WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear waste containments

  1. Glass containing radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level-radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800 C, since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800 to 1050 C temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550 C and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H 2 O at 135 C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear waste forms. (author)

  2. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sump, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties

  3. Nuclear waste storage container with metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sump, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to a storage container for high-level waste having a metal matrix for the high-level waste, thereby providing greater impact strength for the waste container and increasing heat transfer properties.

  4. Predicting the Lifetimes of Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Fraser

    2014-03-01

    As for many aspects of the disposal of nuclear waste, the greatest challenge we have in the study of container materials is the prediction of the long-term performance over periods of tens to hundreds of thousands of years. Various methods have been used for predicting the lifetime of containers for the disposal of high-level waste or spent fuel in deep geological repositories. Both mechanical and corrosion-related failure mechanisms need to be considered, although until recently the interactions of mechanical and corrosion degradation modes have not been considered in detail. Failure from mechanical degradation modes has tended to be treated through suitable container design. In comparison, the inevitable loss of container integrity due to corrosion has been treated by developing specific corrosion models. The most important aspect, however, is to be able to justify the long-term predictions by demonstrating a mechanistic understanding of the various degradation modes.

  5. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    OpenAIRE

    Woignier, Thierry; Primera, Juan; Reynes, Jerôme

    2016-01-01

    Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical dura...

  6. Nanoporous Glasses for Nuclear Waste Containment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Woignier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is in progress to incorporate nuclear waste in new matrices with high structural stability, resistance to thermal shock, and high chemical durability. Interactions with water are important for materials used as a containment matrix for the radio nuclides. It is indispensable to improve their chemical durability to limit the possible release of radioactive chemical species, if the glass structure is attacked by corrosion. By associating high structural stability and high chemical durability, silica glass optimizes the properties of a suitable host matrix. According to an easy sintering stage, nanoporous glasses such as xerogels, aerogels, and composite gels are alternative ways to synthesize silica glass at relatively low temperatures (≈1,000–1,200°C. Nuclear wastes exist as aqueous salt solutions and we propose using the open pore structure of the nanoporous glass to enable migration of the solution throughout the solid volume. The loaded material is then sintered, thereby trapping the radioactive chemical species. The structure of the sintered materials (glass ceramics is that of nanocomposites: actinide phases (~100 nm embedded in a vitreous silica matrix. Our results showed a large improvement in the chemical durability of glass ceramic over conventional nuclear glass.

  7. Corrosion process studies in a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, Ruben A.; Lanzani, Liliana A.; Coronel, Pascual; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Semino, Carlos J.

    1999-01-01

    Latest results on corrosion behavior studies on high activity nuclear waste container are reported. Corrosion evaluation on lead base alloys and modeling to predict carbon steel external container cover generalized corrosion, are the main issues of these studies. (author)

  8. Sulphate in Liquid Nuclear Waste: from Production to Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, M.; Grandjean, A.; Ledieu, A.; Dussossoy, J.L.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Barre, Y.; Tronche, E. [CEA Marcoule, DEN/DTCD/SECM/LDMC, Batiment 208 BP17171, Bagnols sur Ceze, 30207 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Nuclear industry produces a wide range of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes which can include different radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr. In La Hague reprocessing plant and in the nuclear research centers of CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), the coprecipitation of strontium with barium sulphate is the technique used to treat selectively these contaminated streams with the best efficiency. After the decontamination process, low and intermediate level activity wastes incorporating significant quantities of sulphate are obtained. The challenge is to find a matrix easy to form and with a good chemical durability which is able to confine this kind of nuclear waste. The current process used to contain sulphate-rich nuclear wastes is bituminization. However, in order to improve properties of containment matrices and simplify the process, CEA has chosen to supervise researches on other materials such as cements or glasses. Indeed, cements are widely used for the immobilization of a variety of wastes (low and intermediate level wastes) and they may be an alternative matrix to bitumen. Even if Portland cement, which is extensively used in the nuclear industry, presents some disadvantages for the containment of sulphate-rich nuclear wastes (risk of swelling and cracking due to delayed ettringite formation), other cement systems, such as calcium sulfo-aluminate binders, may be valuable candidates. Another matrix to confine sulphate-rich waste could be the glass. One of the advantages of this material is that it could also immobilize sulphate containing high level nuclear waste which is present in some countries. This waste comes from the use of ferrous sulfamate as a reducing agent for the conversion of Pu{sup 4+} to Pu{sup 3+} in the partitioning stage of the actinides during reprocessing. Sulphate solubility in borosilicate glasses has already been studied in CEA at laboratory and pilot scales. At a pilot scale, low level liquid waste has been

  9. Seal welded cast iron nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippi, A.M.; Sprecace, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    An article of manufacture is described comprising a cast iron container having an opening at one end and a cast iron plug; a first nickel-carbon alloy fusion weldable insert surrounding the opening and metallurgically bonded to the cast iron container at the one end of the container; a second nickel-carbon alloy insert metallurgically bonded to the cast iron plug located within the opening and surrounded by the first insert the inserts being jointed by a fusion bond in the opening without heating the cast iron container to an austenite formation temperature thereby sealing the interior of the container from the exterior ambient outside the opening; the nickel-carbon alloy containing about 2 to 5 w% carbon; and both the nickel-carbon alloy insert and the cast iron container have a microstructure containing a graphite phase

  10. Differential lead retention in zircons: implications for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, R V; Sworski, T J; McKown, H S; Smith, D H; Eby, R E; Christie, W H

    1982-04-16

    An innovative ultrasensitive technique was used for lead isotopic analysis of individual zircons extracted from granite core samples at depths of 960, 2170, 2900, 3930, and 4310 meters. The results show that lead, a relatively mobile element compared to the nuclear waste-related actinides uranium and thorium, has been highly retained at elevated temperatures (105 degrees to 313 degrees C) under conditions relevant to the burial of synthetic rock waste containers in deep granite holes.

  11. Lead corrosion evaluation in high activity nuclear waste container (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, R.; Lanzani, L.; Bruzzoni, P.; Cufre, W.; Semino, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a study of high activity nuclear waste canister corrosion in a deep geological disposal. In this canister design, the vitrified nuclear waste stainless steel container is shielded by a 100 mm thick lead wall. For mechanical resistance, the canister will also have a thin carbon steel external liner. Experimental and mathematical modeling studies are aimed to asses the corrosion kinetics of the carbon steel liner in first instance and then, once this liner has been corroded away, the corrosion kinetics of the main lead barrier. Being that oxygen reduction is the main cathodic reaction that supports the anodic oxidation of iron, a model is described predicting the rate of oxygen consumption in a sealed deep nuclear waste disposal vault as a result of the canister corrosion. Oxidation processes other than container corrosion, and that can account also for oxygen depletion, are not taken into consideration. Corrosion experimental studies on lead and its alloys in groundwater are also reported. These experiments are aimed to improve the corrosion resistance of commercial lead in groundwater. (author)

  12. Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, James M.; Lahoda, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

  13. A program to assess microbial impacts on nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, J.; Meike, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss aspects of a comprehensive program to identify and bound potential effects of microorganisms on long-term nuclear waste containment, using as examples, studies conducted within the Yucca Mountain Project. A comprehensive program has been formulated which cuts across standard disciplinary lines to address the specific concerns of microbial activity in a radioactive waste repository. Collectively, this program provides bounding parameters of microbial activities that modify the ambient geochemistry and hydrology, modify corrosion rates, and transport and transform radionuclides under conditions expected to be encountered after geological waste emplacement. This program is intended to provide microbial reaction rates and bounding conditions in a form that can be integrated into existing chemical and hydrological models. The inclusion of microbial effects will allow those models to more accurately assess long term repository integrity

  14. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Gamma radiation induced changes in nuclear waste glass containing Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, M.; Kadam, R. M.; Mishra, R. K.; Kaushik, C. P.; Tomar, B. S.; Godbole, S. V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma radiation induced changes were investigated in sodium-barium borosilicate glasses containing Eu. The glass composition was similar to that of nuclear waste glasses used for vitrifying Trombay research reactor nuclear waste at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques were used to study the speciation of the rare earth (RE) ion in the matrix before and after gamma irradiation. Judd-Ofelt ( J- O) analyses of the emission spectra were done before and after irradiation. The spin counting technique was employed to quantify the number of defect centres formed in the glass at the highest gamma dose studied. PL data suggested the stabilisation of the trivalent RE ion in the borosilicate glass matrix both before and after irradiation. It was also observed that, the RE ion distributes itself in two different environments in the irradiated glass. From the EPR data it was observed that, boron oxygen hole centre based radicals are the predominant defect centres produced in the glass after irradiation along with small amount of E’ centres. From the spin counting studies the concentration of defect centres in the glass was calculated to be 350 ppm at 900 kGy. This indicated the fact that bulk of the glass remained unaffected after gamma irradiation up to 900 kGy.

  16. Radionuclide transport through perforations in nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidun, C.K.; Bloom, S.G.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-11-01

    Previous analytical models for the steady-state radionuclide release rate through perforations in nuclear waste containers into the surrounding medium are based on a zero wall thickness assumption. In this paper we investigate the effect of the wall thickness on the mass transfer rate through isolated cylindrical holes. We solve the steady-state diffusion equation for the concentration field and derive a model based on the analytical solution. By direct comparison, we show that the zero wall thickness model overpredicts the mass transfer rate by about 1300 percent for a circular hole with 1-cm radius and a wall thickness of 10 cm. As expected, the zero-thickness model becomes even less accurate as the hole radius decreases; it predicts a greater release rate from a large number of small holes than the mass transfer rate from an uncontained waste form cylinder. In contrast, the results predicted by our model remain bounded for isolated holes and never exceed the mass transfer from an uncontained waste form. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. The stress corrosion cracking of copper nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The extent of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear waste containers is being predicted on the basis of a 'limited propagation' argument. In this argument, it is accepted that crack initiation may occur, but it is argued that the environmental conditions and material properties required for a through-wall crack to propagate will not be present. In this paper, the effect of one environmental parameter, the supply of oxidant (J ox ), on the crack growth rate is examined. Experiments have been conducted on two grades of Cu in NANO 2 environments using two loading techniques. The supply of oxidant has been varied either electrochemically in bulk solution using different applied current densities or by embedding the loaded test specimens in compacted buffer material containing O 2 as the oxidant. Measured and theoretical crack growth rates as a function of J ox are compared with the predicted oxidant flux to the containers in a disposal vault and an estimate of the maximum crack depth on a container obtained. (author)

  18. The stress corrosion cracking of copper nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Litke, C.D.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    The extent of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear waste containers is being predicted on the basis of a limited propagation argument. In this argument, it is accepted that crack initiation may occur, but it is argued that the environmental conditions and material properties required for a through-wall crack to propagate will not be present. In this paper, the effect of one environmental parameter, the supply of oxidant (J OX ), on the crack growth rate is examined. Experiments have been conducted on two grades of Cu in NaNO 2 environments using two loading techniques. The supply of oxidant has been varied either electrochemically in bulk solution using different applied current densities or by embedding the loaded test specimens in compacted buffer material containing O 2 as the oxidant. Measured and theoretical crack growth rates as a function of J OX are compared with the predicted oxidant flux to the containers in a disposal vault and an estimate of the maximum crack depth on a container obtained

  19. Effect on localized waste-container failure on radionuclide transport from an underground nuclear waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, S.C.H.; Chan, T.

    1983-07-01

    In the geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste, one option is to emplace the waste container in a borehole drilled into the floor of the underground vault. In the borehole, the waste container is surrounded by a compacted soil material known as the buffer. A finite-element simulation has been performed to study the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the steady-state radionuclide transport by diffusion from the container through the buffer to the surrounding rock and/or backfill. In this study, the radionuclide concentration at the buffer-backfill interface is assumed to be zero. Two cases are considered at the interface between the buffer and the rock. In case 1, a no-flux boundary condition is used to simulate intact rock. In case 2, a constant radionuclide concentration condition is used to simulate fractured rock with groundwater flow. The results show that the effect of localized partial failure of the waste container on the total flux is dependent on the boundary condition at the buffer-rock interface. For the intact rock condition, the total flux is mainly dependent on the location of the failure. The total flux increases as the location changes from the bottom to the top of the emplaced waste container. For a given localized failure of the waste container, the total flux remains unaffected by the area of failed surface below the top of the failure. For fractured rock, the total flux is directly proportional to the failed surface area of the waste container regardless of the failure location

  20. Gas flow in and out of a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwahlen, E.D.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-05-01

    We analyze the flow of gases out of and into a high-level-waste container in the unsaturated tuff of Yucca Mountain. Containers are expected to fail eventually by localized cracks and penetrations. Even though the penetrations may be small, argon gas initially in the hot container can leak out. As the waste package cools, the pressure inside the container can become less than atmospheric, and air can leak in. 14 C released from the hot fuel-cladding surface can leak out of penetrations, and air inleakage can mobilize additional 14 C and other volatile radioactive species as it oxidizes the fuel cladding and the spent fuel. In an earlier paper we studied the gas flow through container penetrations occurring at the time of emplacement. Here we analyze the flow of gas for various penetration sizes occurring at 300 years. 3 refs., 2 figs

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of candidate materials for nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiya, P.S.; Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1989-09-01

    Types 304L and 316L stainless steel (SS), Incoloy 825, Cu, Cu-30%Ni, and Cu-7%Al have been selected as candidate materials for the containment of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Site in Nevada. The susceptibility of these materials to stress corrosion cracking has been investigated by slow-strain-rate tests (SSRTs) in water which simulates that from well J-13 (J-13 water) and is representative of the groundwater present at the Yucca Mountain site. The SSRTs were performed on specimens exposed to simulated J-13 water at 93 degree C and at a strain rate 10 -7 s -1 under crevice conditions and at a strain rate of 10 -8 s -1 under both crevice and noncrevice conditions. All the tests were interrupted after nominal elongation strains of 1--4%. Examination by scanning electron microscopy showed some crack initiation in virtually all specimens. Optical microscopy of metallographically prepared transverse sections of Type 304L SS suggests that the crack depths are small (<10 μm). Preliminary results suggest that a lower strain rate increases the severity of cracking of Types 304L and 316L SS, Incoloy 825, and Cu but has virtually no effect on Cu-30%Ni and Cu-7%Al. Differences in susceptibility to cracking were evaluated in terms of a stress ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the increase in stress after local yielding in the environment to the corresponding stress increase in an identical test in air, both computed at the same strain. On the basis of this stress ratio, the ranking of materials in order of increasing resistance to cracking is: Types 304L SS < 316L SS < Incoloy 825 congruent Cu-30%Ni < Cu congruent Cu-7%Al. 9 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Experiences in the emptying of waste silos containing solid nuclear waste from graphite- moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, S.; Schwarz, T.

    2003-01-01

    difference in the two streams lays in the chosen retrieval technology, reflecting the different problems involved. The most significant differences in the retrieval solutions are; - MAC recovery is achieved with a hydraulic Artisan manipulator arm deployed through a series of new access points in the vault roof; - FED recovery utilizes two retrieval units which deploy petal grabs through tubes originally connected to the waste discharge conveyors. The waste is then transported for further treatment including monitoring, packing, lid and grouting fitting, box filling and swabbing of the boxes to eliminate external contamination. This poster session discusses the experiences made with the retrieval and emptying of graphite containing nuclear waste silos

  3. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  4. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe 2 O 3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90 0 C, with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe 2 O 3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms

  5. Corrosion issues in high-level nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Samin Sharifi

    In this dissertation different aspects of corrosion and electrochemistry of copper, candidate canister material in Scandinavian high-level nuclear waste disposal program, including the thermodynamics and kinetics of the reactions that are predicted to occur in the practical system have been studied. A comprehensive thermodynamic study of copper in contact with granitic groundwater of the type and composition that is expected in the Forsmark repository in Sweden has been performed. Our primary objective was to ascertain whether copper would exist in the thermodynamically immune state in the repository, in which case corrosion could not occur and the issue of corrosion in the assessment of the storage technology would be moot. In spite of the fact that metallic copper has been found to exist for geological times in granitic geological formations, copper is well-known to be activated from the immune state to corrode by specific species that may exist in the environment. The principal activator of copper is known to be sulfur in its various forms, including sulfide (H2S, HS-, S2-), polysulfide (H2Sx, HSx -, Sx 2-), poly sulfur thiosulfate ( SxO3 2-), and polythionates (SxO6 2-). A comprehensive study of this aspect of copper chemistry has never been reported, and yet an understanding of this issue is vital for assessing whether copper is a suitable material for fabricating canisters for the disposal of HLNW. Our study identifies and explores those species that activate copper; these species include sulfur-containing entities as well as other, non-sulfur species that may be present in the repository. The effects of temperature, solution pH, and hydrogen pressure on the kinetics of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) on copper in borate buffer solution have been studied by means of steady-state polarization measurements, including electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In order to obtain electrokinetic parameters, such as the exchange current density and the

  6. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste containers for storage at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.; Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O.

    1989-04-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B ampersand W's role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  7. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in an cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rack. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3--4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions

  8. Radiolysis effects on fuel corrosion within a failed nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunder, S.; Shoeshmith, D.W.; Christensen, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    The concept of geological disposal of used nuclear fuel in corrosion resistant containers is being investigated in several countries. In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP), it is assumed that the used fuel will be disposed of in copper containers. Since the predicted lifetimes of these containers are very long (>106 years), only those containers emplaced with an undetected defect will fail within the period for which radionuclide release from the fuel must be considered. Early failure could lead to the entry of water into the container and subsequent release of radionuclides. The release rate of radionuclides from the used fuel will depend upon its dissolution rate. The primary mechanism for release will be the corrosion of the fuel driven by radiolytically-produced oxidants. The studies carried out to determine the effects of water radiolysis on fuel corrosion are reviewed, and some of the procedures used to predict corrosion rates of used fuel in failed nuclear waste containers described. (author)

  9. The remote handling of canisters containing nuclear waste in glass at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is a complete production area being constructed at the Savannah River Plant for the immobilization of nuclear waste in glass. The remote handling of canisters filled with nuclear waste in glass is an essential part of the process of the DWPF at the Savannah River Plant. The canisters are filled with nuclear waste containing up to 235,000 curies of radioactivity. Handling and movement of these canisters must be accomplished remotely since they radiate up to 5000 R/h. Within the Vitrification Building during filling, cleaning, and sealing, canisters are moved using standard cranes and trolleys and a specially designed grapple. During transportation to the Glass Waste Storage Building, a one-of-a-kind, specially designed Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) is used. 8 figs

  10. Lead iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for disposal of high-level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, Lynn A.; Sales, Brian C.

    1989-01-01

    Lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste, a highly corrosion resistant, homogeneous, easily processed glass can be formed. For corroding solutions at 90.degree. C., with solution pH values in the range between 5 and 9, the corrosion rate of the lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass is at least 10.sup.2 to 10.sup.3 times lower than the corrosion rate of a comparable borosilicate nuclear waste glass. The presence of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 in forming the lead-iron phosphate glass is critical. Lead-iron phosphate nuclear waste glass can be prepared at temperatures as low as 800.degree. C., since they exhibit very low melt viscosities in the 800.degree. to 1050.degree. C. temperature range. These waste-loaded glasses do not readily devitrify at temperatures as high as 550.degree. C. and are not adversely affected by large doses of gamma radiation in H.sub.2 O at 135.degree. C. The lead-iron phosphate waste glasses can be prepared with minimal modification of the technology developed for processing borosilicate glass nuclear wasteforms.

  11. Risks attached to container- and bunker-storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jager, D. de

    1987-12-01

    The results are presented of a literature study into the risks attached to the two dry-storage options selected by the Dutch Central Organization For Radioactive Waste (COVRA): the container- and the bunker-storage for irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and nuclear waste. Since the COVRA does not make it clear how these concepts should have to be realized, the experiences abroad with dry interim-storage are considered. In particular the Castor-container-storage and the bunker storage proposed in the committee MINSK (Possibilities of Interim-storage in the Netherlands of Irradiated nuclear-fuel elements and Nuclear waste) are studied further in depth. The committee MINSK has performed a study into the technical realizability of various interim-storage facilities, among which a storage in bunkers. (author). 75 refs.; 14 figs.; 16 tabs

  12. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  13. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  14. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congdon, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans, supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions, however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion. 10 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Fracture during cooling of cast borosilicate glass containing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.; Baxter, C.A.

    1981-09-01

    Procedures and techniques were evaluated to mitigate thermal stress fracture in waste glass as the glass cools after casting. The two principal causes of fracture identified in small-scale testing are internal thermal stresses arising from excessive thermal gradients when cooled too fast, and shear fracturing in the surface of the glass because the stainless steel canister shrinks faster than the glass on cooling. Acoustic emission and ceramographic techniques were used to outline an annealing schedule that requires at least three weeks of controlled cooling below 550 0 C to avoid excessive thermal gradients and corresponding stresses. Fracture arising from canister interactions cannot be relieved by slow cooling, but can be eliminated for stainless steel canisters by using ceramic paper, ceramic or graphite paste linings, or by choosing a canister material with a thermal expansion coefficient comparable to, or less than, that of the glass

  16. An assessment of the feasibility of indefinite containment of Canadian nuclear fuel wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; King, F.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of the expected corrosion behaviour of nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault. The container materials considered are dilute Ti alloys (Grades-2, -12 and -16) and oxygen-free copper. The corrosive conditions within the disposal vault change with time as the initially trapped oxygen is consumed and as the heat and γ-radiation produced by the waste decays. This evolution of the vault environment is broadly classified into an early, warm and oxidizing period followed by a period of long-term, stable, cool and non-oxidizing conditions. The corrosion behaviour of both types of material during these two periods is discussed, and various models that have been developed to predict the lifetimes of the containers are presented. The conclusion is that indefinite containment of the waste is feasible with both copper and titanium alloys under Canadian disposal conditions. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  17. A novel technique for finding gas bubbles in the nuclear waste containers using Muon Scattering Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolska, M.; Velthuis, J.; Frazão, L.; Kikoła, D.

    2018-05-01

    Nuclear waste is deposited for many years in the concrete or bitumen-filled containers. With time hydrogen gas is produced, which can accumulate in bubbles. These pockets of gas may result in bitumen overflowing out of the waste containers and could result in spread of radioactivity. Muon Scattering Tomography is a non-invasive scanning method developed to examine the unknown content of nuclear waste drums. Here we present a method which allows us to successfully detect bubbles larger than 2 litres and determine their size with a relative uncertainty resolution of 1.55 ± 0.77%. Furthermore, the method allows to make a distinction between a conglomeration of bubbles and a few smaller gas volumes in different locations.

  18. Fabrication and closure development of nuclear waste disposal containers for the Yucca Mountain Project: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.; Robitz, E.S.; Conrardy, C.C.; LaCount, D.F.; McAninch, M.D.; Fish, R.L.; Russell, E.W.

    1991-09-01

    In GFY 89, a project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable method for fabricating thin-walled monolithic waste containers for service within the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. A concurrent project was underway to determine and demonstrate a suitable closure process for these containers after they have been filled with high-level nuclear waste. Phase 1 for both the fabrication and closure projects was a screening phase in which candidate processes were selected for further laboratory testing in Phase 2. This report describes the final results of the Phase 1 efforts. It also describes the preliminary results of Phase 2 efforts

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  20. Selection criteria for container materials at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsey, W.G.

    1989-11-01

    A geological repository has been proposed for the permanent disposal of the nation's high level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain in the Nevada desert. The containers for this waste must remain intact for the unprecedented service lifetime of 1000 years. A combination of engineering, regulatory, and licensing requirements complicate the container material selection. In parallel to gathering information regarding the Yucca Mountain service environment and material performance data, a set of selection criteria have been established which compare candidate materials to the performance requirements, and allow a quantitative comparison of candidates. These criteria assign relative weighting to varied topic areas such as mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fabricability, and cost. Considering the long service life of the waste containers, it is not surprising that the corrosion behavior of the material is a dominant factor. 7 refs

  1. Heat transfer effects in vertically emplaced high level nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moujaes, S.F.; Lei, Y.M.

    1994-01-01

    Modeling free convection heat transfer in a cylindrical annular enclosure is still an active area of research and an important problem to be addressed in the high level nuclear waste repository. For the vertically emplaced waste container, the air gap which is between the container shell and the rock borehole, have an important role of dissipating heat to surrounding rock. These waste containers are vertically emplaced in the borehole 300 meters just below ground, and in a horizontal grid of 30 x 8 meters apart. The borehole will be capped after the container emplacement. The expected initial heat generated is between 3-4.74 kW per container depending on the type of waste. The goal of this study is to use a computer simulation model to find the borehole wall, air-gap and the container outer wall temperature distributions. The borehole wall temperature history has been found in the previous study, and was estimated to reach a maximum temperature of about 218 degrees C after 18 years from the emplacement. The temperature history of the rock surface is then used for the air-gap simulation. The problem includes convection and radiation heat transfer in a vertical enclosure. This paper will present the results of the convection in the air-gap over one thousand years after the containers' emplacement. During this long simulation period it was also observed that a multi-cellular air flow pattern can be generated in the air gap

  2. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fátima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-10-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  3. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums containing cemented intermediate level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Farina, Silvia B.; Schulz, Fatima M.; Marotta, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Cementation processes are used as immobilization techniques for low or intermediate level radioactive waste for economical and safety reasons and for being a simple operation. In particular, ion-exchange resins commonly used for purification of radioactive liquid waste from nuclear reactors are immobilized before being stored to improve the leach resistance of the waste matrix and to maintain mechanical stability. Combustible solid radioactive waste can be incinerated and the resulting ashes can also be immobilized before storage. The immobilized resins and ashes are then contained in steel drums that may undergo corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The work described in this paper was aimed at evaluating the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins and incineration ashes containing different concentrations of aggressive species (mostly chloride and sulphate ions). A special type of specimen was designed to simulate the cemented waste in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 1 year. The results show the deleterious effect of chloride on the expected lifespan of the waste containers.

  4. Preliminary analysis of the creep behaviour of nuclear fuel-waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.; Leitch, B.W.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Kasprick, G.R.

    1996-12-01

    In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, it is proposed that nuclear fuel waste be placed in a durable container and disposed of in a deep underground vault. Consideration of various disposal-container designs has identified either titanium or copper as the material suitable for constructing the container shell. As part of the R and D program to examine the structural integrity of the container, creep tests are being conducted on commercially pure titanium and oxygen-free copper. This report presents the preliminary data obtained. It also describes the evaluation of various constitutive equations to represent the creep curves, thus providing the basis for extrapolation of the creep behaviour over the design lifetime of the container. In this regard, a specific focus is placed on equations derived from the 0-Projection Concept. Recognizing that the container lifetime will be determined by the onset of tertiary creep leading to creep rupture, we present the results of the metallographic examination of creep damage. This shows that the tertiary stage in titanium is associated with the formation of transgranular cavities within the region of localized necking of the creep specimens. In contrast, creep damage in copper is in the form of intergranular cavities uniformly distributed throughout the gauge length. These results are analyzed within the context of the extant literature, and their implications for future container design are discussed. (author)

  5. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  6. Development of Models to Predict the Redox State of Nuclear Waste Containment Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinet, O.; Guirat, R.; Advocat, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Traitement et de Conditionnement des Dechets, Marcoule, BP 71171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Phalippou, J. [Universite de Montpellier II, Laboratoire des Colloides, Verres et Nanomateriaux, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Vitrification is one of the recommended immobilization routes for nuclear waste, and is currently implemented at industrial scale in several countries, notably for high-level waste. To optimize nuclear waste vitrification, research is conducted to specify suitable glass formulations and develop more effective processes. This research is based not only on experiments at laboratory or technological scale, but also on computer models. Vitrified nuclear waste often contains several multi-valent species whose oxidation state can impact the properties of the melt and of the final glass; these include iron, cerium, ruthenium, manganese, chromium and nickel. Cea is therefore also developing models to predict the final glass redox state. Given the raw materials and production conditions, the model predicts the oxygen fugacity at equilibrium in the melt. It can also estimate the ratios between the oxidation states of the multi-valent species contained in the molten glass. The oxidizing or reductive nature of the atmosphere above the glass melt is also taken into account. Unlike the models used in the conventional glass industry based on empirical methods with a limited range of application, the models proposed are based on the thermodynamic properties of the redox species contained in the waste vitrification feed stream. The thermodynamic data on which the model is based concern the relationship between the glass redox state and the oxygen fugacity in the molten glass. The model predictions were compared with oxygen fugacity measurements for some fifty glasses. The experiments carried out at laboratory and industrial scale with a cold crucible melter. The oxygen fugacity of the glass samples was measured by electrochemical methods and compared with the predicted value. The differences between the predicted and measured oxygen fugacity values were generally less than 0.5 Log unit. (authors)

  7. The nuclear waste containment and some aspects of the deep disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, B.; Thorner, P.; Raimbault, P.; Beaulieu, F.

    1995-01-01

    The French agency for the management of nuclear waste, ANDRA, is in charge of investigating the feasibility of deep disposal of high level waste in at least two types of geologic formation, leading to the validation of disposal concepts with and without retrievability. Plans to build two underground laboratories are afoot. Meanwhile, parametric modelling studies have been performed, with interesting results, some of which are shown here in graphic form. It is proved that if the overpack surrounding waste containers can be made to last for a thousand years, the dose resulting from Sr-90 and Cs-137 is nil. Conversely, the dose from actinides such as americium and Th-229 is largely unaffected by the package, being determined by their own low solubilities and underground water flow. Temperature rise in a granite host formation was modelled as a function of the distance between disposal boreholes. Finite element two dimensional calculations of water flow through backfill were also performed. 1 ref., 8 figs

  8. Passive 3D imaging of nuclear waste containers with Muon Scattering Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomay, C.; Velthuis, J.; Poffley, T.; Baesso, P.; Cussans, D.; Frazão, L.

    2016-03-01

    The non-invasive imaging of dense objects is of particular interest in the context of nuclear waste management, where it is important to know the contents of waste containers without opening them. Using Muon Scattering Tomography (MST), it is possible to obtain a detailed 3D image of the contents of a waste container on reasonable timescales, showing both the high and low density materials inside. We show the performance of such a method on a Monte Carlo simulation of a dummy waste drum object containing objects of different shapes and materials. The simulation has been tuned with our MST prototype detector performance. In particular, we show that both a tungsten penny of 2 cm radius and 1 cm thickness, and a uranium sheet of 0.5 cm thickness can be clearly identified. We also show the performance of a novel edge finding technique, by which the edges of embedded objects can be identified more precisely than by solely using the imaging method.

  9. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  10. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  11. Investigation into the application of polyetherimide to nuclear waste storage containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboui, Y.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2009-01-01

    The procedure of the analysis of the effects of irradiation on the mechanical and chemical properties of the polyetherimide (PEI) is outlined. Previous research in this field at the Royal Military College of Canada is presented. Samples of PEI will be exposed to a mixed radiation field, in the pool of a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor, then changes in mechanical properties, degradation product formation, and physical property changes will be assessed. Additionally, the heat transfer in the sample will be calculated in order to model the heat transfer rate and heat diffusion profile of PEI. The purpose of the proposed research is to determine the feasibility of using PEI for spent CANDU nuclear fuel and nuclear waste storage containers. (author)

  12. Corrosion of copper containers prior to saturation of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Kolar, M.

    1997-12-01

    The buffer material surrounding the containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault will partially desiccate as a result of the elevated temperature at the container surface. This will lead to a period of corrosion in a moist air atmosphere. Corrosion will either take the form of slow oxidation if the container surface remains dry or aqueous electrochemical corrosion if the surface is wetted by a thin liquid film. The relevant literature is reviewed, from which it is concluded that corrosion should be uniform in nature, except if the surface is wetted, in which case localized corrosion is a possibility. A quantitative analysis of the extent and rate of uniform corrosion during the unsaturated period is presented. Two bounding cases are considered: first, the case of slow oxidation in moist air following either logarithmic or parabolic oxide-growth kinetics and, second, the case of electrochemically based corrosion occurring in a thin liquid film uninhibited by the growth of corrosion products. (author)

  13. Progress in welding studies for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maak, P.Y.Y.

    1985-11-01

    This report describes the progress in the development of closure-welding technology for Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal containers. Titanium, copper and Inconel 625 are being investigated as candidate materials for fabrication of these containers. Gas-tungsten-arc welding, gas metal-arc-welding, resistance-heated diffusion bonding and electron beam welding have been evaluated as candidate closure welding processes. Characteristic weldment properties, relative merits of welding techniques, suitable weld joint configurations and fit-up tolerances, and welding parameter control ranges have been identified for various container designs. Furthermore, the automation requirements for candidate welding processes have been assessed. Progress in the development of a computer-controlled remote gas-shielded arc welding system is described

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on corrosion of Nuclear fuel waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The 23 papers presented at this conference review the technical merits, and particularly corrosion performance, of the three main materials used for nuclear fuel waste containers: titanium and its alloys, copper and its alloys, and iron and carbon steels. The specific questions posed to the Workshop were: 1) Can we predict the lifetime of container materials in a variety of vault environments? 2) Is there a limiting range of conditions beyond which a specific material cannot be used? 3) Do we have the necessary corrosion rate data and/or mechanistic models required to make predictions? 4) Can we justify the use of titanium on the basis of propagation rate measurements for crevice corrosion, or do we need to prove initiation cannot occur? 5) Will the pitting of copper be significant? 6) How thick a carbon steel container would be required, and can it be fabricated and stress-relieved? 7) Are radiation fields of any consequence at the dose rates expected?

