating units - 5 more than at the end of 2011 - were under construction in late 2012 in 14 countries with an aggregate gross power of approx. 70,933 MWe and net power of approx. 66,244 MWe. 9 new projects have been started in 2012 in three countries (China, United Arab Emirates, USA). Worldwide, some 110 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning, and licensing phases; in some of these cases license applications have been submitted or contracts have already been signed. Some 100 further projects are planned. Net electricity generation in nuclear power plants worldwide in 2012 achieved a level of approx. 2,350.80 billion (109) kWh (2011: approx. 2,497.10 billion kWh). The main cause for the lower production have been the permanent shut-downs of almost all nuclear power plants in Japan since the natural disaster on 11 March 2011. Since the first generation of electricity in a nuclear power plant in the EBR-I fast breeder (USA) on December 20, 1951, cumulated net production has reached approx. 67,950 billion kWh, and operating experience has grown to some 15,050 reactor years. (orig.)

  9. Microscopic analysis of order parameters in nuclear quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes are studied using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. As a function of the physical control parameter, the number of nucleons, energy gaps between the ground state and the excited vibrational states with zero angular momentum, isomer shifts, and monopole transition strengths exhibit sharp discontinuities at neutron number N=90, which is characteristic of a first-order quantum phase transition.

  10. Nuclear research reactors in the world. June 1988 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is the third edition of Reference Data Series No. 3, Nuclear Research Reactors in the World, which replaces the Agency's publications Power and Research Reactors in Member States and Research Reactors in Member States. This booklet contains general information, as of the end of June 1988, on research reactors in operation, under construction, planned, and shut down. The information is collected by the Agency through questionnaires sent to the Member States through the designated national correspondents. All data on research reactors, training reactors, test reactors, prototype reactors and critical assemblies are stored in the IAEA Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) system. This system contains all the information and data previously published in the Agency's publication Power and Research Reactors in Member States as well as additional information. 12 figs, 19 tabs

  11. Global Governance: Differences on World Order and Reconciliations between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Qiqi

    2015-01-01

    currently, the mainstream Western views on world order mainly include hegemony order theory, balance of power theory, world system theory, the clash of civilizations theory, and democratic peace theory. These five theories are based on conflicting order of the evil human nature assumption. After the end of the cold war, the trends of power multi-polarization, economic globalization, political democratization, social networking, and global-wide risks have increasingly become challenges to the concept of conflicting order. In this context, the significance of a harmonious order based on China traditional views has emerged. The concept of a harmonious order based on kind human nature assumption tries to discover and promote the human moral elements. In the view of harmonious order, the world order is a harmonious state of coexisting multi-actors, the relationship between main actors is friendly relationship, and the interaction between actors is mainly in the form of mutual aid and courtesy. The western frontier theoretical progress, for example, constructivism, feminism, global governance, and international ethics studies basically fit into the harmonious order logic. Simultaneously, the advantage of the harmonious order concept is reflected in its logical similarity to and its strong applicability of an "integrated order", etc. Global governance is a kind of reconciliation idea, which is based on the harmonious order concept, and its basic logic is "weak conflict logic plus strong harmony logic",the basic framework is to establish a world-wide authoritative coordination, with country-to-country relations structure emphasizing friendship from interests, seeking common ground while reserving differences, and being multi-actors deliberative democracy in the form of interaction.

  12. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  13. Price formation and market mechanisms in world nuclear fuel markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of world markets for uranium, UF6 and enriched uranium product (EUP) have changed greatly since the 1970s. In the old model, firms specializing in mining, conversion, enrichment and fabrication played independent and sequential steps in the making of nuclear fuel. The great majority of users dealt directly with primary suppliers. Competition took place among suppliers at each stage of the fuel cycle and price formation occurred independently for each stage. Long-term contracts directly between primary supplier and end user dominated, whether for U3O8, conversion, enrichment or fabrication. The old model is effectively gone. uranium producers compete with traders, some of whom can offer a much larger menu of products and terms than primary suppliers. Where once there was a straight engineering-like sequence of processing from uranium to EUP for end use, today things are often reversed and far more complicated, with de-enrichment, de-conversion, loans, swaps, and other transactions. Those able to bring financial and entrepreneurial skills to bear on this complexity have an advantage. Long-term contracts between primary producers and end users no longer dominate new transactions, especially in the critical role of price formation - the process of determining or discovery of the market price. These changes have raised the question of whether participants in the nuclear fuel market need, or could benefit from, new institutional mechanisms, specifically some sort of formal exchange or commodity market

  14. Nuclear power reactors in the world. April 2005 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the twenty-fifth edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, which is published once per year, to present the most recent reactor data available to the Agency. It contains the following summarized information: - General information as of the end of 2004 on power reactors operating or under construction, and shut down; - Performance data on reactors operating in the Agency's Member States, as reported to the IAEA. The information is collected by the Agency by circulating questionnaires to Member States through the designated national correspondents. The replies are used to maintain computerized files on general and design data of, and operating experience with, power reactors. The Agency's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) comprising the above files provides all the information and data previously published in the Agency's Power Reactors in Member States and currently published in the Agency's Operating Experience with Nuclear Power Stations in Member States and available at the Internet address http://www.iaea.org/programmes/a2

  15. Nuclear structure and order-to-chaos transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    A general scheme of the nuclear many-body problem is presented. Different models for description of low-lying states and giant resonances are discussed. The wave functions of the low-lying states have a single dominating one-quasiparticle or quasiparticle O+ phonon or one-phonon component. They demonstrate the regularity in nuclei. Giant resonances are determined by strongly fragmented one-phonon components of the wave functions. The wave functions at higher excitation energies have two-, three-and many-phonon components. Based on the statement that there is order in the large and chaos in the small components of the nuclear wave functions, the order-to-chaos transition is treated as a transition from the large to the small components of the wave functions. A quasiparticle-phonon interaction is responsible for the fragmentation of one- and many-quasiparticle and phonon states and for the mixing of closely spaced states. Therefore, experimental investigation of the fragmentation of many-quasiparticle and phonon states plays a decisive role. 30 refs

  16. Nuclear development status in the world (4). Four new emerging countries (China, Russia, India, and South Korea) leading global nuclear development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2017-01-01

    From the temporary stagnation immediately after the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, many countries are restarting nuclear development. The emerging 4 countries of China, Russia, India, and South Korea account for the majority number of the world's nuclear power plants under construction. The common feature is that the project promoter is a state-owned enterprise, and these countries are promoting nuclear development under the state's solid nuclear policies. The policies of the completion of nuclear fuel cycle and development fast reactors are also common. China is committed to major nuclear power route, domestically targeting 58 million kW in 2020, also focusing on the export of nuclear energy to Pakistan, Romania, Argentina, and the UK as already scheduled. China also actively develops fast reactors, high-temperature gas reactors, and small reactors. Based on the nuclear export from Russia, plants are operating or under construction in Iran, China, India, Vietnam, Turkey, Belarus, etc. Furthermore, Russia is actively pursuing fast reactors and nuclear fuel cycle policy from the beginning. In India, in addition to imported nuclear reactors, it also develops domestic reactors to solve power shortage, targeting 63 million kW in 2032. South Korea is concentrating on nuclear development in order to depart from energy imports. In 2035, it plans 38.3 million kW of nuclear power generation. (A.O.)

  17. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh

    2008-01-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  18. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  19. New nuclear weapon states and their impact on Third World regional conflicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazrui, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper examines the new nuclear weapon states and their impact on third world regional conflicts. Nuclear technology in South Africa, nuclear terrorism and the Arab/Israeli conflict, Islam and the nuclear age, Egypt and the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the 'masculinity' of warfare, are all discussed. (UK)

  20. What Change Can The New Developments In Energy Sector Bring Into the World`s Energypolitical and Geopolitical Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent developments bring US to a leading natural gas and oil producer position. The attempts in last 20 years to bring new horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies together have developed a success in shale gas and oil production in US; the production volumes has reached to a position to redefine the market. Last estimations are bringing more information about the shale capacities of the major basins of the world. However, the estimates are based on a wide range of assumptions and consequently their results vary in a large scale. In any case, these developments have crucial economic, political and geopolitical consequences on the energy market, petroleum producer and consumer countries and regions. Despite the wide range of ambiguity of the estimated size of the resources, the estimations show US and North America has one of the biggest potential, already turning technology into the giant production numbers. Some of the estimations allege so big numbers can even mean to a new world order. The asymmetric nature of the potential, can also be said, increases some of the expected impacts too. In this study, basically, we want to supply an initial solid and economical evaluation to this ambiguity. We are trying to shape a frame for the new energy potential and to put it in a place in the current practice of the world. Secondly, in this context, we are underlying here some of the possible economic and geopolitical consequences each of which can constitute a subject of deeper study.

  1. Actual state of the nuclear industry in Japan and trends of nuclear development in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear industry in Japan established a fixed foundation as a large complex system industry by elapsing about forty years since beginning of its development at top of 1930s. For Japan with little energy resources, nuclear power generation is one of essential choices because not only of keeping energy security but also of response to global warming problem such as global warming protection. Then, in order to intend to promote sound development of the nuclear industry in Japan, further upgrading of technology aimed at maintenance and improvement of safety and formation of understanding and agreement of the peoples must be established. Here was introduced a report on actual state of the nuclear industry in Japan in 1997 fiscal year prepared on February, 1999 by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum. (G.K.)

  2. Entropy of the Randall-Sundrum black brane world to all orders in the Planck length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouicer, Khireddine [Frankfurt Institute of Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe Universitaet, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)], E-mail: nouicer@fias.uni-frankfurt.de

    2008-04-07

    We study the effects, to all orders in the Planck length from a generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), on the statistical entropy of massive scalar bulk fields in the Randall-Sundrum black brane world. We show that the Bekenstein-Hawking area law is not preserved, and contains a correction term proportional to the black hole inverse area.

  3. Order parameters and synchronization of FitzHugh–Nagumo small-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Long, Li; Jun, Ma; Yan-Jun, Liu; Wei, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper numerically investigates the order parameter and synchronisation in the small world connected FitzHugh–Nagumo excitable systems. The simulations show that the order parameter continuously decreases with increasing D, the quality of the synchronisation worsens for large noise intensity. As the coupling intensity goes up, the quality of the synchronisation worsens, and it finds that the larger rewiring probability becomes the larger order parameter. It obtains the complete phase diagram for a wide range of values of noise intensity D and control parameter g. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Order and chaos in nuclear and metal cluster deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, S.

    1995-08-01

    The vast amount of nuclear and metal cluster data indicates that shell structure and deformation are two simultaneous properties. A conflicting situation is therefore encountered as the shell structure, a firm expression of order, is apparently not compatible with the non-integrable nature of the models incorporating deformation. The main issue covered in this thesis is the intricate connection between deformation and chaotic behaviour in deformation models pertinent to nuclear structure and metal cluster physics. It is shown that, at least in some cases, it is possible to reconcile the occurrence of shell structure with non-integrability. The coupling of an axially deformed harmonic oscillator to an axially symmetric octupole term renders the problem non-integrable. The chaotic character of the motion is strongly dependent on the type of deformation, in that a prolate shape shows virtually no chaos, while in an oblate case the motion exhibits fully developed chaos when the octupole term is switched on. Whereas the problem is non-integrable, the quantum mechanical spectrum nevertheless shows some shell structure in the prolate case for particular, yet fairly large octupole strengths; for spherical or oblate deformation the shell structure disappears. This result is explained in terms of classical periodic orbits which are found by employing the 'removal of resonances method'. Particular emphasis is put on the effect of the hexadecapole deformation which is important in fission processes. The combined effect of octupole and hexadecapole deformation leads to important conclusions for the experimental work as a high degree of ambiguity is signaled for the interpretation of data. The ambiguity results from the discovery of a mutual cancellation of the octupole and hexadecapole deformation in prolate superdeformed systems. The phenomenological Nilsson model is treated in a similar way. It is argued that while in nuclei it produces good results for the low-lying levels

  5. Charting the new world order: proceedings of the 15. CERI international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The 15th International Oil and Gas Markets Conference, organized by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) and held in Calgary, AB, provided a wide variety of opportunities for discussion of the global oil and gas market outlook, international oil and gas market strategies and corporate planning in the new world order, competition for investments, the re-emergence of the geopolitics of energy, energy in the Americas, international gas market strategies, and the financing of Canadian international operations. More than 100 delegates from around the world attended the conference to hear some 20 presentations. refs., tabs., figs

  6. World-wide cooperation in nuclear power: a canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the point of view of Canadian Authorities about the future of nuclear activities. Generally speaking, OECD countries will be focusing their efforts on plant refurbishment, maintenance and life extension while non-OECD countries will be facing capacity expansion needs. This duality will favour collaboration in the nuclear field between OECD and other countries. Key areas for enhanced cooperation will be: nuclear technology, nuclear safety, regulations, waste management, non-proliferation and financing

  7. French ESPN order, codes and nuclear industry requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugier, C.; Grandemange, J.M.; Cleurennec, M.

    2010-01-01

    Work on coding safety regulations applicable to large equipment was undertaken in France as of 1978 to accompany the construction of a French nuclear plant. The needs of manufacturers were threefold: translate the design rules from the American licensor, meet the safety objectives expressed in French regulations published at that time through coding of industrial practices (order of February 26, 1974) and stabilize the work reference system between the operator - consultant - and the manufacturer responsible for applying technical recommendations. Significant work was carried out by AFCEN (the French Association for the Design, Construction and Operating Supervision of the equipment for Electronuclear boilers), an association created for this purpose, leading to the publication of a collection of rules related to mechanical equipment for pressurised water reactors, RCC-M and RSE-M, which will be discussed later, and also in several other technical fields: particularly mechanical equipment in fast neutron reactors, RCC-MR, electricity (RCC-E), and fuel (RCC-C). (authors)

  8. Highlights of the IAEA scientific forum: Nuclear science: Physics helping the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    2005-01-01

    The conclusions drawn at the Scientific Forum during the 49th regular Session of the IAEA General Conference entitled 'Nuclear Physics: Helping the World' are as follows. Physics is indeed helping the world and the IAEA, applications of nuclear are continuing to grow, nuclear power is likely to increase dramatically, work on 'Beyond Kyoto' should begin and nuclear should be part of any 'Clean Development Mechanism'. IAEA should look again at the role of R and D in safeguards, IAEA should look at safety issues in newly nuclear countries, internationalizing the fuel cycle is right IF one can do it

  9. THE U.S. AS THE NEW ROME: DISPUTING THE NEW WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Ivonina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point of the conclusions of politicians and experts was the recognition of the changed nature of threats to the New World Order. In post-Westfalia system of international relations the main actors are not sovereigns, but transnational actors of world politics, including transnational terrorist and criminal networks. In this situation, the support of global security threat serves the underground world – terrorists, shady business structures, failed states. The unconventional nature of the threat to peace and stability of the New World Order requires an equally innovative response which transcends the formal constraints of international law and the traditional doctrine of deterrence. An analysis of the U.S. foreign policy concepts suggests that today’s academic and political community has promoted consensus of neoliberals and neoconservatives, supporters of the institutional functionalism and representatives of the school of Realpolitik. This consensus was based on the recognition of the admissibility of pre-emptive strikes on the territory of failed states, sponsoring international terrorism, or the implementation of open interference in the internal affairs of “rogue states” for human rights and democratic freedoms guarantee.

  10. The Three Mile Island accident, a world premiere for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves

    2015-01-01

    When it happened on 28 March 1979, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station in Pennsylvania took experts and operators by surprise. Although human losses were minor, this world shaking media event significantly changed public attitudes towards nuclear energy and put a definitive stop to the development of nuclear power in the USA. (author)

  11. Nuclear power in the world: Its present status and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    Present status of nuclear power development in the world is presented showing data on power reactors in operation and under construction, on growth of nuclear electricity generation since 1970, the distribution of nuclear electricity generation during 1993. Development trends in the field are also outlined. 7 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Major changes in the world's nuclear power at the beginning of the new century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade of the 20th century the world nuclear power recorded some characteristic trends among which one can mention the following: - Almost total absence of investments in new NPPs in the industrialized countries except Japan and South Korea; - Policy of some governments to decrease the nuclear power sector in their countries up to a complete stop of electricity production in a foreseeable future (as in case of Sweden, Germany, Nederland and Belgium); - Projections indicating a steady decline of nuclear share in the national power production as for instance in USA, Germany, Great Britain, and other industrialized countries; - pressures upon countries late owners of soviet type NPPs in order to shut down completely the RBMK and WWER reactors; - a drastic reduction of the funds afforded for research dedicated to fission reactors of new concept, except Japan and South Korea; - almost negligible effects of the Kyoto protocol upon nuclear power, hopes being directed towards renewable energy sources. After second half of the year 1998 modest signals of future changes in the energy policy occurred. The US government admitted on basis of performance assessments and projections that the important role of nuclear power in US will be extended still for long after the years 2020-2030. Consequently, research concerning the future demand for fission based power began be financed. Gradually the countries of EU and Canada modified also their official position towards the role of nuclear fission in ensuring the electric energy needs of the future. The beginning of the new century was marked by a significant acceleration of changes of opinions in favor of nuclear power. Japan and South Korea stated that at least in the first half of the 21th century the fission NPP's will play a major role. Russia promoted new WWER reactor types of safety standards equivalent or higher than the western ones. Also China and India launched ambitious plans for building new NPPs. These new

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities: a growing activity in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasco, Raul

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities are no different from normal buildings and factories. Eventually, they become worn-out or old fashioned, too expensive to maintain or remodel. Decommissioning a nuclear facility is different from retiring other types because of the radioactivity involved. The most important consideration in nuclear decommissioning is to protect workers and the public from exposure to harmful levels of radiation. General criteria and strategies for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described as well as the present decommissioning activities of the Argentine CNEA (author)

  14. Nuclear Power, its Waste in the World and in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Temiz, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants were born in 1950s. Taking only 30 grams of used fuel annually for a person’s energy consumption many countries built their own nuclear power plants. In this story, there is the fuel on one hand and the waste on the other. In general sense, used up fuel rods from nuclear reactors and the waste from reprocessing plants are referred to as nuclear waste. These wastes can be stored for decades in the cooling pools of nuclear reacto...