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  17. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  18. Composition - structure - properties relationships of peraluminous glasses for nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovesan, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Part of the Research and Development program concerning high level nuclear waste conditioning aims to assess new glass formulations able to incorporate a high waste content with enhanced properties in terms of homogeneity, thermal stability, long term behavior and process ability. This study focuses on peraluminous glasses, defined by an excess of aluminum ions Al"3"+ in comparison with modifier elements such as Na"+, Li"+ or Ca"2"+. A Design of Experiment approach has been employed to determine relationships between composition of simplified peraluminous glasses (SiO_2 - B_2O_3 - Al_2O_3 - Na_2O - Li_2O - CaO - La_2O_3) and their physical properties such as viscosity, glass transition temperature and glass homogeneity. Moreover, some structural investigation (NMR) was performed in order to better understand the structural role of Na"+, Li"+ and Ca"2"+ and the structural organization of peraluminous glasses. Then, physical and chemical properties of fully simulated peraluminous glasses were characterized to evaluate transposition between simplified and fully simulated glasses and also to put forward the potential of peraluminous glasses for nuclear waste containment. (author) [fr

  19. Experiences in the management of plutonium-containing solid-wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.; Hild, W.; Scheffler, K.

    1974-10-01

    Solid-plutonium-containing wastes from a fuel production plant, a reprocessing plant and several research laboratories are treated at the decontamination department of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center for disposal in the Asse salt mine. Conditioning as well as future aspects in α-waste management are the subject of this Paper. (orig.) [de

  20. Selection of candidate canister materials for high-level nuclear waste containment in a tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Weiss, H.; Juhas, M.C.; Logan, R.W.

    1983-11-01

    A repository located at Yucca Mountain at the Nevada Test Site is a potential site for permanent geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The repository can be located in a horizon in welded tuff, a volcanic rock, which is above the static water level at this site. The environmental conditions in this unsaturated zone are expected to be air and water vapor dominated for much of the containment period. Type 304L stainless steel is the reference material for fabricating canisters to contain the solid high-level wastes. Alternative stainless alloys are considered because of possible susceptibility of 304L to localized and stress forms of corrosion. For the reprocessed glass wastes, the canisters serve as the recipient for pouring the glass with the result that a sensitized microstructure may develop because of the times at elevated temperatures. Corrosion testing of the reference and alternative materials has begun in tuff-conditioned water and steam environments. 21 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  1. Properties and solubility of chrome in iron alumina phosphate glasses containing high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.; Day, D.E.; Ray, C.S.; Kim, C.W.; Reis, S.T.D.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical durability, glass formation tendency, and other properties of iron alumina phosphate glasses containing 70 wt% of a simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW), doped with different amounts of Cr 2 O 3 , have been investigated. All of the iron alumina phosphate glasses had an outstanding chemical durability as measured by their small dissolution rate (1 . 10 -9 g/(cm 2 . min)) in deionized water at 90 C for 128 d, their low normalized mass release as determined by the product consistency test (PCT) and a barely measurable corrosion rate of 2 . d) after 7 d at 200 C by the vapor hydration test (VHT). The solubility limit for Cr 2 O 3 in the iron phosphate melts was estimated at 4.1 wt%, but all of the as-annealed melts contained a few percent of crystalline Cr 2 O 3 that had no apparent effect on the chemical durability. The chemical durability was unchanged after deliberate crystallization, 48 h at 650 C. These iron phosphate waste forms, with a waste loading of at least 70 wt%, can be readily melted in commercial refractory crucibles at 1250 C for 2 to 4 h, are resistant to crystallization, meet all current US Department of Energy requirements for chemical durability, and have a solubility limit for Cr 2 O 3 which is at least three times larger than that for borosilicate glasses. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  3. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  4. Fabrication and closure development of corrosion resistant containers for Nevada's Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, E.W.; Nelson, T.A.; Domian, H.A.; LaCount, D.F.; Robitz, E.S.; Stein, K.O.

    1989-11-01

    US Congress and the President have determined that the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is to be characterized to determine its suitability for construction of the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Work in connection with this site is carried out within the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing, developing, and projecting the performance of the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W) is involved with the YMP as a subcontractor to LLNL. B ampersand W's role is to recommend and demonstrate a method for fabricating the metallic waste container and a method for performing the final closure of the container after it has been filled with waste. Various fabrication and closure methods are under consideration for the production of containers. This paper presents progress to date in identifying and evaluating the candidate manufacturing processes. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. A model for predicting the lifetimes of Grade-2 titanium nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D W; Ikeda, B M; Bailey, M G; Quinn, M J; LeNeveu, D M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-08-01

    The development of a model to predict the lifetimes of Grade-2 titanium containers for nuclear fuel waste is described. This model assumes that the corrosion processes most likely to lead to container failure are crevice corrosion, hydrogen-induced cracking and general corrosion. Because of the expected evolution of waste vault conditions from initially warm (<{approx} 100 deg C) and oxidizing to eventually cool (<30 deg C) and non-oxiding, the period for which crevice corrosion can propagate will be limited by repassivation, and long container lifetimes will be achieved since the rate of general corrosion is extremely low. However, in the model presented, not only is it assumed that crevices will initiate rapidly on all containers, but also that the propagation of these crevices will continue indefinitely since conditions will remain sufficiently oxiding for repassivation to be avoided. The mathematical development of the model is described in detail. A simple ramped distribution is used to describe the failures due to the presence of initial defects. For crevice corrosion the propagation rates are assumed to be normally distributed and to be determined predominantly by temperature. The temperature dependence of the crevice propagation rate is determined from the calculated cooling profiles for the containers and an experimentally determined Arrhenius relationship for crevice propagation rates. The cooling profiles are approximated by double or single step functions, depending on the location of the container within the vault. The experimental data upon which this model is based is extensively reviewed. This review includes descriptions of the available data to describe and quantify the processes of general corrosion, crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking. For crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking the results of studies on both Grades-2 and -12 are presented. Also, the effects of impurities in the Grade-2 material are discussed.

  6. A model for predicting the lifetimes of Grade-2 titanium nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; Bailey, M.G.; Quinn, M.J.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    The development of a model to predict the lifetimes of Grade-2 titanium containers for nuclear fuel waste is described. This model assumes that the corrosion processes most likely to lead to container failure are crevice corrosion, hydrogen-induced cracking and general corrosion. Because of the expected evolution of waste vault conditions from initially warm (<∼ 100 deg C) and oxidizing to eventually cool (<30 deg C) and non-oxiding, the period for which crevice corrosion can propagate will be limited by repassivation, and long container lifetimes will be achieved since the rate of general corrosion is extremely low. However, in the model presented, not only is it assumed that crevices will initiate rapidly on all containers, but also that the propagation of these crevices will continue indefinitely since conditions will remain sufficiently oxiding for repassivation to be avoided. The mathematical development of the model is described in detail. A simple ramped distribution is used to describe the failures due to the presence of initial defects. For crevice corrosion the propagation rates are assumed to be normally distributed and to be determined predominantly by temperature. The temperature dependence of the crevice propagation rate is determined from the calculated cooling profiles for the containers and an experimentally determined Arrhenius relationship for crevice propagation rates. The cooling profiles are approximated by double or single step functions, depending on the location of the container within the vault. The experimental data upon which this model is based is extensively reviewed. This review includes descriptions of the available data to describe and quantify the processes of general corrosion, crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking. For crevice corrosion and hydrogen-induced cracking the results of studies on both Grades-2 and -12 are presented. Also, the effects of impurities in the Grade-2 material are discussed. Special attention is

  7. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  8. Mechanistic modelling of the corrosion behaviour of copper nuclear fuel waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F; Kolar, M

    1996-10-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault. The model is based on a detailed description of the electrochemical, chemical, adsorption and mass-transport processes involved in the uniform corrosion of copper, developed from the results of an extensive experimental program. Predictions from the model are compared with the results of some of these experiments and with observations from a bronze cannon submerged in seawater saturated clay sediments. Quantitative comparisons are made between the observed and predicted corrosion potential, corrosion rate and copper concentration profiles adjacent to the corroding surface, as a way of validating the long-term model predictions. (author). 12 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Critical stresses in pintle, weldment and top head of nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladkany, S.G.; Kniss, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    Critical stresses in the pintle, the weldment, and the top heads (flat and curved), of a high level nuclear waste container are evaluated under an annular loading. This loading is three times larger than the expected normal operating load. Results show that the shape and the thickness of the pintle and the top head, along with the thickness of the weldment, substantially affect the magnitude of the critical stresses and distortions in the various components (i.e. pintle, shell, and heads) when they are supporting a load. Stiffer top heads and pintles and larger weldment sizes reduce the critical stresses in all welded joints. Various shapes of curved top heads were investigated. In this paper an ASME flanged and dished top head, which has the same thickness as the canister, is analyzed

  10. Predicting the effects of microbial activity on the corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Stroes-Gascoyne, S.

    1996-08-01

    Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers may occur in a disposal vault located 500-1000 m underground in the granitic rock of the Canadian Shield. The extent and diversity of microbial activity in the vault is expected to be limited initially because of the aggressive conditions produced by γ-radiation, elevated temperatures and desiccation of the clay-based buffer in which the containers will be embedded. Experimental results on the heat- and radiation-sensitivity of the natural microbiota in buffer material are presented. The data suggest that the low water activity in the buffer material will severely limit the growth of microbes near the container. The most likely form of MIC involves sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Electrochemical experiments using a clay-covered copper electrode have shown that sulphide ions produced by SRB could diffuse through buffer material and induce corrosion of the container. A method to predict the long-term corrosion behaviour is presented. (author)

  11. Japanese Nuclear Waste Avatars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn Kirby, Peter; Stier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Japan's cataclysmic 2011 tsunami has become a vast, unwanted experiment in waste management. The seismic event and resulting Fukushima Daiichi radiation crisis created an awkwardly fortuitous rupture in Japanese nuclear practice that exposed the lax and problematic management of nuclear waste in this country to broader scrutiny, as well as distortions in its very conception. This article looks at the full spectrum of nuclear waste in post-tsunami Japan, from spent fuel rods to contorted reactor containment, and the ways that nuclear waste mirrors or diverges from more quotidian waste practices in Japanese culture. Significantly, the Fukushima Daiichi plant itself and its erstwhile banal surroundings have themselves transmuted into an unwieldy form of nuclear waste. The immense challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi site have stimulated a series of on-the-fly innovations that furnish perspective on more everyday nuclear waste practices in the industry. While some HLW can be reprocessed for limited use in today's reactors, it cannot be ignored that much of Japan's nuclear waste is simply converted into other forms of waste. In a society that has long been fixated on segregating filth, maintaining (imagined) purity, and managing proximity to pollution, the specter of nuclear waste looms over contemporary Japan and its ongoing debates over resources, risk, and Japanese nuclear identity itself

  12. MODELING SOLIDIFICATION-INDUCED STRESSES IN CERAMIC WASTE FORMS CONTAINING NUCLEAR WASTES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solbrig, Charles W.; Bateman, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to produce a ceramic waste form (CWF) that permanently occludes radioactive waste. This is accomplished by absorbing radioactive salts into zeolite, mixing with glass frit, heating to a molten state 915 C to form a sodalite glass matrix, and solidifying for long-term storage. Less long term leaching is expected if the solidifying cooling rate doesn't cause cracking. In addition to thermal stress, this paper proposes that a stress is formed during solidification which is very large for fast cooling rates during solidification and can cause severe cracking. A solidifying glass or ceramic cylinder forms a dome on the cylinder top end. The temperature distribution at the time of solidification causes the stress and the dome. The dome height, ''the length deficit,'' produces an axial stress when the solid returns to room temperature with the inherent outer region in compression, the inner in tension. Large tensions will cause cracking of the specimen. The temperature deficit, derived by dividing the length deficit by the coefficient of thermal expansion, allows solidification stress theory to be extended to the circumferential stress. This paper derives the solidification stress theory, gives examples, explains how to induce beneficial stresses, and compares theory to experimental data.

  13. Nuclear waste landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the time dimension in nuclear waste disposal, with the hope of untangling future land use issues for a full range of radioactive waste facilities. The longevity and hazards presented by nuclear reactor irradiated (spent) fuel and liquid reprocessing waste are well known. Final repositories for these highly radioactive wastes, to be opened early in the 21st Century, are to be located deep underground in rural locations throughout the developed world. Safety concerns are addressed by engineered and geological barriers containing the waste containers, as well as through geographic isolation from heavily populated areas. Yet nuclear power plants (as well as other applications of atomic energy) produce an abundance of other types of radioactive wastes. These materials are generally known as low level wastes (LLW) in the United States, though their level of longevity and radioactivity can vary dramatically

  14. FTIR spectra and properties of iron borophosphate glasses containing simulated nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qilong; Wang, Fu; Chen, Kuiru; Pan, Sheqi; Zhu, Hanzhen; Lu, Mingwei; Qin, Jianfa

    2015-07-01

    30 wt.% simulated nuclear wastes were successfully immobilized by B2O3-doped iron phosphate base glasses. The structure and thermal stability of the prepared wasteforms were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The subtle structural variations attributed to different B2O3 doping modes have been discussed in detail. The results show that the thermal stability and glass forming tendency of the iron borophosphate glass wasteforms are faintly affected by different B2O3 doping modes. The main structural networks of iron borophosphate glass wasteforms are PO43-, P2O74-, [BO4] groups. Furthermore, for the wasteform prepared by using 10B2O3-36Fe2O3-54P2O5 as base glass, the distributions of Fe-O-P bonds, [BO4], PO43- and P2O74- groups are optimal. In general, the dissolution rate (DR) values of the studied iron borophosphate wasteforms are about 10-8 g cm-2 min-1. The obtained conclusions can offer some useful information for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes using boron contained phosphate glasses.

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  16. Microbially influenced corrosion of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-11-01

    An assessment of the potential for microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault is presented. The assessment is based on a consideration of the microbial activity within a disposal vault, the reported cases of MIC of Cu alloys in the literature and the known corrosion behaviour of Cu. Because of the critical role of biofilms in the reported cases of MIC, their formation and properties are discussed in detail. Next, the literature on the MIC of Cu alloys is briefly reviewed. The various MIC mechanisms proposed are critically discussed and the implications for the corrosion of Cu containers considered. In the majority of literature cases, MIC depends on alternating aerated and deaerated environments, with accelerated corrosion being observed when fresh aerated water replaces stagnant water, e.g., the MIC of Cu-Ni heat exchangers in polluted seawater and the microbially influenced pitting of Cu water pipes. Finally, because of the predominance of corrosion by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the MIC literature, the abiotic behaviour of Cu alloys in sulphide solutions is also reviewed. The effect of the evolving environment in a disposal vault on the extent and location of microbial activity is discussed. Biofilm formation on the container surface is considered unlikely throughout the container lifetime, but especially initially when the environmental conditions will be particularly aggressive. Microbial activity in areas of the vault away from the container is possible, however. Corrosion of the container could then occur if microbial metabolic by-products diffuse to the container surface. Sulphide, produced by the action of SRB are considered to be the most likely cause of container corrosion. It is concluded that the only likely form of MIC of Cu containers will result from sulphide produced by SRB diffusing to the container surface. A modelling procedure for predicting the extent of corrosion is

  17. Basic approach to the disposal of low level radioactive waste generated from nuclear reactors containing comparatively high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Yoshinori

    1998-01-01

    Low level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated from nuclear reactors are classified into three categories: LLW containing comparatively high radioactivity; low level radioactive waste; very low level radioactive waste. Spent control rods, part of ion exchange resin and parts of core internals are examples of LLW containing comparatively high radioactivity. The Advisory Committee of Atomic Energy Commission published the report 'Basic Approach to the Disposal of LLW from Nuclear Reactors Containing Comparatively High Radioactivity' in October 1998. The main points of the proposed concept of disposal are as follows: dispose of underground deep enough not be disturb common land use (e.g. 50 to 100 m deep); dispose of underground where radionuclides migrate very slowly; dispose of with artificial engineered barrier which has the same function as the concrete pit; control human activities such as land use of disposal site for a few hundreds years. (author)

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  19. Chemical durability of borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level nuclear wastes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigeo; Terai, Ryohei; Yamanaka, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    The Soxhlet-type leaching test apparatus has been developed to evaluate the chemical durability of some borosilicate glasses containing simulated High-Level nuclear Wastes, HLW. After the leaching over the temperature range of 50 0 -95 0 C, the weight loss of specimens with time was determined on both the samples of blocks and grains, and various components dissolved into water were analyzed by atomic absorption and colorimetry technique. It was found that Soxhlet-type test method was more useful than JIS test method, because the specimens in Soxhlet type apparatus were forced always to react with pure water and the mechanism of leaching could be evaluate accurately. The chemical durability of commercial glasses decreases generally with increasing of alkali contents in glasses. In the case of these borosilicate glasses containing HLW, however, the leachability was apparently independent on the alkali contents because of the complexity of these glass compositions. The variation of leaching rate with temperature suggests that dissolution mechanism changes with temperature. (author)

  20. Gamma radiolysis effects on leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Raine, D.K.; Hocking, W.H.; George, K.; Betteridge, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching behavior of ceramic materials for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers, under the influence of a moderate gamma dose rate (4 Gy/h), has been investigated. Samples of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, stabilized ZrO/sub 2/, TiO/sub 2/, cermet (70% Al/sub 2/O-30% TiC), porcelain (with high Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content), and concrete (with sulfate-resisting portland cement plus silica fume) have been leached in Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), and SCSSS plus clay and sand (components of the disposal system), at 100 0 and 150 0 C for 231 and 987 days, respectively. Leaching solutions were analyzed and the surfaces of the leached samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Radiolysis did not appear to enhance the leaching, with or without bentonite and sand in the system. Analysis of the gas phase from sealed capsules showed O/sub 2/ depletion and production of CO/sub 2/ in all experiments containing bentonite. The decrease in O/sub 2/ is attributed to the leaching from the clay of Fe(II) species, which can participate in redox reactions with radicals generated by radiolysis. The CO/sub 2/ is produced from either the organic or inorganic fraction in the bentonite

  1. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler ampersand Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs

  2. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to introduce the main types of nuclear reactor in the European Community (EC), select reference plants for further study, estimate the waste streams from the reference reactors, survey the transport regulations and assess existing containers

  3. Reduction of 68Ge activity containing liquid waste from 68Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. de Blois (Erik); H.S. Chan (Ho Sze); K. Roy (Kamalika); E.P. Krenning (Eric); W.A.P. Breeman (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPET with68Ga from the TiO2- or SnO2- based68Ge/68Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity (68Ge vs.68Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts

  4. In situ testing of titanium and mild steel nuclear waste containers at the WIPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecke, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in situ tests on the corrosion of titanium and mild steel for high level waste containers is presented. The tests at Sandia have moved out of the laboratory into a test underground facility in order to evaluate the performance of the waste package material. The tests are being performed under both near-reference and accelerated salt repository conditions. Some containers are filled with high level waste glass (non-radioactive); others contain electric heaters. Backfill material is either bentonite/sand or crushed salt. In other tests metals and glasses are exposed directly to brine. The tests are designed to study the corrosion and metallurgy of the canister and overpack materials; the feasibility and performance of backfill materials; and near-field effects such as brine migration

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  6. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffó, G. S.; Farina, S. B.; Schulz, F. M.

    2013-07-01

    Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums. The corrosion rate of the steel in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins in the absence of contaminants or in the presence of 2.3 wt.% sulphate content remains low (less than 0.1 μm/year) during the whole period of the study (900 days). The presence of chloride ions increases the corrosion rate of the steel at the beginning of the exposure but, after 1 year, the corrosion rate drops abruptly reaching a value close to 0.1 μm/year. This is probably due to the lack of water to sustain the corrosion process. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years, it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. Cementation of ion-exchange resins does not seem to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums that contained them; even in the case the matrix is highly contaminated with chloride ions.

  7. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  8. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1986-09-01

    This report deals with the operational, radiological and economic aspects of transport as well as conceptual designs of large containers for the transport of radioactive decommissioning wastes from nuclear power plants within the member states of the European Economic Community. The means of transport, the costs and radiological detriment are considered, and conceptual designs of containers are described. Recommendations are made for further studies. (U.K.)

  9. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  10. Corrosion studies on selected metallic materials for application in nuclear waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailos, E.; Fiehn, B.; Gago, J.A.; Azkarate, I.

    1994-03-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels and the alloy Ti 99.8-Pd were identified as promising materials for heat-generating nuclear waste containers acting as a radionuclide barrier in a rock-salt repository. To characterize the long-term corrosion behaviour of these materials in more detail, a research programme including laboratory-scale and in-situ corrosion studies has been undertaken jointly by KfK and ENRESA/INASMET. In the period under review, gamma irradiation corrosion studies of up to about 6 months at 10 Gy/h and stress corrosion cracking studies at slow strain rates (10 -4 -10 -7 s -1 ) were performed on three preselected carbon steels in disposal relevant brines (NaCl-rich, MgCl 2 -rich) at 90 C and 150 C (TStE 355, TStE 460, 15 MnNi 6.3). Moreover, results were obtained from long-term in-situ corrosion studies (maximum test duration 9 years) conducted on carbon steel, Ti 99.8-Pd, Hastelloy C4, Ni-resist D4, and Si-cast iron in boreholes in the Asse salt mine. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Leaching studies of heavy concrete material for nuclear fuel waste immobilization containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Raine, D.; Brown, L.; Hooton, R.D.

    1989-08-01

    The leaching behaviour of a high-density concrete was studied as part of a program to evaluate its potential use as a container material for nuclear fuel waste under conditions of deep geologic disposal. Samples of concrete material were leached in deionized distilled water, Standard Canadian Shield Saline Solution (SCSSS), SCSSS plus 20% Na-bentonite, and SCSSS plus granite and 20% Na-bentonite under static conditions at 100 degrees celsius for periods up to 365 days. The results of these leaching experiments suggest that the stability of concrete depends on the possible internal structural changes due to hydration reactions of unhydrated components, leading to the formation of C-S-H gel plus portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ). The factors controlling the concrete leaching process were the composition of the leachant and the concentration of elements in solution capable of forming precipitates on the concrete surface, e.g., silicon, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ . The main effect observed during leaching was an increase in groundwater pH (from 7 to 9). However, the addition of Na-bentonite suppressed the normal tendency of the pH of the groundwater in contact with concrete to rise rapidly. It was shown that the solution concentration of elements released from the concrete, particularly potassium, increased in the presence of Na-bentonite

  12. Origin and evolution of cup-shaped structures on leached nuclear waste containment glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, C.; Villa, F.; Chambaudet, A.; Vernaz, E.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional surface microanalysis system equipped with a sensitive topographical probe was used to quantify the evolution of cup-shaped structures formed by aqueous leaching of nuclear waste containment glass. A model of the dissolution phenomenon provides satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured cup radius and depth. Dissolution cups form from cracks on the initially cut glass surface. Large cracks control the phenomenon by forming the largest cups, which gradually absorb smaller ones. The evolution of the size and shape of the dissolution cups was described by a model that assumes a constant dissolution rate on the surface, diminishing with crack depth. The best fit with the experimental data was obtained with a dissolution rate one hundred times lower at the bottom of the crack than at the surface. Moreover, it is predictable that all the cups will gradually disappear as they grow larger and flatter over a leaching period of some 2 years, for the glass composition and experimental leaching procedures used in this work

  13. Measurement and modelling of reactive transport in geological barriers for nuclear waste containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qingrong; Joseph, Claudia; Schmeide, Katja; Jivkov, Andrey P

    2015-11-11

    Compacted clays are considered as excellent candidates for barriers to radionuclide transport in future repositories for nuclear waste due to their very low hydraulic permeability. Diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism, controlled by a nano-scale pore system. Assessment of the clays' long-term containment function requires adequate modelling of such pore systems and their evolution. Existing characterisation techniques do not provide complete pore space information for effective modelling, such as pore and throat size distributions and connectivity. Special network models for reactive transport are proposed here using the complimentary character of the pore space and the solid phase. This balances the insufficient characterisation information and provides the means for future mechanical-physical-chemical coupling. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of clays is represented using different length parameters and percentage of pores in different directions. Resulting networks are described as mathematical graphs with efficient discrete calculus formulation of transport. Opalinus Clay (OPA) is chosen as an example. Experimental data for the tritiated water (HTO) and U(vi) diffusion through OPA are presented. Calculated diffusion coefficients of HTO and uranium species are within the ranges of the experimentally determined data in different clay directions. This verifies the proposed pore network model and validates that uranium complexes are diffusing as neutral species in OPA. In the case of U(vi) diffusion the method is extended to account for sorption and convection. Rather than changing pore radii by coarse grained mathematical formula, physical sorption is simulated in each pore, which is more accurate and realistic.

  14. Studies of Corrosion Resistant Materials Being Considered for High-Level Nuclear Waste Containment in Yucca Mountain Relevant Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Ilevbare, G.; Estill, J.; Rebak, R.

    2001-01-01

    Containment of spent nuclear fuel and vitrified forms of high level nuclear waste require use of materials that are highly corrosion resistant to all of the anticipated environmental scenarios that can occur in a geological repository. Ni-Cr-Mo Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is proposed for the corrosion resistant outer barrier of a two-layer waste package container at the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. A range of water compositions that may contact the outer barrier is under consideration, and a testing program is underway to characterize the forms of corrosion and to quantify the corrosion rates. Results from the testing support models for long term prediction of the performance of the container. Results obtained to date indicate a very low general corrosion rate for Alloy 22 and very high resistance to all forms of localized and environmentally assisted cracking in environments tested to date

  15. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1988-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One such package would store lightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97/degree/C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350/degree/C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97/degree/C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350/degree/C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep-related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97/degree/C for the full 1000-yr analysis period

  16. Assessment of the feasibility of indefinite containment of canadian nuclear fuel wastes; Evaluation de la faisabilite du confinement illimite des dechets de combustible nucleaire canadiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; King, F.; Ikeda, B.M.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of the expected corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault. The container materials considered are dilute Ti alloys (Grades-2, -12 and -16) and oxygen-free copper.

  17. Corrosion of inconel in high-temperature borosilicate glass melts containing simulant nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xianhe; Yuan, Xiaoning; Brigden, Clive T.; Tao, Jun; Hyatt, Neil C.; Miekina, Michal

    2017-10-01

    The corrosion behaviors of Inconel 601 in the borosilicate glass (MW glass) containing 25 wt.% of simulant Magnox waste, and in ZnO, Mn2O3 and Fe2O3 modified Mg/Ca borosilicate glasses (MZMF and CZMF glasses) containing 15 wt.% of simulant POCO waste, were evaluated by dimensional changes, the formation of internal defects and changes in alloy composition near corrosion surfaces. In all three kinds of glass melts, Cr at the inconel surface forms a protective Cr2O3 scale between the metal surface and the glass, and alumina precipitates penetrate from the metal surface or formed in-situ. The corrosion depths of inconel 601 in MW waste glass melt are greater than those in the other two glass melts. In MW glass, the Cr2O3 layer between inconel and glass is fragmented because of the reaction between MgO and Cr2O3, which forms the crystal phase MgCr2O4. In MZMF and CZMF waste glasses the layers are continuous and a thin (Zn, Fe, Ni, B)-containing layer forms on the surface of the chromium oxide layer and prevents Cr2O3 from reacting with MgO or other constituents. MgCr2O4 was observed in the XRD analysis of the bulk MW waste glass after the corrosion test, and ZrSiO4 in the MZMF waste glass, and ZrSiO4 and CaMoO4 in the CZMF waste glass.

  18. Modelling of crevice corrosion induced failure of nuclear waste containers. Abstract 389

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heppner, K.L.; Evitts, R.W.; Postlethwaite, J. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)]. E-mail: klh117@mail.usask.ca; rwe380@engr.usask.ca; jack@dvinci.usask.ca

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' Alloys which are used for nuclear waste containment applications are selected based upon their mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, alloys which are resistant to uniform corrosion, such as titanium alloys, are susceptible to crevice corrosion when exposed to geochemical brines. Passive metals, such as Grade-2 titanium alloy, form a tenacious oxide surface film that protects the metal from corrosion. For a crevice with a very small opening, oxygen reduction inside the crevice may occur faster than oxygen diffusion into the crevice, a condition that leads to crevice solution deoxygenation. Crevice deoxygenation causes oxygen reduction to occur only outside the crevice. Thus, the anode and cathode are physically separated and this causes an acid chloride crevice solution to form by two mechanisms. First, the separated anode and cathode forms an electrical potential gradient. The potential gradient drives the migration of chloride ions into the crevice. Second, metal ions released by dissolution are hydrolyzed to produce metal hydroxides and hydrogen ions. The pH of the crevice solution drops because oxygen reduction, which produces hydroxide ions to neutralize the acidity, no longer occurs inside the crevice. If a solution of sufficiently low pH and sufficiently high chloride ion concentration develops, the protective passive film is dissolved. The time at which this occurs is the incubation period. In this work, a moderately dilute electrolyte mass transport model is coupled with Pitzer's Equations to predict the chemical composition of a Grade-2 titanium alloy crevice solution immersed in a Na-K-Cl brine. The results indicate that the incubation period is highly dependent upon the size of the crevice opening and the temperature of the brine. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  20. A Prototype Scintillating Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-Ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G.; Johnstone, J.R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from...

  1. Thermal performance of a buried nuclear waste storage container storing a hybrid mix of PWR and BWR spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.L.

    1991-11-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory will design, model, and test nuclear waste packages for use at the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. On such package would store tightly packed spent fuel rods from both pressurized and boiling water reactors. The storage container provides the primary containment of the nuclear waste and the spent fuel rod cladding provides secondary containment. A series of transient conduction and radiation heat transfer analyses was run to determine for the first 1000 yr of storage if the temperature of the tuff at the borehole wall ever falls below 97 degrees C and whether the cladding of the stored spent fuel ever exceeds 350 degrees C. Limiting the borehole to temperatures of 97 degrees C or greater helps minimize corrosion by assuring that no condensed water collects on the container. The 350 degrees C cladding limit minimizes the possibility of creep- related failure in the spent fuel rod cladding. For a series of packages stored in a 8 x 30 m borehole grid where each package contains 10-yr-old spent fuel rods generating 4.74 kW or more, the borehole wall stays above 97 degrees C for the full 10000-yr analysis period. For the 4.74-kW load, the peak cladding temperature rises to just below the 350 degrees C limit about 4 years after emplacement. If the packages are stored using the spacing specified in the Site Characterization Plan (15 ft x 126 ft), a maximum of 4.1 kW per container may be stored. If the 0.05-m-thick void between the container and the borehole wall is filled with loosely packed bentonite, the peak cladding temperature rises more than 40 degrees C above the allowed cladding limit. In all cases the dominant heat transfer mode between container components is thermal radiation

  2. Effects of container material on PCT leach test results for high-level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, S.B.; Pegg, I.L.

    1994-01-01

    A glass-based waste form used for the immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes should exhibit good resistance to aqueous corrosion since typically this is the primary process by which radionucleides could be released into the environment upon failure of other barriers. In the USA, the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) provides a set of requirements to ensure the consistency of the waste forms produced and specifies the Product Consistency Test (PCT) as a measure of relative chemical durability. While the PCT procedure permits usage of both Teflon and stainless steel vessels for testing of simulated development glasses, Teflon is not permitted for testing of production glasses due to radiative degradation. The results presented in this paper indicate that there are very significant differences between tests conducted in the two types of vessels due to the well-known permeability of Teflon to atmospheric carbon dioxide which results in lowering of the solution pH and a consequent reduction in the leach rate of silicate glasses. A wide range of nuclear waste glass compositions was subjected to the PCT procedure using both Teflon and stainless steel vessels. The magnitude of the effect (up to a factor of four for B, Na, Li concentrations) depends strongly on glass composition, therefore the isolated checks performed previously were inconclusive. The permeability to CO, of two types of Teflon vessels specified in the PCT procedure was directly measured using buffer solutions: ingress of CO, is linear in time, strongly pH-dependent, and was as high as 100 ppm after 7 days. In actual PCT tests in Teflon vessels, the total CO, content was 560 ppm after 87 days and 1930 ppm after one year

  3. Effect of controlled potential on SCC of nuclear waste package container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lum, B. Y.; Roy, A. K.; Spragge, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The slow-strain-rate (SSR) test technique was used to evaluate the susceptibility of Titanium (Ti) Gr-7 (UNS R52400) and Ti Gr-12 (UNS R53400) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Ti Gr-7 and Ti Gr-12 are two candidate container materials for the multi-barrier package for nuclear waste. The tests were done in a deaerated 90 C acidic brine (pH ∼ 2.7) containing 5 weight percent (wt%) sodium chloride (NaCl) using a strain rate of 3.3 x 10 -6 sec -1 . Before being tested in the acidic brine, specimens of each alloy were pulled inside the test chamber in the dry condition at ambient temperature. Then while in the test solution, specimens were strained under different cathodic (negative) controlled electrochemical potentials. These controlled potentials were selected based on the corrosion potential measured in the test solution before the specimens were strained. Results indicate that the times to failure (TTF) for Ti Gr-12 were much shorter than those for Ti Gr-7. Furthermore, as the applied potential became more cathodic, Ti Gr-12 showed reduced ductility in terms of percent reduction in area (%RA) and true fracture stress (σ f ). In addition, TTF and percent elongation (%El) reached the minimum values when Ti Gr-12 was tested under an impressed potential of -1162 mV. However, for Ti Gr-7, all these ductility parameters were not significantly influenced by the changes in applied potential. In general, the results of hydrogen analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) showed increased hydrogen concentration at more cathodic controlled potentials. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate the morphology of cracking both at the primary fracture face and the secondary cracks along the gage section of the broken tensile specimen. Transgranular secondary cracks were observed in both alloys possibly resulting from the formation of brittle titanium hydrides due to cathodic charging. The primary fracture face was characterized

  4. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  5. A methodology to analyze the creep behaviour of nuclear fuel waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, R.

    1995-12-01

    The concept for the disposal of used-fuel waste from CANDU reeactors operating in Canada comprises a system of natural and engineered barriers surrounding the waste in a mined vault situated at a depth of 500 - 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The fuel would be packaged in a highly durable metal container, within a matrix of compacted particulate. The design of the container takes into account that it would be subjected to an external hydrostatic pressure. Consideration of the rate of radioactive decay of the radionuclides contained in the fuel, suggests that the lifetime of the container should be at least 500 years. Consequently, the role of creep deformation, and the possibility of creep rupture of the container shell, must be included in the assessment of time-dependent mechanical integrity. This report describes an analytical approach that can be used to quantify the long-term creep properties of the container material and facilitate the engineering design. The overall objective is to formulate a constitutive creep equation that provides the required input for a finite element computer model being developed to analyze the elastic-plastic behaviour of the container. Alternative forms of such equations are reviewed. It is shown that the capability of many of these equations to extrapolate over long time scales is limited by their empirical nature. Thus, the recommended equation is based on current mechanistic understanding of creep deformation and creep rupture. A criterion for determining the onset of material failure by creep rupture, that could be used in the design of containers with extended structural integrity, is proposed. Interpretation and extrapolation will be supported by the complementary Deformation and Fracture Mechanism Maps. (author) 103 refs., 2 tabs., 54 figs

  6. A methodology to analyze the creep behaviour of nuclear fuel waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, R [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1995-12-01

    The concept for the disposal of used-fuel waste from CANDU reeactors operating in Canada comprises a system of natural and engineered barriers surrounding the waste in a mined vault situated at a depth of 500 - 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The fuel would be packaged in a highly durable metal container, within a matrix of compacted particulate. The design of the container takes into account that it would be subjected to an external hydrostatic pressure. Consideration of the rate of radioactive decay of the radionuclides contained in the fuel, suggests that the lifetime of the container should be at least 500 years. Consequently, the role of creep deformation, and the possibility of creep rupture of the container shell, must be included in the assessment of time-dependent mechanical integrity. This report describes an analytical approach that can be used to quantify the long-term creep properties of the container material and facilitate the engineering design. The overall objective is to formulate a constitutive creep equation that provides the required input for a finite element computer model being developed to analyze the elastic-plastic behaviour of the container. Alternative forms of such equations are reviewed. It is shown that the capability of many of these equations to extrapolate over long time scales is limited by their empirical nature. Thus, the recommended equation is based on current mechanistic understanding of creep deformation and creep rupture. A criterion for determining the onset of material failure by creep rupture, that could be used in the design of containers with extended structural integrity, is proposed. Interpretation and extrapolation will be supported by the complementary Deformation and Fracture Mechanism Maps. (author) 103 refs., 2 tabs., 54 figs.

  7. Update on ASME rules for spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste storage containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph S. Hill III; Foster, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, a new Code Case, N-717, of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) was published. The Code Case provides rules for construction of containments used for storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive material and waste. The Code Case has been incorporated into Section III of the Code as Division 3, Subsection WC, Class SC Storage Containments, and will be published in the 2005 Addenda. This paper provides an informative background and insight for these rules to provide Owners, regulators, designers, and fabricators with a more comprehensive understanding of the technical basis for these rules. (authors)

  8. Closure development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robitz, E.S. Jr.; McAninch, M.D. Jr.; Edmonds, D.P.; Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes Phase 1 activities for closure development of the high-level nuclear waste package task for the tuff repository. Work was conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract 9172105, administered through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), funded through the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The goal of this phase was to select five closure processes for further evaluation in later phases of the program. A decision tree methodology was utilized to perform an objective evaluation of 15 potential closure processes. Information was gathered via a literature survey, industrial contacts, and discussions with project team members, other experts in the field, and the LLNL waste package task staff. The five processes selected were friction welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding. These are felt to represent the best combination of weldment material properties and process performance in a remote, radioactive environment. Conceptual designs have been generated for these processes to illustrate how they would be implemented in practice. Homopolar resistance welding was included in the Phase 1 analysis, and developments in this process will be monitored via literature in Phases 2 and 3. Work was conducted in accordance with the YMP Quality Assurance Program. 223 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Modeling of container failure and radionuclide release from a geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Lak; Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Kwang Sub; Cho, Chan Hee

    1989-02-01

    Generally, two processes are involved in leaching and dissolution; (1) chemical reactions and (2) mass transfer by diffusion. The chemical reaction controls the dissolution rates only during the early stage of exposure to groundwater. The exterior-field mass transfer may control the long-term dissolution rates from the waste solid in a geologic repository. Masstransfer analyses rely on detailed and careful application of the governing equations that describe the mechanistic processes of transport of material between and within phases. We develop analytical models to predict the radionuclide release rate into the groundwater with five different approaches: a measurement-based model, a diffusion model, a kinetics model, a diffusion-and-kinetics model, and a modified diffusion model. We also collected experimental leaching data for a partial validation of the radionuclide release model based on the mass transfer theory. Among various types of corrosions, pitting is the most significant because of its rapid growth. The failure time of the waste container, which also can be interpreted as the containment time, is a milestone of the performance of a repository. We develop analytical models to predict the pit growth rate on the container surface with three different approaches: an experimental method, a statistical method, and a mathematical method based on the diffusion theory. (Author)

  10. Assessment of the Biodegradability of Containers for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobenko, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete and reinforced concrete are widely used as engineered barriers (containers) for radioactive waste disposal facilities due to their isolating ability, mechanical stability and low cost. Several types of protective reinforced concrete containers for low and intermediate level waste have been designed in Ukraine. Evaluation of these containers for microbial stability is required according to NRC of Ukraine Regulation No.306.608-96. The research was therefore aimed at studying the degradation of the cement material due to microbiological interaction and the possibility of biodegraded cement as an ideal environment for the growth of other microorganisms under waste disposal conditions to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Results from this study indicated that Aspergillus niger induced gluconic and oxalic acids that dissolve portlandite (with a low leaching of calcium) after one year of contact time. This resulted in an increase in porosity, loss in tensile strength biomechanically deteriorated and cracking. XRD analysis identified crystalline precipitates within the biomass on the concrete surface as calcium oxalate dehydrate (weddellite) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite). The mechanism regarding of the microbiological interaction on the concrete surface can be summarized as follows: Phase 1: Fungi accumulate on the surface of the concrete, thereby degrading the concrete surface by biochemical and biomechanical interactions. When this effect is in the presence of air with available carbon dioxide, the micro fungi reduces the pH of the concrete from >13 to 8.5. During this phase no accumulation were observed in sections where granite aggregates are present. Phase 2: After reducing the pH of the concrete paste during phase 1, and provided that sufficient nutrients, moisture and oxygen are present sulphur oxidizing bacteria start to accumulate on the concrete surface. The result form this study therefore concluded that fungal biogeochemical activity

  11. Multilayer Protective Coatings for High-Level Nuclear Waste Storage Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Michael

    Corrosion-based failures of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) storage containers are potentially hazardous due to a possible release of radionuclides through cracks in the canister due to corrosion, especially for above-ground storage (i.e. dry casks). Protective coatings have been proposed to combat these premature failures, which include stress-corrosion cracking and hydrogen-diffusion cracking, among others. The coatings are to be deposited in multiple thin layers as thin films on the outer surface of the stainless steel waste basket canister. Coating materials include: TiN, ZrO2, TiO2, Al 2O3, and MoS2, which together may provide increased resistances to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as act as a barrier to hydrogen diffusion. The focus of this research is on the corrosion resistance and characterization of single layer coatings to determine the possible benefit from the use of the proposed coating materials. Experimental methods involve electrochemical polarization, both DC and AC techniques, and corrosion in circulating salt brines of varying pH. DC polarization allows for estimation of corrosion rates, passivation behavior, and a qualitative survey of localized corrosion, whereas AC electrochemistry has the benefit of revealing information about kinetics and interfacial reactions that is not obtainable using DC techniques. Circulation in salt brines for nearly 150 days revealed sustained adhesion of the coatings and minimal weight change of the steel samples. One-inch diameter steel coupons composed of stainless steel types 304 and 316 and A36 low alloy carbon steel were coated with single layers using magnetron sputtering with compound targets in an inert argon atmosphere. This resulted in very thin films for the metal-oxides based on low sputter rates. DC polarization showed that corrosion rates were very similar between bare and coated stainless steel samples, whereas a statistically significant decrease in uniform corrosion was measured on coated

  12. Remote handling of canisters containing nuclear waste in glass at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility is being constructed at the Savannah River Plant at a cost of $870 million to immobilize the defense high-level radioactive waste. This radioactive waste is being added to borosilicate glass for later disposal in a federal repository. The borosilicate glass is poured into stainless steel canisters for storage. These canisters must be handled remotely because of their high radioactivity, up to 5000 R/h. After the glass has been poured into the canister which will be temporarily sealed, it is transferred to a decontamination cell and decontaminated. The canister is then transferred to the weld cell where a permanent cap is welded into place. The canisters must then be transported from the processing building to a storage vault on the plant until the federal repository is available. A shielded canister transporter (SCT) has been designed and constructed for this purpose. The design of the SCT vehicle allows the safe transport of a highly radioactive canister containing borosilicate glass weighing 2300 kg with a radiation level up to 5000 R/h from one building to another. The design provides shielding for the operator in the cab of the vehicle to be below 0.5 rem/h. The SCT may also be used to load the final shipping cask when the federal repository is ready to receive the canisters

  13. Reduction of 68Ge activity containing liquid waste from 68Ga PET chemistry in nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy by solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blois, Erik; Chan, Ho Sze; Roy, Kamalika; Krenning, Eric P; Breeman, Wouter A P

    PET with 68 Ga from the TiO 2 - or SnO 2 - based 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators is of increasing interest for PET imaging in nuclear medicine. In general, radionuclidic purity ( 68 Ge vs. 68 Ga activity) of the eluate of these generators varies between 0.01 and 0.001%. Liquid waste containing low amounts of 68 Ge activity is produced by eluting the 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generators and residues from PET chemistry. Since clearance level of 68 Ge activity in waste may not exceed 10 Bq/g, as stated by European Directive 96/29/EURATOM, our purpose was to reduce 68 Ge activity in solution from >10 kBq/g to <10 Bq/g; which implies the solution can be discarded as regular waste. Most efficient method to reduce the 68 Ge activity is by sorption of TiO 2 or Fe 2 O 3 and subsequent centrifugation. The required 10 Bq per mL level of 68 Ge activity in waste was reached by Fe 2 O 3 logarithmically, whereas with TiO 2 asymptotically. The procedure with Fe 2 O 3 eliminates ≥90% of the 68 Ge activity per treatment. Eventually, to simplify the processing a recirculation system was used to investigate 68 Ge activity sorption on TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 or Zeolite. Zeolite was introduced for its high sorption at low pH, therefore 68 Ge activity containing waste could directly be used without further interventions. 68 Ge activity containing liquid waste at different HCl concentrations (0.05-1.0 M HCl), was recirculated at 1 mL/min. With Zeolite in the recirculation system, 68 Ge activity showed highest sorption.

  14. Processing of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennelly, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The processing of nuclear waste to transform the liquid waste from fuel reprocessing activities is well defined. Most solid waste forms, if they are cooled and contain diluted waste, are compatible with many permanent storage environments. The public acceptance of methods for disposal is being delayed in the US because of the alternatives studies of waste forms and repositories now under way that give the impression of indecision and difficulty for the disposal of HLW. Conservative programs that dilute and cool solid waste are under way in France and Sweden and demonstrate that a solution to the problem is available now. Research and development should be directed toward improving selected methods rather than seeking a best method, which at best, may always be illusory

  15. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  17. Waste management - nuclear style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, P.

    1977-01-01

    Possible ways of disposing of highly radioactive wastes arising from the United Kingdom nuclear industry are briefly reviewed: projecting into outer space, dumping in containers in the ocean, or storage on land. The problems in each case and, in particular, the risks of environmental contamination from marine or land disposal, are discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  19. Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Nuclear Waste Container Materials in Repository Environment Paper Number 02529

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Sarver, J.; Mohn, W.

    2001-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) have been proposed as the corrosion resistant materials for fabricating the waste package outer barrier and the drip shield, respectively for the proposed nuclear waste repository Yucca Mountain Project. In this work, the susceptibility of welded and annealed Alloy 22 (N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) to crevice corrosion was studied by the Multiple Crevice Assembly (ASTM G78) method combined with surface morphological observation after four and eight weeks of exposure to the Basic Saturated Water (BSW-12) in a temperature range from 60 to 105 C. The susceptibility of the materials to crevice corrosion was evaluated based on the appearance of crevice attack underneath the crevice formers and the weight loss data. The results showed that, after exposed to BSW-12 for four and eight weeks, no obvious crevice attack was observed on these materials. The descaled weight loss increased with the increase in temperature for all materials. The weight loss, however, is believed to be caused by general corrosion, rather than crevice corrosion. There was no significant difference between the annealed and welded materials either. On the other hand, to conclude that these materials are immune to crevice corrosion in BSW-12 will require longer term testing

  20. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  1. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, R.; Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnston, J. R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-03-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm-2 min-1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  2. A Prototype Scintillating-Fibre Tracker for the Cosmic-ray Muon Tomography of Legacy Nuclear Waste Containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic-ray muons are highly-penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm−2 min−1. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. This paper presents the prototype scintillating-fibre detector developed for this application at the University of Glasgow. Experimental results taken with test objects are shown in comparison to results from GEANT4 simulations. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  3. The potential for stress corrosion cracking of copper containers in a Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    1996-09-01

    The potential for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a conceptual Canadian disposal vault has been assessed through a review of the literature and comparison of those environmental factors that cause SCC with the expected disposal environment. Stress-corrosion cracking appears to be an unlikely failure mode for Cu containers in a Canadian disposal vault because of a combination of environmental factors. Most importantly, there is only a relatively short period during which the containers will be undergoing strain when cracking should be possible at all, and then cracking is not expected because of the absence of known SCC agents, such as NH 3 , NO 2 - or organic acids. In addition, other environmental factors will mitigate SCC, namely, the presence of C1 - and its effect on film properties and the limited supply of oxidants. These arguments, to greater or lesser extent, apply to the three major mechanisms proposed for SCC of Cu alloys in aqueous solutions: film-rupture/anodic dissolution, tarnish rupture and film-induced cleavage. Detailed reviews of the SCC literature are presented as Appendices. The literature on the SCC of Cu (>99 wt.% Cu) is reviewed, including studies carried out in a number of countries under nuclear waste disposal conditions. Because of similarities with the behaviour of Cu, the more extensive literature on the SCC of α-brass in ammonia solutions is also reviewed. (author). 140 refs., 3 tabs., 25 figs

  4. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffo, G.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (authors)

  5. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Jebali, Ramsey; Mahon, David; Clarkson, Anthony; Ireland, Dave G; Kaiser, Ralf [University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland, (United Kingdom); Mountford, David; Ryan, Matt; Shearer, Craig; Yang, Guangliang [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG, England, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    A prototype scintillating-fibre detector system has been developed at the University of Glasgow in collaboration with the UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) for the nondestructive assay of UK legacy nuclear waste containers. This system consists of two tracking modules above, and two below, the container under interrogation. Each module consists of two orthogonal planes of 2 mm-pitch fibres yielding one space point. Per plane, 128 fibres are read out by a single Hamamatsu H8500 64-channel MAPMT with two fibres multiplexed onto each pixel. A dedicated mapping scheme has been developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution provided by the fibres. The configuration allows the reconstruction of the incoming and scattered muon trajectories, thus enabling the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Results are shown from experimental data collected for high-Z objects within an air matrix and, for the first time, within a shielded, concrete-filled container. These reconstructed images show clear discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials present, with dimensions and positions determined with sub-centimetre precision. (authors)

  6. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  7. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  8. The study of the container types used for transport and final disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postelnicu, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to select from a variety of package forms and capacities some containers which will be used for transport and disposal of the radioactive wastes resulting from decommissioning of nuclear facilities into the National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor county. Taken into account the possibilities of railway and / or road transport and waste disposal in our country, detailed container classification was given in order to use them for radioactive waste transport and final disposal from decommissioning of IFIN-HH Research Reactor. (author)

  9. Galvanic corrosion evaluation of high activity nuclear waste container metals components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semino, C.J.

    1990-04-01

    The final disposal container for vitrified high-level waste is assumed to have three metallic layers: a stainless steel inner layer, and external one of a metal to be selected and a thick lead layer (10 cm) in the middle. As design limit, the container shall act as an engineering barrier, granting the isolation of the radionuclides for approximately 1000 years. Preliminary titanium-lead galvanic couple tests showed that titanium behaved always as a cathode in the galvanic couple, promoting the galvanic corrosion of lead. This corrosion study focused on the behaviour of lead-AISI 304 stainless steel and lead-carbon steel (SAE 1010 and 1020) galvanic couples with different area relationships, temperature and media composition. High purity lead (99,999%) and commercial lead (99,9%) were used for galvanic couples tests. Tests were performed at 75, 50, 45 and 40 deg. C. Test solution was either synthetic groundwater, a suspension of 10% bentonite in groundwater, or synthetic sea water. The synthetic sea water was used at 100, 50 and 25% concentration by dilution with distilled water. Tests with lead-304 stainless steel galvanic couples showed that lead always behaves as an anode, corroding preferentially. Very low lead corrosion rates were found in lead-carbon steel galvanic couple in 10% bentonite suspension in synthetic groundwater test at 75 deg. C. An increase of carbon content in steel has very little influence on steel corrosion rate. Commercial lead has a higher corrosion rate and presented a more pronounced attack than high purity lead. Its corrosion rate is at least twice when lead-carbon steel area relationship increases from 1:10 to 1:40. There are higher steel corrosion rates in sea water than in groundwater. Lead behaves as a cathode to the end of the test. 8 refs, 85 figs, 10 tabs

  10. Hydrogen absorption of titanium for nuclear waste container in non-oxidizing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomari, H.; Masugata, T.; Shimogori, K.; Nishimura, T.; Wada, R.; Honda, A.; Taniguchi, N.

    1999-10-01

    Effects of bentonite clay, applied potential, pH, of solution and cathodic polarization time on hydrogen absorption into titanium, which is one of the candidate materials of overpack for high-level radioactive waste container, have been investigated in artificial underground water. Considering the result at various test time and assuming the hydrogen absorption is ruled by the parabolic law, the amount of hydrogen after 1000 years exposure calculated to about 17ppm, which will be absorbed at the applied potential if -0.51 vs. SHE corresponds to equilibrium potential of hydrogen. It seems the assumption of the parabolic law and the test period are proper, because the linear relations were obtained between the amount of absorbed hydrogen and the logarithm of the averaged cathodic current and between the slopes of the lines and a square root of the test time. Titanium seems to have a life over 1000 years in deep underground repository according to assumption that about 500ppm absorbed hydrogen is critical for hydrogen embrittlement of titanium. (author)

  11. High integrity container evaluation for solid waste disposal burial containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, W.S.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide radioactive waste disposal practices with the greatest measure of public protection, Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) adopted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirement to stabilize high specific activity radioactive waste prior to disposal. Under NRC guidelines, stability may be provided by several mechanisms, one of which is by placing the waste in a high integrity container (HIC). During the implementation process, SWD found that commercially-available HICs could not accommodate the varied nature of weapons complex waste, and in response developed a number of disposal containers to function as HICs. This document summarizes the evaluation of various containers that can be used for the disposal of Category 3 waste in the Low Level Burial Grounds. These containers include the VECTRA reinforced concrete HIC, reinforced concrete culvert, and the reinforced concrete vault. This evaluation provides justification for the use of these containers and identifies the conditions for use of each

  12. High polymer composites for containers for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, H.W.; Vui, V.T.; Legault, J.-F.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of using polymeric composite materials as an alternative to metals in the design of a nuclear waste disposal container was examined. The disposal containers would be stored in deep underground vaults in plutonic rock formations within the Canadian Shield for several thousands of years. The conditions of disposal considered in the evaluation of the polymeric composite materials were based on the long-term disposal concept proposed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Four different composites were considered for this work, all based on boron fibre as reinforcing material, imbedded in polymeric matrices made of polystyrene (PS), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), Devcon 10210 epoxy, and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). Both PS and PMMA were determined as unsuitable for use in the fabrication of the storage container because of thermal failure. This was determined following thermal analysis of the materials in which heat transfer calculations yielded the temperature of the container wall and of the surroundings resulting from the heat generated by the spent nuclear fuel stored inside the container. In the case of the PS, the temperature of the container, the buffer and the backfill would exceed the 100 degrees C imposed in the AECL's proposal as the maximum allowable. In the case of the PMMA, the 100 degrees temperature is too close to the glass transition temperature of this material (105 degrees C) and would cause structural degradation of the container wall. The other two materials present acceptable thermal characteristics for this application. An important concern for polymeric materials in such use is their resistance to radiations. The Devcon 10210 epoxy has been the object of research at the Royal Military College in the past years and fair, but limited, resistance to both neutrons and gamma radiation has been demonstrated, with the evidence of increased mechanical strength when subjected to moderate doses. Provided that the container wall could be

  13. Plutonium waste container identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmierer, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the parameters of a method for identifying plutonium waste containers. This information will form the basis for a permanent committee to develop a complete identification program for use throughout the world. Although a large portion of the information will be on handwritten notebooks and may not be as extensive as is desired, it will all be helpful. The final information will be programmed into computer language and be available to all interested parties as well as a central control committee which will have the expertise to provide each government with advice on the packaging, storage, and measurement of the waste for which it is responsible. As time progresses, this central control committee should develop permanent storage sites and establish a system of records which will last for hundreds of years

  14. Nuclear wastes, a questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr

  15. Noble metal catalyzed hydrogen generation from formic acid in nitrite-containing simulated nuclear waste media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Wiemers, K.D.

    1994-08-01

    Simulants for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) feed containing the major non-radioactive components Al, Cd, Fe, Mn, Nd, Ni, Si, Zr, Na, CO 3 2- , NO 3 -, and NO 2 - were used as media to evaluate the stability of formic acid towards hydrogen evolution by the reaction HCO 2 H → H 2 + CO 2 catalyzed by the noble metals Ru, Rh, and/or Pd found in significant quantities in uranium fission products. Small scale experiments using 40-50 mL of feed simulant in closed glass reactors (250-550 mL total volume) at 80-100 degree C were used to study the effect of nitrite and nitrate ion on the catalytic activities of the noble metals for formic acid decomposition. Reactions were monitored using gas chromatography to analyze the CO 2 , H 2 , NO, and N 2 O in the gas phase as a function of time. Rhodium, which was introduced as soluble RhCl 3 ·3H 2 O, was found to be the most active catalyst for hydrogen generation from formic acid above ∼80 degree C in the presence of nitrite ion in accord with earlier observations. The inherent homogeneous nature of the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed formic acid decomposition is suggested by the approximate pseudo first-order dependence of the hydrogen production rate on Rh concentration. Titration of the typical feed simulants containing carbonate and nitrite with formic acid in the presence of rhodium at the reaction temperature (∼90 degree C) indicates that the nitrite-promoted Rh-catalyzed decomposition of formic acid occurs only after formic acid has reacted with all of the carbonate and nitrite present to form CO 2 and NO/N 2 O, respectively. The catalytic activities of Ru and Pd towards hydrogen generation from formic acid are quite different than those of Rh in that they are inhibited rather than promoted by the presence of nitrite ion

  16. Creep properties of welded joints in OFHC copper for nuclear waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivarsson, B.; Oesterberg, J.O.

    1988-08-01

    In Sweden it has been suggested that copper canisters are used for containment of spent nuclear fuel. These canisters will be subjected to temperatures up to 100 degrees C and external pressures up to 15 MPa. Since the material is pure (OFHC) copper, creep properties must be considered when the canisters are dimensioned. The canisters are sealed by electron beam welding which will affect the creep properties. Literature data for copper - especially welded joints - at the temperatures of interest is very scare. Therefore uniaxial creep tests of parent metal, weld metal, and simulated HAZ structures have been performed at 110 degrees C. These tests revealed considerable differences in creep deformation and rupture strength. The weld metal showed creep rates and rupture times ten times higher and ten times shorter, respectively, than those of the parent metal. The simulated HAZ was equally strongen than the parent metal. These differences were to some extent verified by results from creep tests of cross-welded specimens which, however, showed even shorter rupture times. Constitutive equations were derived from the uniaxial test results. To check the applicability of these equations to multiaxial conditions, a few internal pressure creep tests of butt-welded tubes were performed. Attemps were made to simulate their creep behaviour by constitutive equations were used. These calculations failed due to too great differences in creep deformation behaviour across the welded joint. (authors)

  17. Nuclear waste shipping container response to severe accident conditions, A brief critique of the modal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audin, L.

    1990-12-01

    The Modal Study (NUREG/CR-4829) attempts to upgrade the analysis of spent nuclear fuel transportation accidents, and to verify the validity of the present regulatory scheme of cask performance standards as a means to minimize risk. While an improvement over many prior efforts in this area (such as NUREG-0170), it unfortunately fails to create a realistic simulation either of a shipping cask, the severe conditions to which it could be subjected, or the potential damage to the spent fuel cargo during an accident. There are too many deficiencies in its analysis to allow acceptance of its results for the presumed cask design, and many pending changes in new containers, cargoes and shipping patterns will limit applicability of the Modal Study to future shipments. In essence, the Modal Study is a good start, but is too simplistic, incomplete, outdated and open to serious question to be used as the basis for any present-day environmental or risk assessment of spent fuel transportation. It needs to be redone, with peer review during its production and experimental verification of its assumptions, before it has any relevance to the shipments planned to Yucca Mountain. Finally, it must be expanded into a full risk assessment by inputing its radiological release fractions and probabilities into a valid dispersal simulation to properly determine the impact of its results. 51 refs

  18. Generalized waste package containment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.; Apted, M.J.

    1985-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a performance assessment strategy to demonstrate compliance with standards and technical requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear wastes in geologic repositories. One aspect of this strategy is the development of a unified performance model of the entire geologic repository system. Details of a generalized waste package containment (WPC) model and its relationship with other components of an overall repository model are presented in this paper. The WPC model provides stochastically determined estimates of the distributions of times-to-failure of the barriers of a waste package by various corrosion mechanisms and degradation processes. The model consists of a series of modules which employ various combinations of stochastic (probabilistic) and mechanistic process models, and which are individually designed to reflect the current state of knowledge. The WPC model is designed not only to take account of various site-specific conditions and processes, but also to deal with a wide range of site, repository, and waste package configurations. 11 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Synthesis and characterization of novel lanthanide- and actinide-containing titanates and zircono-titanates; relevance to nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoup, S.L.S.

    1995-08-01

    Before experiments using actinide elements are performed, synthetic routes are tested using lanthanides of comparable ionic radii as surrogates. Compound and solid solution formation in several lanthanide-containing titanate and zircono-titanate systems have been established using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, which helped to define interesting and novel experiments, some of which have been performed and are discussed, for selected actinide elements. The aqueous solubilities of several lanthanide- and actinide-containing compounds, representative of the systems studied, were tested in several leachants, including the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine, following modified Materials Characterization Center procedures (MCC-3). The WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine is a synthetic substitute for that found in nature at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The concentrations of cerium, used as a surrogate for plutonium, leached by the WIPP open-quotes Aclose quotes brine from all the cerium-containing compounds and solid solutions tested were below the Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry limit of detection (10 ppm) established for cerium in this brine. The concentrations of plutonium leached from the two plutonium-containing solid solutions were less than 1 ppm as determined by gross alpha counting and alpha pulse height analysis. Concentrations of strontium leached by the WIPP brine from stable strontium containing titanate compounds, studied as possible immobilizers of both 90 Sr and actinide elements, were also quite low. These compound and solid solution formation investigations and the aqueous solubility studies suggest that the types of titanate and zircono-titanate compounds and solid solutions studied in this work appear to be useful as host matrices for nuclear waste immobilization

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    In September 1989, a New York commission charged with choosing a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility announced its intent to conduct limited investigations at five potential sites. In this paper the authors review the commission's site selection process. After discussions with your office, the authors agreed to determine if the commission's consideration and selection of the Taylor North site was consistent with its prescribed procedures for considering offered sites. The authors also agreed to identify technical and other issues that need to be addressed before the final site evaluation and the selection steps can be completed

  1. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  2. The future supply of and demand for candidate materials for the fabrication of nuclear fuel waste disposal containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a literature survey carried out to assess the future world supply of and demand for titanium, copper and lead. These metals are candidate materials for the fabrication of containers for the immobilization and disposal of Canada's nuclear used-fuel waste for a reference Used-fuel Disposal Centre. Such a facility may begin operation by approximately 2020, and continue for about 40 years. The survey shows that the world has abundant supplies of titanium minerals (mostly in the form of ilmenite), which are expected to last up to at least 2110. However, for copper and lead the balance between supply and demand may warrant increased monitoring beyond the year 2000. A number of factors that can influence future supply and demand are discussed in the report

  3. Technical assistance to AECL: electron beam welding of thick-walled copper containers for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maak, P.Y.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase Two of the copper electron beam welding project for the final closure of copper containers for nuclear fuel waste disposal. It has been demonstrated that single pass, electron beam square butt welds (depth of weld penetration > 25 mm) can be made without preheat in both electrolytic tough-pitch copper and oxygen-free copper plates. The present results show that oxygen-free copper exhibits better weldability than the electrolytic tough-pitch copper in terms of weld penetration and vulnerability to weld defects such as gas porosity, erratic metal overflow and blow holes. The results of ultrasonic inspection studies of the welds are also discussed

  4. An approach for evaluating the general and localised corrosion of carbon steel containers for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Taylor, K.J.; Sharland, S.M.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-06-01

    The paper considers the long term corrosion of carbon steel containers for heat generating nuclear waste in a granitic repository. Under such conditions carbon steel may exhibit general, localised or passive corrosion behaviour depending on the exact composition and redox potential of the groundwater contacting the containers; localised corrosion being of most concern because it has the fastest propagation rate. It is well established, however, that such localised corrosion is only possible when the environment is sufficiently oxidising to maintain a positive potential gradient between the cathodic surface and the corrosion sites, which requires that species which oxidising potentials greater than water need to be present. This fact provides a basis for estimating the periods during which containers may be subject to localised and subsequently to general corrosion, and hence for making an overall assessment of the metal allowance required for a specified container life. A model for the diffusion transport of oxygen has been developed, and a sensitivity analysis has shown that the period of possible attack is strongly dependent on the passive film leakage current, the radiation dose rate and the oxygen diffusion coefficient. (orig.)