  15. For a world governance of the civil and military nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-04-01

    This report first proposes an overview of the history of the emergence of the civil and military nuclear activities, of their relationship and of their distinction. It notably refers to some initiatives like Atoms for Peace in 1953, and the ups and downs of arms control. It discusses the relationship between the power of States and their nuclear capacities, the motivations for the acquisition of nuclear weapons, the disturbance created by nuclear weapons, the emergence of the notion of non proliferation and the evolution of the perception of the national interest. It comments the relationship between war and military nuclear, the role of military nuclear in peace keeping, the role of civil nuclear for peace through sustainable development and compensation of inequalities, the relationship between nuclear and terrorism. The second part describes the evolutions for the century to come (end of Cold War, new energy needs, preservation of the planet) and discusses the possible ban of nuclear weapons. Several proposals are then formulated to strengthen the foundations of a new diplomacy, to act at the institutional level (notably through existing or proposed bodies, for verification and financing), and to elaborate a new social contract about the nuclear

  16. S.I. 1987 No.688, The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) (Variation) Order 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order, which amends the Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977, came into force on 7 May 1987. The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977 extends certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. This Order extends amendments made to that Act by the Energy Act 1983 and the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976, as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. (NEA) [fr

  17. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strategy and tactics of Soviet diplomacy during the war. It was implemented in the course of negotiations with the Western Allies - the United States and Britain, led by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill. World history teaches, large and small wars have been fought on Earth for centuries for specific political interests. In this context, the Second World War has been a shining example not only to curb the aggressor states, the liberation of peoples from the Nazi tyranny, but also an attempt by the victor to organize a new, better postwar world order to guarantee a durable and lasting peace based on the cooperation of the allied states. But the allies in the war did not become allies in the organization of the postwar world. Their collaboration briefly survived the end of hostilities and was overshadowed start turning to the Cold War. It was largely due to the US desire to realize their material advantages to the detriment of the Soviet Union after the war and build a system that would be a one-sided expression of the interests of Washington. Americans, especially after the death of President Roosevelt, and during his successor Truman understood international cooperation as an assertion of its global leadership while ignoring the interests of the Soviet Union, which bore the brunt of the war.

  18. The nuclear industry's plan to achieve new nuclear power plant orders in the 1990's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, there has been a direct relationship between the growth in the Gross Domestic Product and the growth in the use of electricity in the United States. That close relationship between economic growth and electricity will continue. If that is true, the United States Department of Energy says this country will need between 190,000 to 275,000 megawatts of new generating capacity in the next 20 years. Electricity is one of the cleanest and most efficient uses of energy. Of all the ways to generate electricity, nuclear power plants are the cleanest, producing no air pollution and no greenhouse gases. To help supply the needed increase in electricity generating capacity, the US nuclear power industry has developed a Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. The plan identified fourteen issues which must be dealt with to create the conditions under which utilities could place orders for new nuclear plants by the mid-1990's. The plan was published in November of 1990 and significant progress has been made on most of the fourteen issues. The plan and progress made are reviewed in depth

  19. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2007-06-01

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  20. A world-class design for the Chinese Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, A.; Valero, E.

    1999-01-01

    Under the name Grupo Nuclear SEPI, the companies BWE, ENDESA, ENSA, ENRESA, ENUSA and INITEC, in a partnership in SEPI and with extensive experience in the nuclear sector, have in the last few years been coordinating technical and commercial actions targeted primarily at the Chinese nuclear market. These actions have been carried out under Westinghouse's leadership, for the purpose of providing a 1000 MWe nuclear Power plant design tailored to the local requirements defined by experts and authorities of the People's Republic of China (project CPWR 1000). (Author)

  1. Development and future perspective of nuclear power plants. Current status and future prospect of world nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS accidents occurred on 11 March 2011 brought about great effects on nuclear development not only in Japan but also in the world. In Japan restart of operation of periodically inspected nuclear power plants (NPPs) could not be allowed except Oi NPPs two units and most parties except Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) pledged to possibly phasing out nuclear power at House of Councillors election in July and public opinion was mostly against nuclear power after the accident. LDP clearly stated that, with the inauguration of new government last December, Japan would not pursuing the policy of the prior government of possibly phasing out nuclear power by the 2030s, but would instead make a 'zero-base' review of energy policy. Germany decided to close eight reactors immediately and remaining nine by the end of 2022. For many countries, nuclear power would play an important role in achieving energy security and sustainable development goals. In 2011 NPPs 6 units started operation with 2 units under construction, and in 2012 NPPs 3 units started operation with 7 units under construction. At present there are now over 400 NPPs operating in 31 countries and world trend seemed nuclear development was continued and number of countries newly deploying NPPs was increasing as much as eighteen. This article presented current status and future prospect of world NPPs in details. Japan would like to share its experiences and information obtained from the accident with the world and also promote NPPs overseas to meet the world's expectations. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Stability of transition to a world without nuclear weapons: Technical problems of verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigalov, V.

    1998-01-01

    A serious psychological barrier to acceptance of the concept for achieving the nuclear-weapon-free world is fear of facing the prospect that one or more nations or extremist political groups might develop their own nuclear weapons. Actually this is a question of stability of the nuclear-weapon-free world. From this point of view the most effective system of verification is an absolute necessity. This system must ensure detection of so called undeclared nuclear activity at early stage. Scientists of Russian nuclear centers are working today on solving this problem. This paper is considered to be a comprehensive attempt to analyze the technical and organizational aspects of the problems of transition to a nuclear-weapons-free world, setting aside the difficulties of resolving purely political problems

  3. The role of nuclear power in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A forecast, going beyond the year 2000, is made of the development of the various energy carriers, in particular nuclear energy. The further development of nuclear energy, as one of the main pillars in future energy supply, is shown to be inevitable. (UA) [de

  4. The nuclear fuel elements' world market and the position of the Argentine Republic as producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondo, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The development of the nuclear fuel elements' industry is analyzed, both in the present and projected world market, up to the year 2000, in the light of the situation affecting the nucleoelectric industry. By means of the offer/demand function, an analysis is made of the behaviour of the fuel elements' market throughout the fuel cycle structure. The regional unbalances between availability and demand of uranium resources are considered, as well as the factors having an unfavorable incidence on the fuel cycle's economic equation. The economic structure to be used for the calculation of the nucleoelectric generating cost is presented, in order to situate, within said nuclear economy, the component corresponding to the fuel cycle cost. Emphasis is placed on the 'front end' stages of the fuel cycle, but also considering those stages belonging to the 'back end'. Argentina's fuel elements market and its present and projected nucleoelectric park are analyzed, indicating their relative position in the world market. (R.J.S.) [es

  5. New nuclear projects in the world. Sustainable Nuclear Energy; Nuevos proyectos nucleares en el mundo. energia nuclear sostenible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, P. T.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear power has experienced a major boom in the last few years, primarily because it is a non-CO{sub 2} emitting energy source, it can be produced at competitive costs and it can boost a country's security of supply. there are still two issues to be addressed in relation to the currently used technologies: the degree to which the energy content of nuclear fuel is used, and wastes. A solution to both these aspects would ut nuclear power in the category of sustainable energy. The article provides details on current nuclear plans in the wold, the impact of the Fukushima accident on different countries nuclear plans and the European initiatives for sustainable nuclear energy development. (Author)

  6. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  7. "implicate Order" and the Good Life: Applying David Bohm's Ontology in Human World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravn, Ib.

    In an attempt to formulate a coherent view of quantum reality, the theoretical physicist David Bohm has proposed a new concept of order to supplement the mechanistic Cartesian order of traditional physics. The "implicate" order is a subtler and deeper order that emphasizes "unbroken wholeness in flowing movement," in contrast to the coarser and more superficial, "explicate" Cartesian order of distinct phenomena. This dissertation attempts to develop a meaning for the idea of implicate order in the world of human experience. First is offered an account of some evolutionary episodes in terms of implicate and explicate order which draws on compatible work in cosmology, embryogenesis, visual perception, brain memory, decision making and phenomenology. Two important characteristics of the implicate order are then identified: in an implicate order, the whole is enfolded (or represented) in its parts; and all parts render different perspectives of the whole. Using arguments from decision making, the study of "flow" in human consciousness, and a model of skill acquisition, it is suggested that these characteristics manifest themselves in the human world as the "unity experience" and the "diversity experience," respectively. The former is the experience that a given part of one's life reveals a larger wholeness or unity; the subject-object distinction is transcended and one becomes absorbed in the flow of whatever activity is pursued. The latter is a deep appreciation of the diversity of ways in which people may seek the unity experience. These experiences are proposed as general values: social and psychological conditions ought to be such that these experiences are enhanced in all people. A two-by-two matrix of the two experiences demonstrates the danger of pursuing one to the exclusion of the other. The experience of unity without diversity turns into absolutism, the insistence that one's chosen activities or beliefs are the only right ones. The experience of diversity

  8. Diplomatic History of the Great Patriotic War and the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Y. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    From ancient times, war was called "the creator of all things". And winners created the postwar world order. The article reveals the backstage, the diplomatic history of the Great Patriotic War, which make the picture of the main events of the war, that culminated in victory May 1945 in the capital of the defeated Third Reich, complete. The decisive role of the Soviet Union and its armed forces in the defeat of Nazi Germany and its allies was the strong foundation on which to build the strate...

  9. Cooperative Security: The Nuclear Strategy for an Uncertain World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkinson, John L

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear weapons must be dramatically reduced, if not eliminated, and greater reliance must be placed on conventional capabilities But the reduction question is how deep, how fast, and how much risk...

  10. The plutonium nuclear file: threat on the living world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morichaud, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This book wishes to demonstrate the uselessness and dangerousness of the use of plutonium in the nuclear industry. It makes a synthesis about this radioelement and gives some arguments to the debate on the French energy choices. (J.S.)

  11. The future of nuclear power: A world-wide perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Ismail

    This study analyzes the future of commercial nuclear electric generation worldwide using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept. The Tobit panel data estimation technique is applied to analyze the data between 1980 and 1998 for 105 countries. EKC assumes that low-income countries increase their nuclear reliance in total electric production whereas high-income countries decrease their nuclear reliance. Hence, we expect that high-income countries should shut down existing nuclear reactors and/or not build any new ones. We encounter two reasons for shutdowns: economic or political/environmental concerns. To distinguish these two effects, reasons for shut down are also investigated by using the Hazard Model technique. Hence, the load factor of a reactor is used as an approximation for economic reason to shut down the reactor. If a shut downed reactor had high load factor, this could be attributable to political/environmental concern or else economic concern. The only countries with nuclear power are considered in this model. The two data sets are created. In the first data set, the single entry for each reactor is created as of 1998 whereas in the second data set, the multiple entries are created for each reactor beginning from 1980 to 1998. The dependent variable takes 1 if operational or zero if shut downed. The empirical findings provide strong evidence for EKC relationship for commercial nuclear electric generation. Furthermore, higher natural resources suggest alternative electric generation methods rather than nuclear power. Economic index as an institutional variable suggests higher the economic freedom, lower the nuclear electric generation as expected. This model does not support the idea to cut the carbon dioxide emission via increasing nuclear share. The Hazard Model findings suggest that higher the load factor is, less likely the reactor will shut down. However, if it is still permanently closed downed, then this could be attributable to political

  12. WRENDA 76/77. World request list for nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessler, R.M.

    1976-08-01

    The nuclear data request lists for fission reactors, fusion reactors and nuclear safeguards development appear in Parts II, III and IV, respectively, of this document. Supporting information which is pertinent to only one of the request lists has been collected in sections immediately preceding the relevant request list. Information applicable to all the request lists appears in Part I. Expansions of codes used in the request lists can be found in the appendices at the end of the document

  13. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism in the post-9/11 world

    CERN Document Server

    Hafemeister, David

    2016-01-01

    This book fills a clear gap in the literature for a technically-focused book covering nuclear proliferation and related issues post-9/11. Using a concept-led approach which serves a broad readership, it provides detailed overview of nuclear weapons, nuclear proliferation and international nuclear policy. The author addresses topics including offensive and defensive missile systems, command and control, verification, weapon effects, and nuclear testing. A chronology of nuclear arms is presented including detailed discussion of the Cold War, proliferation, and arms control treaties. The book is tailored to courses on nuclear proliferation, and the general reader will also find it a fascinating introduction to the science and strategy behind international nuclear policy in the modern era. “Finally, a spritely, accessible overview of the nuclear world in historical context from someone who has both seen it from the U.S. State Department and Congressional policy trenches and taught it for 43 years. A gift to bot...

  14. U.S. congressional attitudes and policies affecting nuclear power development in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1976-01-01

    The world future for nuclear power is even now being formed by policies and decisions of many governments and international organizations. Congressman McCormack looks to the United States for revived and stronger leadership in strengthening the web of institutions and international relations to permit the world to reap the benefits of nuclear power without a destabilizing spread of nuclear weapons. He says Congress will have a major role in shaping that nuclear future. The tensions between Congress and the executive branch that are part of the U.S. system of separation of powers can help to test and strengthen future policy on international nuclear power. The point of no return along the course of nuclear evolution is approaching and the author asks: will we press on to create an acceptable balance between benefits of nuclear power and the risk that expanded use may increase proliferation--or will we turn back toward nuclear isolationism. Mr. McCormack opts for vigorous legislative, executive and diplomatic initiatives to sustain U.S. nuclear leadership so that we can accelerate and influence world measures to prevent proliferation while developing uranium and thorium as future world energy resources

  15. Nuclear material enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fan; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Ren Yong

    2013-01-01

    In order to enhance the sensitivity of nuclear material identification system (NMIS) against the change of nuclear material enrichment, the principle of high order statistic feature is introduced and applied to traditional NMIS. We present a new enrichment identification method based on cross-correlation and high order spectrum algorithm. By applying the identification method to NMIS, the 3D graphs with nuclear material character are presented and can be used as new signatures to identify the enrichment of nuclear materials. The simulation result shows that the identification method could suppress the background noises, electronic system noises, and improve the sensitivity against enrichment change to exponential order with no system structure modification. (authors)

  16. Statement to World Association of Nuclear Operators Biennial General Meeting, 24 October 2011, Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    , interest in introducing nuclear power remains strong. WANO and the IAEA share a common central goal, which - to quote from WANO's mission statement - is to maximise the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants throughout the world. Our cooperation until now has focussed on sharing information, attending some of each other's meetings and participating in some peer review missions together. WANO has informally reviewed some of the IAEA draft Safety Standards. We hold joint workshops and seminars. The IAEA's 151 Member States want us to go further. In the Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, the IAEA Secretariat was asked to ''strengthen cooperation with WANO by amending their Memorandum of Understanding to enhance information exchange on operating experience and on other relevant safety and engineering areas.'' We were also requested to ''explore mechanisms to enhance communication and interaction among operating organizations.'' I would like to offer a few practical suggestions for your consideration. Peer reviews are a key area where I believe we could do more. The IAEA and WANO should continue to exchange information about results of their respective review missions to nuclear power plants, subject to any confidentiality considerations, while maintaining the distinctive features of their programmes. In the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, both of our organizations plan to increase the frequency of such missions - OSART missions in the case of the Agency and Peer Reviews on WANO's part. We should improve coordination concerning our respective missions in order to avoid scheduling WANO Peer Reviews and IAEA OSART missions too close together. WANO's peer review missions take place much more frequently than IAEA missions and you amass considerable detailed information about the day-to-day safety issues dealt with by operators. Our OSART missions have the advantage of being carried out at the invitation of the governments of Member States.

  17. Deterring nuclear-armed Third World dictators: a targeting strategy for the emerging threat.

    OpenAIRE

    Gellene, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. The continuing efforts of several developing nations to acquire nuclear weapons indicates that the United States may be required to implement a deterrence policy aimed at authoritarian regimes in the Third World. Therefore. U. S. decision-makers must re-evaluate the conceptual foundations of American deterrence policy. This research suggests a solution to the problem of deterring nuclear-capable Third World nations from using...

  18. Perspectives of development of the nuclear market in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Since the end of the second oil shock, the context has never been as favorable as today for a re-launching of nuclear energy. The growth of energy demand requires heavy investments in new power production capacities. The explosion of fossil fuel prices and the implementation of the carbon trade market in Europe have burdened the competitiveness and price of electricity generated from these energy sources. New and renewable energies will not be capable to take up the challenge of production capacities and thus the nuclear power appears as the inevitable solution, despite the investments needed and the problem of wastes management. Moreover, most nuclear plants in operation today were built during the 1970-1980 era and, despite their lifetime extension, the USA, France, Japan, Russia and Germany will have to replace 80 to 100% of their nuclear park within the next 20 years. Taking into account the administrative and construction delays, the investment decisions will have to be taken in the coming years. This study answers the following questions: what reactor technologies dominate the market today? What are the forces in presence at each sector of the nuclear industry? What is the weight of each market segment? Who are the operators positioned in the market of 3. generation reactors? What will be the size of the market by 2030? What are the most attractive markets? Who are the best positioned groups to capture these markets? This study is based on the analysis of 14 representative groups of the nuclear sector: vertically integrated operators, fuel cycle front-end specialists, reactor construction specialists and atypical nuclear fuel companies. (J.S.)

  19. World situation of atomic energy and nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szili, G.

    1978-01-01

    At the International Conference organized by the IAEA in May 1976, several sections dealt with problems of the production of atomic energy and of the nuclear fuel cycle. However, the whole spectrum of these problems was discussed including problems of economic policy, politics and ethical problems, too. Reports were presented on trends of the development of atomic energy in developed and developing countries. Besides the systems of nuclear power plants and the trends of their development, the Conference attached prominent importance to the supply of nuclear fuels and to the fuel cycle, respectively. Owing to important factors, the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel was emphasized. The problem area of the treatment of radioactive wastes, the protection of workers in immediate contact and of environment against radiations, the possibilities of ensuring nuclear safety, the degrees of hazards and the methods of protection of fast breeder reactors and up-to-date equipments were discussed. In contrast to earlier conferences the complex problem of the correlation of atomic energy to public opinion played an important role, too. (P.J.)

  20. International Relations and Diplomatic Service: Retrospective Analysis and Prospects of The New World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presented as a review to the textbook of the Doctor of History Shakhalilov Shamansur, The History of International Relations: Driving Forces, Global Tendencies. Moscow State University Press, 2015. The author focuses readers attention on the regularities of formation, development and peculiarities of legal regulation of international relations, considers these relations as an ongoing, highly controversial and multidirectional developing process of the formation of the world system of States and international relations, explores the driving forces, events and phenomena, who had in his time, and many still have a decisive influence on international policy the leading powers of the world in the framework of nonlinear processes of globalization and the current, seriously flawed by today's standards, world order and system of international law. The article draws readers attention to everything presented in the tutorial main substantial characteristics and patterns of international relations in their historical context. Emphasizes the inadmissibility of violations of principles and norms of functioning of the traditional system of international law; analyses the factors of influence on the world trends of globalization processes is the gradual destruction of the boundaries between national and international levels of government and governance, the increasing role of supranational political actors. Attention is drawn to the increasing importance in international Affairs information and communication technologies and social networks, expanding the access of citizens to discuss government decisions on international issues. Article will help not only students, but all interested in the patterns, principles and features of international practices in different historical periods and in different civilization. Will foster in the reader a holistic view of the system of international relations and diplomatic activities, to learn, to understand the

  1. Prospects of uranium supply-demand situation in world nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi; Wang Xingwu

    2010-01-01

    Based on the newest materials and data published by authoritative organizations, this paper introduces the near-term and medium to long-term development situation of world nuclear power, summarizes the main characteristics of recent world uranium production, preliminarily analyses the relationship between uranium supply and demand to 2030. It is suggested that from the view-point of whole world, uranium resources are fully sufficient for the near-term and medium to long-term world uranium production and uranium demand of nuclear power. World uranium production can meet the near-term uranium demand for nuclear power. However, a big supply-demand gap may exist after 2015 as world nuclear power will be developed with high speed. In case if all const ruction plans of new uranium mines and production- expansion plans of existing uranium mines will be completed on time, it is quite possible for the world uranium production to meet the long-term uranium demand of nuclear power development. (authors)

  2. Commercial nuclear power: prospects for the United States and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and outlook for commercial nuclear power reactors for all countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information regarding operable reactors in countries with centrally planned economies is presented in an appendix. The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 1995. Projections for US nuclear capacity and generation through 2020 are presented for various nuclear power supply scenarios. These long-term projections are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and are used to produce the projections of fuel cycle requirements and spent fuel discharges

  3. Analysis of reactor strategies to meet world nuclear energy demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligon, D.M.; Brogli, R.H.

    1979-07-01

    A number of reactor deployment strategies for long-term nuclear system development are analyzed from a global perspective in terms of resource utilization and economic benefits. Two time frames are chosen: 1975 - 2025 and 1975 - 2050. Uranium demand for various strategies is compared with uranium supply assuming different production capabilities and resource base. The analysis shows that a given reactor deployment strategy could strongly influence the extent of uranium exploration and production. Power systems cost comparisons are made to identify clearly competitive or non-competitive reactors. The sensitivity of power cost to different uranium price projections and nuclear demands is also examined. The results indicate that breeders are necessary to support a long-term nuclear power system. Advanced converter-breeder symbiotic systems, particularly those operating on the Th/U-233 cycle, have clear advantages in terms of resources and economics

  4. mobile nuclear energy power plants for Turkey and III. world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezden, H.

    2001-01-01

    It is estimated that if there is no alternative energy source, there will be increase in building nuclear energy power plants. This source of energy and know how along with technology must be put into the possession of Turkey. Since almost all of Turkey is 1 st degree earthquake region and in view of the regional political instability, the requirement of ample amount of water for prolonged times, the density of settlement, environmental problems, high cost of building nuclear energy power plants it becomes necessary to think about their application techniques. In this study, mobile nuclear energy power plants having a wide area of use in conditions prevailing in Turkey , their draft drawings for making them by using metal/steel are shown. The positive-negative aspects of the topic is presented for discussions

  5. Assessment of safety of the nuclear installations of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.A.; Pozniakov, N.; Banga, U.

    1992-01-01

    Incidents and accidents periodically remind us that preventive measures at nuclear installations are not fully reliable. Although sound design is widely recognized to be prerequisite for safe operation, it is not sufficient. An active management that compensates for the weak aspects of the installations design by redundant operational provisions, is the key factor to ensure safe operation. Safety of nuclear installations cannot be assessed on an emotional basis. Since 1986, accurate safety assessment techniques based on an integrated approach to operational safety have been made available by the ASSET services and are applicable to any industrial process dealing with nuclear materials. The ASSET methodology enables to eliminate in advance the Root Causes of the future accidents by introducing practical safety culture principles in the current managerial practices

  6. Sensitive nuclear activities in certain free world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A concise, ready reference is provided for use in reviewing license applications for exporting to several countries for possible need of referral to DOE. For each country, nuclear explosive and sensitive nuclear activities, such as enrichment, reprocessing, heavy water production, and fabrication of fuel containing plutonium, are listed, as well as the organizations and installations responsible for such activities. Some activities are also included that are not sensitive but are closely related and could easily lead to sensitive activities. The countries covered are: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and the United States

  7. The perspectives of the nuclear market development in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    Since the end of the second petroleum crisis the context has never been so favourable to the nuclear return. This situation is also realized by the implementing of the CO 2 emission quotas. Thinking that the renewable energies are not sufficient, this study presents the nuclear power as an imperative solution. The different technological channels are detailed. It provides also informations on the different operators of the market, the market volume in 2030, the more attractive markets and the groups ready to capture the market. (A.L.B.)

  8. Twenty years of development and transformation in exploiting nuclear energy in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaneh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concern to exploiting nuclear energy in the world in two decades from 1970-1990 is briefly investigated. Historical prelude of technical evolution of nuclear energy is included to be recognized the relevant events occurred in the seventies. The intention is to give general information to those who have not sufficient time to study deeply in the field

  9. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  10. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-01

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982

  11. Meeting world energy needs. The economic and environmental aspects of the nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.P.; Chalpin, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Tabulated capital, operating, and overall production costs for nuclear, coal, and gas-fuelled power show that nuclear power is a viable option for meeting the world's energy needs. The advantage of nuclear, otherwise limited to certain markets, is seen to be much greater when credit is taken for environmental factors, namely emissions of carbon dioxide and acidic gases by fossil-fuelled plants. 5 figs

  12. Iodine-129 dose to the world population from the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Till, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Because of the 15.7 million-year half life for 129 I and the mobility of iodine in the environment, releases of 129 I result in potential radiological impacts on the entire world population essentially in perpetuity. This paper presents estimates of dose to the world population from releases of 129 I by the world nuclear power industry during the years 1975 to 2020

  13. Outlook for world nuclear power generation and long-term energy supply and demand situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuhji

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a long-term outlook for the world's nuclear generating capacity, taking into account the nuclear policy changes after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. World primary energy demand will grow from 11.2 billion tons of oil equivalent (toe) in 2009 to 17.3 billion toe in 2035. Along with this rapid increase in global energy consumption, the world's nuclear generating capacity will grow from 392 GW in 2010 to 484 GW in 2020 and 574 GW in 2035 in the 'Reference scenario'. Even in the 'Low nuclear scenario', where the maximum impact of Fukushima accident to the nuclear policies of each government is assumed, it will continue to grow in the future, exceeding 500 GW in 2035. In particular, Asian countries such as China and India will lead the growth both in the energy demand and in the nuclear power capacity. Therefore, it is essential to better ensure the safety of nuclear power generation. It is important for technologically developed countries, including Japan, to make active contributions to the establishment of a global nuclear safety control system. On the other hand, energy security and global warming will continue to be major issues, which will make it indispensable to make the best effort to save energy and expand renewable energy utilization. Japan is competitive in energy-saving and environmental conservation technologies, thus further development and utilization of there technologies should be a key option of Japan's growth growth strategy in the future. (author)

  14. Application of aggregation techniques for model order reduction of nuclear plants for operator guidance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.C.

    1980-12-01

    After a short description of a disturbance analysis system for nuclear plant based on real time dynamic modelling and simulation, a scheme for generating aggregated reduced models of high order systems is presented. This method allows the choice of dominant dynamic modes and its efficiency is illustrated for the case of a 29th order nuclear plant model

  15. Eschewing New World Order Tensions: Interpretations and Metaphors for Colombian Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Aceros Gualdrón

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available This article exemplifies a kind of tension that has been caused by the emergent world order; specifically, the one that has been established between the economic and social rationalities. In order to do so, it portrays the description that the ?Asociación Nacional Pro-Referendo Ley 100? (ANPR made of the Colombia?s Health System in an article called: ?Documento Parcial Preparatorio?. From this article we can highlight some metaphores that exemplify the before metioned tension, the actors involve in it and the proposed political action. In addition to that, there is a use of the cyborg image (Haraway,1991, the idea of the symbiotic contract (Serres, 1990, and the concept of the organizational government (Schvarstein, 2003 to translate the ANPR`s discourse and seek new ways of thinking. This article should not be taken as a reflection of the Health System?s reality. Instead, it should be taken as a possible reading to be given a second thought in order to produce a broader vision of the situation and a new point of view.

  16. Future World of Illicit Nuclear Trade: Mitigating the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    David Albright and Corey Gay , “Taiwan: Nuclear Nightmare Averted,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, January/February 1998, vol. 54, issue 1, p. 54. 8...38 Figure 6: A photo of a model of the IR-1 centrifuge in Iran, showing four aluminum rotor tubes and three bellows. The top and bottom tubes ...are painted black, possibly intended to help control the temperatures along the rotor assembly. The small tubing wrapped around the outside of the

  17. IAEA world survey on nuclear power plant personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Training of personnel is acknowledged to be essential for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The preparation of this TECDOC was recommended by the IAEA International Working group on Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and Qualification and represents a unique compilation of information including all aspects of NPP personnel training from 23 Member States and 129 training organizations. The basic aims of this survey are: to provide a worldwide overview of all aspects of NPP personnel training; to foster both national and international cooperation between organizations involved in nuclear training; to provide the means of exchange of experiences and practices in systematic approach to training (SAT). The survey provides information for each corresponding country on the: national system and organization of training; job positions for which SAT is used; training programmes for key operations, maintenance, instructor and other jobs; role of management and the regulatory body; training facilities; recommended training practices; availability of training personnel from organizations outside the country; and contact points. The three main parts of the publication are the summary, the analysis of training programmes for each job position and the analysis of training resources, and the country reports

  18. INIS: new world-wide nuclear information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Eiichi; Furuya, Minoru

    1976-01-01

    A new search system utilizing Atomindex is expounded. The nuclear information system of United States of America will be shifted to the larger scale system, Atomindex, at the moment of discontinuing the publication of Nuclear Science Abstract (NSA). This shifting exerts large or small influence upon the information systems of the other countries. The Atomindex is a publication of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), and it includes most market unavailable reports. It is delivered through the clearing house to the users. Main differences between INIS and NSA are illustrated. Each piece of literature is listed under one or more descriptor pairs. Each pair is composed of the main heading and its qualifier, both of which are descriptors. Atomindex employs four working languages, namely English, French, Russian and Spanish. However, a version in the original language, even when this is not a working language can be recorded on magnetic tapes. Many special characters (suffixes, Greek, etc.) as well as alphabet are used, and italic type or boldface can be designated, so that the quality of Atomindex is better than that of NSA. The tapes for SDI and RS will be utilized as on-line real time systems. The second generation that utilizes the computer seems to be superseding the first generation that turns over the abstracts page by page. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. The Food Crisis and Food Security: Towards a New World Food Order?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Golay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.

  20. The chaos and order in nuclear molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srokowski, T.

    1995-01-01

    The subject of the presented report is role of chaos in scattering processes in the frame of molecular dynamics. In this model, it is assumed that scattering particles (nuclei) consist of not-interacted components as alpha particles or 12 C, 16 O and 20 Ne clusters. The results show such effects as dynamical in stabilities and fractal structure as well as compound nuclei decay and heavy-ion fusion. The goal of the report is to make the reader more familiar with the chaos model and its application to nuclear phenomena. 157 refs, 40 figs

  1. Nuclear level repulsion, order vs. chaos and conserved quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the distribution of level spacings for states with the same angular momentum and parity is described in which the average spacing is calculated for the total ensemble. Though the resulting distribution of level spacings for states of deformed nuclei with Z = 62-75 and A = 155-185 is the closest to that of a Poisson distribution yet obtained for nuclear levels, significant deviations are observed for small level spacings. Many, but not all, of the very closely-spaced levels have K-values differing by several units. (orig.)

  2. Worst accident in the world. Chernobyl: the end of the nuclear dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N; Lean, G; Leigh, D; McKie, R; Pringle, P; Wilson, A

    1986-01-01

    This is the full story of Chernobyl, before, during and after the reactor accident in April 1986. The scene is set at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The nature of radioactivity, the risks and the health hazards posed by radioactivity and the world-wide nuclear energy scene are then discussed, followed by the particular nuclear situation in Russia. This includes the background to the nuclear power industry in Russia - its history, personnel and management, and ultimately the building of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The accident itself is then explained, minute by minute. The consequences, both short-term and long-term, on the immediate area and the rest of Europe are discussed. These are the medical effects on humans, the effects on the environment and the effect on the nuclear policies of the whole world.

  3. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world; Elecnuc. Les centrales nucleaires dans le monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary.

  4. ELECNUC. Nuclear power plants in the world - 2012 edition, Status on 2011-12-31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. Data come from the IAEA's PRIS database and from specific I-tese studies. The following aspects are reviewed: 2011 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2011/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2011); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2011; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear powe plants by country at the end 2011; Performance indicator of french PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2011; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2011; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2011; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2011; COL (Combined Licence) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  5. Commercial nuclear power 1988: Prospects for the United States and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. This report presents three different nuclear supply scenarios. The Optimistic-case scenario, included in previous issues of this report, has been deleted. 7 figs; 36 tabs

  6. The radiance of France; nuclear power and national identity after world war 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, G.

    2004-01-01

    This book discusses the early history of French nuclear power within its social and political context from the end of world war 2 to 1970. The author describes the creation of the nuclear reactors, the work at the reactor sites, and the impact of nuclear power on local communities. Information on the French atomic bomb program is also included. The conflicts and negotiations surrounding the nuclear programs are detailed, and the importance of the programs to French national identity is made clear. An excellent bibliography and extensive footnotes are provided

  7. Harvey, Mark S. (2003: Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blick, Theo

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available book review: Harvey Mark S. (2003: Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Ricinulei and Solifugae. Includes checklists for Europe of: Amblypygi, Uropygi, Schizomida, Palpigradi, Solifugae.

  8. Statutory Instrument No. 125, The Nuclear Installations (Falkland Islands and Dependencies) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to the Falkland Islands, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of the Falkland Islands causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  9. Statutory Instrument No. 126, The Nuclear Installations (Hong Kong) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to Hong Kong, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of Hong Kong causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  10. Statutory Instrument No. 123, The Nuclear Installations (Cayman Islands) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to the Cayman Islands, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of the Cayman Islands causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  11. Statutory Instrument No. 125, The Nuclear Installations (Gilbert and Ellice Islands) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  12. The Nuclear Installations (Guernsey) Order 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1528, 24 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order extends to Guernsey, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of Guernsey causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  13. Statutory Instrument No. 122, The Nuclear Installations (British Solomon Islands Protectorate) Order 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    This Order extends to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, with the exceptions, adaptations and modificatons specified in the Schedule to the Order, certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended. It is the 1965 Act which implements the provisions of the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention in the United Kingdom. The provisions so extended impose a duty on the nuclear operator to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the territorial limits of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate causes nuclear injury or damage, and relate to the right to compensation for breach of that duty, the bringing and satisfaction of claims and other matters. (NEA) [fr

  14. Public acceptance of nuclear power: some ethical issues. [Position statement of World Council of Churches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrecht, P; Arungu-Olende, S; Francis, J M; de Gaspar, D; Nashed, W; Nwosu, B C.E.; Rose, D J; Shinn, R L

    1977-12-01

    The World Council of Churches favors the widest possible discussion of nuclear power issues with the immediate purpose of raising the level of public awareness of the social, political, and technical risks that are inevitably associated with the large-scale and accelerating adoption of nuclear power generation. Its general position on nuclear energy is presented as follows. (A) The availability of nuclear energy is a controversial feature of today's world in that it affords the opportunity to provide a large fraction of the world's energy needs, counter-balanced by the exceptional nature of the risks involved, and other problems related to the employment of large-scale, capital-intensive high technology. (B) The maturity of the nuclear energy system is not yet such as to justify its worldwide application; the consequences of large-scale expansion of nuclear energy production are still relatively poorly understood and require further assessment. (C) The rights of access to nuclear technology should be preserved to the extent that the nuclear ''haves'' may not deny the nuclear ''have nots'' by any form of exclusive consultation. (D) There should be sufficient discussion of the factors governing access to nuclear technology to bring all nations to a new awareness of its risks and uncertainties as well as its opportunities; and the collective responsibility for monitoring and administering safeguards should reside with the IAEA rather than with individual governments. (E) Public confidence in the use of nuclear energy, seriously shaken in recent years, can be revived only by the widest possible public discussion of the technical options and of the value judgements underlying present patterns of energy consumption.

  15. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-01-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to disarmament. Which impulse prevails will

  16. The World After Proliferation, Deterrence and Disarmament if the Nuclear Taboo is Broken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    2009-07-01

    he nuclear taboo is customarily seen as a black and white norm, separating the world of the familiar from that of an unknowable afterlife.1 Nina Tannenwald argues that 'once the threshold between use and non-use is crossed, one is immediately in a new world with all the unimaginable consequences that could follow'. It is not correct, however, to say that the consequences are 'unimaginable'. They are certainly unpredictable, but one can imagine at least some of the consequences. This article attempts to do so with regard to consequences for proliferation, deterrence and disarmament. If the nuclear taboo were broken, whether by design, accident, miscalculation, or a breakdown of command and control, one of the more easily imagined consequences would be the collapse of the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It is safe to assume that the use of nuclear weapons in war for the first time since 1945 would be a transformational event. But would nuclear use spell the failure of deterrence and doom the prospects of a nuclear-weapons free world, making obsolete much of the current thinking about nuclear disarmament and nuclear deterrence? Not every nuclear use scenario would necessarily break the lock on the nuclear Pandora's Box. A 'demonstration shot', for example, would not have the same impact as nuclear obliteration of a city. Both would be breaches of the taboo, but the use of a single nuclear bomb probably would not disrupt the status quo as thoroughly as would a massive attack or a two-way exchange. Breaching the taboo would not necessarily reverse the powerful norm and tradition that has developed in the last 60+ years against use of nuclear weapons. There is no compelling logic to assume that nuclear weapons would thereby become re-legitimized as instruments of war. The breaking of the nuclear taboo could actually spur either or both of two opposite reactions: an increased salience of nuclear weapons and a stimulus to

  17. Present state and long term planning on nuclear power plants in principal countries in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Junichi

    1978-01-01

    The situation of nuclear power stations and the long term planning in each major country in the world were summarized, but the situation is changing from time to time, therefore it is difficult to make the long term prediction. The advanced countries in terms of nuclear power established the long term plans to adopt nuclear power generation largely owing to the oil crisis, but thereafter the revision was carried out again and again in respective countries. The developing countries already started the operation of nuclear power generation occupy only 2 to 3% of the total installed capacity in the world, but the countries constructing or planning nuclear power generation are many, and if the operation will be started as scheduled, their capacity will reach 30 million kW by 1985, and occupy about 10% of the total installed capacity of nuclear power generation in the world. As for the range of investigation of this report, the countries where the long term plans are unknown or the number of construction is small, Japan, Great Britain, USA and communist countries are excluded. As a rule, the light water reactors with power output of more than 200,000 kW are listed. The number of nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning stage, national situation, long term plan, and others in each country are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nuclear Magnetic Ordering in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jyrkkiö, T.A.; Huiku, M.T.; Siemensmeyer, K.