  5. Approach for evaluating the general and localized corrosion of carbon-steel containers for nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.; Taylor, K.J.; Sharland, S.M.; Tasker, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The paper considers the long term corrosion of carbon-steel containers for heat generating nuclear waste in a granitic repository. Under such conditions carbon steel may exhibit general, localized or passive corrosion behavior depending on the exact composition and redox potential of the groundwater contacting the containers; localized corrosion being of most concern because it has the fastest propagation rate. It is well established, however, that such localized corrosion is only possible when the environment is sufficiently oxidizing to maintain a positive potential gradient between the cathodic surface and the corrosion sites, which requires that species with oxidizing potentials greater than water need to be present. This fact provides a basis for estimating the periods during which containers may be subject to localized and subsequently to general corrosion, and hence for making an overall assessment of the metal allowance required for a specified container life. A model for the diffusion transport of oxygen has been developed, and a sensitivity analysis has shown that the period of possible localized attack is strongly dependent on the passive film leakage current, the radiation dose rate and the oxygen diffusion coefficient. 20 references, 5 figures

  6. A study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud for use in repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martensson, P.; Tang, L.; Ding, Z.; Peng, X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a study of the properties of concrete, grout and paste containing red mud - a waste product derived from the digestion of bauxite with a versatile mineralogical composition - for use in repositories for nuclear waste. Two types of red mud from China were used in the experiments. Type 1 was taken from Chiping Xinfa Hoayu Alumina Co. LTD, Liaocheng City, Shandong Province, China and type 2 taken from Xianfeng Alumina Co. LTD, Chongqing, China. In the experiments concrete, grout and paste in which 0, 10, 20 and 30 % of the mass of the binder was replaced by red mud were prepared for studies of the influence on the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the materials. The results show that the compressive strength for concrete in which 30 % of the mass of the binder had been replaced by red mud was reduced from 47 to 29 MPa after curing for 28 days for red mud type 1 and from 46 to 39 MPa for red mud type 2 compared to specimens without red mud. This is attributed to that red mud type 2 contains a larger amount of CaO which can contribute in the hydration process of the cement as nucleation. The influence on dry shrinkage of concrete containing different proportions of red mud differed between the two types of red mud used in this study. A possible influence from the method used for curing the specimens prior to the measurements was also observed. Addition of red mud in grout significantly increased the water permeability. This was attributed to that increasing amounts of red mud increases the porosity of the specimens and that the red mud mainly acts as an inert filler in the grout. Adsorption tests on crushed hardened cement paste containing red mud showed fluctuating results but tests on the raw materials showed a high sorption capacity for Cs. (authors)

  7. Advanced containment research for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Mathew, P.M.; McKay, P.; Hosaluk, L.J.; Oscarson, D.W.

    1986-09-01

    This document outlines the program on the development of advanced containment systems for the disposal of used fuel in a vault deep in plutonic rock. Possible advanced containment concepts, the strategy adopted in selecting potential container materials, and experimental programs currently underway or planned are presented. Most effort is currently directed toward developing long-term containment systems based on non-metallic materials and massive metal containers. The use of additional independent barriers to extend the lifetime of simple containment systems is also being evaluated. 58 refs

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE) procedures for annually assessing the adequacy of the fee that utilities pay for disposal of spent (used) nuclear fuel. In a June 1990 report, it was recommended, among other things, that the Congress authorize DOE to automatically adjust the fee each year on the basis of an inflation index. At that time, DOE also favored fee indexing; however, it subsequently reversed its position. Because of this change, it is now believe that Congress should require DOE to index the fee to the rate of inflation

  9. Process for the treatment of hydrazine-containing liquid waste from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Upstream of the evaporator an ozone-air mixture with an ozone content of at least 10 g/m 3 is sucked through the waste water; MnCl 2 , MnSO 4 or KI may be added as catalysts. After concentration in the evaporator the distillate is added to a mixed-bed filter with cation exchanges. (DG) [de

  10. Effect of microbial action on the corrosion potential of austenitic alloy containers for high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, P.; Dunn, D.S.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    The safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) entails the ability to ensure the integrity of waste containers for prolonged time periods. It is generally accepted that under certain conditions, microbial action may change local benign environments to those in which localized corrosion can be actively promoted. The use of repassivation potential (E rp ) in relation to the value of the corrosion potential (E corr ) has been proposed as a means of assessing the propensity of a metallic material to localized corrosion. Microbial activity is known to influence E corr however, the precise mechanism is unresolved. Shewanella putrefaciens, a bacteria with many of the characteristics of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), are being grown under controlled conditions on 316L stainless steel (SS) surfaces to understand the relationship between E corr and metabolic activity. It has been observed that the growth of the bacteria under aerobic conditions, without the production of metabolic sulfide, leads to only minor variation in E corr . These changes possibly correlate to the periods of active bacterial growth

  11. Corrosion studies on containment materials for vitrified high level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.J.; Bland, I.D.; Marsh, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    The general corrosion of carbon steels buried in granite or bentonite beds and saturated with synthetic granitic ground water is investigated. Corrosion rates were measured after 170 and 470 days, and pitting corrosion after 200hrs and 300hrs. Experiments to measure corrosion rates due to radiolysis of γ-radiated argon-purged ground water were also carried out. Results support the feasibility of using carbon steel packs for isolating high-level wastes for 500-1000 yrs. (U.K.)

  12. Disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kuehn, K.

    1977-01-01

    Final storage of nuclear wastes in the salt mine at Asse is described. Until the end of 1976, all in all 73,000 containers with slightly radioactive wastes were deposited there within the framework of a test programme - the Asse pit is a pilot plant. Final storage of medium active waste was started in 1972. So far, about 1,150 barrels with medium active waste were deposited. Storage techniques applied, radiation exposure of the personnel and experience gained so far are reported on in this context. Final storage at Asse of highly active wastes developing decay heat is still in a preparatory stage, as here radiation as well as heat problems have to be mastered. Technical mining activities for the recoverable storage of highly-active, heat-developing wastes in the form of ceramic glasses are still in a planning phase, whereas advance work, e.g. cutting storage chambers out of seams 775 m thick have already begun. (HPH) [de

  13. Effect of absorbing impurities on the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances resulting from the processing of waste nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, S. V.; Simanovsky, I. G.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    The study is aimed at an increase in the accuracy of the optical method for the detection of the iodine-containing substances in technological liquids resulting form the processing of the waste nuclear fuel. It is demonstrated that the accuracy can be increased owing to the measurements at various combinations of wavelengths depending on the concentrations of impurities that are contained in the sample under study and absorb in the spectral range used for the detection of the iodine-containing substances.

  14. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, S.; Schulz Rodriguez, F.; Duffó, G.

    2013-07-01

    The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina) , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  15. Heat-pipe effect on the transport of gaseous radionuclides released from a nuclear waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1990-11-01

    When an unsaturated porous medium is subjected to a temperature gradient and the temperature is sufficiently high, vadose water is heated and vaporizes. Vapor flows under its pressure gradient towards colder regions where it condenses. Vaporization and condensation produce a liquid saturation gradient, creating a capillary pressure gradient inside the porous medium. Condensate flows towards the hot end under the influence of a capillary pressure gradient. This is a heat pipe in an unsaturated porous medium. We study analytically the transport of gaseous species released from a spent-fuel waste package, as affected by a time-dependent heat pipe in an unsaturated rock. For parameter values typical of a potential repository in partially saturated fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, we found that a heat pipe develops shortly after waste is buried, and the heat-pipe's spatial extent is time-dependent. Water vapor movements produced by the heat pipe can significantly affect the migration of gaseous radionuclides. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.; Lafontaine, I.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the means of transportation of decommissioning wastes, costs of transport, radiological detriment attributable to transport and develops conceptual designs of large transport containers. The document ends with Conclusions and Recommendations

  17. Fabrication development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domian, H.A.; Holbrook, R.L.; LaCount, D.F. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (USA). Nuclear Power Div.]|[Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research and Development Div.

    1990-09-01

    This final report completes Phase 1 of an engineering study of potential manufacturing processes for the fabrication of containers for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. An extensive literature and industry review was conducted to identify and characterize various processes. A technical specification was prepared using the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (ASME BPVC) to develop the requirements. A complex weighting and evaluation system was devised as a preliminary method to assess the processes. The system takes into account the likelihood and severity of each possible failure mechanism in service and the effects of various processes on the microstructural features. It is concluded that an integral, seamless lower unit of the container made by back extrusion has potential performance advantages but is also very high in cost. A welded construction offers lower cost and may be adequate for the application. Recommendations are made for the processes to be further evaluated in the next phase when mock-up trials will be conducted to address key concerns with various processes and materials before selecting a primary manufacturing process. 43 refs., 26 figs., 34 tabs.

  18. A prototype scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [Nuclear Physics Group, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG England (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles observed at sea level with a flux of approximately 1 cm{sup −2} min{sup −1}. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering which can be exploited in muon tomography to image objects within industrial nuclear waste containers. A prototype scintillating-fibre detector has been developed for this application, consisting of two tracking modules above and below the volume to be assayed. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of 2 mm fibres. The modular configuration allows the reconstruction of the initial and scattered muon trajectories which enable the container content, with respect to atomic number Z, to be determined. Fibre signals are read out by Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMTs with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to avoid space point ambiguities and retain the high spatial resolution of the fibres. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm was developed and tested using a GEANT4 simulation of the prototype system. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented in comparison with experimental results taken with test objects. These results verify the simulation and show discrimination between the low, medium and high-Z materials imaged.

  19. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Takenori.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a nuclear reactor container in which heat is removed from a container by external water injection. Heat is removed from the container by immersing the lower portion of the container into water and scattering spary water from above. Thus, the container can be cooled by the spray water falling down along the outer wall of the container to condensate and cool vapors filled in the container upon occurrence of accidents. Further, since the inside of the container can be cooled also during usual operation, it can also serve as a dry well cooler. Accordingly, heat is removed from the reactor container upon occurrence of accidents by the automatic operation of a spray device corresponding to the change of the internal temperature and the pressure in the reactor container. Further, since all of these devices are disposed out of container, maintenance is also facilitated. (I.S.)

  20. Problems with military nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Spent fuel elements contain the largest amount of radioactivity, but commercial spent fuel is not presently being reprocessed in the US, so the wastes are left contained within spent fuel assemblies and are not immediately accessible to the environment. By reprocessing military spent fuel to separate plutonium and unspent uranium from the highly radioactive and high-heat fission product waste, known as high-level waste (99.5% fission products and about 0.5% plutonium and uranium), nuclear weapons manufacture produces more dangerous radioactive wastes than do current commercial processes. The Department of Energy standards should be subject to an environmental impact study. 27 references

  1. Vitrification of high level nuclear waste inside ambient temperature disposal containers using inductive heating: The SMILE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Reich, M.; Barletta, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach, termed SMILE (Small Module Inductively Loaded Energy), for the vitrification of high level nuclear wastes (HLW) is described. Present vitrification systems liquefy the HLW solids and associated frit material in large high temperature melters. The molten mix is then poured into small (∼1 m 3 ) disposal canisters, where it solidifies and cools. SMILE eliminates the separate, large high temperature melter. Instead, the BLW solids and frit melt inside the final disposal containers, using inductive heating. The contents then solidify and cool in place. The SMILE modules and the inductive heating process are designed so that the outer stainless can of the module remains at near ambient temperature during the process cycle. Module dimensions are similar to those of present disposal containers. The can is thermally insulated from the high temperature inner container by a thin layer of refractory alumina firebricks. The inner container is a graphite crucible lined with a dense alumina refractory that holds the HLW and fiit materials. After the SMILE module is loaded with a slurry of HLW and frit solids, an external multi-turn coil is energized with 30-cycle AC current. The enclosing external coil is the primary of a power transformer, with the graphite crucible acting as a single turn ''secondary.'' The induced current in the ''secondary'' heats the graphite, which in turn heats the HLW and frit materials. The first stage of the heating process is carried out at an intermediate temperature to drive off remnant liquid water and water of hydration, which takes about 1 day. The small fill/vent tube to the module is then sealed off and the interior temperature raised to the vitrification range, i.e., ∼1200C. Liquefaction is complete after approximately 1 day. The inductive heating then ceases and the module slowly loses heat to the environment, allowing the molten material to solidify and cool down to ambient temperature

  2. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  3. The immobilisation of nuclear waste materials containing different alkali elements into single-phase NZP based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pet'kov, V.I.; Orlova, A.I.; Trubach, I.G.; Demarin, T.; Kurazhkovskaya, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    The NZP matrix, which is based on NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , is a viable candidate for nuclear waste immobilisation. We examined the possibilities of incorporating of alkali elements into the NZP host structure, investigated the conditions of the crystalline solution formation, and determined the regions of the NZP structure compositional stability for a series of complex orthophosphates of titanium or zirconium and alkali elements A m-x A' x M 2-(m-1)/4 (PO 4 ) 3 with m = 1, 3, or 5 and 0 ≤ x ≤ m, where A and A' are mutually different alkali elements and M is Ti or Zr. The phosphates containing Li-Na, Li-K, Li-Rb, Li-Cs, Na-K, Na-Rb, Na-Cs, K-Rb, K-Cs and Rb-Cs pairs were prepared and studied by X-ray powder analysis, IR spectroscopy, simultaneous DTA-TG measurements and electron microprobe analyses. In the systems studied, wide ranges of crystalline phosphate solutions with tailored alkali metal substitutions were formed owing to the large number of sites available for substitution and high degree of flexibility in the NZP structure. It was found that introduction of the less expensive and lighter Ti in the host phase in place of the commonly used Zr permits cheaper ceramics, having in some cases larger alkali element contents, to be obtained. The phases containing alkali metals can be formed, for instance, during phosphate solidification of molten alkali chlorides with radioactive nuclides from the pyroelectrochemical technologies of nuclear fuel recycling

  4. Modeling property evolution of container materials used in nuclear waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Garmestani, Hamid; Khaleel, Moe; Sun, Xin

    2010-03-01

    Container materials under irradiation for a long time will raise high energy in the structure to generate critical structural damage. This study investigated what kind of mesoscale microstructure will be more resistant to radiation damage. Mechanical properties evolution during irradiation was modeled using statistical continuum mechanics. Preliminary results also showed how to achieve the desired microstructure with higher resistance to radiation.

  5. Mechanistic investigation of internal corrosion in nuclear waste containers over extended time periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onumonu, E.; Stevens, D. N. P. C.

    2008-01-01

    Storage of the UK's Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW), which comprises Magnox fuel cladding, uranium and small items of equipment exposed to radiation, is currently achieved via encapsulation within cementitious grout housed in 500 litre 316L stainless steel drums. The cements used display a high pH; in such an environment many metals form surface hydroxides or oxides. Magnox reacts with free water at high pH with the liberation of hydrogen whilst undergoing corrosion to form hydroxide species. Corrosion of Magnox cladding has previously been monitored by measuring the rate of hydrogen evolution and/or weight loss. Recent work by our group has shown impedance techniques may also be useful in monitoring early corrosion behaviour. In this project electrochemical polarisation techniques will be employed to examine the corrosion behaviour of Magnox fuel in situations where it is in electrical contact with other metals, including uranium, and hence determine how galvanic effects influence corrosion behaviour. In this paper we describe the background to such experiments along with some preliminary results. (authors)

  6. Study of the impact behaviour of packages containing intermediate level radioactive waste coming from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.; Lund, J.S.; Meredith, P.; Walker, P.; Wells, D.A.; Jowett, J.; Kinsella, K.

    1989-01-01

    The following describes primarily an experimental study into the benefits, for impact resistance, to be gained by incorporating a welded lid into the design of the cement filled drum type of intermediate level waste package. Tests on packages which were not provided with a lid showed that matrix material began to be expelled from drop heights of about 16m. This damage threshold was similar for packages composed of both high and low strength matrix. Above the damage threshold, however, the rate of increase of expelled mass with drop height was greater for the packages filled with a low strength matrix. Similar tests were conducted with specimens to which a lid had been attached by welding. Even from the greatest drop height available at the test facility (28m) only one package showed a significant amount of drum tearing but even then little matrix was lost. The benefits of incorporating a welded lid into package design were thus clearly established. Simple calculations were performed to predict the local deformations and deceleration/time histories of the packages. By optimisation of the impact resistive stress used in the computer model, final knockback areas were predicted to an accuracy of 30%. The average deceleration predicted for four of the six tests for which deceleration histories were available were also within 30% of measured values

  7. Nuclear power. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Lay language brings an understanding of nuclear technology and nuclear politics to the non-specialist reader. The author notes that there has been little change in the technology during the four decades of the nuclear age, but mankind has still to learn how to live with it. Part One explains how reactors work, identifies different reactor types, and describes the fuel cycle. Part two follows research developments during the pre-Manhatten Project days, the war effort, and the decision to pursue commercial nuclear power. He traces the development of policies to secure fission materials and international efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons grade material and the safe handling of radioactive wastes on a global as well as national scale. There are four appendices, including an annotated reference to other publications. 9 figures.

  8. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  9. Corrosion problems related to the containment of high-level nuclear waste for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is examined under the headings: introduction (nature of problem; system of barriers which will initially contain the wasteform and subsequently limit the rate of transport of products from the wasteform to the external environment); environmental data (disposal in land-based repositories; disposal on or in the deep seabed); design philosophies and materials data (design; criteria for materials selection (kinetics of corrosion)); specific materials considerations (environmental parameters -temperature, pressure, heat transfer and radiation effects; single metals and alloys - steels, nickel based alloys, copper, lead, titanium, aluminium oxide); alternative approaches; an overview - information needs; summary. (U.K.)

  10. Corrosion problems related to the containment of high-level nuclear waste for disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, G P

    1981-10-01

    The subject is examined under the headings: introduction (nature of problem; system of barriers which will initially contain the wasteform and subsequently limit the rate of transport of products from the wasteform to the external environment); environmental data (disposal in land-based repositories; disposal on or in the deep seabed); design philosophies and materials data (design; criteria for materials selection (kinetics of corrosion)); specific materials considerations (environmental parameters -temperature, pressure, heat transfer and radiation effects; single metals and alloys - steels, nickel based alloys, copper, lead, titanium, aluminium oxide); alternative approaches; an overview - information needs; summary.

  11. Effect of galvanic coupling between overpack materials for high-level nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Cragnolino, G.A.; Sridhar, N.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of environmental parameters and area ratio on the galvanic protection of Alloy 825 by A516 steel was studied. A simplified model was used to calculate the potential and corrosion current density of the bimetallic couple as a function of the galvanic coupling efficiency. Galvanic corrosion tests were performed to gain confidence in the calculated values. Both the calculations and laboratory testing indicate that, with highly efficient coupling, the potential of the galvanic couple is maintained below the repassivation potential for Alloy 825 in chloride-containing solutions. As a result, the initiation of localized corrosion on Alloy 825 is prevented. The formation of oxides, scales, and corrosion product layers between the barriers is shown to reduce the efficiency of the galvanic couple, which may result in conditions under which the localized corrosion of the inner corrosion resistant barrier can occur

  12. Platinoids and molybdenum in nuclear waste containment glasses: a structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, M.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the structure of borosilicate nuclear glasses and with some relationships between structure and macroscopic properties. Two types of elements which may disturb the industrial process - platinoids (Ru and Pd) and molybdenum - are central to this work. Platinoids induce weak modifications on the structure of the glass, causing a depolymerization of the glassy network, an increase of the [3] B/ [4] B ratio and a modification of the medium range order around Si between 3.3 and 4.5 angstrom. The modifications of viscosity and density induced by platinoids in the glass are not due to the structural effect of the platinoids. The increase of viscosity is attributed to needle shaped RuO 2 . It can be moderated by imposing reducing conditions during the elaboration of the glass. The slight difference between experimental and calculated densities is due to the increase of the volume percentage of bubbles in the glass with increasing platinoid content. Mo is either present in the glass as molybdic groupings, or mobilized in chemically complex molybdic crystalline phases. The chemical composition and mineralogy of these phases has been obtained using electronic microprobe data and XRD with Rietveld analysis. The distribution of the different elements between the crystalline phases and the glass is strongly influenced by the structural role of the various cations in the glass. The Mo present in the glass appears as MoO 4 tetrahedra, independent of the borosilicate network. The formation of the crystalline phases can be explained by the existence of a precursor in which the MoO 4 tetrahedra are concentrated in rich alkali and earth-alkali bearing areas of the glass. (author)

  13. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  14. Nuclear reactor containment device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the volume of a containment shell and decrease the size of a containment equipment for BWR type reactors by connecting the containment shell and a suppression pool with slanted vent tubes to thereby shorten the vent tubes. Constitution: A pressure vessel containing a reactor core is installed at the center of a building and a containment vessel for the nuclear reactor that contains the pressure vessel forms a cabin. To a building situated below the containment shell, is provided a suppression chamber in which cooling water is charged to form a suppression pool. The suppression pool is communicated with vent tubes that pass through the partition wall of the containment vessel. The vent tubes are slanted and their lower openings are immersed in coolants. Therefore, if accident is resulted and fluid at high temperature and high pressure is jetted from the pressure vessel, the jetting fluid is injected and condensated in the cooling water. (Moriyama, K.)

  15. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has specific views on the following aspects of waste management: a) public information and public participation programs should be encouraged; b) positive political leadership is essential; c) a national plan and policy are necessary; d) all hazardous materials should receive the same care as radioactive wastes; e) power plant construction need not be restricted as long as there is a commitment to nuclear waste management; f) R and D should be funded consistently for nuclear waste management and ancillary topics like alternative fuel cycles and reprocessing. (E.C.B.)

  17. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  18. Nuclear wastes: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are a major concern for all countries dealing with civil nuclear energy, whatever these countries have decided yet about reprocessing/storage options. In this chapter, a (exact) definition of a (radioactive) waste is given, together with definitions of waste classes and their characteristics (volumes, types etc.). The various options that are currently experienced in the world will be presented but focus will be put on the French case. Envision evolutions will be briefly presented. (author)

  19. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.

    1982-01-01

    This program is sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address basic concerns in assessing the performance of solidified radwaste. Experiments were initiated to address these concerns. In particular, leachability of solidified radwastes and the physical stability of the ensuing waste forms were evaluated. In addition, leaching experiments designed to address the effects of alternating wet/dry cycles and of varying the length of these cycles on the leach behavior of waste forms were initiated

  20. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Fund involves a number of features which make it a unique federal program. Its primary purpose is to finance one of the largest and most controversial public works programs in the history of the United States. Despite the program's indicated size and advance publicity, no one knows exactly where the anticipated projects will be built, who will construct them, what they will look like when they are done or how they will be operated and by whom. Implimentation of this effort, if statutory targets are actually met, covers a 16-year period. To cover the costs of the program, the Federal Government will tax nuclear power at the rate of 1 mil per kilowatt hour generated. This makes it one of the biggest and longest-lived examples of advance collections for construction work in progress in the history of the United States. While the Department of Energy is authorized to collect funds for the program the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has the authority to cut off this revenue stream by the shutdown of particular reactors or particular reactor types. If all goes well, the Federal Government will begin receiving spent nuclear fuel by 1998, continuing to assess a fee which will cover operating and maintenance costs. If all does not go well, the Federal Government and/or utilities will have to take other steps to solve the problem of permanent disposal. Should the latter circumstance prevail, presumably not only used to date but the $7.5 billion would be spent. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, contains no clear provision for utility refunds in that case

  1. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  2. Corrosion kinetics of alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W as structural material in high level nuclear waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Alloy Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W (also known as C-22) is one of the candidates to fabricate high level nuclear waste containers. These containers are designed to maintain isolation of the waste for a minimum of 10,000 years. In this period, the material must be resistant to corrosion. If the containers were in contact with water, it is assumed that alloy C-22 may undergo three different corrosion mechanisms: general corrosion, localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. This thesis discusses only the first two types of degradation. Electrochemical techniques such as amperometry, potentiometry, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and non-electrochemical techniques such as microscopic observation, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied to study the corrosion behavior of alloy C-22 in 1 M NaCl, 25 C degrees saturated NaF (approximately 1 M) and 0,5 M NaCl + 0,5 M NaF solutions. Effects of temperature, pH and alloy thermal aging were analyzed. The corrosion rates obtained at 90 C degrees were low ranging from 0.04 μm/year to 0.48 μm /year. They increased with temperature and decreased with solution pH. Most of the impedance measurements showed a simply capacitive behavior. A second high-frequency time constant was detected in some cases. It was attributed to the formation of a nickel oxide and/or hydroxide at potentials near the reversible potential for this reaction. The active/passive transition detected in some potentiodynamic polarization curves was attributed to the same process. The corrosion potential showed an important increase after 24 hours of immersion. This increase in the corrosion potential was associated with an improvement of the passive film. The corrosion potential was always lower than the re-passivation potential for the corresponding media. The trans passive behavior of alloy C-22 was mainly influenced by temperature and solution chemistry. A clear trans passive peak

  3. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  4. America's nuclear waste backlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses three topics: concern and controversy relating to nuclear waste; high-level waste storage and politics of waste disposal. The most pressing waste disposal problem concerns spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants. It was expected that commercial spent fuel would be sent to commercial reprocessing plants. The feasibility of commercial reprocessing in the United States is contingent on the expansion of the nuclear power industry. The current high-level liquid waste inventory is about 77 million gallons. These are stored at Richland, Washington; Aiken, South Carolina; and Idaho Falls, Idaho. The only commercial high-level wastes ever produced are stored at the defunct reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. A high-level waste repository must be capable of isolating wastes that will remain dangerous for thousands of years. Salt has long been considered the most suitable medium for high-level and transuranic waste disposal. The timetable for opening a deep geological repository is one of the issues that will have to be dealt with by Congress. The 97th Congress appears ready to act on high-level nuclear waste legislation. Even opponents of nuclear expansion admit the necessity of legislation. Even if Congress gets its act together, it does not mean that the nuclear waste issue is gone. There are still unknowns - future of reprocessing, the needs and demands of the military; the health of the nuclear power industry; the objections of residents in potential site areas; the possibility of a state veto, and the unsolved technological problems in geologic site selection

  5. Vitrification chemistry and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vitrification of nuclear waste offers unique challenges to the glass technologist. The waste contains 50 or 60 elements, and often varies widely in composition. Most of these elements are seldom encountered in processing commercial glasses. The melter to vitrify the waste must be able to tolerate these variations in composition, while producing a durable glass. This glass must be produced without releasing hazardous radionuclides to the environment during any step of the vitrification process. Construction of a facility to convert the nearly 30 million gallons of high-level nuclear waste at the Savannah River Plant into borosilicate glass began in late 1983. In developing the vitrification process, the Savannah River Laboratory has had to overcome all of these challenges to the glass technologist. Advances in understanding in three areas have been crucial to our success: oxidation-reduction phenomena during glass melting; the reaction between glass and natural wastes; and the causes of foaming during glass melting

  6. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  7. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaki, Rika; Kawabe, Ryuhei.

    1989-01-01

    A venturi scrubber is connected to a nuclear reactor container. Gases containing radioactive aerosols in the container are introduced into the venturi scrubber in the form of a high speed stream under the pressure of the container. The radioactive aerosols are captured by inertia collision due to the velocity difference between the high speed gas stream and water droplets. In the case of the present invention, since the high pressure of the reactor container generated upon accident is utilized, compressor, etc. is no more required, thereby enabling to reduce the size of the aerosol removing device. Further, since no external power is used, the radioactive aerosols can be removed with no starting failure upon accidents. (T.M.)

  8. Glass to contain wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncouyoux, M.; Jacquet-Francillon, M.

    1994-01-01

    Here are the tables and figures presented during the conference on the glass to confine high level radioactive wastes: definition, fabrication, storage and disposal. The composition of glasses are detailed, their properties and the vitrification proceeding. The behaviour of these glasses in front of water, irradiation and heat are shown. The characteristics of parcels are given according to the radiation protection rule, ALARA principle, the concept of multi-barriers and the geological stability

  9. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  10. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  11. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  12. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  13. Methane from waste containing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-24

    Waste solids containing paper are biologically treated in a system by: fermentation with lactobacilli, separation of the solids, ion exchange of the supernatant from the separation, anaerobic digestion of the ion-exchanged liquor, separation of a liquor from the fermentation, and digestion of the liquor. Thus, a municipal waste containing paper and water was inoculated with Aspergillus niger and lactobacilli for 2 days; the mixture was anaerobically treated and centrifuged; the clear liquor was ion exchanged; and the solid waste was filter pressed. The filter cake was treated with Trichoderma nigricaus and filtered. The filtrate and the ion-exchanged liquor were digested for CH/sub 4/ production.

  14. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Cables coverd with non-halogen covering material are used as electric wire cables wired for supplying electric power to a reactor recycling pump. Silicone rubber having specified molecular formula is used for the non-halogen covering material. As a result, formation of chlorine in a nuclear reactor container can be eliminated and increase in the deposited salts to SUS pipeways, etc. can be prevented, to avoid the occurrence of stress corrosion cracks. (H.T.)

  15. Transmuting nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use

  16. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  17. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  18. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible

  19. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselli, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established two separate special bank accounts: the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) was established to finance all of the Federal Government activities associated with the disposal of High-Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The Interim Storage Fund (ISF) is the financial mechanism for the provision of Federal Interim Storage capacity, not to exceed 1900 metric tons of SNF at civilian power reactors. The management of these funds is discussed. Since the two funds are identical in features and the ISF has not yet been activated, the author's remarks are confined to the Nuclear Waste Fund. Three points discussed include legislative features, current status, and planned activities

  20. Transmuting nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-04-15

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use.

  1. Beverage containers in municipal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enhoerning, B

    1979-01-01

    The composition of containers (cans, glass) in Sweden's wastes is given. Recycling and reclamation of these containers are discussed. The energy demand of fabricating the containers is analyzed for recycling rates of 0 and 100%. The free forces of the market cannot be depended on to direct the containers back to the manufacturer; only a well-functioning deposit system can do this. 7 figures. (DLC)

  2. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  3. Nuclear waste for NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Territory may be powerless to block the dumping of low-level nuclear waste in the Territory under legislation introduced into Parliament by Minister for Education Science and Training, Dr Brendan Nelson, in October. Despite strong opposition to the dumping of nuclear waste in the NT, the Australian Government will be able to send waste to one of the three nominated Commonwealth-owned Defence sites within the NT under the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Bill 2005 and the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management (Related Amendment) Bill 2005. The Bills veto recently drafted NT legislation designed to scuttle the plans. Low-level nuclear waste is stored at more than 100 sites around Australia, including hospitals, factories, universities and defence facilities. Medical isotopes produced at Lucas Heights and provided for medical procedures are the source of much of this waste, including some 16 cubic metres currently held at Darwin Hospital. Dr Nelson stressed that the Government would take all die necessary steps to comply with safety and regulatory precautions, including handling waste in line with relevant environmental, nuclear safety and proliferation safeguards

  4. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  6. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gdowski, G.E. [KMI, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices.

  7. Selection of candidate container materials for the conceptual waste package design for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Halsey, W.G.; McCright, R.D.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Gdowski, G.E.

    1993-02-01

    Preliminary selection criteria have been developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to a field of 41 candidate materials to choose three alloys for further consideration during the advanced conceptual design phase of waste package development for a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These three alloys are titanium grade 12, Alloy C-4, and Alloy 825. These selections are specific to the particular conceptual design outlined in the Site Characterization Plan. Other design concepts that may be considered in the advanced conceptual design phase may favor other materials choices

  8. Nuclear waste: good news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author states that the problem of nuclear wastes is solved. He states that 90 per cent of radioactive wastes are now permanently managed and that technical solutions for deep geological storage and for transmutation will soon solve the problem for the remaining 10 pc. He states that geological storage will be funded (it is included in electricity price). He denounces why these facts which he consider as good news, do not prevail. He proposes several documents in appendix: a text explaining the nuclear fuel cycle in France, and an extract of a report made by the national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes

  9. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Ryuhei; Yamaki, Rika.

    1989-01-01

    Aerosol filters considered so far for nuclear reactor containers in conventional BWR type nuclear power plants make the facility larger and involve a risk of clogging. In view of the above, in the present invention, the diameter of a flow channel of gases entering from a bent pipe to a suppression pool is made smaller thereby decreasing the diameter of gas bubbles in the supperssional pool. Since this reduces the force of surface tension, the diameter of resulted gas bubbles is made remarkably smaller as compared with the case where the gases are released from the lower end of the bent pipe. Since the absorption velocity of bubble-entrained aerosols into water is in proportion to the square of the bubble diameter, the absorption efficiency can be increased remarkably by reducing the diameter of the gas bubbles. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the efficiency of eliminating radioactivity of released gases. (K.M.)