    1989-01-01

    for measurements in the ordered state; both our calculations and the experiments yield 1 nW beam heating. Polarized neutron experiments show that the scattered intensities from the strong fcc reflections are severely reduced by extinction. This makes the sample not very suitable for further studies with polarized...... to depend strongly on the external magnetic field between zero and the critical fieldB c=0.25 mT, indicating the existence of at least two antiferromagnetic phases. The results are compared to previous measurements of the magnetic susceptibility. Theoretical calculations do not provide a full explanation...

  19. Can the future, world-wide energy supply be achieved without nuclear energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugeler, K.

    1995-01-01

    In the future the world-wide energy demand is going to increase considerably. The use of nuclear energy will continuously grow if the demand of climate researchers for a reduction of the world-wide CO 2 emission is fulfilled and if the possible contribution of regenerative energy sources is assessed realistically. In the future a world-wide use of nuclear energy will be realised according to even higher safety standards. The modification of the German Atom Law, which determines the limitation of damage caused to the reactor plant for future reactors fulfils this demand. The efforts in the field of nuclear technical development will concentrate on the proof of the required safety properties. (orig.) [de

  20. Commercial nuclear power: prospects for the United States and the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, F.; Gielecki, M.; Diedrich, R.; Hewlett, J.; Murphy, T.

    1985-01-01

    This analysis report presents the current status and outlook for commercial nuclear power reactors for all countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information regarding operable reactors in countries with centrally planned economies is also presented. The report provides documentation of the US middle-case nuclear capacity and generation projections through 1995 that are presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1984. Additionally, US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2020 are presented for various nuclear power supply scenarios. These long-term projections are provided in support of the Department of Energy's activities pertaining to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The projections for foreign nuclear capacity through 1990 supplant the preliminary foreign WOCA projections presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1984 and are supplemented by WOCA country-specific projections through the year 2000

  1. Current status of nuclear power in the United States and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKlveen, J W

    1990-09-01

    Nuclear energy's share of the world electricity market has been growing over the past 35 years. In 1989, eight generating units entered commercial operation abroad and three new units were licensed in the U.S. In early 1990, Mexico became the 26th country to produce electricity from nuclear power. Currently the 426 operating reactors supply one sixth of the world's total electrical capacity. Fourteen countries have now operated nuclear plants for 20 or more years. Since 1980, France has been the leader in the use of nuclear power and currently generates three quarters of its electricity from 54 nuclear plants. The U.S. has 112 nuclear plants, the largest number of any country in the world. These plants satisfy almost 20 percent of U.S. electrical energy requirements. Last year Three Mile Island, the would-be icon for everything that is wrong with the nuclear industry was rated as the most efficient nuclear plant in the world. The worldwide trend toward acceptance of nuclear is improving slightly, but many political and societal issues need to be resolved. Whereas recent polls indicate that a majority of the people realize nuclear must be a major contributor to the energy mix of the future, many are reluctant to support the technology until the issue of waste disposal has been resolved. Fears of another Chernobyl, lack of capital, and a new anti-nuclear campaign by Greenpeace will keep the nuclear debate alive in many countries. Additional stumbling blocks in the U.S. include the need to develop a new generation of improved reactor designs which emphasize passive safety features, standardized designs and a stream-lined federal licensing process. Nuclear power is really not dead. Even environmentalists are starting to give it another look. A nuclear renaissance will occur in the U.S. How soon or under what conditions remain to be seen. The next crisis in the U.S. will not be a shortage of energy, rather a shortage of electricity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. NUCDAS: a database of nuclear criticality data around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Yuichi; Sakai, Tomohiro

    1999-01-01

    The NUCDAS database, which contains great numbers of nuclear criticality data and subcritical limit data described in criticality safety handbooks of Japan and foreign countries, has been developed at JAERI. The database was designed to perform quick search on criticality data and subcritical limits and to draw their curves for comparison. So, criticality data among handbooks can be shown on the screen and/or printed on the paper. The database runs on the Apple Macintosh computer and written in 4th Dimension, a relational database software for the Macintosh. This tool provides powerful search and sort capabilities. An appropriate graphic software (e.g. KaleidaGraph) is used to draw a graph of selected criticality data. NUCDAS will be demonstrated in the poster presentation. NUCEF'98 participants who are interested in NUCDAS will be able to operate Macintosh with the database and will be encouraged to give us some comments on it for modifications. Though all messages on the screen are written in Japanese, don't worry. (author)

  3. Overview of the older nuclear power stations in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, H.; Zuend, H.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest reactors in the world which are still operative are of the Magnox type. These will probably reach that 'useful' service life of 40 years over the next 6 - 10 years and will then be closed down. Light water reactors will not reach this age for another 10 - 15 years since the vast majority of the first pioneering systems have already been closed down. However, these created the preconditions for later systems to achieve service lives of 40 years or more. A consideration of the ageing mechanisms of reactors shows that 'old' is not a suitable criterion for taking a decision as to whether a reactor should be shut down or not. The major criterion for a decision of this kind is safety. Older plants in particular, often have large reserves so that the safety targets can still be maintained even after the useful service life has expired by simply adding sensible equipment. What constitutes 'sensible' equipment must also be considered from a financial point of view. The important thing is that each case requires individual consideration. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  4. Reduction of the chiral order parameter by a nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienle, P.; Yamazaki, Toshimizu

    2001-01-01

    We propose a model independent procedure to deduce from the 1s-binding energy of heavy, neutron rich pionic atoms, the isovector scattering length b 1 of the pion nucleus interaction. It is related to the pion decay constant f π , the order parameter of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and thus to the value of the chiral quark condensate. Based on the results with pionic 205 Pb, we find with the assertion that only the isovector part of the pion-nucleus interaction be modified by a QCD effect, a reduction of the quark condensate by 30% in a 205 Pb nucleus. Forthcoming experiments to measure pionic 1s-binding energies in Sn-isotopes, including isotope shifts, will yield decisive information on the quark condensate without assertion. (orig.)

  5. Four soil orders on a Vermont mountaintop-one-third of the world`s soil orders in a 2500-square-meter research plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Villars; Scott W. Bailey; Donald S. Ross

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Vermont Long-Term Soil Monitoring Project, five 50 x 50 m plots were established on protected forestland across Vermont. In 2002, ten randomly selected subplots at each monitoring plot were sampled. The 10 pedons sampled at the high-elevation spruce-fir “Forehead” plot on Mount Mansfield were found to include soils of four taxonomic Orders: Entisols,...

  6. The Clash of Interests: An Explanation of the World [Dis]order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Davutoğlu

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a critical re-examination of the Post-Cold War theories– especially Fukuyama's "End of History" and Huntington's "Clash of Civilizations"– and aims to provide an alternative explanation for the global political crisis and instabilities during this era. It is argued that the end of the Cold War strategic balance based on bipolarity has created sensitive regions on a large geopolitical and geoeconomic zone, because there is a vacuum of power to control the strategic capabilities of the geopolitical core areas as well as the vast resource-production-trade capabilities of international political economy. The revival of cultural and civilizational identities after the collapse of the ideological identities of the bipolar Cold War era has been exploited to justify the intra-civilizational strategic competition among the systemic power centers in order to control these sensitive geopolitical and geoeconomic zones. The Eurasian component of the Muslim world, which became the intersectional arena of these two phenomena, civilizational revival and strategic competition, appears as the focal point in international relations.

  7. Statement to Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World, 12 October 2011, Astana, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: It is a great honour for me to address this Conference for a Nuclear-Weapons-Free World. Astana is a highly appropriate venue for this Conference. Kazakhstan has made a very important contribution to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament. Under the leadership of President Nursultan Nazarbayev, Kazakhstan renounced the nuclear weapons which it inherited from the Soviet Union and closed the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, where over 450 underground and atmospheric nuclear tests had been conducted. It joined the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) as a non-nuclear-weapon State and has concluded both a safeguards agreement and an additional protocol with the IAEA. Kazakhstan played a significant role in establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia in 2009. The treaty creating this nuclear-weapon-free zone established an important precedent as it is the only arms control treaty to date that requires its parties to bring into force an additional protocol to their IAEA safeguards agreements. The treaty, which was supported by the IAEA, forbids the development, manufacture, stockpiling, acquisition or possession of any nuclear explosive device within the zone. Peaceful uses of nuclear energy are permitted if placed under enhanced IAEA safeguards. The treaty also requires Parties to meet international standards regarding security of nuclear facilities. This is intended to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and prevent smuggling of nuclear and radioactive materials in the region. Today, the scientific and technical facilities at Semipalatinsk are being converted to peaceful uses under the jurisdiction of the National Nuclear Centre of the Republic of Kazakhstan. IAEA is pleased to have assisted in this work. Shutting down the nuclear test range at Semipalatinsk sends a strong signal of support for the nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime. It contributes both directly and symbolically to the goals of the

  8. Sustaining the future: the role of nuclear power in meeting future world energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.; Sun, Y.

    2003-01-01

    A description is given of recently informed analyses showing the potential that nuclear power has in meeting global energy demands. For both the electricity and transportation sectors, we can quantify the beneficial effects on the environment, and we show how nuclear power deserves credit for its role in assisting future world energy, environmental and economic sustainability. The continuing expansion of the world's and Asia's energy needs, coupled with the need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) and other emissions, will require new approaches for large scale energy production and use. This is particularly important for China and Asia with respect to meeting both the energy demand and sustainability challenges. We show and explore the role of nuclear power for large-scale energy applications, including electricity production and hydrogen for transportation. Advanced nuclear technologies, such as those like CANDU's next generation ACR, can meet future global energy market needs, avoid emissions, and mitigate the potential for global climate change. We use the latest IPCC Scenarios out to the year 2100 as a base case, but correct them to examine the sensitivity to large scale nuclear and hydrogen fuel penetration. We show a significant impact of nuclear energy on energy market penetration, and in reducing GHGs and other emissions in the coming century, particularly in the industrial developing world and in Asia. This is achieved without needing emissions credits, as are used or needed as economic support for other sources, or for subsidies via emissions trading schemes. Nuclear power offers the relatively emissions-free means, both to provide electricity for traditional applications and, by electrolytic production of hydrogen, to extend its use deep into the transportation sector. For the published IPCC Marker Scenarios for Asia we show the reduction in GHG emissions when electrolysis using electricity from nuclear power assists the introduction of hydrogen as a fuel

  9. Developing world class leader-managers for the evolving nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konettsni, A.L.

    2010-01-01

    The author discusses the problems of educating and training the world-class leaders for nuclear industry. He specifies the leader's characters, emphasizing that common high standards of performance have been the hallmark of the industry for years. Rapid growth in the nuclear industry could diminish the self-discipline that has been developed over decades. He lists the US Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program fundamental principles developed over six decades. The author also dwells on corporate self-motivation, self-control, self-expectancy of optimism and company's image [ru

  10. IAEA safeguards: Stemming the spread of nuclear weapons. As the world's nuclear inspectorate, the IAEA performs an indispensable role in furthering nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Following the completion of the Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in 1968, the IAEA has become the instrument with which to verify that the peaceful use commitments made under the NPT or similar agreements are kept through performing what is known as its safeguards role. Under the NPT, governments around the world have committed to three common objectives: preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons; pursuing nuclear disarmament; and promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The NPT has made it obligatory for all its non-nuclear weapon State parties to submit all nuclear material in nuclear activities to IAEA safeguards, and to conclude a comprehensive safeguards agreement with the Agency. With all but a handful of the world community as State parties, the NPT is by far the most widely adhered to legal agreement in the field of disarmament and non-proliferation. The IAEA takes account of all source and special fissionable material in countries under safeguards. Monitoring and verification activities focus on those types of nuclear material that are the most crucial and relevant to nuclear weapons manufacturing. This includes plutonium-239, uranium-233 and -235 and any material containing one or more of these. Safeguards activities are applied routinely at over 900 facilities in 71 countries. In 2001 alone, more than 21,000 calendar days in the field were devoted to verifying hundreds of tons of special fissionable material by more than IAEA 250 inspectors

  11. Bringing data about all nuclear power plants of the world to young people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, Andrej

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Training Centre in Ljubljana with its Information Centre has during the years developed several methods for presenting to general public the importance of nuclear power in today's World. Since some four years ago we have as an exhibit the World map with the hard wired LEDs representing each and every operating power reactor. It proved to be very effective as it gives the visitor a visual impression about the magnitude of that type of power source. Similar information we are also maintaining at our WWW home page http://www2.iis.si/~icjt/plants/ and http://www2.iis.si/~icjt/nukestat/ In parallel we have developed our own data base of all nuclear power plants of the World. We are permanently collecting data from all available sources like IAEA PRIS, INSC in Argonne or NucNet. To make these data even better understandable to general public but also to make them easily accessible to professionals, we have developed a special presentation system, very suitable for info centres and for distribution on CD ROMs. The basis of the system is an interactive map of the World, which can be easily rotated and zoomed in or out with the mouse. Each nuclear site is represented by a small icon, which is also an entry into more detailed data. For each site the user can see the detailed map, basic technical data about the site, photo if available and technical data about each unit on site. There are also summary data available about each nuclear country in a graphical form. Special attraction is an on-line display of the accumulated operating time of all nuclear power plants (currently about 9600 years), which is being updated every second. Similar display is available for each country. There are also summary data about the power and production at each continents and for each nuclear power country of the world, Special attraction is an on-line display of the accumulated operating time of all nuclear power plants (currently about 9600 years), which is being updated every second

  12. World nuclear power once again in the spotlight. Comments on the 13th Pacfic Basin Nuclear Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Mingchang; Ruan Keqiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper comments on The 13th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference held in Shenzhen, China, on October 21/25, 2002 and summarizes some key papers presented in the Conference and viewpoints from their following discussions, which indicates that nuclear power in the world is once again in the spotlight. The Conference shows that in the coming 50 years the roadmap to develop nuclear energy would be divided into two stages: Near-Term Deployment by 2010-2015, some advanced designs were developed for Utilities; Generation IV Program, its overall goal is to identify and develop next-generation nuclear power systems that could be deployed over the next 30 years to help meet the world's energy needs throughout the 21st century. Some visions is the future, such as co-generation of electricity and space heating or desalination, and combination of Generation IV and so-called Hydrogen Economy-the use of hydrogen in vehicle transport to replace petroleum, were presented. As a primary energy source nuclear power is particularly well suited to hydrogen production, offering the almost unique position of large-scale hydrogen production with near-zero emissions. (authors)

  13. Atomic Energy and Radioactive Substances. The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Order extends to the Isle of Man, with the exceptions, adaptations and modifications specified in the Schedule, those provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, as amended, which relate to the duty in respect of the carriage of nuclear matter, to the right to compensation for breach of that duty and to the bringing and satisfaction of claims. Under the Nuclear Installations Act, the duty of the operator is to secure that no nuclear occurrence taking place within the realm of the Act causes injury to persons or damage to property. (NEA) [fr

  14. Future industrialization of the world and the necessity of nuclear power; how limited are resources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, J.

    1996-01-01

    Will the future world be forever divided into an industrial, developed and 'rich' on one side, and primitive, undeveloped, and poor on the other? Is an industrial, affluent and sustainable world of 10-15 billion people owning 5-10 billion cars physically possible to exist. Can the world have enough food, minerals and energy to support such a widespread affluence in a sustainable manner? In previous papers i have argued that even without any major breakthroughs in science and technology, an industrialized, sustainable and affluent world can be created within the next half century, but only if breeder nuclear power is widely used throughout the world. In this paper i elaborate on the question of future availability of some basic natural resources. 18 refs. 3 figs. 1 tabs

  15. Energy, world should not chose nuclear energy to fight against climatic change. Nuclear and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, S.

    2007-06-01

    This document proposes an abstract of the conclusions of an expert group, the Oxford Research Group, which criticizes the today boost in favor of the electricity from nuclear energy. They explain that the nuclear energy should not be a solution for the fight against the climatic change. (A.L.B.)

  16. Changing the world with hydrogen and nuclear: From past successes to shaping the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the past history of hydrogen and nuclear energy, while considering how they had been important forever, how they have been used to change the world when they were discovered and understood, and how they will likely shape our future to face specific challenges of the 21. century. Content: 1 - hydrogen and nuclear reactions at the origin of the universe: the universe and supernovae, the sun, the blue planet, the evolution of man; 2 - understanding and first uses of hydrogen: the discovery of hydrogen, hydrogen balloons, airships or dirigibles, the discovery of the electrolysis and the fuel cell, Jules Vernes; 3 - development of nuclear over the 20. century: pioneers of nuclear energy, Fermi reactor, EBR-1; 4 - development of hydrogen over the 20. century, expanding uses of hydrogen over the second half of the 20. century; 5 - four major endeavours gathering hydrogen and nuclear: light water reactors, naval reactors, nuclear rockets, controlled fusion, the PNP-500 project; 6 - stakes in hydrogen and nuclear production in the 21. century: energy challenge for the 21. century, peaking of fossil fuel production, renaissance of nuclear energy, changes in transportation model, hydrogen market, technologies for nuclear hydrogen production, carbon taxes, the path forward: international demonstrations towards industrialisation, a new generation of scientists for our dreams come true

  17. Prospects of nuclear power and of its role in the world energy supply (1975-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymm, R.

    1975-01-01

    Regardless of temporary delays and possible setbacks, a good case can be made for the expectation that nuclear stations will provide more than half of the electricity which will be generated in the world by the turn of the century and ensure a smooth transition to an economy which will gradually dispense with fossil fuels. (orig./RW) [de

  18. What's the rest of the world doing with its spent nuclear fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T. [Stanford Univ. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Palo Alto, California (United States)], E-mail: Isaacs2@llnl.gov

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the storage of spent nuclear fuel by countries around the world. At the present time, all countries are storing it. A small number of countries are reprocessing it for recycling. Essentially all countries are preparing for eventual disposal of end waste form. There is much uncertainty and controversy over what should and will happen.