  10. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  11. Nuclear waste management news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, H.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the fact that nuclear waste management is an important factor determining the future perspectives of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it seems suitable to offer those who are interested in this matter a source of well-founded, concise information. This first newsletter will be followed by others at irregular intervals, reviewing the latest developments and the state of the art in West Germany and abroad. The information presented in this issue reports the state of the art of nuclear waste management in West Germany and R and D activities and programmes, refers to conferences or public statements, and reviews international relations and activities abroad. (orig.) [de

  12. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Acts requires that DOE enter into contracts with nuclear utilities and others to accept their nuclear wastes at some unspecified date, at some unspecified rate, hopefully starting in 1998. Contracts between DOE and the states, and with civilian and other government agencies must be sufficiently detailed to secure competitive bids on definable chunks of work at a fixed-cost basis with incentives. The need is stressed for a strong central program for the selection of contractors on the basis of competitive bidding on a fixed price basis to perform the task with defined deliverables

  13. Nuclear waste in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (short: Seibersdorf) is the company operating the research reactor ASTRA. A controversy arose, initied by the Greens and some newspapers on the fact that the waste conditioning plant in Seibersdorf treated not only Austrian waste (from hospitals etc.) but also a large quantity of ion exchange resins from the Caorso nuclear power station, against payment. The author argues that it is untenable that an Austrian institution (peaceful use of nuclear energy in Austria being abandoned by a referendum) should support nuclear power abroad. There is also a short survey on nuclear waste conditioning and an account of an exchange of letters, between the Seibersdorf and the Ecology Institute on the claim of being an 'independent measuring institution' of food, soil, etc. samples. The author argues that the Ecology Institute is the sole independent institution in Austria because it is part of the ecology- and antinuclear movement, whereas Seibersdorf is dependent on the state. (qui)

  14. The potential for using slags activated with near neutral salts as immobilisation matrices for nuclear wastes containing reactive metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Collier, N. C.; Milestone, N. B.; Yang, C. H.

    2011-06-01

    The UK currently uses composite blends of Portland cement and other inorganic cementitious material such as blastfurnace slag and pulverised fuel ash to encapsulate or immobilise intermediate and low level radioactive wastes. Typically levels up 9:1 blast furnace slag:Portland cement or 4:1 pulverised fuel ash:Portland cement are used. Whilst these systems offer many advantages, their high pH causes corrosion of various metallic intermediate level radioactive wastes. To address this issue, lower pH/weakly alkaline cementitious systems have to be explored. While the blast furnace slag:Portland cement system is referred to as a composite cement system, the underlying reaction is actually an indirect activation of the slag hydration by the calcium hydroxide generated by the cement hydration, and by the alkali ions and gypsum present in the cement. However, the slag also can be activated directly with activators, creating a system known as alkali-activated slag. Whilst these activators used are usually strongly alkaline, weakly alkaline and near neutral salts can also be used. In this paper, the potential for using weakly alkaline and near neutral salts to activate slag in this manner is reviewed and discussed, with particular emphasis placed on the immobilisation of reactive metallic nuclear wastes.

  15. Closure development for high-level nuclear waste containers for the tuff repository; Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robitz, E.S. Jr.; McAninch, M.D. Jr.; Edmonds, D.P. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (USA). Nuclear Power Div.]|[Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (USA). Research and Development Div.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes Phase 1 activities for closure development of the high-level nuclear waste package task for the tuff repository. Work was conducted under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract 9172105, administered through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), as part of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), funded through the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The goal of this phase was to select five closure processes for further evaluation in later phases of the program. A decision tree methodology was utilized to perform an objective evaluation of 15 potential closure processes. Information was gathered via a literature survey, industrial contacts, and discussions with project team members, other experts in the field, and the LLNL waste package task staff. The five processes selected were friction welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, gas tungsten arc welding, and plasma arc welding. These are felt to represent the best combination of weldment material properties and process performance in a remote, radioactive environment. Conceptual designs have been generated for these processes to illustrate how they would be implemented in practice. Homopolar resistance welding was included in the Phase 1 analysis, and developments in this process will be monitored via literature in Phases 2 and 3. Work was conducted in accordance with the YMP Quality Assurance Program. 223 refs., 20 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Nuclear waste - a fresh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rather than looking at the nuclear waste problem in isolation, it should be viewed in the broader context of how society disposes of all of its wastes. A comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes shows, contrary to popular perception, that the properties of these two waste types are actually very similar. However, the methods of regulation and management of the two waste types are very different. It is time that these differences were reconciled - both the nuclear and the non-nuclear waste industries have a lot to gain. There are three main categories of (non-nuclear) waste: municipal wastes, hazardous wastes, and industrial wastes. Rather than treating each of these waste types in separate, isolated compartments, there should be an integration of the principles and regulations involved in their management. The non-nuclear waste industry has much to learn from the nuclear approach

  17. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Takeo; Ochiai, Kanehiro; Niino, Tsuyoshi; Kodama, Toyokazu; Hirako, Shizuka.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structures suitable to a container structures for nuclear power plants used in those districts where earthquakes occur frequently, in which no local stresses are caused to the fundamental base portions and the workability for the fundamental structures is improved. Constitution: Basic stabilizers are attached to a nuclear reactor container (PCV) and a basic concrete recess for receiving a basic stabilizer is disposed in basic concretes. A top stabilizer is joined and fixed to a top stabilizer receiving plate at the inside of an outer shielding wall. On the other hand, a PCV top recess for conducting the load of PCV to the top stabilizer is attached to the top of the PCV. By disposing stabilizer structures allowing miner displacements at the two points, that is, the top and the lowermost portion of the PCV, no local stress concentrations can be generated to the extension on the axial direction of components due to the inner pressure of the PCV and to the horizontal load applied to the upper portion of the PCV upon earthquakes. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Concept for Underground Disposal of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Packaged waste placed in empty oil-shale mines. Concept for disposal of nuclear waste economically synergistic with earlier proposal concerning backfilling of oil-shale mines. New disposal concept superior to earlier schemes for disposal in hard-rock and salt mines because less uncertainty about ability of oil-shale mine to contain waste safely for millenium.

  19. Organic analyses of mixed nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lucke, R.B.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.; Hendren, D.J.; Myers, R.B.

    1987-04-01

    Analytical methods are being developed for the organic analysis of nuclear wastes. Our laboratory analyzed the organic content of three commercial wastes and an organic-rich, complex concentrate waste. The commercial wastes contained a variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. Alkyl phenols, chelating and complexing agents, as well as their degradation products, and carboxylic acids were detected in the commercial wastes. The complex concentrate waste contained chelating and complexing agents, as well as numerous degradation products, at millimolar concentrations. 75.1% of the complex concentrate waste's total organic carbon content has been identified. The presence of chelator fragments in all of the wastes analyzed, occasionally at elevated concentrations, indicates that organic diagenesis, or degradation, in nuclear wastes is both widespread and quite vigorous. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  1. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Tooru; Murase, Michio; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Hidaka, Masataka; Sumita, Isao; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a chamber in communication with a wet well of a pressure suppression chamber is disposed and situated to such a position that the temperature is lower than a chamber containing pool water upon occurrence of loss of coolant accident. In addition, the inner surface of the pressure suppression chamber is constituted with steel walls in contact with pool water, and an outer circumferential pool is disposed at the outer circumferential surface thereof. Further, a circulation channel is disposed, and a water intake port is disposed at a position higher than an exit to the pool water, and a water discharge port is opened in the pool water at a position lower than the exit to the pool water. With such a constitution, the allowable temperature of the pressure suppression pool water can be elevated to a saturated steam temperature corresponding to the resistant pressure of the container, so that the temperature difference between the pressure suppression pool and the outer side thereof is increased by so much, to improve thermal radiation performance. Accordingly, it can be utilized as a pressure suppression means for a plant of greater power. Further, thermal conduction efficiency from the pool water region of the pressure suppression chamber to the outer circumferential pool water is improved, or thermal radiation area is enlarged due to the circulation channel, to improve the heat radiation performance. (N.H.)

  2. The use of repassivation potential in predicting the performance of high-level nuclear waste container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, N.; Dunn, D.; Cragnolino, G.

    1995-01-01

    Localized corrosion in aqueous environments forms an important bounding condition for the performance assessment of high-level waste (HLW) container materials. A predictive methodology using repassivation potential is examined in this paper. It is shown, based on long-term (continuing for over 11 months) testing of alloy 825, that repassivation potential of deep pits or crevices is a conservative and robust parameter for the prediction of localized corrosion. In contrast, initiation potentials measured by short-term tests are non-conservative and highly sensitive to several surface and environmental factors. Corrosion data from various field tests and plant equipment performance are analyzed in terms of the applicability of repassivation potential. The applicability of repassivation potential for predicting the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion in chloride containing environments is also examined

  3. Nuclear waste disposal: Gambling on Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the historical aspects of nuclear energy ,nuclear weapons usage, and development of the nuclear bureaucracy in the United States, and discusses the selection and siting of Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a federal nuclear waste repository. Litigation regarding the site selection and resulting battles in the political arena and in the Nevada State Legislature are also presented. Alternative radioactive waste disposal options, risk assessments of the Yucca Mountain site, and logistics regarding the transportation and storage of nuclear waste are also presented. This document also contains an extensive bibliography

  4. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  5. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tightness, shock resistance and corrosion resistance of containers for storage of radioactive wastes it obtained by complete fabrication with concrete reinforced with metal fibers. This material is used for molding the cask, the cover and the joint connecting both parts. Dovetail grooves are provided on the cask and the cover for the closure [fr

  6. Safeguards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safeguards and security policies within the Department of Energy (DOE) have been implemented in a graded fashion for the protection, control and accountability of nuclear materials. This graded philosophy has meant that safeguards on low-equity nuclear materials, typically considered of low diversion attractiveness such as waste, has been relegated to minimal controls. This philosophy has been and remains today an acceptable approach for the planning and implementation of safeguards on this material. Nuclear waste protection policy and guidance have been issued due to a lack of clear policy and guidance on the identification and implementation of safeguards controls on waste. However, there are issues related to safe-guarding waste that need to be clarified. These issues primarily stem from increased budgetary and resource pressures to remove materials from safeguards. Finally, there may be an unclear understanding, as to the scope and content of vulnerability assessments required prior to terminating safeguards on waste and other discardable materials and where the authority should lie within the Department for making decisions regarding safeguards termination. This paper examines these issues and the technical basis for Departmental policy for terminating safeguards on waste

  7. Decontamination of organic wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Pimblott, S.M.; Brown, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical oxidation treatment has been developed by Arvia Technology for organic wastes containing radionuclides, in which GIC-bisulphate is used as an adsorbent and electrode. Significant work has been carried out in the irradiation of graphite for medical and nuclear applications and in the use of carbonaceous adsorbents but knowledge of the applicability of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in these roles is limited. This project will attempt to fill this gap. It will investigate the suitability of GIC-bisulphate as an adsorbent in an electrochemical treatment process for radioactive organic liquids. The process was initially used to treat waste-water from non-nuclear operations and now requires technical knowledge and research to adapt the treatment for the nuclear industry. Adsorption processes involving organic wastes containing mobile radionuclides such as 137 Cs are difficult to understand. The effects of gamma radiation on the chemistry of water and organics could complicate the treatment process further. To ensure the suitability and effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation treatment for radioactive organic wastes, the following effects are being investigated: -) radiolytic degradation of GIC-bisulphate in solution, -) leaching of intercalated ions due to gamma radiation, -) effect of gamma radiation on the adsorption of organics by GIC-bisulphate, -) changes in the sorption behaviour of radioactive contaminants, -) distribution coefficients of contaminants in organic and aqueous phases, and -) selective or competitive adsorption on graphite surface sites

  8. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Overview: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Signed into law by the President on January 7, 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a national policy for safely storing, transporting, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This overview presents the following information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: (1) background; (2) permanent repository; (3) siting guidelines and mission plan; (4) monitored retrievable storage; and (5) nuclear waste funds. (DT)

  9. Why partition nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A cursory review of literature dealing with various separatory processes involved in the handling of high-level liquid nuclear waste discloses that, for the most part, discussion centers on separation procedures and methodology for handling the resulting fractions, particularly the actinide wastes. There appears to be relatively little discussion on the incentives or motivations for performing these separations in the first place. Discussion is often limited to the assumption that we must separate out ''long-term'' from our ''short-term'' management problems. This paper deals with that assumption and devotes primary attention to the question of ''why partition waste'' rather than the question of ''how to partition waste'' or ''what to do with the segregated waste.''

  10. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  11. Review of nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, B.H.

    1978-06-01

    On Jun 22 and 23, 1978, Rockwell Hanford Operations assembled a committee of their personnel, subcontractors, and representatives of other waste isolation programs for a review of nuclear waste isolation. Appendix A lists the participants and their affiliations; Appendix B indicates the agenda. The purpose of the review was to gather experts in the areas pertaining to isolation of nuclear waste to discuss three basic issues that must be addressed in isolation studies. These were: the paths of transport to the biosphere; the barriers needed for containment; and the isolation time necessary for each radioactive isotope. In that these issues are media dependent, the basalt medium was emphasized. Conclusions of the review are described

  12. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-08-01

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  13. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  14. Development of polymer concrete radioactive waste management containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.; Lee, M. S.; Ahn, D. H.; Won, H. J.; Kang, H. S.; Lee, H. S.; Lim, S.P.; Kim, Y. E.; Lee, B. O.; Lee, K. P.; Min, B. Y.; Lee, J.K.; Jang, W. S.; Sim, W. B.; Lee, J. C.; Park, M. J.; Choi, Y. J.; Shin, H. E.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, C. Y

    1999-11-01

    A high-integrity radioactive waste container has been developed to immobilize the spent resin wastes from nuclear power plants, protect possible future, inadvertent intruders from damaging radiation. The polymer concrete container is designed to ensure safe and reliable disposal of the radioactive waste for a minimum period of 300 years. A built-in vent system for each container will permit the release of gas. An experimental evaluation of the mechanical, chemical, and biological tests of the container was carried out. The tests showed that the polymer concrete container is adequate for safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. (author)

  15. Nuclear Waste Education Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In summary, both the Atlanta and Albuquerque pilot seminars achieved the Nuclear Waste Education Project's goal of informing citizens on both the substance and the process of nuclear waste policy so that they can better participate in future nuclear waste decisions. Nuclear waste issues are controversial, and the seminars exposed the nature of the controversy, and utilized the policy debates to create lively and provocative sessions. The format and content of any citizen education curriculum must be made to fit the particular goal that has been chosen. If the Department of Energy and the LWVEF decide to continue to foster an informed dialogue among presenters and participants, the principles of controversial issues education would serve this goal well. If, however, the Department of Energy and/or the LWVEF decide to go beyond imparting information and promoting a lively discussion of the issues, towards some kind of consensus-building process, it would be appropriate to integrate more interactive sessions into the format. As one evaluator wrote, ''In-depth participation in finding solutions or establishing policy -- small group discussion'' would have been preferable to the plenary sessions that mostly were in the form of lectures and expert panel discussion. The evaluator continued by saying, ''Since these [small group discussions] would require more time commitment, they might be part of follow-up workshops focused on particular topics.''

  16. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Ross, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Papers from the Second International Symposium on Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Management, held during the American Ceramic Society's 85th Annual Meeting, comprise this eighth volume in the Advances in Ceramics series. The 81 papers included in this volume were compiled by George G. Wicks, of Savannah River Lab, and Wayne A. Ross, of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs

  17. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  18. Nuclear waste - perceptions and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex scientific, sociological, political and emotive aspects of nuclear waste. The public perception of the hazards and risks, to present and future generations, in the management of nuclear wastes are highlighted. The cost of nuclear waste management to socially acceptable and technically achievable standards is discussed. (UK)

  19. Arisings and management of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.; Heremans, R.; Proost, J.; Voorde, N. van de

    1978-01-01

    The paper contains a brief description of volumes and composition of radioactive wastes expected to occur in Belgium, taking into account the present nuclear program. Various conditioning and management techniques are described and discussed. Some discussion is paid to disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes either into the ocean (low level) or in geologic formations (long lived or high level wastes). Some ideas are given as to the structure optimization in radioactive waste management and the associated R and D. (author)

  20. Who wants nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, John; Openshaw, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The criteria involved in selecting sites for disposal of low and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes are explained. The wastes and the sources are identified and the current procedure for their disposal, at Drigg, next to the Sellafield reprocessing plant, is given. If alternative sites could be found for non-Sellafield-produced wastes the lifetime of the Drigg site could be extended. The sites chosen by NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) have to be cost effective. Indeed, those identified are conveniently situated and would not incur excessive transport costs. However, more remote sites may have to be chosen, even at greater transport cost, because of public protests. Even this may not be satisfactory because the transportation itself incurs risks. (UK)

  1. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioiri, Akio.

    1992-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor container, a vent tube communication port is disposed to a pressure suppression pool at a position higher than the pool water therein for communication with an upper dry well, and the upper end opening of a dry well communication pipe is disposed at a position higher than the communication port. When condensate return pipeline is ruptured in the upper dry well, water in a water source pool is injected to the pressure vessel and partially discharged out of the ruptured port and a depressurization valve connected to the pressure vessel to the inside of the upper dry well. The discharged water stays in the upper dry well and, when the water level reaches the height of the vent tube communication port, it flows into the pressure suppression pool. Even in a state that the entire amount of water in the water source pool is supplied, since water does not reach the upper opening port of the dry well communication pipe, water does not flow into a lower dry well. Accordingly, the motor of a control rod drives disposed in the lower dry well can be prevented from submerging. The reactor core can be cooled more reliably, to improve the reliability of the pressure suppression function. (N.H.)

  2. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  3. Nuclear waste. Last stop Siberia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Safe and environmentally sound management of nuclear waste and spent fuel is an unresolved problem of nuclear power. But unlike other nuclear nations, Russia has much more problems with nuclear waste. Russia inherited these problems from the military programs and decades of nuclear fuel cycle development. Nuclear waste continue to mount, while the government does not pay serious enough attention to the solution of the waste problem and considers to increase the capacity of nuclear power plants (NPPs). There are more than 1000 nuclear waste storages in Russia.1 More than 70 million tons of the solid waste has been accumulated by the year 2005, including 14 million tons of tails of the decommissioned uranium mine in the North Caucasus. President Putin said that ''infrastructure of the waste processing is extremely insufficient''. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear waste package fabricated from concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1987-03-01

    After the United States enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1983, the Department of Energy must design, site, build and operate permanent geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The Department of Energy has recently selected three sites, one being the Hanford Site in the state of Washington. At this particular site, the repository will be located in basalt at a depth of approximately 3000 feet deep. The main concern of this site, is contamination of the groundwater by release of radionuclides from the waste package. The waste package basically has three components: the containment barrier (metal or concrete container, in this study concrete will be considered), the waste form, and other materials (such as packing material, emplacement hole liners, etc.). The containment barriers are the primary waste container structural materials and are intended to provide containment of the nuclear waste up to a thousand years after emplacement. After the containment barriers are breached by groundwater, the packing material (expanding sodium bentonite clay) is expected to provide the primary control of release of radionuclide into the immediate repository environment. The loading conditions on the concrete container (from emplacement to approximately 1000 years), will be twofold; (1) internal heat of the high-level waste which could be up to 400 0 C; (2) external hydrostatic pressure up to 1300 psi after the seepage of groundwater has occurred in the emplacement tunnel. A suggested container is a hollow plain concrete cylinder with both ends capped. 7 refs

  5. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  6. ERG review of waste package container materials selection and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moak, D.P.; Perrin, J.S.

    1986-07-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) was established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate engineering-related issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The October 1984 meeting of the ERG reviewed the waste package container materials selection and corrosion. This report documents the ERG's comments and recommendations on these subjects and the ONWI response to the specific points raised by the ERG

  7. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Centrifuge model tests and proposal for simple evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, bentonite will be used as buffer materials in high-level nuclear waste disposal. In the softened buffer material with the infiltration of various properties of under ground water, if the container deeply sinks, the decrease of the thickness of the buffer materials may lose the required abilities. Therefore, it is very important to consider settlement of container. In this study, influences of distilled water and artificial seawater on the settlement of the container were investigated and a simple evaluation method for settlement of the container was proposed. The following findings were obtained from this study. (1) Under the distilled water, amount of settlement decreases exponentially as dry density becomes larger. (2) While the amount of settlement of container under the 10% artificial seawater was almost equal to the one in the distilled water, the container was floating under the 100% artificial seawater. (3) The simple evaluation method for settlement of container was proposed based on the diffuse double layer theory, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the results of several experiments. (author)

  8. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  9. Materials aspects of nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an overview of the nuclear waste repository performance requirements and the roles which we expect materials to play in meeting these requirements. The objective of the U.S. Dept. of Energy's (DOE) program is to provide for the safe, permanent isolation of high-level radioactive wastes from the public. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (the Act) provides the mandate to accomplish this objective by establishing a program timetable, a schedule of procedures to be followed, and program funding (1 mil/kwhr for all nuclear generated electricity). The centerpiece of this plan is the design and operation of a mined geologic repository system for the permanent isolation of radioactive wastes. A nuclear waste repository contains several thousand acres of tunnels and drifts into which the nuclear waste will be emplaced, and several hundred acres for the facilities on the surface in which the waste is received, handled, and prepared for movement underground. With the exception of the nuclear material-related facilities, a repository is similar to a standard mining operation. The difference comes in what a repository is supposed to do - to contain an isolate nuclear waste from man and the environment

  10. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  11. Problems of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, D.

    1999-01-01

    An enormous stockpile of nuclear weapons was reduced during the Cold War as a result of frantic Soviet-US competition, accompanied by considerable radioactive pollution of the environment. This pollution was inevitable. Former adversaries began to sober only recently. As a result, areas of weapons complexes both in the USA (Hanford, Savannah, Oak Ridge) and in Russia (Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, Krasnoyarsk-25) look like battlefields of the Cold War. A Nuclear weapon-free world will only be achieved (if at all) after reaching changes in the principles that guide state policies and actions. A nuclear-waste-free world implies that the environment's radioactive pollution of a military nature would be eliminated and all potential dangers from civil nuclear energy prevented. This can be attained after solution of some economic, political and social problems

  12. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  13. Sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses: implications for the containment of sulphate-bearing nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenoir, M.

    2009-09-01

    The thesis deals with sulphate solubility and sulphate diffusion in oxide glasses, in order to control sulphate incorporation and sulphate volatilization in nuclear waste glasses. It was conducted on simplified compositions, in the SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -R 2 O (R = Li, Na, K, Cs), SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -BaO and V 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 -BaO systems. These compositions allowed us to study the influence of the nature of network-modifying ions (Li + , Na + , K + , Cs + or Ba 2+ ) and also of former elements (Si, B, V), on structure and properties of glasses. Sulphate volatility is studied in sodium borosilicate melts using an innovative technique of sulphate quantitation with Raman spectroscopy. This technique is useful to obtain kinetic curves of sulphate volatilization. The establishment of a model to fit these curves leads to the determination of diffusion coefficients of sulphate. These diffusion coefficients can thus be compared to diffusion coefficients of other species, determined by other techniques and presented in the literature. They are also linked to diffusion coefficients in relation with the viscosity of the melts. Concerning sulphate solubility in glasses, it depends on glass composition and on the nature of sulphate incorporated. Sulphate incorporation in alkali borosilicate glasses leads to the formation of a sulphate layer floating on top of the melt. Sulphate incorporation in barium borosilicate and boro-vanadate glasses leads to the crystallization of sulphate species inside the vitreous matrix. Moreover, sulphate solubility is higher in these glasses than in alkali borosilicates. Finally, exchanges between cations present in glasses and cations present in the sulphate phase are also studied. (author)

  14. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  15. Nuclear wastes: research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The management of long-living and high level radioactive wastes in France belongs to the framework of the December 30, 1991 law which defines three ways of research: the separation and transmutation of radionuclides, their reversible storage or disposal in deep geologic formations, and their processing and surface storage during long duration. Research works are done in partnership between public research and industrial organizations in many French and foreign laboratories. Twelve years after its enforcement, the impact of this law has overstepped the simple research framework and has led to a deep reflection of the society about the use of nuclear energy. This short paper presents the main results obtained so far in the three research ways, the general energy policy of the French government, the industrial progresses made in the framework of the 1991 law and the international context of the management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear waste: the political realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1983-01-01

    The land dumping of nuclear waste has again come to the attention of anti-nuclear groups, environmentalists and the media, following the announcement of the proposed sites for intermediate-level nuclear waste at Billingham and Bedford. Opposition has already surfaced on a large scale, with public meetings in both areas and a revitalisation of the waste dumping network. This article explains some of the political realities in the nuclear debate, and suggests how we can tackle the issue of waste dumping, remembering that, even if the industry closes tomorrow, there are vast quantities of waste which must be safely and democratically dealt with. (author)

  17. Risks from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J.

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs

  18. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  19. Nuclear waste management: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of our problems with nuclear waste management is outlined. Present and future inventories of nuclear wastes are assessed for risk. A discussion of what is presently being done to solve waste management problems and what might be done in the future are presented

  20. Process development for treatment of fluoride containing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahesh; Kanvinde, V Y [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Many chemical and metallurgical industries generate liquid wastes containing high values of fluorides in association of nitrates and other metals. Due to harmful effects of fluorides these type of wastes can not be disposed off in the environment without proper treatment. Bench-scale laboratory experiments were conducted to develop a process scheme to fix the fluorides as non-leachable solid waste and fluoride free treated liquid waste for their disposal. To optimize the important parameters, simulated synthetic and actual wastes were used. For this study, three waste streams were collected from Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad. (author). 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  1. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  2. The present situation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This Power Point presentation contains graphs, tables and comments on different aspects of nuclear wastes: origin in France (fuel composition, long-life and short life wastes), definition of the different types of wastes (with respect to their life and their activity level), fuel cycle (processing of the different wastes, actors in France, waste management), waste characterization (controls, tests), laws on wastes published in 1991 (objectives with respect to separation and transmutation technologies, to storage possibilities, to conditioning and long term storage) and in 2006 (which defines a national plan for radioactive material and waste management, and a research program), the French national inventory, low activity wastes (production and storage), the transmutation technology (notably the Astrid project), the geological storage (the Cigeo project for a geological storage), and the situation in other countries

  3. Crystallization behavior of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.; Lokken, R.O.; May, R.P.; Wald, J.W.

    1981-09-01

    Several waste form options have been or are being developed for the immobilization of high-level wastes. The final selection of a waste form must take into consideration both waste form product as well as process factors. Crystallization behavior has an important role in nuclear waste form technology. For glass or vitreous waste forms, crystallization is generally controlled to a minimum by appropriate glass formulation and heat treatment schedules. With glass ceramic waste forms, crystallization is essential to convert glass products to highly crystalline waste forms with a minimum residual glass content. In the case of ceramic waste forms, additives and controlled sintering schedules are used to contain the radionuclides in specific tailored crystalline phases

  4. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  5. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m 3 of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford's past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D ampersand D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers

  6. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Effect of bentonite kinds and upgrading of evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2006-01-01

    The settlement behavior of container at high-level nuclear waste disposal was investigated using centrifuge. In the experiments, the change of the amount of settlement was exponentially increased with decrease of swelling pressure of bentonite. Furthermore, each the amount of settlement showed almost same value without dependency of bentonite samples and dry density if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. The results from centrifuge model tests was analyzed by 2D axisymmetrical FEM. 2D axisymmetrical FEM that can consider the effect of saline concentration was expanded from previous 1D FEM. The good correlation between experimental results and numerical analysis was obtain from 2D axisymmetrical FEM that is better than 1D FEM. The increase of amount of settlement saline concentration was showed using 2D axisymmetrical FEM that consider the seawater conditions. Furthermore, each calculated the amount of settlement was showed almost same value without dependency of saline concentration if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. (author)

  7. Hospital wastes management containing in radioactive refusals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.

    1999-01-01

    In large hospitals, featuring a nuclear medicine department, diagnostic examinations and metabolic therapies are performed using an amount of radio drugs per day averaging around some hundreds mCi. Part of these drugs are disposed in the conventional patient related waste and collected within the hospital itself. Before directing the wastes to the disposal, it is necessary verify that they do not contain radioactive materials. This article refers a study on the possibility to perform this verification by means of an automatic radio-metric system, in order to improve the efficiency, the speed and the safety of the control. Measures devoted to determined the minimum detectable activities for the main radionuclides used in the hospitals have been executed, and it has been designed a comprehensive device able to operate automatically, and unattended by any operator, the selection of radioactive refusals [it

  8. Nuclear reactor containing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Masataka; Murase, Michio.

    1994-01-01

    In a reactor containing facility, a condensation means is disposed above the water level of a cooling water pool to condensate steams of the cooling water pool, and return the condensated water to the cooling water pool. Upon occurrence of a pipeline rupture accident, steams generated by after-heat of a reactor core are caused to flow into a bent tube, blown from the exit of the bent tube into a suppression pool and condensated in a suppression pool water, thereby suppressing the pressure in the reactor container. Cooling water in the cooling water pool is boiled by heat conduction due to the condensation of steams, then the steams are exhausted to the outside of the reactor container to remove the heat of the reactor container to the outside of the reactor. In addition, since cooling water is supplied to the cooling water pool quasi-permanently by gravity as a natural force, the reactor container can be cooled by the cooling water pool for a long period of time. Since the condensation means is constituted with a closed loop and interrupted from the outside, radioactive materials are never released to the outside. (N.H.)

  9. Method of vitrificating fine-containing liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Minoru; Matsunaka, Kazuhisa.

    1989-01-01

    This invention concerns a vitrificating method of liquid wastes containing fines (metal powder discharged upon cutting fuel cans) used in a process for treating high level radioactive liquid wastes or a process for treating liquid wastes from nuclear power plants. Liquid wastes containing fines, slurries, etc. are filtered by a filter vessel comprising glass fibers. The fines are supplied as they are to a glass melting furnace placed in the vessel. Filterates formed upon filteration are mixed with other high level radioactive wastes and supplied together with starting glass material to the glass melting furnace. Since the fine-containing liquid wastes are processed separately from high radioactive liquid wastes, clogging of pipeways, etc. can be avoided, supply to the melting furnace is facilitated and the operation efficiency of the vitrification process can be improved. (I.N.)

  10. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  11. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  12. Effective combination of DIC, AE, and UPV nondestructive techniques on a scaled model of the Belgian nuclear waste container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N.; Areias, Lou; Pyl, Lincy; Vantomme, John; Van Marcke, Philippe; Coppens, Erik; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.

    2015-03-01

    Protecting the environment and future generations against the potential hazards arising from high-level and heat emitting radioactive waste is a worldwide concern. Following this direction, the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials has come up with the reference design which considers the geological disposal of the waste in purely indurated clay. In this design the wastes are first post-conditioned in massive concrete structures called Supercontainers before being transported to the underground repositories. The Supercontainers are cylindrical structures which consist of four engineering barriers that from the inner to the outer surface are namely: the overpack, the filler, the concrete buffer and possibly the envelope. The overpack, which is made of carbon steel, is the place where the vitrified wastes and spent fuel are stored. The buffer, which is made of concrete, creates a highly alkaline environment ensuring slow and uniform overpack corrosion as well as radiological shielding. In order to evaluate the feasibility to construct such Supercontainers two scaled models have so far been designed and tested. The first scaled model indicated crack formation on the surface of the concrete buffer but the absence of a crack detection and monitoring system precluded defining the exact time of crack initiation, as well as the origin, the penetration depth, the crack path and the propagation history. For this reason, the second scaled model test was performed to obtain further insight by answering to the aforementioned questions using the Digital Image Correlation, Acoustic Emission and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity nondestructive testing techniques.

  13. Nuclear wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  14. Nuclear and toxic waste recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottillo, T.V.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes the process for the safe and convenient disposal of nuclear and/or toxic wastes which comprises the steps of (a) collecting nuclear and/or toxic wastes which pose a danger to health; (b) packaging the wastes within containers for the safe containment thereof to provide filled containers having a weight sufficient to sink into the molten lava present within an active volcano; and (c) depositing the filled containers directly into the molten lava present within a volcano containing same to cause the containers to sink therein end to be dissolved or consumed by the heat, whereby the contents thereof are consumed to become a part of the mass of molten lava present within the volcano

  15. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  16. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall. 4 claims, 4 figures

  17. Nuclear waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuys, K.; Noordegraaf, D.

    1977-04-01

    This report is composed with a view to the discussions around the selection of a site in F.R.Germany near the Netherlands' border for a fuel reprocessing plant. Most of the scientific data available are placed side by side, especially those which are contradictory in order to promote better judgement of affairs before governmental decisions are made. The report comprises a brief introduction to nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive materials and their properties. Next the transportation of wastes from the nuclear power plants to the reprocessing plants is dealt with more extensively, including the processing and the effluents of as well as the experiences with operational reprocessing plants. The hazards from manipulation of radioactive materials accidents and theft are outlined in each case, followed by a problem discussion. The appendix illustrates the German concept of 'industrial park for after-treatment and disposal'

  18. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  19. Nuclear reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Murase, Michio; Fujii, Tadashi; Susuki, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    A wet well space above a pressure suppression pool is divided into a first wet well on the side in contact with the pressure suppression pool and a second wet well on the side not in contact with the pool. Cooling water is contained in the second wet well and it is in communication with the first wet well by pipelines. Since steams flown into the second well are condensed in the cooling water, they continuously transfer from the first wet well to the second wet well, thereby capable of eliminating the effects of incondensible gases in the first wet well. With such procedures, the effect of the incondensible gases can be eliminated even without cooling from the outside of the reactor. Heat accumulation can be increased in a container of any material, so that thermal load on cooling circuits for removing after-heat can be mitigated. (T.M.)