  19. Building world-wide nuclear industry success stories - Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This WNA Position Statement summarizes the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating experience and

  20. Spent fuel accumulations and arisings in 'fuel user' states: implications for a world nuclear partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lineberry, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Consider the question: In a GNEP world, what are the implications of current spent fuel inventories and possible future accumulations in 'fuel user' states? The inventory today (∼95,000 MTHM) and the growth rate (∼4,000 MTHM/yr) in likely fuel user states is roughly twice that in the U.S., and thus the problem is substantial. The magnitude of the issue increases if, as is expected, fuel user states grow their nuclear capacity. For purposes of illustration, 2% annual growth assumed in this study. There is an implied imperative to remove spent fuel inventories from fuel user states in some reasonable time (if the spent fuel backlog cannot be cleared by 2100, what motivation is there for GNEP today?). Clearing the backlog requires massive reprocessing capacity, but that makes no economic or strategic sense until the advanced burner reactors are developed and deployed. Thus, burner reactor development is the pacing item with any practical GNEP schedule. With regard to economics, cost estimates for reprocessing (which drive key GNEP costs) are much too disparate today. The disparities must be lessened in order to permit rational decision-making. (author)

  1. Reduced order for nuclear reactor model in frequency and time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugroho, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    In control system theory, a model can be represented by frequency or time domain. In frequency domain, the model was represented by transfer function. in time domain, the model was represented by state space. for the sake of simplification in computation, it is necessary to reduce the model order. the main aim of this research is to find the best in nuclear reactor model. Model order reduction in frequency domain can be done utilizing pole-zero cancellation method; while in time domain utilizing balanced aggregation method the balanced aggregation method was developed by moore (1981). In this paper, the two kinds of method were applied to reduce a nuclear reactor model which was constructed by neutron dynamics and heat transfer equations. to validate that the model characteristics were not change when model order reduction applied, the response was utilized for full and reduced order. it was shown that the nuclear reactor order model can be reduced from order 8 to 2 order 2 is the best order for nuclear reactor model

  2. Order of 30 november 1989 on enrichment of nuclear engineering terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This Order repeals a 1973 Order on the enrichment of the nuclear vocabulary and approves the terms and expressions which must be used immediately in administrative and regulatory texts, communications to the public, correspondence and contracts concluded by public institutions and books for education and research [fr

  3. Achieving world's highest level of nuclear safety learning from overseas nuclear trouble events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumoto, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Information Research Project of Institute of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated (INSS) had acquired trouble information of nuclear power plants (NPPs) up to annual several thousand events issued by overseas regulatory agencies for more than 20 years since INSS established and analyzed it in details respectively after the screening. Lessons extracted from the analysis were offered as suggestions to electric utilities having PWRs in Japan. Such activities would surely contribute to maintain and improve nuclear safety with no objection. However, they could not prevent the occurrence of accident of Fukushima Daiichi NPPs. Thus the project had reviewed usefulness of past activities and how improved could be by listening sincerely to outside opinions. This report introduced outlines of recent activities. Competent suggestions to electric utilities might be made with improved reflection of lessons to needed rules, deepened information sharing within the project and raised awareness of the problem. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Are world uranium resources sufficient to fuel global growth in nuclear generating capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Vance, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Increased uranium prices since 2003 have produced more activity in the sector than the previous 20 years. Nuclear reactor construction is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and several, particularly in the developing world, are considering introducing nuclear power as a means of meeting rising electricity demand without increasing greenhouse gas emissions. Others have recently decided to either withdraw from the use of nuclear power or not proceed with development plans following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011. Since the mid-1960, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency have jointly prepared a comprehensive update of global uranium resources, production and demand (commonly known as the 'Red Book'. The Red Book is based on government responses to a questionnaire that requests information on uranium exploration and mine development activity, resources and plans for nuclear development to 2035. This presentation provides an overview of the global situation based on the recently published 2011 edition. It features a compilation of global uranium resources, projected mine development and production capability in all the countries currently producing uranium or with plans to do so in the near future. This is compared to updated, post-Fukushima demand projections, reflecting nuclear phase-out plans announced in some countries and ambitious expansion plans of others. The 2011 Red Book shows that currently defined uranium resources are sufficient to meet high case projections of nuclear power development to 2035. (authors)

  5. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The states to be specified by the cabinet order stipulated in Item 2, Article 3 to the Law on Indemmity Agreement for Compensation of Nuclear Damage (hereinafter referred to as the Law) are the states meeting the following requirements. There are no violation of the stipulations according to the specified articles of the Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Reactors, no damage of the facilities provided for the operation of reactors and others, and no natural calamity or no action of third parties which become the causes for the occurrence of nuclear damage. The nuclear damage to be specified according to the cabinet order stipulated in No. 5, Article 3 of the Law is the one caused by tidal waves. The indemnification rate stipulated in Article 6 of the Law to be decided by the cabinet order is 5/10000 (and 2.5/10000 regarding the indemnification contract with universities or colleges). Atomic energy entrepreneurs should notify the specified items to the Government with reference to the indemnification contracts concerning the operation of reactors, fabrication, reprocessing, use and transportation of nuclear fuel materials or matters contaminated by nuclear fuel materials

  6. The geopolitics in the spheres of influence, domination, and overrule: towards a new world order or disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2012-01-01

    The term New World Order (NWO) appears to get a more comprehensive meaning from the most recent evolution of dramatic events in various parts of the world. Officially, there is still no any unified approach how it may look like, upon which pillars it will be built, and how it would operate. More assumptions can be heard by ordinary people than by those who are believed to have considerable impact on the flows of this outspoken order. Unlike great revolutionary changes of the past, e.g. the be...

  7. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the Cabinet Order No.46 of March 6, 1962. The Order consists of eleven Articles. The provisions under Article 1 and Article 2 specify requirements for conforming to the Law concerning Contract for Compensation and Indemnity for Nuclear Energy Loss. The provisions under Article 3 provide for the compensation premium rate (5/10,000). Data to be reported to the government are given under Article 4. Such data include purpose, type and thermal output of the reactor; location and structure of the nuclear reactor facilities; arrangements in the nuclear reactor facilities; plan for operation of the nuclear reactor; type and yearly amount of nuclear fuel substances used; method for disposal of spent fuel; matters concerning contract for liability insurance; location, structure, etc. of processing facilities, reprocessing facilities and waste disposal facilities; route and method for transporting materials contaminated with nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel substances; etc. Managers of nuclear energy business should pay the security money every year, which goes to the national treasury. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  9. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail. (Kubozone, M.)

  10. Staying ahead of the game [The world's nuclear regime is being tested like never before

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear non-proliferation regime today faces a number of challenges. Not all would agree that the system is 'in crisis', but we can confidently say that the regime is certainly being tested. It goes without saying that the reported nuclear test by DPRK in October 2006 has not made the situation easier. So we should begin to find innovative solutions to overcome vulnerabilities or the international nuclear safeguards regime will become obsolete. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was ratified more than 30 years ago. Since then the world has undergone rapid social, political and economic changes, which have resulted in a changed non-proliferation landscape. Developments in the three pillars of the NPT -disarmament, technology transfer and verification- have not necessarily been even. The IAEA has a role to play, in particular, in the latter two pillars. Although one might argue that there has been slow progress with regards to disarmament, it is my belief that we should continue to improve nuclear verification methods and techniques to keep up with the changing non-proliferation landscape. If we fail to do so, we might not only impact international safeguards, but also the future prospects of peaceful nuclear applications. During the last two decades we have seen three major developments related to nuclear non-proliferation: the increased dissemination of nuclear technology and nuclear know-how, particularly in light of renewed interest in nuclear power; a renewed drive on the part of a few States to acquire technology suitable for nuclear weapons purpose; the emergence of clandestine procurement networks. Under the NPT regime, there is nothing illegal about any State having enrichment or reprocessing technology. However, we ought to ensure that nuclear material and infrastructure is not used for illicit and non-peaceful purposes. Better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology is being explored through initiatives such as

  11. Our concept of the world is changed by nuclear power. Veraenderung unseres Weltbildes durch die Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knizia, K. (Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund (Germany). Vorstand)

    1993-01-01

    In the absence of a positive agreement on the use of nuclear power mankind will not be able to live in peace. Viability is endagered by worldwide battles for energy. In the long term, the peaceful utilization of nuclear power must be given priority because the reserves of fossil energy resources will have been consumed in a few generations' time and renewable energy sources do not produce a yield high enough to meet the demand for energy of a continuously increasing world population. Creativity and captial must ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies of energy and goods for everybody. Environmental protection is facilitated by the use of nuclear power, for nuclear power is a source of energy whose waste can be removed from the biosphere completely and safely. (orig.).

  12. Nuclear power as a high-order innovation and its role in scientific and technical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trnka, J [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1979-04-01

    The systems approach to technical innovation, the developmental trends of the knowledge of inanimate nature and their technical applications in social production are described. The system of technical innovation orders is based on the definitions of the whole range of technical innovation, classified into several orders. Nine technical innovation orders are described. The concept defines the approach to defining the overall position of nuclear power and some of its development changes.

  13. Nuclear power as a high-order innovation and its role in scientific and technical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trnka, J.

    1979-01-01

    The systems approach to technical innovation, the developmental trends of the knowledge of inanimate nature and their technical applications in social production are described. The system of technical innovation orders is based on the definitions of the whole range of technical innovation, classified into several orders of which. Nine technical innovation orders are described. The concept defines the approach to defining the overall position of nuclear power and some of its development changes. (J.P.)

  14. The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009. With Particular Emphasis on Economic Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mycle; Thomas, Steve; Froggatt, Antony; Koplow, Doug; Hazemann, Julie

    2009-08-01

    The World Nuclear Industry Status Report 2009 provides the reader with the basic quantitative and qualitative facts on the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and in planning phases throughout the world. A detailed overview assesses the economic performance of past and current nuclear projects. As of 1 August 2009 there are 435 nuclear reactors operating in the world, nine less than in 2002. There are 52 units listed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as 'under construction'. At the peak of the nuclear industry's growth phase in 1979 there were 233 reactors being built concurrently. Even at the end of 1987, there were still 120 reactors in process. Much has changed. For the first time since commercial use of nuclear energy began in the middle of the 1950's no new nuclear plant was connected to the grid in 2008. In fact, no start-up has been reported for the past two years, since Cernavoda-2 was connected to the grid on 7 August 2007, after 24 years of construction. In 1989 a total of 177 nuclear reactors had been operated in what are now the 27 EU Member States, but as of 1 August 2009 only 144 units were in operation. Today the worldwide operating reactors total 370,000 megawatts (370 GW), about 1,600 MW less than one year ago. In 2007 nuclear power plants generated about 2,600 TWh and provided 14% of the world's electricity. After an unprecedented drop in electricity generation of 2% in 2007, nuclear power plants' output lost another half percentage point in 2008. Nuclear power provided 5.5% of the commercial primary energy production and about 2% of the final energy in the world, and has trended downwards for several years. Twenty-seven of the 31 countries operating nuclear power plants maintained or decreased their share of nuclear power within the electricity mix in 2008 relative to 2007. Four countries (Czech Republic, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia) increased their share. In addition to the 52 units currently under construction

  15. Royal order relating to the transfer of nuclear materials and technology to non-nuclear weapon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    In implementation of the Act of 1981 on conditions for the export of nuclear materials, equipment and technological data, this Order sets down the detailed mechanisms for such transfers. Its object is to ensure that they will be carried out exclusively for peaceful purposes and in conformity with the NPT [fr

  16. Perspectives of nuclear energy in the view of the World Energy Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, G.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1930, the World Energy Council (WEC) has been closely involved in problems associated with the use of nuclear power. At the meeting then held by the WEC Executive Committee in Berlin, Albert Einstein drew the attention of power utilities to this new source of energy. In addition to optimized use, technical progress, and waste management, the WEC regards aspects of safety, proliferation, and sustainability of nuclear power as matters of special importance. In the energy scenarios elaborated by the WEC since the 1980s, nuclear power plays one of the leading roles in the future energy mix. The sustainable management of energy resources, worldwide climate protection, but also equal access to energy for all people, require the use of nuclear power and the furtherance of its options. Moreover, the use of nuclear power in the industrialized countries helps to stabilize energy prices worldwide. This is in the interest especially of developing countries, for which low-cost, accessible energy sources are vital factors. The electricity supply crisis in California in 2001 has shown the continuity of supply to be one of the factors important in the deregulation of energy markets. Bottlenecks in electricity supply because of a lack of acceptance of electricity generation are problems affecting the future of industrialized countries. For instance, the increasing digitization of every-day life demands reliable power supply. In its studies of all available energy sources the WEC found no alternative to nuclear power. Factors of importance in the future development and use of nuclear power are public acceptance and the ability, and willingness, to take decisions in economic issues. Waste management, proliferation, safety, and research and development are other priorities. As a source of power protecting the climate, stabilizing costs, and offering a considerable potential, nuclear power is compatible with the objectives of sustainable development for the world of tomorrow

  17. Order of 10 october 1977 on the special safety measures applicable to certain large nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order by the Minister of Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Minister of Labour was made in implementation of Section 40 of Decree No. 75-306 of 28 April 1975 on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation in large nuclear installations. It lays down the safety measures applicable to nuclear reactors and ancillary facilities, particle accelerators, irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and facilities for the storage of radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  18. Nuclear power at present and in the future. Sweden and the rest of the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The report provides by no means a complete picture of nuclear power. There are a number of issues not covered, such as environmental impacts caused by the nuclear plants used (with the exception of the greenhouse gases that highlights some of report), the link with nuclear weapons and waste disposal. The share of nuclear power in Sweden in 2010 is higher than the average for the world The global net installed power of nuclear power in early 2010 was just over 370 GW e distributed over 436 nuclear power plants. In 2007, global electricity generation from nuclear power was about 14 percent of total electricity generation, compared with 44 percent in Sweden. The average availability for nuclear power plants was about 82 percent between 2005 and 2007. During the same period the availability in Swedish plants was lose to 84 percent. The Swedish availability has fallen, in 2004 the availability was comparable to that in Finland, which amounted to just over 94 percent between 2005 and 2007. The expansion of nuclear power may be limited by technical challenges in manufacturing infrastructure and a shortage of skilled labor. There is only a few reactor suppliers in the market and the quality demand of the material is much higher than for other major projects. Whether nuclear power is competitive with alternative investments or not is uncertain. The investment costs for building new reactors is high but the operational and maintenance costs are low compared to many other types of power sources. In an Emission Trading System nuclear power competitivity with fossil options increases. Nuclear power is a power source with low greenhouse gas emissions over its life cycle. Uranium is a limited resource and like other natural resources limited to a number of countries. Most nuclear reactors are also dependent on enrichment of the natural uranium. If an open or closed nuclear fuel cycle is used is crucial for how long the uranium reserves will last and how nuclear energy can grow

  19. The world energetic demand, one key challenge for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, U.

    2009-01-01

    A reappraisal of nuclear power is currently underway worldwide , with an increase in the use of nuclear energy for power generation predicted. The reasons for this global renaissance include a growing demand for electric power throughout the world, awareness the our fossil resources are limited,d protection of the environment and the need for further development of various renewable energy technologies to ensure their competitiveness and base-load capability. Leading energy agencies are predicting an increase in nuclear capacity worldwide from the current figure of 370 GW to 415 -833 GW by the year 2030. Numerous countries have decided to build new nuclear power plants or are planning to do so, even countries that have not used nuclear energy in the past. The nuclear industry is rising to this challenge by offering advanced Generation III+reactors, y building up staffing levels and investing in production facilities and the fuel cycle. Standardizing technology, progressively harmonizing safety requirements across national borders and setting un long-term cooperation agreements between vendors and plant operators are options that can help turn the global renaissance of nuclear power into a sustainable success. (Author)

  20. Conflicting Evolutionary Histories of the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes in New World Myotis Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Roy N; Faircloth, Brant C; Sullivan, Kevin A M; Kieran, Troy J; Glenn, Travis C; Vandewege, Michael W; Lee, Thomas E; Baker, Robert J; Stevens, Richard D; Ray, David A

    2018-03-01

    The rapid diversification of Myotis bats into more than 100 species is one of the most extensive mammalian radiations available for study. Efforts to understand relationships within Myotis have primarily utilized mitochondrial markers and trees inferred from nuclear markers lacked resolution. Our current understanding of relationships within Myotis is therefore biased towards a set of phylogenetic markers that may not reflect the history of the nuclear genome. To resolve this, we sequenced the full mitochondrial genomes of 37 representative Myotis, primarily from the New World, in conjunction with targeted sequencing of 3648 ultraconserved elements (UCEs). We inferred the phylogeny and explored the effects of concatenation and summary phylogenetic methods, as well as combinations of markers based on informativeness or levels of missing data, on our results. Of the 294 phylogenies generated from the nuclear UCE data, all are significantly different from phylogenies inferred using mitochondrial genomes. Even within the nuclear data, quartet frequencies indicate that around half of all UCE loci conflict with the estimated species tree. Several factors can drive such conflict, including incomplete lineage sorting, introgressive hybridization, or even phylogenetic error. Despite the degree of discordance between nuclear UCE loci and the mitochondrial genome and among UCE loci themselves, the most common nuclear topology is recovered in one quarter of all analyses with strong nodal support. Based on these results, we re-examine the evolutionary history of Myotis to better understand the phenomena driving their unique nuclear, mitochondrial, and biogeographic histories.

  1. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO 2 emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  2. Nuclear power in the world. Its present status and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, L.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the most important data about the nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction as of the end of 1993 is given: their capacity, share of world capacity, growth of nuclear electricity generation since 1970 and its distribution by country. Nuclear prospects in the medium (2015) and long term (2025) are connected with a broad range of factors: development of advanced reactors ensuring high level of safety, implementation of high level waste repositories, enhancing the public acceptance of nuclear power. The issue of the cost of electricity generation is also discussed. Nuclear capacity projections to 2015 by region are given with 'low' and 'high' estimates. The low case reflects the continuation of the present trend of stagnation in nuclear power development due to public opposition and low economic growth in OECD countries, uncertainties in Eastern Europe and lack of finding in developing countries. The high case reflects a moderate revival of nuclear power development in the light of a more comprehensive assessment of the macro-economic and environmental aspects of the different options available for electricity generation. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (R.T.)

  3. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  4. International Seminar on Nuclear policy in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 25 and April 26, 2013 was held in Buenos Aires the International Seminar 'Nuclear Politics in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives', organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), the National University of San Martin (UNSAM) and University of San Andres (UdeSA). With the main objective of creating an area for reflection and discussion on the state of the global nuclear policy, its impact on the region and in our country, and raised as an area of interaction between the academic and those working in the sector policies. The seminar consisted of six thematic panels, in addition to the opening session, in which academics and researchers exposed renowned in dialogue with officials and professionals of the nuclear sector. In this seminar were presented some papers of the following topics: historical approaches to nuclear policy in emerging contexts; nuclear policy and civil society; discussion and perspectives on proliferation and non-proliferation, security in the post-Fukushima: discussion and perspectives; Argentina-Brazil: from competition to cooperation, present and prospects for the nuclear industry.

  5. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses the OECD's report ''World Energy Outlook'', which concluded that a severe energy gap could, and probably would, develop by the mid-1980s if present energy policies continue. Should nuclear power fail to make a substantial contribution, this situation is predicted to become even worse. The author states that an energy gap can only be realistically avoided by a combination of (a) deep energy conservation, (b) even greater use of coal, and (c) nuclear power. New energy technologies cannot realistically be expected to make a significant contribution much before the end of the century. Conservation and coal alone, however, will not be sufficient. It is difficult to envisage energy savings of more than 10% without reducing economic activity to a degree that becomes politically unacceptable. Greater use of coal is undoubtedly feasible, but the potential is severely constrained in the medium term for economic, technological and environmental reasons. Nuclear power must also make a significant contribution. However, estimates of OECD nuclear energy supply for 1985 have been scaled drastically downwards during 1976 owing to: uncertainty in the utility sector over future growth in electricity demand; continued, and in some cases increased, opposition to nuclear power; and delays and uncertainties in government nuclear policies and programmes. The author concludes that we cannot afford any further shortfall and we must move urgently to: (a) give strong and unswerving support to thermal nuclear reactor programmes (requiring that governments adopt clear and coherent nuclear policies, taking into account the legitimate concern expressed by the public); (b) develop stable and long-term international arrangements so that the necessary nuclear fuel facilities can be made available on a secure basis for peaceful uses of nuclear power; (c) decide what the real proliferation risk is and agree on action to avoid it; and (d) make renewed and stronger efforts to solve

  6. Renewed conception of nuclear sharing in solving the world power problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The necessity of measures for timely preparation of new technologies for replacement of chemical fuel is discussed in connection with forecasted triplication of the world electrical energy production in the middle of the century. Nuclear fission is considered practically as the only version for stabilization of the oil and gas resources consumption. Development of nuclear technologies is concentrated at their evolutionary improvement. The fast reactors are considered in forecasts and programs to be used basically for the burnup of plutonium and long-living nuclides, accumulated in the light-water reactors

  7. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Its historical discoveries and impact on the world: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai; Shen Wenqing

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear science has been in existence for more than one hundred years, and has affected the world in many important aspects. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the history of nuclear science, including major discoveries such as the discovery of radioactivity, the electron, proton and neutron. The structures of atoms and atomic nuclei are explained, with some historic experiments and theories. The immense impact of nuclear science on the natural sciences and the world is reviewed

  8. Order in large and chaos in small components of nuclear wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1992-06-01

    An investigation of the order and chaos of the nuclear excited states has shown that there is order in the large and chaos in the small quasiparticle or phonon components of the nuclear wave functions. The order-to-chaos transition is treated as a transition from the large to the small components of the nuclear wave function. The analysis has shown that relatively large many-quasiparticle components of the wave function at an excitation energy (4-8)MeV may exist. The large many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions of the neutron resonances are responsible for enhanced E1-, M1- and E2-transition probabilities from neutron resonance to levels lying (1-2)MeV below them. (author)

  9. Challenging the New World Order: The Arms Transfer Policies of the Russian Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    SU-22 fighter, SU-24 and SU-25 ground attack planes, MiG-29, MiG-31 fighters, 11-76 transports, " secondhand " AN-24 and Yak-40 passenger aircraft, i.e...notably in the Third World, and is the author of a forthcoming study of the Soviet Commissariat of Nationalities and editor of books on Soviet

  10. The Struggle for Human Rights: A Question of Values. Perspectives in World Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Jack R., Ed.; And Others

    Intended for junior or senior high school students, this pamphlet examines the status of the world community in upholding the promise of the United Nations'"Universal Declaration of Human Rights" of 1948. The five chapters include definitions for a human being, and discussions of human rights and whether laws and treaties are effective…

  11. US-China relations and the liberal world order : Contending elites, colliding visions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Naná; van Apeldoorn, Bastiaan

    2018-01-01

    The future of liberal internationalism will be influenced increasingly by the re-emergence of China as a major power on the world stage and by the way the United States is reacting to China's growing influence. In this article, we discern three possible scenarios: one of inevitable conflict, one of

  12. Africa in the "New World Order": Old Assumptions, Myths, and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goke-Pariola, Abiodun

    Old stereotypes and prejudices about Africa and Africans are addressed in this paper on globalizing the business curriculum and internationalizing the training of professionals. It is noted that Africa continues to suffer from a tradition of neglect that includes a historical, systematic exclusion from the rest of the world. Examples from the…

  13. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Under the above mentioned law this order prescribes the procedures of controls given to the persons who wish to conduct refining and fabricating businesses, to construct and operate reactors, and to use nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and internationally controlled materials. The common controlling principle prescribed is that the permission or authorization necessary for above listed businesses should be applied for at each factory or each place of business. Based on the principle, the order prescribes: the procedures to apply for the authorization of the refining business, the permission of the change thereof, and the permission of the fabricating business and the change, thereof (the 1st chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission of the construction of reactors and of the change of the construction, as well as the procedure to do periodic inspections of reactor facilities (the 2nd chapter); the procedures to apply for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials and to change the use thereof, the submission of the report to use nuclear source materials, as well as the procedure to apply for the permission to use internationally controlled materials. In the 4th chapter the order lists up the items on which the competent Ministers may require reports from the person who carries on the relevant business. (Matsushima, A.)

  14. Order and chaos in the nonlinear response of driven nuclear spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, E; Derighetti, B; Holzner, R; Ravani, M [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Physik

    1984-01-01

    The authors report on observations of ordered and chaotic behavior of a nonlinear system of strongly polarized nuclear spins inside the tuning coil of an NMR detector. The combined system: spins plus LC-circuit, may act as a nonlinear bistable absorber or a spin-flip laser, depending on the sign of the nuclear spin polarization. For the NMR laser experimental evidence is presented for limit-cycle behavior, sequences of bifurcations which lead to chaos, intermittency, multistability, and pronounced hysteresis effects. The experimental facts are compared with computer solutions of appropriate Bloch equations for the macroscopic order parameters.

  15. The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, Luciano G.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S.

    2015-01-01

    An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T H was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T H that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1 st order phase transition at a fixed temperature T H . A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1 st order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles

  16. The Hagedorn spectrum, nuclear level densities and first order phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, Luciano G., E-mail: lgmoretto@lbl.gov [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Siem, S. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-10-15

    An exponential mass spectrum, like the Hagedorn spectrum, with slope 1/T{sub H} was interpreted as fixing an upper limiting temperature T{sub H} that the system can achieve. However, thermodynamically, such spectrum indicates a 1{sup st} order phase transition at a fixed temperature T{sub H}. A much lower energy example is the log linear level nuclear density below the neutron binding energy that prevails throughout the nuclear chart. We show that, for non-magic nuclei, such linearity implies a 1{sup st} order phase transition from the pairing superfluid to an ideal gas of quasi particles.

  17. Analysis of World Nuclear Market and Strategy of Korean NPP's Competitiveness Improvement for Exportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Roh, Seungkook; Chang, Soon Heung

    2016-01-01

    China, India and USA (nuclear adopted countries) are planning tremendous number of NPPs to meet their increasing electricity demand and Saudi Arabia, Vietnam (nuclear adopting countries) are also planning to include nuclear power in their energy mix as a long-term plan. Korea has exported 4 units of APR1400 to the UAE in December, 2009. Korea became sixth NPP supplier country and our economic feasibility and safety features were started to evaluate worldwide. Nuclear industries became a new driver of Korea’s export and nuclear industries in Korea are now expecting another NPP export to Middle-eastern countries, including UAE and Saudi Arabia, based on the first-mover’s advantage at the UAE. In 2000s, five countries (Japan, USA, France, Russia and Korea), which are able to build NPP, focused on NPP export more than domestic construction. Global trend of world nuclear market changed rapidly, especially after NPP export to the UAE. By the global trend, hegemony of nuclear market migrated from supplier country to buyer country. Nuclear companies started cooperating rather than competing. Financing to developing countries become more important. In general, one of the considerable combinations is Korea-Japan-USA alliance. Korea is in charge of EPC, Japan supports financing and deficient technology (with USA partner), and Japan-USA handles fuel supply and back-end fuel cycle based on new agreed terms of ROK-US Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. This combination was judged to best way to collaborate with global companies. Paying attention to many delayed (or potentially delayed) constructions from Russia, intercepting the construction work will be available in case of contracted countries. Korea can emphasize the short construction time, high responsiveness and mild/equal diplomatic position to the target countries

  18. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-07-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  19. Role of Halden Reactor Project for world-wide nuclear energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, M.A.; Volkov, B.

    2011-01-01

    The great interest for utilization of nuclear materials to produce energy in the middle of last century needed special investigations using first class research facilities. Common problems in the area of nuclear fuel development motivated the establishment of joint research efforts. The OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP) is a good example of such a cooperative research effort, which has been performing for more than 50 years. During that time, the Halden Reactor evolved from a prototype heavy water reactor envisaged as a power source for different applications to a research reactor that is able to simulate in-core conditions of modern commercial power reactors. The adaptability of the Halden Reactor enables the HRP to be an important international test facility for nuclear fuels and materials development. The long-term international cooperation is based on the flexible HRP organizational structure which also provides the continued success. [1,2] This paper gives a brief history of the Halden Reactor Project and its contribution to world-wide nuclear energy development. Recent expansion of the Project to the East and Asian countries may also assist and stimulate the development of a nuclear industry within these countries. The achievements of the HRP rely on the versatility of the research carried out in the reactor with reliable testing techniques and in-pile instrumentation. Diversification of scientific activity in the areas of development of alternative energy resources and man-machine technology also provide the HRP with a stable position as one of the leaders in the world scientific community. All of these aspects are described in this paper together with current experimental works, including the investigation of ULBA (Kazakhstan) production fuel in comparison with other world fuel suppliers, as well as other future and prospective plans of the Project.(Author)

  20. Globalization and new world order are we ready for "Scientists without Borders"?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouchner, B

    2005-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war and the fall of the Berlin wall, large scientific projects, such as the LHC and ITER, are now based on international collaborations involving most world powers. These collaborations cover not only the design, but also run the construction and operation phases. Scientists, like other cultural and economical actors, have to adapt and organize their work in this new world environment. They also need to learn how to convince public opinion, offering information and transparency. There is no good model yet on how to do that in the most efficient way and a great deal might be learned by looking at experiences outside the scientific field. Relying on my experience as founder of "Doctors Without Borders" and "Doctors of the World", as well as holder of several ministerial positions in different French governments and as former Head of the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, I share with you my view on globalization and on how to initiate and carry out large international, nonpro...

  1. CO2 and the world energy system: The role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, and other transnational and global environment, health and safety issues, require energy system planning on an international scale. Consideration of equity between nations and regions, particularly between the industrialized and developing countries, is an essential ingredient. For the immediate future, the next several decades at least, fossil fuels will remain the predominant energy sources. More efficient use of energy seems to be the only feasible strategy for the near to mid-term to provide growing energy services for the world economy while moderating the increasing demand for fossil fuels. In the longer term, nonfossil sources are essential for a sustainable world energy system, and nuclear power can play an important, if not dominant, role. The challenge is to design and implement a safe and economic nuclear power world enterprise which is socially acceptable and is complimentary to other nonfossil sources. The elements of such an enterprise seem clear and include: much safer reactors, preferably passively safe, which can be developed at various scales; development of economic resource extension technologies; effective and permanent waste management strategies; and strengthened safeguards against diversion of nuclear materials to weapons. All of these elements can best be developed as cooperative international efforts. In the process, institutional improvements are equally as important as technological improvements; the two must proceed hand-in-hand. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. CO2 and the world energy system: the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Jones, J.E. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse effect, and other transnational and global environment, health and safety issues, require energy system planning on an international scale. Consideration of equity between nations and regions, particularly between the industrialized and developing countries, is an essential ingredient. For the immediate future, the next several decades at least, fossil fuels will remain the predominant energy sources. More efficient use of energy seems to be the only feasible strategy for the near to mid-term to provide growing energy services for the world economy while moderating the increasing demand for fossil fuels. In the longer term, nonfossil sources are essential for a sustainable world energy system, and nuclear power can play an important, if not dominant, role. The challenge is to design and implement a safe and economic nuclear power world enterprise which is socially acceptable and is complimentary to other nonfossil sources. The elements of such an enterprise seem clear and include: much safer reactors, preferably passively safe, which can be deployed at various scales; development of economic resource extension technologies; effective and permanent waste management strategies; and strengthened safeguards against diversion of nuclear materials to weapons. All of these elements can best be developed as cooperative international efforts. In the process, institutional improvements are equally as important as technological improvements; the two must proceed hand-in-hand. (orig.)

  3. Amendment of the Order of 2 November 1976 setting up an Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (29 October 1981)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety was set up within the Atomic Energy Commission by an Order of 2 November 1976 now amended by this new Order, which specifies that, in connection with nuclear safety, the Institute provides direct technical support to the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. (NEA) [fr

  4. Discussion on life extension of nuclear power plant around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Zhang Yuansi

    2010-01-01

    The very Paper introduces the concept, basic working flow and fundamental elements of the life extension of nuclear power plant (NPP) around the world; and it generally collects and summarizes the status datum of life extension of NPPs. Afterwards, the Paper analyses the present status of life extension of NPP in various countries with strong nuclear power industry, i.e. the United States, France, Germany, Russia Federation, Japan, South Korea and Canada. At the end, the Paper make a conclusion that whether an operating NPP will adopt life extension at the end of its design life, this issue depends on the factor of economy, safety and technical feasibility of life extension on the NPP. According to latest datum collected in 2009, the nuclear power units around the world, which have exceeded the design lives or are close to design life ends, most of them (about 64%) have selected to extend their service lives; based on this statistical data, we concludes that when an operating nuclear unit is facing with the issue of to extend life or to retire itself, it will be apt to make life extension. (authors)

  5. Nuclear power and the global challenges of energy security, 6 September 2007, London, England, World Nuclear Association Annual Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Atoms for Peace speech given by US President Eisenhower in 1953 - the speech that paved the way for the creation of the IAEA - he declared that a special purpose of Atoms for Peace would be 'to provide abundant electrical energy in the power-starved areas of the world'. That vision has yet to be realized. And it should not be taken to mean that nuclear power is the solution for all countries, or for all developing countries. But I would reiterate what I said at the outset - that the global challenges of security and development are interlinked, and that addressing the energy security needs of all countries will be a key to progress on both fronts. It is incumbent upon us to see to it that nuclear power will fulfil its potential in addressing these challenges

  6. World energy supply and demand and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzke, U.

    1977-01-01

    The OECD's world energy outlook analyses projected trends in energy damnd and supply for the OECD area and other major global regions to 1985. It provides a brief discussion of trends after 1985. OECD energy consumption is projected to grow more slowly than in the past. Conservation effects will increase efficiency of energy use per unit of economic growth. All domestic energy supplies in the OECD are projected to expand faster than in the past. The relative share of non-fossil energy sources in total production will be almost doubled. Assuming moderate economic growth, existing energy policies and a constnat real price for oil, the outlook's reference case projects OECD oil import at 35 million barrels a day by 1985. This level of import demand, when combined with the import needs of other oil importing areas, could approach the limit of availability of world oil supplies and as a result cause severe disequilibrium in world energy markets. The outlook indicates such severe disruption can be avoided by action to improve the world energy supply and demand balance without impeding economic growth objectives. Strong measures will be required both to conserve energy and to develop new energy supplies. The biggest increment to the OECD's energy supply by 1985 is expected to come from nuclear power. This substantial nuclear contribution will be inevitable and irreplaceable. As a result urgent solutions to problems concerning safety, availability of fuel cycle services, the environment, cost escalation and construction delays will be required

  7. Order of 6 October 1977 defining the characteristics of each type of large nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Order, made by the French Minister of Industry, Commerce and Crafts and the Minister of Labour, lays down the characteristics of large nuclear installations which should be included in the document provided for under Section 10 of decree No. 75-306 of 28 April 1975 on the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation in large nuclear installations. These include inter alia the reactor type, its nominal power, the nature and cladding of the fuel, the rate of loading/unloading of the fuel, provisions to prevent criticality risks outside normal operation of the reactor, controlled areas and the measures for protection against ionizing radiation. The Order also lays down the characteristics for plants for the preparation and treatment of irradiated nuclear fuels as well as the characteristics of facilities for the storage, use, manufacture and transformation of radioactive substances, and the maximum permissible annual quantities of radioactive releases. (NEA) [fr

  8. Order of 26 March 1982 on the protection and control of nuclear materials during transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of Act No. 80-572 of 25th July 1980 on protection and control of nuclear materials and in particular, of Decree No. 81-512 of 12th May 1981, which was itself made in pursuance of the Act. In accordance with the Decree, this Order determines the rules applicable to the protection and control of nuclear materials in course of carriage, especially in connection with the supervision of the conditions in which such transport is carried out and the authorities warned in case of an incident, accident or any occurrence whatsoever which is likely to delay or jeopardize execution of the planned transport operation or protection of the nuclear material concerned. (NEA) [fr

  9. Effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in neural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We present an overview of possible effects of small-world connectivity on noise-induced temporal and spatial order in a two-dimensional network of excitable neural media with FitzHugh-Nagumo local dynamics. Small-world networks are characterized by a given fraction of so-called long-range couplings or shortcut links that connect distant units of the system, while all other units are coupled in a diffusive-like manner. Interestingly, already a small fraction of these long-range couplings can have wide-ranging effects on the temporal as well as spatial noise-induced dynamics of the system. Here we present two main effects. First, we show that the temporal order, characterized by the autocorrelation of a firing-rate function, can be greatly enhanced by the introduction of small-world connectivity, whereby the effect increases with the increasing fraction of introduced shortcut links. Second, we show that the introduction of long-range couplings induces disorder of otherwise ordered, spiral-wave-like, noise-induced patterns that can be observed by exclusive diffusive connectivity of spatial units. Thereby, already a small fraction of shortcut links is sufficient to destroy coherent pattern formation in the media. Although the two results seem contradictive, we provide an explanation considering the inherent scale-free nature of small-world networks, which on one hand, facilitates signal transduction and thus temporal order in the system, whilst on the other hand, disrupts the internal spatial scale of the media thereby hindering the existence of coherent wave-like patterns. Additionally, the importance of spatially versus temporally ordered neural network functioning is discussed

  10. 12 November 1991-Ministerial Order setting up a Commission for assessing information in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Commission sets up by this Order must ensure that the public is kept informed on the technical, health, ecological, economic and financial aspects of nuclear energy, and advises the Secretary of State for Energy on the conditions for informing the public and proposes methods for disseminating such information. (NEA)

  11. Order of 27 February 1985 setting up a Nuclear Engineering Terminology Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Commission set up by this Order will draw up an inventory of the gaps in French nuclear engineering vocabulary, taking into account users' needs; it will also propose and revise the necessary terms in the light of present knowledge and contribute to collection and harmonisation of terminological and neological data. (NEA) [fr

  12. Legal action initiated by a municipality in order to prevent installation of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A municipality is authorized to appeal against the licensing of a nuclear power plant which is about to be installed in the neighbourhood of the municipality in order to protect its water treatment plant. (Non-official headnotes) OVG Rheinland-Pfalz, interlocutary decree of June 3, 1986 - 7 A II 2/85 - (appealable). (orig./HSCH) [de

  13. Labont? Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to — and opportunities for —health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ...