  20. Nuclear steam system containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.

    1980-01-01

    An improved containment used for radiation shielding and pressure suppression comprising a dry well includes a pressure vessel, a plurality of concentric wall means, said plurality of concentric wall means defining at least three annular regions about said dry well. A first annular region provides the containment used for radiation shielding, a second annular region is substantially dry, a third annular region provides a wet well for relieving fluid pressure released from the pressure vessel into the dry well. Pipe connection means extend in the wet well from the dry well, a pool of liquid is disposed to partially fill said third annular region, the upper end portion of the second and third annular regions having an enclosure, and a plurality of baffle plates extending vertically downward from said enclosure in said third annular region into said pool of liquid so as to circumferentially divide the upper portion of said third annular region into a plurality of circumferential upper portions

  1. System of large transport containers for waste from dismantling light water and gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.S.T.

    1986-09-01

    General descriptions of the main types of reactors in the European Economic Community are given, a series of reference plants selected for further study. Estimates are made of the radioactive decommissioning wastes for each, including neutron-activated and contaminated materials. Regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials, both international and national, are reviewed. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear waste management: A review of issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angino, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The subject of radioactive waste management and burial is a subject that raises strong emotional and political issues and generates sharp technical differences of opinion. The overall problem can be subdivided into the three major categories of (1) credibility and emotionalism, (2) technology, and (3) nuclear waste isolation and containment. An area of concern desperately in need of attention is that of proper public education on all aspects of the high-level radioactive-waste (rad-waste) burial problem. A major problem related to the rad-waste issue is the apparent lack of an official, all-encompassing U.S. policy for nuclear waste management, burial, isolation, and regulation. It is clear from all past technical reports that disposal of rad wastes in an appropriate geologic horizon is the best ultimate solution to the waste problem. After 25 y of dealing with the high-level radioactive waste problem, the difficulty is that no proposed plan has to date been tested properly. It is this indecision and reaction that has contributed in no small way to the public perception of inability to solve the problem. One major change that has occurred in the last few years was the enactment of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. This act mandates deadlines, guidelines, and state involvement. It is time that strong differences of opinions be reconciled. One must get on with the difficult job of selecting the best means of isolating and burying these wastes before the task becomes impossible

  3. Mobile nuclear reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.E.; Spurrier, F.R.; Jones, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A containment vessel for use in mobile nuclear reactor installations is described. The containment vessel completely surrounds the entire primary system, and is located as close to the reactor primary system components as is possible in order to minimize weight. In addition to being designed to withstand a specified internal pressure, the containment vessel is also designed to maintain integrity as a containment vessel in case of a possible collision accident

  4. Shipping container for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housholder, W.R.; Greer, N.L.

    1976-01-01

    A container for nuclear materials is described wherein a specially and uniquely constructed pressure vessel and gamma shield assembly for holding the nuclear materials is provided in a housing, and wherein a positioning means extends between the housing and the assembly for spacing the same, insulation in the housing essentially filling the space between the assembly and housing, the insulation comprising beads, globules or the like of water encapsulated in plastic and which, in one important embodiment, contains neutron absorbing matter

  5. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  6. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10 3 to 10 6 years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references

  7. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 1, Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is unit 1 in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  8. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  9. Method for processing radioactive wastes containing sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Takeshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To bake, solidify and process even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium. Structure: H and or NH 4 zeolites of more than 90g per chemical equivalent of sodium present in the waste is added to and left in radioactive wastes containing sodium, after which they are fed to a baker such as rotary cylindrical baker, spray baker and the like to bake and solidify the wastes at 350 to 800 0 C. Thereby, it is possible to bake and solidify even radioactive wastes highly containing sodium, which has been impossible to do so previously. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. A disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This report describes a conceptual design of a disposal centre for immobilized nuclear waste. The surface facilities consist of plants for the preparation of steel cylinders containing nuclear waste immobilized in glass, shaft headframe buildings and all necessary support facilities. The underground disposal vault is located on one level at a depth of 1000 m. The waste cylinders are emplaced into boreholes in the tunnel floors. All surface and subsurface facilities are described, operations and schedules are summarized, and cost estimates and manpower requirements are given. (auth)

  11. Nuclear waste - the unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear waste is identified and the problems created by reprocessing are mentioned. The disposal option for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are discussed. Sites where disposal has taken place have been found to be unsatisfactory because of contamination and radionuclide migration. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is not seen as having any more credibility than the other nuclear authorities involved (BNFL, UKAEA, CEGB). Until an adequate, publically acceptable, method of disposing of the wastes already created has been found the author states that no more should be created. (U.K.)

  12. Goals for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Establishing a publicly, politically, economically, and technologically acceptable waste management system for the fuel cycle is a necessary condition for accepting the nuclear program as a national energy option. Findings are given on the technology, politics, economics, morality, aesthetics, and societal impact of waste management. Proposed goals are outlined for the regulation of waste management

  13. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  14. The wastes of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the problems of the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear fission. The first part devoted to the fission phenomenon explains the incident neutron energy and the target nuclei role. The second part devoted to the nuclear wastes sources presents the production of wastes upstream of the reactors, in the reactors and why these wastes are dangerous. The third part discusses the radioactive wastes management in France (classification, laws). The last part details the associated research programs: the radionuclides separation, the disposal, the underground storage, the transmutation and the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  15. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  16. Cellulose-containing Waste and Bituminized Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcke, E.

    2005-01-01

    In Belgium, Medium-Level radioactive Waste (MLW) would be eventually disposed off in an underground repository in a geological formation such as the Boom Clay, which is studied as a reference host rock formation. MLW contains large quantities of non-radioactive chemicals that are released upon contact with pore water. It could be the case, for instance, for plutonium bearing cellulosic waste - such as paper tissues used to clean alpha glove boxes - issued from nuclear fuel fabrication (Belgonucleaire). At high pH, as in a disposal gallery backfilled with cement, the chemical degradation of cellulose will generate water-soluble products that may form strong complexes with actinides such as Am, Pu, Np, and U. This could lower the sorption of these elements onto the clay minerals, and hence increase their migration through the clay barrier. Another chemical perturbation could occur from the 3000 m 3 of so-called Eurobitum bituminised MLW, with precipitation sludges from the chemical treatment of spent nuclear fuel, and containing about 750 tons of NaNO 3 . The presence of NaNO 3 in this waste will give rise to several processes susceptible to affect the safety of the disposal system. Amongst others, it is necessary to verify that the swelling pressure of bitumen on the gallery wall and the osmotic pressure within the near-field are not too high to induce a fissuration of the host rock, leading to the formation of preferential migration pathways. The major objective of our work is to obtain a broad understanding of the different processes induced by the release of non-radioactive chemicals in the clay formation, to assess the chemical compatibility of different MLW forms with the clay

  17. Solid waste containing method and solid waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1997-01-01

    Solid wastes are filled in a sealed vessel, and support spacers are inserted to the gap between the inner wall of a vessel main body and the solid wastes. The solid wastes comprise shorn pieces (crushed pieces) of spent fuel rod cladding tubes, radioactively contaminated metal pieces and miscellaneous solids pressed into a disk-like shape. The sealed vessel comprises, for example, a stainless steel. The solid wastes are filled while being stacked in a plurality of stages. A solidifying filler is filled into the gap between the inner wall and the solid wastes in the vessel main body by way of an upper opening, and the upper opening is closed by a closing lid to provide an entirely sealed state. Alumina particles having high heat conductivity and excellent heat durability are used for the solid filler. It is preferable to fill an inert gas such as a dried nitrogen gas in the sealed vessel. (I.N.)

  18. Status of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses what nuclear waste is and where it comes from, what the technical strategies are for disposing of this waste, compares the toxicity of nuclear waste to other materials that are more familiar to us, and finally, comments on why it is taking so long to get on with the job of isolating nuclear waste permanently. The author believes that the technical solutions for the management and disposal of high-level and low-level nuclear waste are adequately in hand. The issues that are delaying the implementation of this technology are almost entirely related to sociological and political considerations. High-level nuclear waste can be safely stored and isolated through a multiple barrier approach. Although it is a hazardous material and must be handled properly, its toxicity diminishes rapidly. It then becomes less hazardous than other materials that we deal with everyday in routine industrial or household operations. The disposal of low-level waste has not attracted as much public attention as high-level waste management. Nevertheless, it is just as important to the public. For example, the use of radioactive isotopes in medicine, and the many lives that are saved as a result, would be very greatly reduced if medical institutions had no place to dispose of their radioactive waste. The management of uranium mill tailings is similar in many technical aspects to low-level waste management. Institutional issues, however, have not become as important in the case of mill tailings disposal

  19. The problematic of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozon, D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the frame of a project of modification of radioactive waste storage installations, and of refurbishing the Gentilly-2 nuclear plant (Quebec, Canada), the author first gives an overview and comments assessments of the volume and nature of nuclear wastes produced by Canadian nuclear power plants. He presents the Canadian program of nuclear waste management (history, Seaborn assessment Commission, mission of the SGDN-NWMO). He discusses the relationship between risk and dose, the risk duration, and the case of non radioactive wastes. He discusses energy challenges in terms of CO 2 emissions and with respect to climate change, proposes an alternative scenario on a long term, compares nuclear energy and wind energy, and discusses the nuclear technology evolution

  20. LLNL/YMP Waste Container Fabrication and Closure Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a suitable site for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has the responsibility for designing and developing the waste package for the permanent storage of high-level nuclear waste. This report is a summary of the technical activities for the LLNL/YMP Nuclear Waste Disposal Container Fabrication and Closure Development Project. Candidate welding closure processes were identified in the Phase 1 report. This report discusses Phase 2. Phase 2 of this effort involved laboratory studies to determine the optimum fabrication and closure processes. Because of budget limitations, LLNL narrowed the materials for evaluation in Phase 2 from the original six to four: Alloy 825, CDA 715, CDA 102 (or CDA 122) and CDA 952. Phase 2 studies focused on evaluation of candidate material in conjunction with fabrication and closure processes

  1. The application of biotechnology to the treatment of wastes produced from the nuclear fuel cycle: Biodegradation and bioaccumulation as a means of treating radionuclide-containing streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macaskie, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Recent concerns on the radiotoxicity and longevity of nuclides have prompted the development of new technologies for their removal from wastes produced from nuclear power programs and nuclear fuel reprocessing activities. Alongside developments from traditional chemical treatment processes, interest has also centered on the application of biotechnology for efficient waste treatment. Many biological techniques have relied on empirical approaches in simple model systems, with scant regard to the nature and volume of actual target wastes; such considerations may limit the application of the new technologies in practice. This review aims to identify some of the likely problems, to discuss the various approaches under current consideration, and to evaluate ways in which either the target waste or the detoxifying biomass may be modified or presented for the most efficient treatment. 278 references

  2. Chemistry of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, E.

    1981-01-01

    In extractive purification of the low-enriched uranium fuel element (UO 2 -particle fuel element with SiC coating) no problems arise in the PUREX-process which have not already been solved when reprocessing LWR-type reactor and breeder fuel elements. Concerning the HTR-type reactor fuel elements containing thorium, there are two process cycles behind the head end; the pure U-235 is reprocessed in the same manner as the low-enriched uranium fuel, and the thorium, which is the bigger fraction, is reprocessed together with U-233 in the same manner as the mixed oxides. Only the CO 2 -off gas system, which contains krypton and carbon 14, leads to difficulties in nuclear waste disposal. (DG) [de

  3. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  4. Civil engineering challenge with nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, D.

    1985-01-01

    The civil engineer can help to solve the problems in disposing of nuclear waste in a deep geologic formation. The site for a nuclear waste repository must be carefully selected so that the geology provides the natural barrier between the waste and the accessible environment specified by the NRC and the EPA. This engineer is familiar with the needed structure and conditions of the host and surrounding rocks, and also the hydraulic mechanisms for limiting the migration of water in the rocks. To dispose of the nuclear waste underground requires stable and long-lasting shafts and tunnels such as civil engineers have designed and constructed for many other uses. The planning, design and construction of the ground surface facilities for a nuclear waste repository involves civil engineering in many ways. The transporation of heavy, metal shielded casks requires special attention to the system of highways and railroads accessing the repository. Structures for handling the shipping casks and transferring the waste onsite and into the deep geologic formation need special considerations. The structures must provide the NRC required containment, including hot cells for remote handling. Therefore, structural design strives for buildings, ventilation structures, shaft headframes, etc., to be earthquake and tornado-proof. These important design bases and considerations for the civil engineer working on a nuclear waste repository are discussed in this paper

  5. Cermets for high level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Quinby, T.C.; Kobisk, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Cermet materials are currently under investigation as an alternate for the primary containment of high level wastes. The cermet in this study is an iron--nickel base metal matrix containing uniformly dispersed, micron-size fission product oxides, aluminosilicates, and titanates. Cermets possess high thermal conductivity, and typical waste loading of 70 wt % with volume reduction factors of 2 to 200 and low processing volatility losses have been realized. Preliminary leach studies indicate a leach resistance comparable to other candidate waste forms; however, more quantitative data are required. Actual waste studies have begun on NFS Acid Thorex, SRP dried sludge and fresh, unneutralized SRP process wastes

  6. The legal system of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1983-01-01

    This doctoral thesis presents solutions to some of the legal problems encountered in the interpretation of the various laws and regulations governing nuclear waste disposal, and reveals the legal system supporting the variety of individual regulations. Proposals are made relating to modifications of problematic or not well defined provisions, in order to contribute to improved juridical security, or inambiguity in terms of law. The author also discusses the question of the constitutionality of the laws for nuclear waste disposal. Apart from the responsibility of private enterprise to contribute to safe treatment or recycling, within the framework of the integrated waste management concept, and apart from the Government's responsibility for interim or final storage of radioactive waste, there is a third possibility included in the legal system for waste management, namely voluntary measures taken by private enterprise for radioactive waste disposal. The licence to be applied for in accordance with section 3, sub-section (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance is interpreted to pertain to all measures of radioactive waste disposal, thus including final storage of radioactive waste by private companies. Although the terminology and systematic concept of nuclear waste disposal are difficult to understand, there is a functionable system of legal provisions contained therein. This system fits into the overall concept of laws governing technical safety and safety engineering. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. Container for nuclear fuel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etheredge, B.F.; Larson, R.I.

    1982-01-01

    A critically safe container is disclosed for the storage and rapid discharge of enriched nuclear fuel material in powder form is disclosed. The container has a hollow, slab-shaped container body that has one critically safe dimension. A powder inlet is provided on one side wall of the body adjacent to a corner thereof and a powder discharge port is provided at another corner of the body approximately diagonal the powder inlet. Gas plenum for moving the powder during discharge are located along the side walls of the container adjacent the discharge port

  8. Nuclear wastes: lets talk about

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This colloquium is entirely devoted to the problem of nuclear wastes management and to the anxiety of the French public opinion with respect to radioactive wastes in general. Nuclear wastes, generally are perceived as the unique problem of nuclear industry and as a new and unknown problem for which no solutions have been proposed so far. The aim of this colloquium is to demonstrate that such solutions exist and that, probably, they have been more thoroughly examined than in other industrial sectors. The two first talks give the inventory of possible solutions and the policy followed by nuclear operators for the conditioning and packaging of radioactive wastes. The other talks give the point of view of the producers and of the managers of nuclear wastes and the legal aspects of the management and storage of nuclear wastes, in particular the December 30, 1991 law. A particular attention is given to the importance of communication and public information in the successful management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  9. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  10. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, H.

    1996-01-01

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods

  11. Trilingual vocabulary of nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, H

    1997-12-31

    This reference document is produced in cooperation with partners in the Union Latine, an international organization dedicated to promoting the Romance languages. In 1992 acting on a request submitted by the Montreal Environment Section of the Translation Bureau, the Terminology and Standardization Directorate published an in-house glossary containing 2500 entries on nuclear waste management. The glossary was produced by scanning bilingual terms in the reports submitted to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited by the Siting Process Task Force on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Because the scale of the nuclear waste management problem has grown considerably since then, the glossary needed to be expanded and revised. The Vocabulary contains some 1000 concepts for a total of approximately 3000 terms in each of the three languages, english, french and spanish. Special attention has been given to defining basic physical concepts, waste classifications and disposal methods.

  12. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.

    1990-10-01

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  13. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D.G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Johnstone, J.R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Mahon, D.F., E-mail: David.Mahon@Glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Shearer, C.; Staines, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom); Yang, G. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Kelvin Building, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Zimmerman, C. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG, England (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-11

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  14. GEANT4 simulation of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Cosmic-ray muons are highly penetrative charged particles that are observed at the sea level with a flux of approximately one per square centimetre per minute. They interact with matter primarily through Coulomb scattering, which is exploited in the field of muon tomography to image shielded objects in a wide range of applications. In this paper, simulation studies are presented that assess the feasibility of a scintillating-fibre tracker system for use in the identification and characterisation of nuclear materials stored within industrial legacy waste containers. A system consisting of a pair of tracking modules above and a pair below the volume to be assayed is simulated within the GEANT4 framework using a range of potential fibre pitches and module separations. Each module comprises two orthogonal planes of fibres that allow the reconstruction of the initial and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. A likelihood-based image reconstruction algorithm has been developed that allows the container content to be determined with respect to the scattering density λ, a parameter which is related to the atomic number Z of the scattering material. Images reconstructed from this simulation are presented for a range of anticipated scenarios that highlight the expected image resolution and the potential of this system for the identification of high-Z materials within a shielded, concrete-filled container. First results from a constructed prototype system are presented in comparison with those from a detailed simulation. Excellent agreement between experimental data and simulation is observed showing clear discrimination between the different materials assayed throughout.

  15. Nuclear waste. Storage at Vaalputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The Vaalputs nuclear waste dump site in Namaqualand is likely to be used to store used fuel from Koeberg, as well as low and intermediate waste. It is argued that Vaalputs is the most suitable site in the world for the disposal of nuclear waste. The Vaalputs site is sparsely populated, there are no mineral deposits of any value, the agricultural potential is minimal. It is a typical semi-desert area. Geologically it lend itself towards the ground-storage of used nuclear fuel

  16. The management of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film explains how radioactive wastes arise and how they are treated so as to minimise effect on man and the environment. The nature of the wastes, whether solid, liquid or gas, and their classification as low, intermediate or high, depending on their type and the degree of radioactivity, and with the treatment, disposal, containment and dispersal of wastes are described. (author)

  17. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  18. Nuclear waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition

  19. Effects of surface chromium depletion on localized corrosion of alloy 825 as a high-level nuclear waste container material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.S.; Sridhar, N.; Cragnolino, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Effects of the chromium-depleted, mill-finished surface on the localized corrosion resistance of alloy 825 (UNS N08825) were investigated. Tests were conducted in solutions based on the ground water at Yucca mountain, Nevada, but with a higher concentration of chloride. Results indicated that breakdown (E p ) and repassivation (E rp ) potentials for mill-finished surfaces were more active than those for polished surfaces. Potentiodynamic polarization tests indicated pits could be initiated on the chromium-depleted surface at potentials of 220 mV SCE in a solution containing 1,000 ppm Cl - at 95 C. Potentiostatic tests identified a similar pit initiation potential for the mill-finished surface. However, under longterm potentiostatic tests, a higher potential of 300 mV SCE was needed to sustain stable pit growth beyond the chromium-depleted layer. An increase in surface roughness also was observed to decrease localized corrosion resistance of the material

  20. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date

  1. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Zaetta, A.; Delpech, M.; Girard, C.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    A deep repository for safe long-term storage of long-lived radioactive materials (waste) arising from nuclear fuel irradiation in reactors is a need generally accepted, whatever the strategy envisaged for further use of the irradiated fuel (e.g.: reprocessing and re-use of uranium and plutonium; no reprocessing and final disposal). To assess the impact on the environment of a waste repository, one is lead naturally to consider the impact of radiation on man and to define the radiotoxicity of the different isotopes. The toxicity of the materials stored in a repository is function of time and at a given time is the sum of the activities of each radionuclide multiplied by appropriate danger coefficients. This time dependent sum R, is a source of 'potential' radiotoxicity. It has been pointed out (in reference 1), that R does not measure 'risk', which has to take into account 'actual pathways and probability of radioactive release to the biosphere'. It is well understood that (e.g. in the case of spent PWR fuel) the main contributor to R are actinides, Pu being the main component (see table I). In the case of risk, the situation is by far more complex and dependent on the modeling of different geological environments. In the analysis made in reference 1 the predominant role of Tc-99, I-129 and Cs-135 has been pointed out. The same analysis also stresses that actinides will be by far less relevant with respect to the highly soluble and mobile fission products. (authors). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Development of nuclear waste concrete drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Yinghui

    1995-06-01

    The raw materials selection and the properties for nuclear waste concrete drum, the formula and properties of the concrete, the specification and technical quality requirement of the drum were described. The manufacture essentials and technology, the experiments and checks as well as the effective quality control and quality assurance carried out in the course of production were presented. The developed nuclear waste drum has a simple structure, easily available raw materials and rational formula for concrete. The compressive strength of the drum is more than 70 MPa, the tensile strength is more than 5 MPa, the nitrogen permeability is (2.16∼3.6) x 10 -18 m 2 . The error of the drum in dimensions is +-2 mm. The external surface of the drum is smooth. The drum accords with China standards in the sandy surface, void and crack. The results shows China has the ability to develop and manufacture nuclear waste concrete container and lays the foundation for standardization and series of the nuclear waste container for packing and transporting nuclear wastes in China. (5 figs., 10 tabs.)

  3. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  4. Nuclear waste management. Pioneering solutions from Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Presentation outline: Background: Nuclear energy in Finland; Nuclear Waste Management (NWM) Experiences; Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW); High Level Waste - Deep Geological Repository (DGR); NWM cost estimate in Finland; Conclusions: World-leading expert services

  5. How reliable does the waste package containment have to be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    The final rule (10 CFR Part 60) for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories specifies that the engineered barrier system shall be designed so that, assuming anticipated processes and events, containment of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) will be substantially complete during the period when radiation and thermal conditions in the engineered barrier system are dominated by fission product decay. This requirement leads to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) being asked the following questions: What is meant by ''substantially complete''. How reliable does waste package containment have to be. How many waste packages can fail. Although the NRC has not defined quantitatively the term ''substantially complete'', a numerical concept for acceptable release during the containment period is discussed. The number of containment failures that could be tolerated under the rule would depend upon the acceptable release, the time at which failure occurs and the rate of release from a failed package

  6. ASEA reduces nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    ASEA, the worldwide manufacturer of electrical and mechanical equipment with headquarters in Vasteras, Sweden, is working on the development of a method using hot isostatic pressing for the safe containment and storage of nuclear waste. This development work is being carried out at the company's High-Pressure Laboratory at Robertsfors, in the north of Sweden

  7. Underground nuclear waste storage backed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Latest to hold hearings on nuclear waste disposal problems is the Senate Commerce Subcommittee on Science, Technology and Space. Testimonies by John M. Deutch, Rustum Roy (presenting results of National Research Council panel on waste solidification), and Darleane C. Hoffman are summarized

  8. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  9. Structural optimization of reinforced concrete container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.

    1984-01-01

    A structural optimization study of reinforced concrete container for transportation and disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in Brazilian nuclear power plants. The code requires the structural integrity of these containers when subjected to fall from specified height, avoiding environmental contamination. The structural optimization allows material and transportation cost reduction by container wall thickness reduction. The structural analysis is performed by tridimensional mathematical model using finite element method. (Author) [pt

  10. Transport and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.

    1999-01-01

    The author assesses both past and future of nuclear waste disposal in Germany. The failure of the disposal concept is, he believes, mainly the fault of the Federal Government. On the basis of the Nuclear Energy Act, the government is obliged to ensure that ultimate-storage sites are established and operated. Up to the present, however, the government has failed - apart from the episode in Asse and Morsleben and espite existing feasible proposals in Konrad and Gorleben - to achieve this objective. This negative development is particularly evident from the projects which have had to be prematurely abandoned. The costs of such 'investment follies' meanwhile amount to several billion DM. At least 92% of the capacity in the intermediate-storage sites are at present unused. Following the closure of the ultimate-storage site in Morsleben, action must be taken to change over to long-term intermediate-storage of operational waste. The government has extensive intermediate-storage capacity at the intermediate-storage site Nord in Greifswald. There, the wate originally planned for storage in Morsleben could be intermediately stored at ERAM-rates. Nuclear waste transportation, too, could long ago have been resumed, in the author's view. For the purpose of improving the transport organisation, a new company was founded which represents exclusively the interests of the reprocessing firms at the nuclear power stations. The author's conclusion: The EVU have done their homework properly and implemented all necessary measures in order to be able to resume transport of fuel elements as soon as possible. The generating station operators favour a solution based upon agreement with the Federal Government. The EVU have already declared their willingness - in the event of unanimous agreement - to set up intermediate-storage sites near the power stations. The ponds in the generating stations, however, are unsuitable for use as intermediate-storage areas. If intermediate-storage areas for

  11. Parametric Criticality Safety Calculations for Arrays of TRU Waste Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Sean T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) has performed criticality safety calculations for finite and infinite arrays of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The results of these analyses may be applied in any technical area onsite (e.g., TA-54, TA-55, etc.), as long as the assumptions herein are met. These calculations are designed to update the existing reference calculations for waste arrays documented in Reference 1, in order to meet current guidance on calculational methodology.

  12. Process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    1982-01-01

    A process for treating waste water containing hydrazine from nuclear power stations is proposed, characterized by the fact that the water is taken continuously through a water decomposition cell. If the water does not have sufficient conductivity itself, a substance raising the electrical conductivity is added to the water to be treated. The electrolysis is situated in the waste water tank. (orig./RB) [de

  13. Radiation damage in nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Rusin, J.M.; Wald, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The text contains a number of specific observations about the radiation-induced changes in glass, glass-ceramic, and supercalcine nuclear waste forms. Other, more general conclusions can be summarized: Radiation-induced property changes follow an exponential ingrowth curve to saturation. Actinide host phases in both crystalline waste forms become X-ray amorphous. The magnitudes of the waste-form density changes observed could not be directly related to observed changes in the primary actinide phases. Although large crystal-structure changes occur in the materials studied, obvious physical degradation was not observed

  14. Diffusion processes in nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Brebec, G.

    1992-01-01

    Problems concerning the containment of nuclear wastes are presented. Different materials which have been considered for this purpose are briefly reviewed and we see why glass is one of the favorite candidates. It is focussed on what is known about diffusion in 'simple enough' glasses. After a recall concerning the structure and possible defects, the main results on diffusion in 'simple' glasses are given and it is shown what these results involve for the mechanisms of diffusion. The diffusion models are presented which can account for transport in random media: percolation and random walk models. Specific phenomena for the nuclear waste glasses are considered: the effect of irradiation on diffusion and leaching (i.e. corrosion by water). Finally diffusion data in nuclear waste glasses are presented. (author). 199 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Thermochemical modeling of nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, K.E.; Besmann, T.M.; Beahm, E.C.

    1998-06-01

    The development of assessed and consistent phase equilibria and thermodynamic data for major glass constituents used to incorporate high-level nuclear waste is discussed in this paper. The initial research has included the binary Na 2 O-SiO 2 , Na 2 O-Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 -Al 2 O 3 systems. The nuclear waste glass is assumed to be a supercooled liquid containing the constituents in the glass at temperatures of interest for nuclear waste storage. Thermodynamic data for the liquid solutions were derived from mathematical comparisons of phase diagram information and the thermodynamic data available for crystalline solid phases. An associate model is used to describe the liquid solution phases. Utilizing phase diagram information provides very stringent limits on the relative thermodynamic stabilities of all phases which exist in a given system

  16. Project safety studies - nuclear waste management (PSE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The project 'Safety Studies-Nuclear Waste Management' (PSE) is a research project performed by order of the Federal Minister for Research and Technology, the general purpose of which is to deepen and ensure the understanding of the safety aspects of the nuclear waste management and to prepare a risk analysis which will have to be established in the future. Owing to this the project is part of a series of projects which serve the further development of the concept of nuclear waste management and its safety, and which are set up in such a way as to accompany the realization of that concept. This report contains the results of the first stage of the project from 1978 to mid-1981. (orig./RW) [de

  17. Nuclear fuel element and container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, W.T.; King, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    The invention is based on the discovery that a substantial reduction in metal embrittlement or stress corrosion cracking from fuel pellet-cladding interaction can be achieved by the use of a copper layer or liner in proximity to the nuclear fuel, and an intermediate zirconium oxide barrier layer between the copper layer and the zirconium cladding substrate. The intermediate zirconia layer is a good copper diffusion barrier; also, if the zirconium cladding surface is modified prior to oxidation, copper can be deposited by electroless plating. A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises a central core of fuel material and an elongated container using the system outlined above. The method for making the container is again described. It comprises roughening or etching the surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container, oxidizing the resulting container, activating the oxidized surface to allow for the metallic coating of such surfaces by electroless deposition and further coating the activated-oxidized surface of the zirconium or zirconium alloy container with copper, iron or nickel or an alloy thereof. (U.K.)

  18. Materials for high-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    The function of the high-level radioactive waste container in storage and of a container/overpack combination in disposal is considered. The consequent properties required from potential fabrication materials are discussed. The strategy adopted in selecting containment materials and the experimental programme underway to evaluate them are described. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Isotopic Mapping of Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah S.; McNabb, Dennis P.

    2009-03-01

    National security programs have expressed interest in developing systems to isotopically map shipping containers, fuel assemblies, and waste barrels for various materials including special nuclear material (SNM). Current radiographic systems offer little more than an ambiguous density silhouette of a container's contents. In this paper we will present a system being developed at LLNL to isotopically map containers using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. Recent experimental measurements on NRF strengths in SNM are discussed.

  20. Corrosion of metal containers containing cemented radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, G.S.; Farina, S.B.; Schulz, F.M.; Marotta, F

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear activities generate different kinds of radioactive wastes. In the case of Argentina, wastes classified as low and medium level are conditioned in metal drums for final disposal in a repository whose design is based on the use of multiple and independent barriers. Nuclear energy plants generate a large volume of mid-level radioactive wastes, consisting mainly of ion-exchange resins contaminated by fission products. Other contaminated products such as gloves, papers, clothing, rubber and plastic tubing, can be incinerated and the ashes from the combustion also constitute wastes that must be disposed of. These wastes (resins and ashes) must be immobilized in order to avoid the release of radionuclides into the environment. The wastes usually undergo a process of cementing to immobilize them. This work aims to systematically study the process of degradation by corrosion of the steel drums in contact with the cemented resins and with the ashes cemented with the addition of different types and concentrations of aggressive compounds (chloride and sulfate). The specimens are configured so that the parameters of interest for the steel in contact with the cemented materials can be measured. The variables of corrosion potential, electric resistivity of the matrix and polarization resistance (PR) were monitored and show that the presence of chloride increases the susceptibility to corrosion of the drum steel that is in contact with the cement resin matrix

  1. Public attitudes about nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    There is general agreement that nuclear waste is an important national issue. It certainly is important to the industry. congress, too, gives high priority to nuclear waste disposal. In a recent pool by Reichman, Karten, Sword, 300 congressional staffers named nuclear waste disposal as the top nuclear energy-related legislative issue for Congress to address. In this paper most of the data the author discusses are from national polls that statistically represent the opinions of all American adults all across the country, as well as polls conducted in Nevada that statistically represent the opinions of all adults in that state. All the polls were by Cambridge Reports and have a margin of error of ± 3%

  2. Public and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinberg, D.

    1979-01-01

    Public concern on nuclear power is centered on the waste disposal problem. Some of the environmentalist and anti-nuclear movements are discussed, both in USA and abroad. The public is skeptical in part because of the secrecy legacy, although scientists are still largely trusted. However, the scientists are far from united in their viewpoints on the nuclear issue. The task for scientists are to put into perspective the limits to scientific knowledge and to interpret this knowledge to the public

  3. Next nuclear gamble: transportation and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnikoff, M.

    1983-01-01

    Accidents during transport of nuclear waste are more threatening - though less likely - than a reactor meltdown because transportation accidents could occur in the middle of a populous city, affecting more people and property than a plant accident, according to the Council on Economic Priorities, a non-profit public service research organization. Transportation, as presently practiced, is unsafe. Shipping containers, called casks, are poorly designed and constructed, CEP says. The problem needs attention because the number of casks filled with nuclear waste on the nation's highways could increase a hundred times during the next 15 years under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, which calls for storage areas. Recommendations, both technical and regulatory, for reducing the risks are presented

  4. Encapsulation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Toxic waste materials are encapsulated by the method wherein the waste material in liquid or finely divided solid form is uniformly dispersed in a vinyl ester resin or an unsaturated polyester and the resin cured under conditions that the exotherm does not rise above the temperature at which the integrity of the encapsulating material is destroyed

  5. Waste management of ENM-containing solid waste in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov; Boldrin, Alessio; Hansen, Steffen Foss

    2015-01-01

    the Danish nanoproduct inventory (www.nanodb.dk) to get a general understanding of the fate of ENM during waste management in the European context. This was done by: 1. assigning individual products to an appropriate waste material fraction, 2. identifying the ENM in each fraction, 3. comparing identified...... waste fractions with waste treatment statistics for Europe, and 4. illustrating the general distribution of ENM into incineration, recycling and landfilling. Our results indicate that ╲plastic from used product containers╡ is the most abundant and diverse waste fraction, comprising a variety of both...... nanoproducts and materials. While differences are seen between individual EU countries/regions according to the local waste management system, results show that all waste treatment options are significantly involved in nanowaste handling, suggesting that research activities should cover different areas...

  6. Radioactive wastes processing and disposing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Jiro; Kato, Hiroaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a processing and disposing container at low level radioactive wastes, excellent in corrosion and water resistance, as well as impact shock resistance for the retrieval storage over a long period of time. Constitution: The container is constituted with sands and pebbles as aggregates and glass fiber-added unsaturated polyester resins as binders. The container may entirely be formed with such material or only the entire inner surface may be formed with the material as liners. A container having excellent resistance to water, chemicals, freezing or melting, whether impact shock, etc. can be obtained, thereby enabling retrieval storage for radioactive wastes at the optimum low level. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. Storage - Nuclear wastes are overflowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This article highlights that the dismantling of French nuclear installations will generate huge volumes of radioactive wastes and that France may lack space to store them. The Cigeo project (underground storage) only concerns 0.2 per cent of the nuclear waste volume produced by France in 50 years. If storage solutions exist for less active wastes, they will soon be insufficient, notably because of the quantity of wastes produced by the dismantling of existing reactors and fuel processing plants. Different assessments of these volumes are evoked. In order to store them, the ANDRA made a second call for innovating projects which would enable a reduction of this volume by 20 to 30 per cent. The article also evokes projects selected after the first call for projects. They mainly focus on nuclear waste characterization which will result in a finer management of wastes regarding their storage destination. Cost issues and the opposition of anti-nuclear NGOs are still obstacles to the development of new sites

  8. Waste management considerations in nuclear facility decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.; Murphy, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear facilities involves the management of significant quantities of radioactive waste. This paper summarizes information on volumes of waste requiring disposal and waste management costs developed in a series of decommissioning studies performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. These studies indicate that waste management is an important cost factor in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Alternatives for managing decommissioning wastes are defined and recommendations are made for improvements in waste management practices

  9. Recovery of fissile materials from nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    A process for recovering fissile materials such as uranium, and plutonium, and rare earth elements, from complex waste feed material, and converting the remaining wastes into a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. The waste feed is mixed with a dissolution glass formed of lead oxide and boron oxide resulting in oxidation, dehalogenation, and dissolution of metal oxides. Carbon is added to remove lead oxide, and a boron oxide fusion melt is produced. The fusion melt is essentially devoid of organic materials and halogens, and is easily and rapidly dissolved in nitric acid. After dissolution, uranium, plutonium and rare earth elements are separated from the acid and recovered by processes such as PUREX or ion exchange. The remaining acid waste stream is vitrified to produce a waste glass suitable for storage or disposal. Potential waste feed materials include plutonium scrap and residue, miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel, and uranium fissile wastes. The initial feed materials may contain mixtures of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, halides, organic material and other carbon-containing material.

  10. Treating nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marriott, R.; Henyey, F.S.; Hochstim, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A method of decreasing the amount of relatively long-lived fission products in radioactive waste materials comprises the steps of: separating relatively short-lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the waste material and storing at least some of them, exposing the remaining waste to a neutron flux in order to induce transmutations, separating the relatively short-lived radioactive nuclides and stable nuclides from the exposed materials and storing at least some of them, and repeating the exposure and separation steps

  11. Processing method and device for radioactive waste containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukita, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ryozo; Izumida, Tatsuo; Nishi, Takashi; Hattori, Yasuo.

    1997-01-01

    Washing liquid wastes generated in washing facilities in a nuclear power plant are collected in a liquid waste collecting tank. A suspension containing a powdery active carbon is supplied to the liquid waste collecting tank. Organic ingredients such as of a surfactant, oil ingredients and radioactive materials in the form of ions contained in the washing liquid wastes are adsorbed to the powdery active carbon. The washing liquid wastes containing the powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are led into an active carbon separating and drying device. The powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials contained in the washing liquid wastes are filtered and separated by a filtering plate, and accumulated as filtered materials on the surface of the filtering plate. The purified washing liquid wastes are discharged to the outside. The filtered materials are dried by hot steams (or hot water) and dried air. The filtered materials are peeled from the filtering plate. The filtered materials, in other word, dried powdery active carbon and granular radioactive materials are transported to and burnt in an incinerator. (I.N.)

  12. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  13. Glass and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1982-10-01

    Glass shows interesting technical and economical properties for long term storage of solidified radioactive wastes by vitrification or embedding. Glass composition, vitrification processes, stability under irradiation, thermal stability and aqueous corrosion are studied [fr

  14. French people and nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Iribarne, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    On March 21, 2005, the French minister of industry gave to the author of this document, the mission to shade a sociological light on the radioactive wastes perception by French people. The objective of this study was to supply an additional information before the laying down in 2006 of the decisions about the management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. This inquiry, carried out between April 2004 and March 2005, stresses on the knowledge and doubts of the questioned people, on the vision they have of radioactive wastes and of their hazards, and on their opinion about the actors in concern (experts, nuclear companies, government, anti-nuclear groups, public). The last two parts of the report consider the different ways of waste management under study today, and the differences between the opinion of people living close to the Bure site and the opinion of people living in other regions. (J.S.)

  15. Equity and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader-Frechette, K.

    1994-01-01

    Following the recommendations of the US National Academy of Sciences and the mandates of the 1987 Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act, the US Department of Energy has proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the site of the world's first permanent repository for high-level nuclear waste. The main justification for permanent disposal (as opposed to above-ground storage) is that it guarantees safety by means of waste isolation. This essay argues, however, that considerations of equity (safer for whom?) undercut the safety rationale. The article surveys some prima facie arguments for equity in the distribution of radwaste risks and then evaluates four objections that are based, respectively, on practicality, compensation for risks, scepticism about duties to future generations, and the uranium criterion. The conclusion is that, at least under existing regulations and policies, permanent waste disposal is highly questionable, in part, because it fails to distribute risk equitably or to compensate, in full, for this inequity

  16. Nuclear waste and nimby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, W

    1986-06-01

    A report of the Tizard lecture by Lord Marshall, chairman of the UK CEGB, on the health risks associated with the disposal of radioactive wastes is given. The risks from inhalation and ingestion of various types of radioactive waste disposal are compared to the risks from radioactive material occurring naturally in the average garden soil in the UK occupying one tenth of an acre. The relative potential health risk from inhalation of coal ash is also contrasted.

  17. Storage container for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalayoud, L.; Gerard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The container comprises a cask and a cover made of concrete reinforced with metal fibers and closed with a seal poured in a dovetailed annular space provided between the cask and the cover. The seal is made with the material used for the cask [fr

  18. Disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormuth, K.W.; Nuttall, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1978, the governments of Canada and Ontario established the Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. As of the time of the conference, the research performed by AECL was jointly funded by AECL and Ontario Hydro through the CANDU owners' group. Ontario Hydro have also done some of the research on disposal containers and vault seals. From 1978 to 1992, AECL's research and development on disposal cost about C$413 million, of which C$305 was from funds provided to AECL by the federal government, and C$77 million was from Ontario Hydro. The concept involves the construction of a waste vault 500 to 1000 metres deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. Used fuel (or possibly solidified reprocessing waste) would be sealed into containers (of copper, titanium or special steel) and emplaced (probably in boreholes) in the vault floor, surrounded by sealing material (buffer). Disposal rooms might be excavated on more than one level. Eventually all excavated openings in the rock would be backfilled and sealed. Research is organized under the following headings: disposal container, waste form, vault seals, geosphere, surface environment, total system, assessment of environmental effects. A federal Environmental Assessment Panel is assessing the concept (holding public hearings for the purpose) and will eventually make recommendations to assist the governments of Canada and Ontario in deciding whether to accept the concept, and how to manage nuclear fuel waste. 16 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  19. Nuclear waste glass corrosion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Dissolution of nuclear waste glass occurs by corrosion mechanisms similar to those of other solids, e.g., metallurgical and mineralogic systems. Metallurgical phenomena such as active corrosion, passivation and immunity have been observed to be a function of the glass composition and the solution pH. Hydration thermodynamics was used to quantify the role of glass composition and its effect on the solution pH during dissolution. A wide compositional range of natural, lunar, medieval, and nuclear waste glasses, as well as some glass-ceramics were investigated. The factors observed to affect dissolution in deionized water are pertinent to the dissolution of glass in natural environments such as the groundwaters anticipated to interact with nuclear waste glass in a geologic repository. The effects of imposed pH and oxidation potential (Eh) conditions existing in natural environments on glass dissolution is described in the context of Pourbaix diagrams, pH potential diagrams, for glass

  20. Ethical aspects on Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1989-01-01

    In an ethical assessment of how we shall deal with nuclear waste, one of the chief questions that arises is how to initiate action while at the same time taking into consideration uncertainties which are unavoidable seen from a long-term perspective. By means of different formulation and by proceeding from various starting-points, a two edged objective is established vis-a-vis repository facilities: safety in operation combined with reparability, with controls not necessary, but not impossible. Prerequisites for the realization of this objective are the continued advancement of knowledge and refinement of the qualifications required to deal with nuclear waste. The ethical considerations above could be the bases for the future legislation in the field of nuclear energy waste. (author)

  1. Transuranic contaminated waste container characterization and data base. Revision I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.

    1980-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing regulations governing the management, handling and disposal of transuranium (TRU) radioisotope contaminated wastes as part of the NRC's overall waste management program. In the development of such regulations, numerous subtasks have been identified which require completion before meaningful regulations can be proposed, their impact evaluated and the regulations implemented. This report was prepared to assist in the development of the technical data base necessary to support rule-making actions dealing with TRU-contaminated wastes. An earlier report presented the waste sources, characteristics and inventory of both Department of Energy (DOE) generated and commercially generated TRU waste. In this report a wide variety of waste sources as well as a large TRU inventory were identified. The purpose of this report is to identify the different packaging systems used and proposed for TRU waste and to document their characteristics. This document then serves as part of the data base necessary to complete preparation and initiate implementation of TRU waste container and packaging standards and criteria suitable for inclusion in the present TRU waste management program. It is the purpose of this report to serve as a working document which will be used as appropriate in the TRU Waste Management Program. This report, and those following, will be compatible not only in format, but also in reference material and direction

  2. Nuclear wastes: fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on investigations of transuranics in soils and plants that have demonstrated the importance of valence state, complexation, competing elements, migration down the soil profile, and weathering cycles in governing transuranic, 129 I and 99 Tc availability to plants and, in the case of Pu, to the consuming animals. In the latter case, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that ingestion of plant tissues containing Pu may result in greater transfer across the gut compared to gavaging animals with inorganic Pu solutions, underscoring the importance of detailed studies of the soil, plant, and animal factors influencing uptake by the ingestion pathway. Further evidence of the importance of the ingestion pathway was provided in studies of foliar interception of airborne transuranic elements in which it was shown that Pu in particles in the respiratory size range were effectively intercepted and retained by plants, and significant quantities of intercepted Pu were transported to roots and seeds. Similar studies on the terrestrial ingestion pathway have been initiated with other actinides including, U, Am, Cm, and Np. Radioecological field studies were directed toward establishment of pertinent ingestion pathways and exposure levels through description of habitat types, population densities, and, in several instances, dosimetry, for major insects, reptiles, birds, and mammalian species. These studies were extended to agricultural ecosystems through definition of the uptake of long-lived nuclides and digestibility in cattle of several forage species. In studies on a pond ecosystem at the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, Pu and Am uptake rates were studied for major biotic components including organic floc, algae, fish, and ducks. The results indicated that assimilation of transuranics by the biota and export from the pond system were low compared to the total inventory

  3. Nuclear-waste-package materials degradation modes and accelerated testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report reviews the materials degradation modes that may affect the long-term behavior of waste packages for the containment of nuclear waste. It recommends an approach to accelerated testing that can lead to the qualification of waste package materials in specific repository environments in times that are short relative to the time period over which the waste package is expected to provide containment. This report is not a testing plan but rather discusses the direction for research that might be considered in developing plans for accelerated testing of waste package materials and waste forms

  4. Nuclear power and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    1991-03-01

    The gap between the relative perceptions in the area of nuclear waste is wide. The broad view of the industry is that the disposal of nuclear waste is not a serious technical problem, and that solutions are already available to provide safe disposal of all our waste. The broad view of those who oppose the industry is that radioactive waste is so unpleasant, and will remain lethal for so long, that no acceptable policy will ever be developed, and so production of such waste (except, oddly, the significant amounts arising from uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industrial safety research, etc) should stop immediately. This booklet will not attempt to describe in great detail the technicalities of the United Kingdom nuclear industry's current approach to radioactive waste: such issues are described in detail in other publications, especially those by Nirex. It is our intention to outline some of the main issues involved, and to associate these issues with the divergence in perceptions of various parties. (author)

  5. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commerical radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects. 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Underground storage of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J E

    1977-12-01

    The objective of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide facilities in various deep geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States which will safely dispose of commercial radioactive waste. The NWTS Program is being administered for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division. OWI manages projects that will lead to the location, construction, and operation of repositories, including all surface and underground engineering and facility design projects and technical support projects.

  7. Composite containment for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Soeoet, O.

    1977-01-01

    Fundamentally, a nuclear reactor containment structure provides three major functions; namely, (1), to withstand loads due to pressure and temperature increase due to Design Basis Accident (DBA) (2), to withstand environmental loads such as seismic, tornado and normal loads, and (3) act as a radiation shield. Conventional design practise is to employ either a steel vessel and concrete shield building or a steel lined concrete structure. This paper deals with a new concept in which a steel liner is employed which carries much of the primary membrane loads. This type of structure is similar in some aspects to the previously described systems: a) A mat, lined with a thin plate on its top surface, is similar to concrete containment. b) A cylinder and hemispherical dome, made up of steel plate and concrete, is about 2.5 feet thick (the minimum required for radiation shielding). Although the steel plate and concrete are in contact, as in concrete containment, the steel plate in composite containment is much thicker than the liner. There are two main advantages over present practise; namely reduction of materials and therefore reduced capital cost and even more significantly a shortened construction schedule which will permit more flexibility in overall plant construction schedule and will benefit the cash flow situation. (Auth.)

  8. Fate of nuclear waste site remains unclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1980-01-01

    The only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S., located in West Valley, N.Y., has been shut down since 1972, and no efforts have yet been made to clean up the site. The site contains a spent-fuel pool, high level liquid waste storage tanks, and two radioactive waste burial grounds. Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc., has been leasing the site from the New York State Energy RandD Authority. Federal litigation may ensue, prompted by NRC and DOE, if the company refuses to decontaminate the area when its lease expires at the end of 1980. DOE has developed a plan to solidify the liquid wastes at the facility but needs additional legislation and funding to implement the scheme

  9. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors

  10. Nuclear waste issues: a perspectives document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.; Ciminese, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the results of systematic survey of perspectives on the question of radioactive waste management. Sources of information for this review include the scientific literature, regulatory and government documents, pro-nuclear and anti-nuclear publications, and news media articles. In examining the sources of information, it has become evident that a major distinction can be made between the optimistic or positive viewpoints, and the pessimistic or negative ones. Consequently, these form the principal categories for presentation of the perspectives on the radioactive waste management problem have been further classified as relating to the following issue areas: the physical aspects of radiation, longevity, radiotoxicity, the quantity of radioactive wastes, and perceptual factors.

  11. Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) was initiated in 1993 as a result of US congressional concern over the disposal of nuclear materials by the former Soviet Union into the Arctic marine environment. The program is comprised of appr. 70 different projects. To date appr. ten percent of the funds has gone to Russian institutions for research and logistical support. The collaboration also include the IAEA International Arctic Seas Assessment Program. The major conclusion from the research to date is that the largest signals for region-wide radionuclide contamination in the Arctic marine environment appear to arise from the following: 1) atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, a practice that has been discontinued; 2) nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes carried in the Arctic from reprocessing facilities in Western Europe, and 3) accidents such as Chernobyl and the 1957 explosion at Chelyabinsk-65

  12. Mass transfer from penetrations in waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that localized corrosion of a relatively small area of a waste container may impair the containment function to such an extent that larger releases may be possible than from the bare waste form. This would take place when a large number of holes coexist on the container while their concentration fields do not interact significantly with each other. After performing a steady state analysis of the release from a hole, it is shown that much fewer independent holes can coexist on a container surface than previously estimated. The calculated radionuclide release from multiple independent holes must be changed accordingly. Previous analyses did not proceed to a correct application of the linear superposition principle. This resulted in unacceptable physical conclusions and undue strain on the performance assessment necessary for a container licensing procedure. The paper also analyzes the steady state release from penetrations of finite length and whose concentration fields interact with one another. The predicted release from these penetrations is lower than the previously calculated release from holes of zero thickness. It is concluded here that the steady-state release from multiple holes on a waste container can not exceed the release from the bare waste form and that multiple perforations need not be a serious liability to container performance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1995-01-01

    Accelerators can play a role in the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste: an alternative to the storage in deep underground repositories might transmuting long-lived elements into stable or short-lived ones in subcritical systems driven by spallation neutrons. These neutrons would be produced by a high intensity, intermediate energy proton accelerator irradiating a heavy target. Similar systems have also been proposed to produce energy with a minimized waste inventory. Since a good knowledge of the spallation process is essential for designing and optimizing the target-blanket assembly, new programmes aimed at studying spallation reactions are in progress. (author). 6 figs

  14. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadykto, B.A. [RFNC-VNIIEF, Nizhni Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  15. Storage of plutonium and nuclear power plant actinide waste in the form of critical-mass-free ceramics containing neutron poisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadykto, B.A.

    2001-01-01

    The nuclear weapons production has resulted in accumulation of a large quantity of plutonium and uranium highly enriched with uranium-235 isotope (many tons). The work under ISTC Project 332B-97 treated the issues of safe plutonium storage through making critical-mass-free plutonium oxide compositions with neutron poisons. This completely excludes immediate utilization (without chemical reprocessing) of retained plutonium in nuclear devices. It is therewith possible to locate plutonium most compactly in the storage facility, which would allow reduction in required storage areas and costs. The issues of the surplus weapon-grade plutonium management and utilization have been comprehensively studied in the recent decade. The issues are treated in multiple scientific publications, conferences, and seminars. At the same time, issues of nuclear power engineering actinide waste storage are studied no less extensively. The general issues are material radioactivity and energy release and nuclear accident hazards due to critical mass generation. Plutonium accumulated in nuclear power plant spent fuel is more accessible than weapon-grade plutonium and can become of higher and higher interest with time as its activity reduces, including as material for nuclear devices. The urgency of plutonium management is presently related not only to accumulation of surplus weapon-grade plutonium, but also to the fact that it is high time to decide what has to be done regarding reactor plutonium. Presently, the possibility of actinide separation from NPP spent nuclear fuel and compact underground burial separately from other (mainly fragment) activity is being considered. Actinide and neutron poison base critical-mass-free ceramic materials (similar to plutonium ceramics) may be useful for this burial method. (author)

  16. Nuclear waste disposal: regional options for the Western Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste is a complex environmental problem involving the technology of containing a radiation hazard and the political problem of finding an acceptable site for a hazardous waste facility. The focus of discussion here is the degree to which Western Pacific countries are committed to nuclear power as an energy source, and the political and economic interdependencies in the region which will influence waste disposal options

  17. The disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock volume 1: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikjord, A G; Baumgartner, P; Johnson, L H; Stanchell, F W; Zach, R; Goodwin, B W

    1996-06-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced and sealed within a vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The case for the acceptability of the concept as a means of safely disposing of Canada`s nuclear fuel waste is presented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The disposal concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations and designs. The EIS presents a case study of the long-term (i.e., postclosure) performance of a hypothetical implementation of the concept, referred to in this report as the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system is based on borehole emplacement of used CANDU fuel in Grade-2 titanium alloy containers in low-permeability, sparsely fractured plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We evaluate the long-term performance of another hypothetical implementation of the concept based on in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. The geological characteristics of the geosphere assumed for this study result in short groundwater travel times from the disposal vault to the surface. In the present study, the principal barrier to the movement of contaminants is the long-lasting copper container. We show that the long-lasting container can effectively compensate for a permeable host rock which results in an unfavourable groundwater flow condition. These studies illustrate the flexibility of AECL`s disposal concept to take advantage of the retention, delay, dispersion, dilution and radioactive decay of contaminants in a system of natural barriers provided by the geosphere and hydrosphere and of engineered barriers provided by the waste form, container, buffer, backfills, other vault seals and grouts. In an actual implementation, the engineered system would be designed for the geological conditions encountered at the host site. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. The disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste: a study of postclosure safety of in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock volume 1: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikjord, A.G.; Baumgartner, P.; Johnson, L.H.; Stanchell, F.W.; Zach, R.; Goodwin, B.W.

    1996-06-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste involves isolating the waste in corrosion-resistant containers emplaced and sealed within a vault at a depth of 500 to 1000 m in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The case for the acceptability of the concept as a means of safely disposing of Canada's nuclear fuel waste is presented in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The disposal concept permits a choice of methods, materials, site locations and designs. The EIS presents a case study of the long-term (i.e., postclosure) performance of a hypothetical implementation of the concept, referred to in this report as the reference disposal system. The reference disposal system is based on borehole emplacement of used CANDU fuel in Grade-2 titanium alloy containers in low-permeability, sparsely fractured plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. We evaluate the long-term performance of another hypothetical implementation of the concept based on in-room emplacement of used CANDU fuel in copper containers in permeable plutonic rock. The geological characteristics of the geosphere assumed for this study result in short groundwater travel times from the disposal vault to the surface. In the present study, the principal barrier to the movement of contaminants is the long-lasting copper container. We show that the long-lasting container can effectively compensate for a permeable host rock which results in an unfavourable groundwater flow condition. These studies illustrate the flexibility of AECL's disposal concept to take advantage of the retention, delay, dispersion, dilution and radioactive decay of contaminants in a system of natural barriers provided by the geosphere and hydrosphere and of engineered barriers provided by the waste form, container, buffer, backfills, other vault seals and grouts. In an actual implementation, the engineered system would be designed for the geological conditions encountered at the host site. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs

  19. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed

  20. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: a design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, J.S.; Schmidt, B.

    1982-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear waste repository in basalt is described. Nuclear waste packages are placed in holes drilled into the floor of tunnels at a depth of 3700 ft. About 100 miles of tunnels are required to receive 35,000 packages. Five shafts bring waste packages, ventilation air, excavated rock, personnel, material, and services to and from the subsurface. The most important surface facility is the waste handling building, located over the waste handling shaft, where waste is received and packaged for storage. Two independent ventilation systems are provided to avoid potential contamination of spaces that do not contain nuclear waste. Because of the high temperatures at depth, an elaborate air chilling system is provided. Because the waste packages deliver a considerable amount of heat energy to the rock mass, particular attention is paid to heat transfer and thermal stress studies. 3 references, 31 figures, 3 tables

  1. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  2. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  3. Concrete containers in radioactive waste management: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Bárbara L.; Tello, Clédola Cássia O. de

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power is considered a clean energy, because it does not produce the gases responsible for greenhouse effect. However, like all human activities, it is susceptible to waste generation. With increasing demand for energy in Brazil, the use of nuclear power is being expanded, as a result, the implementation of correct treatment and disposal are a necessity, in order to ensure the non-contamination of the public or environment and that exposure doses are lower than limits by legislation. Most of waste produced in Brazil are classified as low and intermediate radiation level; consequently, the national repository will be near surface, in accordance with the legislation. Considering the multi-barrier concept for the repository, the radioactive waste product is the first barrier. To have a qualified radioactive waste product, it should be solid or solidified using an inert material. With the intention of standardize the disposal process, all radioactive waste products will be placed in concrete containers. These containers will be settled in a concrete cell, the final engineered barrier of the repository. The state of the art is the first part of the study of the concrete containers and its specific criteria acceptation. Since the repository’s operational and surveillance period is 60 and 300 years, respectively, tests still need to be fulfilled in order to ensure the stability and resistance of the material. (author)

  4. Concrete containers in radioactive waste management: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Bárbara L.; Tello, Clédola Cássia O. de, E-mail: barbaralacerdat@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte/MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear power is considered a clean energy, because it does not produce the gases responsible for greenhouse effect. However, like all human activities, it is susceptible to waste generation. With increasing demand for energy in Brazil, the use of nuclear power is being expanded, as a result, the implementation of correct treatment and disposal are a necessity, in order to ensure the non-contamination of the public or environment and that exposure doses are lower than limits by legislation. Most of waste produced in Brazil are classified as low and intermediate radiation level; consequently, the national repository will be near surface, in accordance with the legislation. Considering the multi-barrier concept for the repository, the radioactive waste product is the first barrier. To have a qualified radioactive waste product, it should be solid or solidified using an inert material. With the intention of standardize the disposal process, all radioactive waste products will be placed in concrete containers. These containers will be settled in a concrete cell, the final engineered barrier of the repository. The state of the art is the first part of the study of the concrete containers and its specific criteria acceptation. Since the repository’s operational and surveillance period is 60 and 300 years, respectively, tests still need to be fulfilled in order to ensure the stability and resistance of the material. (author)

  5. Scientific basis for nuclear waste management XX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Triay, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings are divided into the following topical sections: Glass formulations and properties; Glass/water interactions; Cements in radioactive waste management; Ceramic and crystalline waste forms; Spent nuclear fuel; Waste processing and treatment; Radiation effects in ceramics, glasses, and nuclear waste materials; Waste package materials; Radionuclide solubility and speciation; Radionuclide sorption; Radionuclide transport; Repository backfill; Performance assessment; Natural analogues; Excess plutonium dispositioning; and Chernobyl-related waste disposal issues. Papers within scope have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  6. Characterization of Hanford tank wastes containing ferrocyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, J.M.; Matheson, J.D.; McKinley, S.G.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    Currently, 17 storage tanks on the Hanford site that are believed to contain > 1,000 gram moles (465 lbs) of ferrocyanide compounds have been identified. Seven other tanks are classified as ferrocyanide containing waste tanks, but contain less than 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide compounds. These seven tanks are still included as Hanford Watch List Tanks. These tanks have been declared an unreviewed safety question (USQ) because of potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with the ferrocyanide compounds and nitrate and nitrite. Hanford tanks with waste containing > 1,000 gram moles of ferrocyanide have been sampled. Extensive chemical, radiothermical, and physical characterization have been performed on these waste samples. The reactivity of these wastes were also studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis. Actual tank waste samples were retrieved from tank 241-C-112 using a specially designed and equipped core-sampling truck. Only a small portion of the data obtained from this characterization effort will be reported in this paper. This report will deal primarily with the cyanide and carbon analyses, thermal analyses, and limited physical property measurements

  7. The Geopolitics of Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Eliot

    1991-01-01

    The controversy surrounding the potential storage of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is discussed. Arguments about the stability of the site and the groundwater situation are summarized. The role of the U.S. Department of Energy and other political considerations are described. (CW)

  8. A concept to combine DOE waste minimization goals with commercial utility needs for a universal container system for spent nuclear fuel storage, transportation, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falci, F.P.; Smith, M.L.; Sorenson, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of storing, transporting, and disposing of spent fuel using a single package has obvious advantages. Coupling this concept with using contaminated scrap metal from the EM Complex will help reduce a significant portion of waste that would otherwise need to be packaged, stored, and disposed of as low level radioactive waste. Assuming a material of cost of $1 per pound for 800,000 tons of metal needed for universal containers, the potential material cost savings from manufacturing these containers from what would otherwise be a waste product is about $1.5 billion. Clearly, this concept is novel and has significant obstacles that need to be addressed and overcome; particularly in the regulatory arena. However, the potential benefits warrant the evaluation of the proposal on several fronts. DOE OCRWM should seriously consider the universal cask concept for management of spent fuel. DOE EM should pursue the development of melting contaminated scrap for the manufacture of casks. Finally, EM and OCRWM should cooperate on the evaluation of using EM contaminated scrap metal for the manufacture of universal casks for OCRWM spent fuel

  9. Radioactive waste processing method for a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Kuriyama, O

    1976-06-04

    Object is to subject radioactive liquid waste in a nuclear power plant to reverse permeation process after which it is vaporized and concentrated thereby decreasing the quantity of foam to be used to achieve effective concentration of the liquid waste. Liquid waste containing a radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant is first applied with pressure in excess of osmotic pressure by a reverse permeation device and is separated into clean water and concentrated liquid by semi-permeable membrane. Next, the thus reverse-permeated and concentrated waste is fed to an evaporator which control foaming by the foam and then further reconcentrated for purification of the liquid waste.

  10. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  11. Boesmanland gains from nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is being claimed that the geobotany of the Boesmanland will gain from the use of the farm Vaalputs for radioactive waste disposal from the Koeberg nuclear power station. Only 1 km 2 of the 10 000 ha that was bought for the purpose will be used for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and 2 m 3 to 3 m 3 per year will be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The rest of the area, Nucor plans to develop as a nature reserve, restoring the natural botany and ecology. Before Vaalputs was selected as site for radioactive waste disposal, a regional analysis was done. According to this there is more or less 500 people staying within a radius of 25km from the farm. Geological surveys showed no mineral deposits of economic value. During the past 100 million years the area was also free from seismic activity

  12. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  13. Development of high integrity containers for rad-waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yung Chul; Cho, Myung Sug; Jung, Yun Sub [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear power plants are generating rad waste such as solid wastes, concentrated liquid wastes, spent resins and spent filters, and various types of imported containers which have different specifications and material properties are employed to handle the rad wastes according to facility characteristics of the plants or the type of wastes. These containers are stored at the intermediate storage facilities at the plant site due to the construction delay of permanent disposal site, and the additional construction of storage and disposal sites become more difficult with increase of the numbers and the operation time of the plants. In order to solve these difficulties, rad wastes volume reduction facilities such as High Pressure Compression Facility or Drying Facility are being installed and use of High Integrity Containers(HIC) are increasing. Therefore, we decide quality and technology standards required for the HIC, and then develop the HIC which satisfies the standards with new composite material called Steel Fiber Polymer Impregnated Concrete(SFPIC) (author). 84 refs., 118 figs.

  14. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig

  15. Cadmium-containing waste and recycling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, V.; Rauhut, A.

    1981-01-01

    To begin with, the processes of cadmium production from zinc ores in smelting plants or from intermediates of other metal works are described. A considerable amount of the cadmium is obtained in the recycling process in zinc, lead, and copper works. The way of the cadmium-containing intermediaries, processing, enrichment, and disposal of cadmium waste are described. Uses of cadmium and its compounds are mentioned, and cadmium consumption in the years 1973-1977 in West Germany is presented in a table. Further chapters discuss the production and the way of waste during production and processing of cadmium-containing products, the problem of cadmium in household refuse and waste incineration plants, and the problem of cadmium emissions. (IHOE) [de

  16. Method of processing liquid waste containing fission product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funabashi, Kiyomi; Kawamura, Fumio; Matsuda, Masami; Komori, Itaru; Miura, Eiichi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prepare solidification products of low surface dose by removing cesium which is main radioactive nuclides from re-processing plants. Method: Liquid wastes containing a great amount of fission products are generated accompanying the reprocessing for spent nuclear fuels. After pH adjustment, the liquid wastes are sent to a concentrator to concentrate the dissolved ingredients. The concentrated liquid wastes are pumped to an adsorption tower in which radioactive cesium contributing much to the surface dose is removed. Then, the liquid wastes are sent by way of a surge tank to a mixing tank, in which they are mixed under stirring with solidifying agents such as cements. Then, the mixture is filled in a drum-can and solidified. According to this invention, since radioactive cesium is removed before solidification, it is possible to prepare solidification products at low surface dose and facilitate the handling of the solidification products. (Horiuchi, T.)