  14. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  15. POWER-SHIFTS IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. TRANSITION TOWARDS A MULTIPOLAR WORLD ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IGNAT

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze the new realities and trends related to the new polarity of the global economy, and thus the reconfiguration of global power centers, a process characterized by two simultaneous trends: the rise of new powers and the relative decline of traditional powers. At the beginning of 21st century, global power is suffering two major changes: on the one hand it manifests a transition from West to East, from Atlantic to the Asia-Pacific, and on the other hand, a diffusion from state to non-state actors. Current global economic power has a multipolar distribution, shared between the United States, European Union, Japan and BRICs, with no balance of power between these poles, opposed by the strong ambition of rising countries, China especially, China that rivals the traditional powers represented by the developed countries. The evolution of the main macroeconomic indicators given by the most important global organizations, shows a gradual transition towards a multipolar world. Therefore, the United States is and will remain for a long period of time the global economic leader. However, as China, India and Brazil are growing rapidly, and Russia is looking for lost status, the world is becoming multipolar.

  16. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Yusuf Alper; Karagöz, Merve; Sayılmaz, Serhat

    2017-09-01

    The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  17. The overview of nuclear energy situation in the World and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Yusuf Alper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence on the energy and its use has increased in every country due to the increasing population and advanced technology. As a result of it, the reserves of fossil fuel have decreased, several energy crises have occurred from time to time and the alternative energy sources have been on the focus. One of these alternative energy sources is nuclear energy. The nuclear power plants, which were built in order to get nuclear energy, have attracted the attention thanks to some disadvantages such as its high cost and emission of radiation while they do not radiate harmful gases towards environment. The nuclear power plants that have already been and are planned to be constructed by a number of countries have become problematic because of the power plant accidents. On one hand, some countries have abandoned the nuclear power plants owing to the accidents mentioned above, on the other hand some other countries have continued to operate the nuclear power plants by claiming the necessity to meet the increasing demand on energy. It is seen that conflicts and problems experienced in the geography in which Turkey is located impacts the energy security of Turkey and it is understood that this situation may have a negative influence on national security of Turkey. Because of all these reasons, actualizing nuclear energy projects are important for Turkey which is dependent in respect of energy.

  18. Nuclear accident: the EPR, the most dangerous reactor in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, John

    2007-02-01

    After a brief description of the operation of a nuclear reactor, this document outlines the complexity of this machine and the problems which may happen and result in radioactive releases. It also briefly recalls past accidents (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island) and serious incidents (Fosmark in Sweden, Blayais in France). The author then describes how the nuclear industry and nuclear safety authorities tend to deny the risk, notably as far as the EPR is concerned. He outlines that the hypotheses retained by EDF and safety authorities for the quantity of radioactivity released in case of accident might be under-assessed as it appears when they are compared with data obtained by different models and in reality. The author considers that the use of MOX introduces difficulties to ensure nuclear safety, and that the EPR will therefore be the most dangerous nuclear reactor in the world. Based on a simulation, he shows that, in case of accident in of the EPR in Flamanville, radioactive fallouts will occur at the continental scale in less than two days. He proposes an assessment of consequences for the population in terms of deaths, cancers, evacuation. He indicates the different exposure modes for the population, and the countermeasures to be implemented in case of accident (he proposes an assessment of consequences in terms of morbidity with or without countermeasures)

  19. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  20. World wide web for database of Japanese translation on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. The INES is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA. Nuclear events reported are rated by the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been promptly translating the INES reports into Japanese and developing a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation, aiming at more efficient utilization of the INES information inside Japan. The present paper briefly introduces the definitions of INES rating levels and the scope of the Scale, and describes the outlines of the database (the information stored in the database, its functions and how to use it). As well, technical use of the INES reports and the availability/ effectiveness of the database are discussed. (author)

  1. World atlas of nuclear industry: civil and military; Atlas mondial du nucleaire: Civil et militaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandre, Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    Todays, with the energy supplies and global warming concerns, nuclear energy in making a come-back, witness the numerous nuclear programs launched or re-launched in the US, in Europe, China and India. In parallel, on the military side, the deterrence strategy remains in the center of security politics of big powers. This atlas takes stock of the overall issues linked with the nuclear technology: production, civil applications (power generation, medicine etc..), military usages (naval propulsion, weapons). It answers the main questions of this complex world, often dominated by secrecy: who does what in the nuclear domain in France? Is an accident, like the Chernobyl's one, possible today in Europe? What solutions for radioactive wastes? Do we take risks when we export our reactor technologies to Middle-East countries? Are we at the dawn of a new arms rush? What do international agreements foresee in this domain? Taking into account the costs, the hazards and the advantages of nuclear industry, the atlas shows that it is possible to establish solid technical and legal barriers between its civil and military sides. (J.S.)

  2. Order of 31 July 1987 on protection and control of nuclear materials carried by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order is part of a series of texts on protection and control of nuclear materials which include: the Act of 25 July 1980 and the Decree of 12 May 1981 made in its implementation and, as regards the specific aspect of protection and control of materials during transport, the Order of 26 March 1982 amended in 1986. The 1987 Order lays down the conditions which must be complied with by approved carriers (the French or the foreign holders of a licence under the above-mentioned Act of 1980) in case of transport of such materials by air [fr

  3. Nuclear power: How competitive down the line? [The world's latest energy outlook sees a mixed future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, F.

    2007-01-01

    The world is facing twin energy-related threats: that of not having adequate and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and that of environmental harm caused by its use. Soaring energy prices and recent geopolitical events have reminded us of the essential role affordable energy plays in economic growth and human development, and of the vulnerability of the global energy system to supply disruptions. Safeguarding energy supplies is once again at the top of the international policy agenda. Yet the current pattern of energy supply carries the threat of severe and irreversible environmental damage. Reconciling the goals of energy security and environmental protection requires strong and coordinated government action and public support. These concerns have revived discussion about the role of nuclear power. Over the past two years, several governments have made statements favouring an increased role of nuclear power in the future energy mix and a few have taken concrete steps towards the construction of a new generation of safe and cost-effective reactors. Over the next two and a half decades, nuclear power along with energy efficiency and renewables, could help address concerns about over-reliance on fossil-fuelled electricity generation, especially worries about climate change and increasing dependence on gas imports: Nuclear power is a low-carbon source of electricity. Operation of one gigawatt of nuclear power generating capacity, if replacing coal-fired generation, avoids the emission of 5.6 million tonnes of CO 2 per year. Nuclear power plants do not emit any airborne pollutants such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or particulate matter. Nuclear power plants can help reduce dependence on imported gas; and unlike gas, uranium resources are widely distributed around the world. Under current policies, gas-import dependence will rise in all regions of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and in key developing countries by 2030

  4. The immediate need for US universities to promote research related to a nuclear-weapon-free world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionno, S.

    1999-01-01

    If disarmament is a goal, then the requisite skills must be fostered in academic research. Too many students today view nuclear weapons as a non-issue. It is crucial that those people in positions of influence encourage more young people to explore in-depth the political, scientific, and social changes that a nuclear-weapon-free world will require. The data presented are based on a search of nuclear-weapons-related keywords in the UMI Dissertation Abstracts Database which includes work from over 1000 North American graduate schools and European Universities. The search was focused on US Phd dissertations between 1987 and 1996. There was no PhDs focused on issues such as: zero-level nuclear-weapons-free world; nuclear-weapons-free zones; decreasing nuclear alert status; a nuclear weapons convention; no-first-use or-no use against non-nuclear-weapons-states; START; French nuclear weapons; a possible 'Eurobomb'; peace groups outside the USA, UK, and Germany; nuclear-weapons secrecy; funding disarmament; the role od UN in a nuclear-weapons-free world; an so on

  5. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, H., E-mail: hermann.krebs@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Epelbaum, E., E-mail: evgeny.epelbaum@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93016 (United States); Meißner, U.-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  6. The need for nuclear power. Viewpoint on the world's challenging energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, R.; Beller, D.

    2000-01-01

    To meet the world's growing need for energy, the Royal Society and Royal Academy report proposes 'the formation of an international body for energy research and development, funded by contributions from individual nations on the basis of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or total national energy consumption'. The body would be 'a funding agency supporting research, development and demonstrators elsewhere, not a research center itself'. Its budget might build to an annual level of some $25 billion, 'roughly 1% of the total global energy budget'. If it truly wants to develop efficient and responsible energy supplies, such a body should focus on the nuclear option, on establishing a secure international nuclear-fuel storage and reprocessing system, and on providing expertise for siting, financing, and licensing modular nuclear power systems to developing nations. According to authors, who study the dynamics of energy technologies, 'the share of energy supplied by electricity is growing rapidly in most countries and worldwide'. Throughout history, humankind has gradually decarbonized its dominant fuels, moving steadily away from the more polluting, carbon-rich sources. Thus the world has gone from coal (which has one hydrogen atom per carbon atom and was dominant from 1880 to 1950) to oil (with two hydrogens per carbon, dominant from 1950 to today). Natural gas (four hydrogens per carbon) is steadily increasing its market share. But nuclear fission produces no carbon at all. Physical reality - not arguments about corporate greed, hypothetical risks, radiation exposure, or waste disposal - ought to inform decisions vital to the future of the world. Because diversity and redundancy are important for safety and security, renewable energy sources ought to retain a place in the energy economy of the century to come. But nuclear power should be central. Despite its outstanding record, it has instead been relegated by its opponents to the same twilight zone of contentious

  7. Memory list for the ordering of nuclear fuel elements with UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The memory list will help to simplify and speed up the technical procedure of fuel element supply for nuclear reactors. Operators of nuclear power plants take great interest in the latest state of thechnology, if sufficiently tested, being applied with regard to material, manufacturing and testing methods. In order to obtain an unlimited availability of the nuclear plant in the future, this application of technology should be taken care of when designing and producing fuel elements. When ordering fuel elements special attention should be drawn to the interdependence of reactor and fuel element with reqard to design and construction, about which, howevers, no further details are given. When ordering fuel elements the operator give the producer all design data of the reactor core and the fuel elements as well as the planned operation mode. He also hands in the respective graphs and the required conditions for design so that a correct and detailed offer can be supplied. An exemplary extent of supply is shown in the given memory list. The regulations required herefore on passing technical material to the fuel element producers have to be established by agreements made by the customer. The order to be given should be itemized as follows: requirements, quality controland quality assurance, warranties and conditions, limits and extent of supply, terms of delivery. (orig./HP) [de

  8. The cleavable matter: Discursive orders in Swedish nuclear power politics 1972-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, P.

    1997-09-01

    This study applies a qualitative discourse-theoretical method to analyse the central argumentation in the parliamentary debate on nuclear power in Sweden during 1972-1980, reconstructed from official documents such as governmental and parliamentary bills, committee reports, parliamentary debate protocols, and official commission reports. Particular concern is directed to the process in which various discursive orders emerging within the political debate tend to have a structuring influence on the political argumentation regarding what can be said, by whom this can be said, and how this can be said. It is argued that these discursive orders have a profound, and in a systems theoretical sense self-dynamic influence, going beyond the original intentions of the political actors, on how the energy policy issue is interpreted and constructed. It is argued, furthermore, that these discursive orders actively exploit the political context of meaning by deliberately instrumentalising and incorporating competing argumentative elements into their own cognitive structure. In other words, the dominant political system incorporates the arguments of the political opposition and of the environmental and anti nuclear movements in order to consolidate its political power. The discourse theoretical analysis of the Swedish nuclear power debate in that sense unveils a deep resistance against a true political discourse, in the sense of Habermas, as a rational and domination-free process of reaching mutual understanding. 152 refs

  9. Possible development of the world-wide improvement of nuclear energy considering economical, social and political aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, W.

    1981-01-01

    Accepting the fact that the growing world energy demand cannot be met in the long term without an increasing use of nuclear energy one has to pay more attention to its possible expansion and consequently also to the geographical distribution of nuclear plants in the world. Due to future large scale deployment problems may arise in the areas of uranium supply, waste disposal, nonprofileration, safeguards, acceptability, and nuclear transfer. Based on the World Energy Conference (1977) global energy scenario a country-by-country analysis has been made to evaluate the possible contribution of nuclear energy in each country within the next 40 years. Against this background the problems of the head- and tail-end of the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed in detail and compared with the international trade of nonnuclear fuels. (orig.) [de

  10. Ship-Based Nuclear Energy Systems for Accelerating Developing World Socioeconomic Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Robert; Wood, Lowell

    2014-07-01

    Technological, economic, and policy aspects of supplying energy to newly industrializing and developing countries using ship-deployed nuclear energy systems are described. The approach analyzed comprises nuclear installations of up to gigawatt scale deployed within currently mass-produced large ship hulls which are capable of flexibly supplying energy for electricity, water desalination and district heating-&-cooling with low latencies and minimized shoreside capital expenditures. Nuclear energy is uniquely suited for mobile deployment due to its combination of extraordinary energy density and high power density, which enable enormous supplies of energy to be deployed at extremely low marginal costs. Nuclear installations on ships also confer technological advantages by essentially eliminating risk from earthquakes, tsunamis, and floods; taking advantage of assured access to an effectively unlimited amount of cooling water, and involving minimal onshore preparations and commitments. Instances of floating nuclear power stations that have been proposed in the past, some of which are currently being pursued, have generally been based on conventional LWR technology, moreover without flexibility or completeness of power output options. We consider nuclear technology options for their applicability to the unique opportunities and challenges of a marine environment, with special attention given to low-pressure, high thermal margin systems with continuous and assured afterheat dissipation into the ambient seawater. Such systems appear promising for offering an exceptionally high degree of safety while using a maximally simple set of components. We furthermore consider systems tailored to Developing World contexts, which satisfy societal requirements beyond electrification, e.g., flexible sourcing of potable water and HVAC services, servicing time-varying user requirements, and compatibility with the full spectrum of local renewable energy supplies, specifically including

  11. Towards a new world: The contributions of nuclear energy to a sustainable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R. B.; Miller, A. I.; Fehrenbach, P. J.; Kuran, S.; Tregunno, D.; Suppiah, S.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years, the world has seen growing concern about the sustainability of the Planet when supplying increasing energy use. The major issues are: increased energy prices in the world markets; growing energy demand in emerging economies; security and stability of oil and gas supply; potentially adverse climate change due to carbon-based emissions; and the need to deploy economic, sustainable and reliable alternates. Large undefined 'wedges' of alternate energy technologies are needed. In light of these major difficulties, there is renewed interest and need for a greater role for nuclear energy as a safe, sustainable and economic energy contributor. The shift has been, from being viewed by some as politically discounted, to being accepted as absolutely globally essential. We have carefully considered, and systematically, extensively and technically analyzed the contributions that nuclear energy can and should make to a globally sustainable energy future. These include restraining emissions, providing safe and secure power, operating synergistically with other sources, and being both socially and fiscally attractive. Therefore, we quantify in this paper the major contributions: a) The reduction in climate change potential and the global impact of future nuclear energy deployment through emissions reduction, using established analysis tools which varying the plausible future penetration and scale of nuclear energy. b) The minimization of economic costs and the maximization of global benefits, including investment requirements, carbon price implications, competitive market penetration, and effect of variable daily pricing. c) The introduction of fuel switching, including base-load nuclear energy synergistically enabling both hydrogen production and the introduction of significant wind power. d) The management and reduction of waste streams, utilizing intelligent designs and fuel cycles that optimize fuel resource use and minimize emissions, waste disposal

  12. [Manpower migrations in the Arab world: the reverse of the New Economic Order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, F

    1985-01-01

    Population and petroleum, 2 essential factors in the development of the Arab world, are unequally distributed in the 18 Arab countries. The abstract possibility of mutually beneficial cooperation between the countries with large populations and no oil and those with oil but small populations is far from being realized; on the contrary, growing inequality and deterioration of human and productive resources can be observed in the Arab world. The apparent economic progress of the oil producing states is illusory, because it has permitted them to defer development of their own internal resources such as agriculture, industry, professional training and education in favor of greater dependence on the temporary palliative of petroleum revenues. In 1980, over 3 million Arabs had emigrated toward other Arab countries, where they were joined by approximately 1.8 million non-Arabs. 4 types of Arab migration have been important: movement from the countryside to cities within countries, movement of Arab migrants to non-Arab countries, movement from 1 Arab state to another because of political factors and especially to earn high wages in the oil producing states, and immigration of non-Arabs and especially Asians to Arab countries. 6 of the principal manpower importing countries, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar, had total labor forces of about 5.2 million in 1985, of which only 41% were nationals. There have been 4 main consequences for the states importing manpower: 1) petroleum production is very capital intensive and creates few jobs; the jobs filled by migrants are mostly in construction and services funded by oil revenues 2) the expansion is temporary because petroleum is a nonrenewable resource; the manpower transfers will therefore not be permanent 3) the migrants represent a large proportion of the labor force and populations of the Gulf oil-producing states, and 4) the migrants are systematically excluded from the political and

  13. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  14. Highlights Lecture of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine and the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology Congress, Berlin 1998. Where next and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear medicine benefits not only the people of developed countries but also those who are in developing or deteriorating countries. The combination of diagnostic imaging, tissue characterisation, function measurement and targeted therapy is powerful and cost-effective. This congress provides a sample of nuclear medicine's contribution to the world. (orig.)

  15. Psychosocial aspects of nuclear accidents: the role of the World Health Organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Girolamo, G.

    1991-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear reactor incident in the USSR in 1986, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has devoted a large part of its activities and research towards improving both national and transnational capabilities for dealing with radiation emergencies. This presentation concentrates on the psychosocial aspects of radiation accidents and the measures which should be taken to combat them. Although public information was sparse during the Chernobyl disaster, afterwards there was a flood of conflicting information and rumours from a variety of organisations and governments resulting in an ''overload'' on the public and creating fear and mistrust of the authorities. The author argues that as the leading world organisation on health matters, WHO should be seen as the natural co-ordinator, authority and information-provider in ''transnational'' incidents such as this to avoid this public confusion and unnecessary ill-effects. (author)

  16. Life extension of nuclear power plants: world situation and the Usa case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P.T.; Cuesta, L.; Serra, E.; Yague, L.

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of nuclear power plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs of renewable energies and the economic crisis have pushed governments to continue operation of nuclear plants over the 40 years design life. In the Usa 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently 19 units are in the reviewing process. The situation in the rest of the world is different. A list of countries, where nuclear units with a service life over 30 years, are still operating has been drawn up. A few countries like Belgium, Germany, Spain and Sweden are opposed to life extension. Some countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, India, Japan and Usa, have adopted a life extension policy for their nuclear fleet. Other countries like France, Russia, United-Kingdom, Pakistan, South-Korea and Argentina have not yet taken any final decision. United-Kingdom and France have a case by case policy. In some countries like Japan, Indian or Pakistan, the legislation makes no reference to a maximum operating time but the reactors are allowed to continue operating as long as they comply with established safety conditions. (A.C.)

  17. Nuclear proliferation in the Third World: an analysis of decision making in Indiana and Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gdaia, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The causes of nuclear proliferation in the Third World are analyzed by examining the motives and forces that went into the nuclear decisions of India and Pakistan. A comprehensive framework is used that consists of five levels of analysis: international, societal, governmental, bureaucratic, and individual factors. The study examines how various potential motives that might impel a nation to acquire nuclear weapons operated through the different levels of analysis. It is concluded that the security motive was the primary determinant in each case as opposed to other motives such as desire for international status or economic considerations. However, security motives were joined by other values and constraints. Regional conflict combined with the lack of a superpower guarantee of security to persuade both countries to pursue nuclear weapons. Such domestic factors as the type of political systems, public opinion, and mass media seemed to play a very limited role in the decisions, although a larger role in India than in Pakistan. Finally, strong individual leadership was a relatively powerful determinant of policy in both countries

  18. Circular contour retrieval in real-world conditions by higher order statistics and an alternating-least squares algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haiping; Marot, Julien; Fossati, Caroline; Bourennane, Salah

    2011-12-01

    In real-world conditions, contours are most often blurred in digital images because of acquisition conditions such as movement, light transmission environment, and defocus. Among image segmentation methods, Hough transform requires a computational load which increases with the number of noise pixels, level set methods also require a high computational load, and some other methods assume that the contours are one-pixel wide. For the first time, we retrieve the characteristics of multiple possibly concentric blurred circles. We face correlated noise environment, to get closer to real-world conditions. For this, we model a blurred circle by a few parameters--center coordinates, radius, and spread--which characterize its mean position and gray level variations. We derive the signal model which results from signal generation on circular antenna. Linear antennas provide the center coordinates. To retrieve the circle radii, we adapt the second-order statistics TLS-ESPRIT method for non-correlated noise environment, and propose a novel version of TLS-ESPRIT based on higher-order statistics for correlated noise environment. Then, we derive a least-squares criterion and propose an alternating least-squares algorithm to retrieve simultaneously all spread values of concentric circles. Experiments performed on hand-made and real-world images show that the proposed methods outperform the Hough transform and a level set method dedicated to blurred contours in terms of computational load. Moreover, the proposed model and optimization method provide the information of the contour grey level variations.

  19. Order of 20 September 1993 amending the Order of 26 March 1982 on protection and control of nuclear materials during transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Order amends and supplements the system for the transport of nuclear materials laid down by the 1982 Order. Two new provisions have been inserted. The first specifies that in the event of an accident or an incident occurring during the transport of nuclear materials which implies a radiological risk, the Central Service for Proteciton against Ionizing Radiation (SCPRI) must be notified immediately. The other provision specifies that the transport vehicle must be equipped with a means of communication so as to inform the Institute for Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) about the main stages of the operation. (NEA)

  20. Highlights of the 6th world congress of nuclear medicine and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P.J. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, University Coll. London Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    The article summarizes the most interesting medical aspects of the 6th World Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, addressing recent developments in the fields of scintiscanning, SPET and PET, oncology, neurology, psychiatry, in the diagnostic evaluation of the cardiovascular system, and new radiopharmaceuticals. (VHE) [Deutsch] Der Artikel gibt einen Ueberblick ueber medizinische Aspekte des 6. Weltkongresses der Nuklearmedizin und -biologie. Aktuelle Entwicklungen bei Szintigraphie, SPET und PET in Onkologie, Neurologie, Psychiatrie, Herz und Kreislauf sowie weitere neue Entwicklungen bei Radiopharmazeutika werden referiert. (VHE)

  1. Considerations for State Regulators and Policymakers in a Post-FERC Order 745 World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Satchwell, Andy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    By vacating the Federal Energy Commission's (FERC) Order 745 in Electric Power Supply Association vs. FERC (EPSA, 2014) the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C Circuit injected uncertainty into the future of demand response (DR) resources in U.S. wholesale markets. Many possible future scenarios in which DR continues to be available to provide capacity for resource adequacy would need to rely on a potential checkerboard of policies promulgated by state utility commissions. However, the states that will be most directly impacted by the potential implications from the EPSA ruling are precisely those that have the fewest policies currently in place to promote retail program development.

  2. Verifying the transition from low levels of nuclear weapons to a nuclear weapon-free world. VERTIC research report no. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, T.; Wilson, H.

    1999-01-01

    The process of verifying the complete elimination of nuclear warheads in national stockpiles can be divided, conceptually, into four stages: first, comprehensive declarations of warhead and material inventories, as a base-line from which verified disarmament can proceed; second, the transfer of all nuclear weapons and weapons-grade fissile material into bonded store; third, demilitarisation measures, such as to render warheads unusable without disassembly and refabrication; fourth, dismantlement of warheads and disposition of fissile material. Many of the technologies and technologies and techniques needed for verifying the elimination of nuclear warheads have been worked out at a general level, largely in US studies. While it is essential that these techniques are refined and improved, what is most important now, if disarmament is to proceed expeditiously, is for each of the nuclear weapon states (NWS) themselves to study the central verification problems and requirements in order to identify particular techniques and approaches that meet their needs. As yet there is no system of integrated data exchange and verification that any of the NWS is willing to endorse. Each of the NWS should give detailed consideration to the logistics of dismantling the warheads in their respective stockpiles, including, for example, the practicalities of accommodating international verification at their potential dismantlement facilities. Each of the NWS might usefully review exactly which details of warhead design and construction have to remain secret in the course of the disarmament process, in the first place from one another, and second from the IAEA or any other international body that might be involved in international disarmament arrangements. Introducing transparency and verification into national nuclear weapons programmes might have a significant financial cost. Research and ingenuity might reduce this cost, however, and early investments in these fields, with sharing of

  3. Nuclear power plants in the world, as of December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This list of nuclear power plants is published twice every year by the Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. As of the end of 1986, the nuclear power plants in operation in the world were 376 plants of 276.975 million kW capacity, those under construction were 153 plants of 146.931 million kW capacity, and those in planning stage were 124 plants of 121.89 million kW capacity. The total was 653 plants of 545.796 million kW capacity. During the last one year, 25 plants of 22.955 million kW started the operation, and the construction of 7 plants of 5.872 million kW was begun. The operational experience of nuclear power plants in the world reached about 4050 reactor-year. The nuclear power plants which started the operation in 1986 were 6 plants of 7.311 million kW in USA, 3 plants each of 4.032 million kW in France, 1.992 million kW in UK, and 1.32 million kW in Czechoslovakia, 2 plants each of 1.9 million kW in ROK, 2 million kW in USSR, and 1.43 million kW in Canada, and one plant each in FRG, Spain, Hungary and India. 7 plants in USSR, 3 plants in USA, 2 plants in China and one plant in Philippines were removed from the list due to cancel or postponement. In Japan, 33 plants of 24.686 million kW were in operation, and the average capacity factor was 76.2 %. (Kako, I.)

  4. Biogeography of Old World emballonurine bats (Chiroptera: Emballonuridae) inferred with mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedi, Manuel; Friedli-Weyeneth, Nicole; Teeling, Emma C; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Goodman, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Extant bats of the genus Emballonura have a trans-Indian Ocean distribution, with two endemic species restricted to Madagascar, and eight species occurring in mainland southeast Asia and islands in the western Pacific Ocean. Ancestral Emballonura may have been more widespread on continental areas, but no fossil identified to this genus is known from the Old World. Emballonura belongs to the subfamily Emballonurinae, which occurs in the New and Old World. Relationships of all Old World genera of this subfamily, including Emballonura and members of the genera Coleura from Africa and western Indian Ocean islands and Mosia nigrescens from the western Pacific region, are previously unresolved. Using 1833 bp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Old World emballonurine bats. We estimated that these lineages diverged around 30 million years ago into two monophyletic sister groups, one represented by the two taxa of Malagasy Emballonura, Coleura and possibly Mosia, and the other by a radiation of Indo-Pacific Emballonura, hence, rendering the genus Emballonura paraphyletic. The fossil record combined with these phylogenetic relationships suggest at least one long-distance dispersal event across the Indian Ocean, presumably of African origin, giving rise to all Indo-Pacific Emballonura species (and possibly Mosia). Cladogenesis of the extant Malagasy taxa took place during the Quaternary giving rise to two vicariant species, E. atrata in the humid east and E. tiavato in the dry west. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture: promoting world food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salema, P.Manase

    1998-01-01

    Agriculture is the backbone of the economies of many countries, including Romania. The need to improve both quantity and quality of agricultural products and promote trade while at the same time preserving the natural resource base, and the environment in general, is paramount for achieving sustainable development. It was recognized at the World Food Summit held in Rome, Italy last year that, there was a need to break through the present yield/production barriers and to use natural resources in a more sustainable manner if there would be hope of eliminating hunger and associated poverty from the world in the foreseeable future. For this to happen, the world will have to rely on science and technology to provide new methods of farming, new varieties of crops, better ways of protecting crops and livestock etc. Nuclear techniques are efficient tools for research and development and will play an important and often indispensable role in the effort to achieve sustainable food security and development in the world. (author)

  6. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-12-02

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent.

  7. Nuclear science for food security. IAEA says plant breeding technique can help beat world hunger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today called for increased investment in a plant breeding technique that could bolster efforts aimed at pulling millions of people out of the hunger trap. IAEA scientists use radiation to produce improved high-yielding plants that adapt to harsh climate conditions such as drought or flood, or that are resistant to certain diseases and insect pests. Called mutation induction, the technique is safe, proven and cost-effective. It has been in use since the 1920s. 'The global nature of the food crisis is unprecedented. Families all around the world are struggling to feed themselves,' says Mohamed ElBaradei, Director General of the IAEA. 'To provide sustainable, long-term solutions, we must make use of all available resources. Selecting the crops that are better able to feed us is one of humankind's oldest sciences. But we've neglected to give it the support and investment it requires for universal application. The IAEA is urging a revival of nuclear crop breeding technologies to help tackle world hunger.' For decades the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has assisted its Member States to produce more, better and safer food. In plant breeding and genetics, its expertise is helping countries around the world to achieve enhanced agricultural output using nuclear technology. Already more than 3000 crop varieties of some 170 different plant species have been released through the direct intervention of the IAEA: they include barley that grows at 5000 meters (16,400 ft) and rice that thrives in saline soil. These varieties provide much needed food as well as millions of dollars in economic benefits for farmers and consumers, especially in developing countries. But with increased investment and broader application, the technology could positively impact the health and livelihood of even greater numbers of people. And as world hunger grows, the need has never been more urgent

  8. Nuclear materials control technology in the post-cold war world: Radiation-based methods and information management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tape, J.W.; Eccleston, G.W.; Ensslin, N.; Markin, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The end of the cold war is providing both opportunities and requirements for improving the control of nuclear materials around the world. The dismantlement of nuclear weapons and the growth of nuclear power, including the use of plutonium in light water reactors and breeder reactor programs, coupled with enhanced proliferation concerns, drive the need for improved nuclear materials control. We describe nuclear materials control and the role of technology in making controls more effective and efficient. The current use and anticipated development in selected radiation-based methods and related information management systems am described briefly

  9. What it would take to order new nuclear plants -- Japanese perspective. Annex 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, A.

    2002-01-01

    In most of the OECD countries, new nuclear capacity addition has been limited for the last one or two decades due mostly to the overcapacity or consideration of financial risk of capital-intensive nuclear investment. Japanese utilities have a dozen of new nuclear plants in a various stages of planning, licensing and construction. This is due to time-delayed demand and supply situation, a concerted effort to comply with the environmental agenda, and diversification incentives by regional Utilities and others. Beyond this stage, as Utility business deregulation progresses, new nuclear plant orders would depend on fundamental conditions such as the growth in electricity demand, competitiveness of nuclear power generating costs, and confidence in the Utility management of no stranded costs. Supporting institutional mechanisms such as environmental externality and the effort to cultivate confidence in the public for waste management and safety also help. This paper further discusses associated strategies to satisfy the fundamental conditions. This will range from strategies for replacement, technology development, and institutional arrangement to changes in Utility/Industry's structure and business practices. (author)

  10. Computational studies of global nuclear energy development under the assumption of the world's heterogeneous development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.F.; Korobejnikov, V.V.; Poplavskaya, E.V.; Fesenko, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Authors study the mathematical model of Global nuclear energy development until the end of this century. For comparative scenarios analysis of transition to sustainable nuclear energy systems, the models of heterogeneous world with an allowance for specific national development are under investigation [ru

  11. Optimum supervision intervals and order of supervision in nuclear reactor protective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontoleon, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum inspection strategy of an m-out-of-n:G nuclear reactor protective system with nonidentical units is analyzed. A 2-out-of-4:G system is used to formulate a multi-variable optimization problem to determine (a) the optimum order of supervision of the units and (b) the optimum supervision intervals between units. The case of systems with identical units is a special case of the above. Numerical results are derived using a computer algorithm

  12. Revisiting Liberal Democratic Universalism: A Critical Rhetoric of the Liberal Democratic World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Joy E. Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal democracy has become the predominant political regime in the 21st century even in countries that have little or no history of ‘democratic structures and practices’. However, it seems as though setting up a functional, stable, and viable democratic state is harder than overthrowing autocratic rulers. This rhetorical criticism explores gridlocks that hamper the development of universal liberal democratic values by emphasizing the Western hegemonic status of defining what liberal democracy is. It is pertinent to look into this dominant role considering that it is through these values that actions, policies, and other values are to be construed and judged. This paper aims to (1 highlight the role of moral cosmopolitanism as the initial step of Western hegemony, (2 identify the paradox of defining liberal democracy as universal but treating it as a particular, and (3 discuss the ironies of democratic imperialism and its hindrance to self-determination. This paper hopes to shed some light in the importance of various interpretations, definitions, and adaptations of liberal democratic values depending on the context of the society incorporating, its culture, its values, and its identity, in order to find a more comprehensive definition of democracy.

  13. Creating an agricultural world order: regional plant protection problems and international phytopathology, 1878-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 1878 with the International Phylloxera Convention of Berne, international conventions have sought to relieve national agricultural industries from two specific burdens. First, by defining phytosanitary practices to be enforced by national plant protection services, these conventions attempted to prevent the introduction of plant diseases and pests into national territories from which they were previously absent. Second, by standardizing these practices - especially through the design of a unique certificate of inspection - the conventions attempted to eliminate barriers such as quarantines affection international agricultural trade. The succession of phytopathological conventions seemed to epitomize the coalescence of an international community against agricultural pests. What actually coalesced was bio-geopolitics wherein plant pathologists and economic entomologists from North America and the British Empire questioned the so-called internationality of the environmental and economic specificities of continental European agriculture, embodied in "international" conventions. Although an international phenomenon, the dissemination of agricultural pests provided opportunities for cooperation on a strictly regional albeit transnational basis that pitted bio-geopolitical spaces against each other. This article retraces the formation of these spaces by analyzing the deliberations of committees and congresses that gathered to define an international agricultural order based on the means to prevent the spread of plant diseases and pests.

  14. Assessment of nuclear energy embodied in international trade following a world multi-regional input–output approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortés-Borda, D.; Guillén-Gosálbez, G.; Jiménez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power can contribute to cover the increasing demand of energy while keeping the carbon emissions within the desired limits. Many countries are reluctant to implement nuclear technologies in their territories, but might still use them through imports of products that embody nuclear energy in their life cycle. This work quantifies the difference between the production-based (territorial) and consumption-based (global) nuclear energy use in the main 40 economies of the world (85% of the world's GDP) through the application of a multi-regional environmentally extended input–output model. The mismatch between the direct (territorial) and total (global) use of nuclear energy varies from −237% to 44% in the top economies. From a consumption-based viewpoint, 10 out of the 40 countries reduced the per-capita use of nuclear energy in the period 1995–2009, and 7 when following a production-based approach. The per-capita nuclear energy use could differ in up to 26.2 GJ/inhabitant·year, depending on whether the assessment is consumption or production based. It was also found that around 3.5% of the world's nuclear energy production is trade-embodied and that this amount is growing along with the global production of nuclear energy. Our findings might help to develop more effective environmental regulations worldwide. - Highlights: • Global and territorial nuclear energy could differ up to 237% in the main economies. • Trade-embodied nuclear energy has increased from 1.4% to 2.5% in 15 years. • Nuclear energy production has rised in tandem with trade-embodied nuclear energy. • Nuclear production decrease in 7 countries does not counteract the increase in others.

  15. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  16. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  17. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a

  18. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, H.

    1977-01-01

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP) [de

  19. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is enacted under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. Any person who engages in refining business shall get designation for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be filed through the director of International Trade and Industry Office in charge of the location of the works or the enterprise with a business program and other specified documents attached. Any person who undertakes processing business shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be submitted with a business program and other documents defined by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office. Any person who sets up reactor shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be presented with a financial project and other documents stipulated by the ordinance. Fast breeding reactor, heavy-water moderated boiling water reactor and light-water moderated pressurized water reactor are designated as reactor in the phase of research and development. Each foreign nuclear ship equipped with reactor which enters into Japanese waters shall get permission of the Minister of Transport. The application shall be presented with the papers explaining safety of reactor facilities and other documents provided by the ordinance of the ministry concerned. (Okada, K.)

  20. Order of 28 March 1980 on the transfer to ENUSA of duties of the Junta de Energia Nuclear connected with the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In implementation of the Royal Decree of 7 December 1979 the Minister of Industry and Energy made this Order regulating the transfer to ENUSA (National Uranium Undertaking) of the Junta de Energia Nuclear's duties relating to the nuclear fuel cycle. The Order sets up, within the Ministry of Industry and Energy, a Transfer Commission responsible for establishing the directives prior to the measures to be taken by the Ministry concerning the transfer to ENUSA of the duties, personnel and establishments of the Junta connected with the nuclear fuel cycle. It will also determine the dates of such transfer, according to the order of priority laid down in the Order. (NEA) [fr