  17. Geopolitics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, E.

    1991-01-01

    More debate has begun over questions related to the safety of high-level waste disposal at the Yucca Mountain site in the Nevada desert. An engineering geologists, Jerry Szymanski, one of the Department of Energy's (DOE) own staffers in Las Vegas, has proposed that the $15-billion repository would sit on top of an intensely active structure that, if altered by an earthquake, would send a slug of ground water up from deep within the mountain into the waste storage area. This theory has already been slammed in two formal reviews and has virtually no support among geologists. However, enough doubt has been raised that much more geological testing will be necessary to prove or disprove Szymanski's theory. Nevada state officials are also using all methods to thwart or block the project. The question of the origin of a series of calcium carbonate and opal veins exposed in an exploratory pit, trench 14, near the top of the mountain is also far from answered. The DOE and US Geological Survey may have to collect much more information on the quantity, size, and location of carbonate sites in the area at a high financial outlay to the US government before a complete case on the origin of the material in trench 14 can be made

  18. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  19. Nuclear wastes and public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Slovic, P.

    1993-01-01

    Citing public fear and mistrust, strong opposition to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository site, and less-than-exemplary performance by the Department of Energy (DOE), two private researchers believe present high-level radioactive waste-disposal plans may have to be scrapped. Government and the nuclear industry may have to start over. Policy makers should seek to develop new relationships with communities and states where suitable disposal sites exist. These relationships may require that citizen groups and local institutions be given unprecedented authority in locating and operating such facilities. Contrary to popular impressions, there is still time to take a new approach. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission says present on-site storage arrangements offer a safe alternative for 100 years or more. The sense of immediate crisis and cries for immediate solutions should be calmed and a more considered strategy brought to the public debate. For starters, the researchers propose that the problems of defense waste be separated from the problems of commercial waste. They also suggest that DOE be assigned responsibility for defense waste and a new agency be created to handle high-level commercial waste

  20. Waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents proposals for organizing and financing of the treatment and deposition of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Decommissioning of plants is taken into consideration. The proposals refer to a program of twelve reactors. A relatively complete model for the handling of radioactive waste in Sweden is at hand. The cost for the years 1980 to 2000 is estimated at approx 1040 million SKr. Also the expense to dispose of the rest of the waste is calculated up to the year 2060, when the waste is planned to be put into final deposit. The state must have substantial influence over the organization which should be closely connected to the nuclear industry. Three different types of organization are discussed, namely (i) a company along with a newly created authority, (ii) a company along with the existing Nuclear Power Inspectorate or (iii) a company along with a board of experts. The proposals for financing the cost of handling nuclear waste are given in chief outlines. The nuclear industry should reserve means to special funds. The allocations are calculated to 1.4 oere per delivered kWh up to and including the year 1980. The accumulated allocations for 1979 should thus amount to 1310 million SKr. The charge for supervision and for certain research and development is recommended to be 0.1 oere per kWh which corresponds to approx 23 million SKr for 1980. The funds should be assured by binding agreements which must be approved by the state. The amounts are given in the monetary value of the year 1979. (G.B.)

  1. Nuclear and radiological safety nuclear power nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management and issued during the period of 1995-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English

  2. Removal of organic wastes containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    TBP in dodecane and kerosene is one of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by the Purex process. The following methods were investigated for removing the organic solvents: adsorption on suitable solids, extraction, reaction with neutral salts, and saponification with acids or alkalis. Results showed that the best method of TBP removal is saponification with alkali hydroxides, either with dibutyl phosphate or with ortho-phosphate

  3. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  4. Nuclear waste and hazardous waste in the public perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruetli, Pius; Seidl, Roman; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear waste has gained attention of the public for decades. Accordingly, nuclear waste has been a prominent issue in natural, engineer and social science for many years. Although bearing risks for todays and future generations hazardous waste in contrast is much less an issue of public concern. In 2011, we conducted a postal survey among Swiss Germans (N = 3.082) to learn more about, how nuclear waste is perceived against hazardous waste. We created a questionnaire with two versions, nuclear waste and hazardous waste, respectively. Each version included an identical part with well-known explanatory factors for risk perception on each of the waste types separately and additional questions directly comparing the two waste types. Results show that basically both waste types are perceived similarly in terms of risk/benefit, emotion, trust, knowledge and responsibility. However, in the direct comparison of the two waste types a complete different pattern can be observed: Respondents perceive nuclear waste as more long-living, more dangerous, less controllable and it, furthermore, creates more negative emotions. On the other hand, respondents feel more responsible for hazardous waste and indicate to have more knowledge about this waste type. Moreover, nuclear waste is perceived as more carefully managed. We conclude that mechanisms driving risk perception are similar for both waste types but an overarching negative image of nuclear waste prevails. We propose that hazardous waste should be given more attention in the public as well as in science which may have implications on further management strategies of hazardous waste.

  5. Present status of nuclear containments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jihong; Hong, Jaekeun; Lee, Byunghoon; Son, Youngho

    2007-01-01

    Since the first nuclear power plant in Korea, Kori unit no.1, was started in commercial service in 1978, 20 units including Kori unit no.1 have been operated and maintained until now in Korea. Recently several units were started to be constructed and also, additionally more than 4 units were planned to be constructed in the near future. The importance of nuclear containments has been always one of the hottest issues for the safety and protection of nuclear power plants until now. At the beginning of nuclear power plants construction in Korea, several typed nuclear containment systems were adopted. For those reasons, various codes, standards, and inspection technologies are applied to nuclear containment systems differently. In this study, the status of inservice inspection performed for the safety and maintenance of nuclear containments in Korea was researched. Overall nuclear containment systems and inspections performed up to recently in Korea including trends, inspection items, periods, and regulations were described briefly. (author)

  6. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  7. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  8. Electrochemical corrosion studies on a selected carbon steel for application in nuclear waste disposal containers: Influence of chemical species in brines on corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Smailos, E.

    1994-04-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels were identified as promising materials for the manufacture of long-lived high-level waste containers that could act as an engineered barrier in a rock-salt repository. In this paper, the influence of chemical species, potentially present in salt brines, on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the preselected fine-grained steel TStE 355 was studied. The steel was examined at 90 C in a disposal relevant NaCl-rich brine containing various species (Br - , I - , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , S 2- , B(OH )4 - and Fe 3+ ) at concentrations between 10 -5 M/I and 10 -1 M/I. (orig.) [de

  9. Container for processing and disposing radioactive wastes and industrial wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko; Kasai, Noboru; Sudo, Giichi; Ishizaki, Kanjiro.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the performance of containers for radioactive wastes for ocean disposal and on-land disposal such as impact strength, chemical resistance, fire resistance, corrosion resistance, water impermeability and the like. Constitution: Steel fiber-reinforced concrete previously molded in a shape of a container is impregnated with polymerizable impregnating agent selected from the group consisting of a polymerizable monomer, liquid mixture of a polymerizable monomer and an oligomer, a polymer solution, a copolymer solution and the liquid mixture thereof. Then, the polymerizable impregnating agent is polymerized to solidify in the concrete by way of heat-polymerization or radiation-induced polymerization to form a waste container. The container thus obtained can be improved with the impact resistance and wear resistance and further improved with salt water resistance, acid resistance, corrosion resistance and solidity by the impregnation of the polymer, as well as can effectively be prevented from leaching out of radioactive substances. (Furukawa, Y.)

  10. Radioactive waste containment - a literature study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohiuddin, G.

    1985-01-01

    One of the basic requirements of safe radioactive waste disposal is isolation of the radioactive substances to prevent leakage into the biosphere. The multi-barrier concept has been developed to meet this requirement. Within the framework of the concept, barriers can be either natural or man-made. Natural barriers, i.e. geologic formations,have been investigated for their suitability, with host rock and their different properties being determined and compared. It has been found that the qualification of a proposed repository medium cannot be defined on the basis of physical, chemical, and mineralogical criteria alone, but that these data have to be completed by a global evaluation of the entire system consisting of waste products and waste forms, host rock, and surrounding rock. The study in hand reviews the reports and also lists the studies made on engineered barriers, as e.g. immobilisation barriers, container and package barriers, of various waste forms. A review of the studies dealing with the various waste disposal techniques shows that the sub-surface waste disposal and the deep underground disposal in mines are the best developed techniques currently. A review of ultimate disposal concepts adopted abroad shows that most countries favour the mining technology approach, with the exception of Denmark where R and D work in this field is focused on deep well disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Treatment of radioactive wastes containing plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, O.S.; Aparicio, G.; Greco, L.; Orosco, E.H.; Cassaniti, P.; Salguero, D.; Toubes, B.; Perez, A.E.; Menghini, J.E.; Esteban, A.; Adelfang, P.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactive wastes generated in the process of manufacture and control of experimental fuel rods of mixed oxides, (U,Pu)O 2 , require an specific treatment due to the plutonium content. The composition of liquid wastes, mostly arising from chemical checks, is variable. The salt content, the acidity, and the plutonium and uranium content are different, which makes necessary a chemical treatment before the inclusion in concrete. The solid waste, such as neoprene gloves, PVC sleeves, filter paper, disposable or broken laboratory material, etc. are also included in concrete. In this report the methods used to dispose of wastes at Alpha Facility are described. With regard to the liquid wastes, the glove box built to process them is detailed, as well as the applied chemical treatment, including neutralization, filtration and later solidification. As for the solid wastes, it is described the cementation method consisting in introducing them into an expanded metal matrix, of the basket type, that contains as a concentric drum of 200 liter capacity which is smaller than the matrix, and the filling with wet cement mortar. (Author)

  12. Effects on the environment of the dumping of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Nationally and internationally accepted procedures and technologies are available for the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes. Authorized waste disposal practices are designed to ensure that there will be no significant impacts on man and his environment. 'Dumping' of nuclear wastes may result in the elimination of one or more of the multibarriers of protection inherent in an effective radioactive waste management system, thereby increasing the risk of radiological exposure to man and his environment. Quantitative assessments of the degree of environmental contamination and of the resulting hazards to man depend on the specific conditions surrounding the 'uncontrolled disposal' of radioactive waste. These include the nature and activity level of the waste, the physical form of the waste, the package that the waste is contained in and the characteristics of the dumping site. Depending on the scenario envisaged, the consequences of 'uncontrolled disposal' could vary from being insignificant to a situation where there is a significant hazard to an exposed population group. International transactions involving nuclear wastes are taking place between countries on the basis of bilateral agreements and under strict regulatory supervision so that radioactive wastes are transferred safely from one controlled area to another. Such transactions may increase in the future with increased international co-operation in sharing common waste repositories. No evidence exists that confirms that transboundary dumping of radioactive waste has occurred. Investigation of alleged dumping of radioactive wastes by the International Atomic Energy Agency has revealed that the 'suspect wastes' did not contain radioactive material. 2 tabs

  13. NUCLEAR WASTE state-of-the-art reports 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The report is organized in three parts. First part: 'The nuclear waste question in international and Swedish perspective' takes up questions about how the handling of nuclear waste is organized. This part starts with an international overview of nuclear waste handling in several countries. The overview gives a hint about how countries look for solutions that are judged to be appropriate in the own country. The overview shows clearly that the responsibility for the nuclear waste includes both private and public operators, in varying degrees from country to country. A detailed review is presented of the Swedish process in the chapter 'The municipalities - major stakeholders in the nuclear waste issue'. In the light of the the international overview it is shown that great efforts are spent in order to reach mutual understanding and agreement at the local basis in the Swedish consultation procedure. Part two 'To handle nuclear waste risks: An overview over methods, problems and possibilities' contains an overview of our knowledge in estimating and handling risks and about methods to produce data for assessments associated with the disposal of nuclear waste from a scientific perspective. This part first presents two geoscientific methods that are used to calculate stability and hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock. In the chapter 'Fractioning of different isotopes' the possibility to consider properties of different isotopes for estimation of transport velocities of radioactive substances is discussed, for a repository for spent nuclear fuel or other radioactive wastes. In the chapter 'Copper canisters - production, sealing, durability' an overview is given of the methods used for manufacture and control of those copper canisters that constitute one of the protective barriers around the waste at geologic disposal according to the KBS-3-method. In the last chapter, an experiment to compare classification of radioactive wastes and chemical wastes, is discussed. 'The

  14. Ethical aspects of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    The reasoning made by us leads to a double conclusion: a repository should be constructed so that controls and corrective measures are unnecessary, while at the same time not making them impossible. In other words, our generation should neither put the entire responsibility for maintenance of repositories in future generations' hands; nor should we deny future generations the possibility of taking control. By means of different formulations and by proceeding from various basic ideas, a dual objective is established about repository facilities: safety in operation combined with ease of service ability without mandatory but executable control. Prerequisities are the continued advancement of knowledge and refinement of the qualifications required to deal with nuclear waste. The ethical considerations should be included in the bases for future legislation on radioactive waste. Nuclear scientists should consider these points before they can form a foundation to the legislation process

  15. Nuclear waste - where to go?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornsiepen, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The question of the final di9sposal of nuclear waste is a problem of international importance. The solution of the problem is of increasing urgency; the discussion is controversial and implies a lot of emotions. In Germany there is consensus that the nuclear wastes have to be disposed within the country in deep geological formations. This kind of final disposal is predominantly a geological problem and has to be solved from the geological point of view. The geologist Ulrich Dornsiepen presents the problems of the final disposal in an objective way without ideology and generally understandable. Such a presentation is necessary since the public information and participation is demanded but the open geological questions and their scientific solutions are never explained for the public. [de

  16. Nuclear waste: A cancer cure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In a marriage of strange bedfellows, scientists at one of the country's most contaminated nuclear waste sites are collaborating with medical researchers to turn nuclear waste into an experimental therapy for cancer. Patients with Hodgkin's disease and brain, ovarian, and breast cancers may be able to receive the new radiatio-based treatments in the next five to ten years. Recently, scientists at the Hanford site found a way to chemically extract a pure form of the radioisotope yttrium-90 from strontium-90, a by-product of plutonium production. Yttrium-90 is being tested in clinical trials at medical centers around the country as a treatment for various types of cancers, and the initial results are encouraging. The advantage of yttrium-90 over other radioisotopes is its short half-life

  17. Advanced pyrochemical technologies for minimizing nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Dodson, K.E.; Riley, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is seeking to reduce the size of the current nuclear weapons complex and consequently minimize operating costs. To meet this DOE objective, the national laboratories have been asked to develop advanced technologies that take uranium and plutonium, from retired weapons and prepare it for new weapons, long-term storage, and/or final disposition. Current pyrochemical processes generate residue salts and ceramic wastes that require aqueous processing to remove and recover the actinides. However, the aqueous treatment of these residues generates an estimated 100 liters of acidic transuranic (TRU) waste per kilogram of plutonium in the residue. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing pyrochemical techniques to eliminate, minimize, or more efficiently treat these residue streams. This paper will present technologies being developed at LLNL on advanced materials for actinide containment, reactors that minimize residues, and pyrochemical processes that remove actinides from waste salts

  18. Proceedings of the international topical meeting on nuclear and hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1988 International Topical Meeting on Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Management. Included are the following articles: Defense radioactive waste management: status and challenges, Secrets of successful siting legislation for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities, A generic hazardous waste management training program, Status of industry standards for decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  19. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Waste-to-energy: Dehalogenation of plastic-containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yafei; Zhao, Rong; Wang, Junfeng; Chen, Xingming; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Mindong

    2016-03-01

    The dehalogenation measurements could be carried out with the decomposition of plastic wastes simultaneously or successively. This paper reviewed the progresses in dehalogenation followed by thermochemical conversion of plastic-containing wastes for clean energy production. The pre-treatment method of MCT or HTT can eliminate the halogen in plastic wastes. The additives such as alkali-based metal oxides (e.g., CaO, NaOH), iron powders and minerals (e.g., quartz) can work as reaction mediums and accelerators with the objective of enhancing the mechanochemical reaction. The dehalogenation of waste plastics could be achieved by co-grinding with sustainable additives such as bio-wastes (e.g., rice husk), recyclable minerals (e.g., red mud) via MCT for solid fuels production. Interestingly, the solid fuel properties (e.g., particle size) could be significantly improved by HTT in addition with lignocellulosic biomass. Furthermore, the halogenated compounds in downstream thermal process could be eliminated by using catalysts and adsorbents. Most dehalogenation of plastic wastes primarily focuses on the transformation of organic halogen into inorganic halogen in terms of halogen hydrides or salts. The integrated process of MCT or HTT with the catalytic thermal decomposition is a promising way for clean energy production. The low-cost additives (e.g., red mud) used in the pre-treatment by MCT or HTT lead to a considerable synergistic effects including catalytic effect contributing to the follow-up thermal decomposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  2. Nuclear waste transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.; Girard, C.; Delpech, M.; Slessarev, I.; Tommasi, J.

    1994-01-01

    Waste management strategies foresee the use of a deep geological repository either for final disposal of irradiated fuel or, after reprocessing and reuse of U and Pu for final disposal of long-lived radio-active materials. In the second case, partitioning and transmutation of these materials can be considered to reduce the impact of radiation on man due to the storage. On the basis of the SPIN programme developed by CEA in this field, the main features of transmutation is presented. The goal to achieve and the criteria to use are quite difficult to establish. The rights para-meters to characterize the risk are the potential radiotoxicity in the the repository and the residual radiotoxicity at the outlet. Transmutation studies in CEA used the potential radiotoxicity which is based on well-known parameters and less precise hazardous factors. The second point to appreciate the trans- mutation interest is to dispose of a criteria for the radio-radiotoxicity reduction. As there is no general agreement, we try to have a toxicity as low as possible within reasonable technical limits. To reduce the long term radio- toxicity, Pu, minor actinides and some long-lived fission products have to be transmuted. To assess the feasibility of such trans-mutation in reactors or advanced systems, one has to consider constraints on neutronic balance, safety, fuel cycle, technology , economy. Taking in account the main conclusions of this analysis, parametric studies of homogeneous and heterogenous transmutation permit a choice of promising solutions. Goals are to use every long-lived element with a minimized production of other long- lived elements in order to obtain an appreciable radiotoxicity reduction. It implies multi recycling of Pu which favours fast neutron reactors and different strategies of multi recycling for Np, Am, Cm. Multi recycling makes the results strongly dependant of losses. Researches to obtain the high partitioning efficiency needed are in progress. Calculations

  3. Uncanistered Spent Nuclear fuel Disposal Container System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettit, N. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded with intact uncanistered assemblies and/or individually canistered SNF assemblies and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the access drifts, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container provides long-term confinement of the commercial SNF placed inside, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. The Uncanistered SNF Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual SNF assembly temperatures after emplacement, limits the introduction of moderator into the disposal container during the criticality control period, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident

  4. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-10-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK).

  5. Final disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear industry argues that high level radioactive waste can be safely disposed of in deep underground repositories. As yet, however, no such repositories are in use and the amount of spent nuclear fuel in ponds and dry storage is steadily increasing. Although the nuclear industry further argues that storage is a safe option for up to 50 years and has the merit of allowing the radioactivity of the fuel to decay to a more manageable level, the situation seems to be far from ideal. The real reasons for procrastination over deep disposal seem to have as much to do with politics as safe technology. The progress of different countries in finding a solution to the final disposal of high level waste is examined. In some, notably the countries of the former Soviet Union, cost is a barrier; in others, the problem has not yet been faced. In these countries undertaking serious research into deep disposal there has been a tendency, in the face of opposition from environmental groups, to retreat to sites close to existing nuclear installations and to set up rock laboratories to characterize them. These sites are not necessarily the best geologically, but the laboratories may end up being converted into actual repositories because of the considerable financial investment they represent. (UK)

  6. Recovery of cesium from nuclear waste using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane containing calix[4]arene-bis-(2,3-naphtho)-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandwal, P.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Ansari, S.A.; Manchanda, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Transport behaviour of cesium through hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) containing calix[4]arenebis-(2,3-naphtho)-crown-6 (CNC) as carrier extractant, has been investigated under various experimental conditions. At tracer concentration of cesium, > 99% recovery of cesium was achieved from 3M HNO 3 solution to distilled water with 1 mM of CNC in 80% NPOE + 20 % n-dodecane mixture. Effect of feed phase acidity, ligand concentration, metal ion concentration etc. has been investigated. Recovery of cesium from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor Simulated High Level Waste (PHWR-SHLW) using 1 mM CNC dissolved proposed diluent as the extractant, was carried out and it was found that it takes 12 hours of continuous operation for 88% recovery of metal ion. Nevertheless, the complete recovery of cesium from SHLW was possible after neutralization of strip phase acidity with NaOH. (author)

  7. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  8. More reliable financing of future nuclear waste costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This appendix contains seven reports written by consultants to the Commission. The report titles are: Basic document regarding the inquiry on fund management; Scenarios for growth and real interest rates in a long perspective; Stability of the Swedish financing system; Report concerning the financing of nuclear waste management in Sweden and Finland and the cost control system in Sweden; Evaluation of the cost estimates and calculation methods of SKB; A study of the costs for nuclear waste - The basis for cost estimation; A review of scope and costs for the Swedish system for management of nuclear waste. The four last reports are separately indexed

  9. Waste management in the nuclear engineering curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing the nuclear industry is to successfully close the nuclear fuel cycle and effectively demonstrate to the public that nuclear wastes do not present a health risk. This issue is currently viewed by many as the most important issue affecting public acceptance of nuclear power, and it is imperative that nuclear engineers be able to effectively address the question of nuclear waste from both a generation and disposal standpoint. To address the issue, the area of nuclear waste management has been made one of the fields of specialized study in the Department of Nuclear Engineering Sciences at the University of Florida. The study of radioactive waste management at the University of Florida is designed both for background for the general nuclear engineering student and for those wishing to specialize in it as a multidiscipline study area involving the Departments of Nuclear Engineering Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Material Science and Engineering, Geology, Civil Engineering, and Industrial Engineering

  10. Radiological risk curves for the liquid radioactive waste transfer from Angra 1 to Angra 2 nuclear power plants by a container tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, A.S.M.; Passos, E.M. dos; Duarte, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Eletrobras Termonuclear has a radiowaste management program focused on reducing the produced volumes, for which it has considered to transfer Angra 1 liquid radioactive waste by a container tank to be processed and packed in Angra 2. This paper presents a radiological risk study for providing the necessary technical foundations to obtain the license from the regulatory agency for implementing this transfer operation. Out of the 92 accident scenarios identified with the help of a preliminary hazard analysis, the greatest risk of fatal cancer for members of the public was equal to 6.9 x 10 -13 fatalities/yr, which refers to the accident scenario involving intrinsic failures of valves, hoses, flanges, seals, gaskets and instrumentation lines, while filling the container tank at Angra 1 filling station. This risk figure is about ten million times less than the one adopted by Eletronuclear for such a waste transfer. The highest frequency was also associated with this type of scenario, and its value was equal to 1.4 x 10 -6 yr -1 . This paper also presents and discusses the radiological risk curves for the three possible in-plant transfer routes, the Angra 1 filling station and Angra 2 discharging station and the overall risk curve in order to allow for a broader perspective of the results obtained. These risk curves display the accident scenarios frequencies against radiation doses by considering relevant in-plant and surroundings release paths. In these curves, the extreme scenarios mentioned earlier can be clearly identified in terms of occurrence frequencies and radiation doses. (author)

  11. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  12. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2000-01-01

    project is to provide the scientific understanding and rationale for developing improved glass and ceramic waste forms and to develop scientifically-based predictive models of the near-term (<500 years) and long-term performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Studies under this project have focused on the effects of ionization and elastic collisions on defect 3 production, defect interactions, diffusion, solid-state phase transformations, gas accumulation and dissolution kinetics using actinide-containing materials, gamma irradiation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of a-decay and b-decay on relevant nuclear waste materials. This project has exploited both experimental and computer simulation methods to characterize damage production processes, damage recovery processes, defect migration energies, defect interactions, evolution of microstructure, phase transformations, and dissolution mechanisms, all of which ultimately affect the structural integrity and dissolution kinetics of nuclear waste materials. New atomic-level simulation capabilities, which crosscut both spatial and temporal scales, could lead to more sophisticated predictive capabilities in the future

  13. Rock solid: the geology of nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Elspeth.

    1990-01-01

    With a number of nuclear submarines and power stations due to be decommissioned in the next decade, stores of radioactive waste, and arguments about storage increase. Whatever the direction taken by the nuclear industry in Britain, the legacy of waste remains for the foreseeable future. Geology is at the heart of the safety argument for nuclear wastes. It is claimed that rocks should act as the main safety barrier, protecting present and future generations from radiation. Rock Solid presents a clear, accessible and up to date account of the geological problems involved in building a nuclear waste repository. The author describes the geology of some of the possible UK repository sites (Sellafield, Dounreay, Altnabreac, Billingham), explains how sites are investigated (including computer models), and finally considers the crucial question: 'would geological containment of radioactive waste actually work?'. (author)

  14. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  15. Attitudes of the public about nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear wastes has become an important public issue in the past few years. In 1960, only a very small percentage of the American public questioned the safety of waste disposal methods, and no one opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. By 1974, however, a slight majority of the public believed that the disposal of nuclear wastes was a serious problem associated with nuclear power, and from 1975 on, a small percentage of the public has opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. More individuals believe that the technology is not available for acceptable waste management compared to the number of individuals who believe that the technology does exist. However, a majority of the public believe that modern technology can solve the waste disposal problem. Finally, nuclear technologists evaluate waste disposal problems differently from other groups. For instance, nuclear technologists believe that short-term safety is more important than long-term safety regarding waste disposal, while other groups, especially environmentalists, believe that long-term safety is more important than short-term safety. Nuclear technologists are willing to accept a higher level of waste management-related risk than other groups and evaluate waste disposal problems as being less severe than other societal problems

  16. Device for separating, purifying and recovering nuclear fuel material, impurities and materials from impurity-containing nuclear fuel materials or nuclear fuel containing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Ryuichi; Kamei, Yoshinobu; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Tanaka, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To separate, purify and recover nuclear fuel materials, impurities and materials with no formation of liquid wastes. Constitution: Oxidizing atmosphere gases are introduced from both ends of a heating furnace. Vessels containing impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing material are continuously disposed movably from one end to the other of the heating furnace. Then, impurity oxides or material oxides selectively evaporated from the impurity-containing nuclear fuel substances or nuclear fuel substance-containing materials are entrained in the oxidizing atmosphere gas and the gases are led out externally from a discharge port opened at the intermediate portion of the heating furnace, filters are disposed to the exit to solidify and capture the nuclear fuel substances and traps are disposed behind the filters to solidify and capture the oxides by spontaneous air cooling or water cooling. (Sekiya, K.)

  17. Thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear waste management application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajani; Singh, A K; Rana, D S [Waste Management Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear plant equipment are associated with radioactive material which needs to be safely contained under all conditions of operation. Because of large radioactivity associated with the operations of nuclear waste management plants, the equipment are not accessible to human intervention. Hence, the design of the equipment needs to incorporate features for high reliability and safety so as to avoid unnecessary outage. As far as possible the equipment must be maintenance free. Wherever maintenance is inevitable, it has to be designed to be carried out without exposure of personnel to radiation, preventing spread of radiation or contamination. This paper outlines the design features of a thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear application. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nuclear waste: our radioactive hot potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conselman, F.B.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear industry inevitably produces nuclear waste, whose prudent, prompt and economic disposal is important to the national welfare. Technological problems of containment and isolation have apparently been solved. Underground or geologic disposal sites have the potential form permanent isolation, with salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff currently receiving principal attention as repository host rocks. Bedded salt deposits may offer the principal mechanical advantages, but in the northwestern United States the abundance of basalt at existing test sites has made it the subject of experimentation. However, psychological, political, and allegedly environmental obstructionism have stalled the process and virtually immobilized current construction. A program is suggested with the purpose of satisfying technical requirements for public protection while allaying the exaggerated fears of anti-nuclear factions

  19. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  20. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  1. Electrochemical corrosion studies on a selected carbon steel for application in nuclear waste disposal containers: Influence of radiolytic products on corrosion in brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Smailos, E.

    1994-07-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels were identified as promising materials for the manufacturing of long-lived high-level waste containers that could act as a radionuclide barrier in a rock-salt repository. In the present work, the influence of some important oxidizing radiolytic products generated in gamma irradiated brines on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of the preselected fine-grained steel TStE 355 was studied. The steel was examined by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization methods at 90 C in a disposal relevant NaCl-rich brine containing radiolytic products such as H 2 O 2 , ClO - , ClO 3 - and ClO 4 - at concentrations between 10 -4 and 10 -2 M/l. The significance of the radiolytic products to steel corrosion depends on their concentration at the metal-brine interface, which in turn, depends on many factors such as the dose rate, the amount of water present in the disposal area, the escape of gases (e.g. H 2 )

  2. Apparatus for filling a container with radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T.; Hiratake, S.

    1984-01-01

    In apparatus for filling a container suitable for storage with radioactive solid wastes arising from atomic power plants or the like, a plasma arc is irradiated toward a portion of the wastes to melt the portion of the wastes; portions of the wastes are successively moved so as to be subjected to irradiation of the plasma arc to continuously melt the wastes; and the melts obtained by melting the wastes are permitted to flow down toward the bottom of the container

  3. Containments for consolidated nuclear steam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    A containment system for a consolidated nuclear steam system incorporating a nuclear core, steam generator and reactor coolant pumps within a single pressure vessel is described which is designed to provide radiation shielding and pressure suppression. Design details, including those for the dry well and wet well of the containment, are given. (UK)

  4. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  5. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  6. Sedimentary modelling and nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear energy is an important source of energy. Recently a slow down is experienced in its growth rate, due to the following factors: a) the supposed shortage of uranium; b) the fear for the consequences of nuclear accident, and c) the problem of nuclear wastes. Two types of waste are distinguished: a) fission products and actinides, and b) operational waste. The United States have started a program that must lead in 1989 to the first final storage of such waste in salt. Open-pit mines and oil-well drilling are discussed as possible solutions for operational waste storage

  7. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers

  8. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  9. Defence nuclear waste disposal in Russia. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.; Kirko, V.I.

    1998-01-01

    Significant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive waste have been generated in Russia during the production of nuclear weapons, and there is an urgent need to find suitable ways to manage these wastes in a way that protects both the current population and future generations. This book contains contributions from pure and applied scientists and other representatives from Europe, North America, and Russia, who are, or have been, actively involved in the field of radioactive waste management and disposal. First-hand experience of specific problems associated with defence-related wastes in the USA and the Russian Federation is presented, and current plans are described for the disposal of solid wastes arising from civilian nuclear power production programmes in other countries, including Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Germany and the UK. The book provides a good insight into ongoing research at local and national level within Russia, devoted to the safe disposal of defence-related radioactive waste. It also demonstrates how existing expertise and technology from civilian nuclear waste management programmes can be applied to solving the problems created by nuclear defence programmes. Contributions address methods of immobilisation, site selection methodology, site characterisation techniques and data interpretation, the key elements of safety/performance assessments of planned deep (geological) repositories for radioactive waste, and radionuclide transport modelling. Concerns associated with certain specific nuclear waste disposal concepts and repository sites are also presented. refs

  10. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John

    2008-01-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  11. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, Dirk; Ebert, William; Marra, James; Jubin, Robert; Vienna, John [Idaho National laboratory, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is designed to demonstrate that a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline set of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Specific waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and expected performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms. (authors)

  12. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Waste Treatment Baseline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; William Ebert; James Marra; Robert Jubin; John Vienna

    2008-05-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program (GNEP) is designed to demonstrate a proliferation-resistant and sustainable integrated nuclear fuel cycle that can be commercialized and used internationally. Alternative stabilization concepts for byproducts and waste streams generated by fuel recycling processes were evaluated and a baseline of waste forms was recommended for the safe disposition of waste streams. Waste forms are recommended based on the demonstrated or expected commercial practicability and technical maturity of the processes needed to make the waste forms, and performance of the waste form materials when disposed. Significant issues remain in developing technologies to process some of the wastes into the recommended waste forms, and a detailed analysis of technology readiness and availability may lead to the choice of a different waste form than what is recommended herein. Evolving regulations could also affect the selection of waste forms.

  13. Theoretical modelling of nuclear waste flows - 16377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.F.; Biggs, S.R.; Fairweather, M.; Njobuenwu, D.; Yao, J.

    2009-01-01

    A large amount of nuclear waste is stored in tailings ponds as a solid-liquid slurry, and liquid flows containing suspensions of solid particles are encountered in the treatment and disposal of this waste. In processing this waste, it is important to understand the behaviour of particles within the flow in terms of their settling characteristics, their propensity to form solid beds, and the re-suspension characteristics of particles from a bed. A clearer understanding of such behaviour would allow the refinement of current approaches to waste management, potentially leading to reduced uncertainties in radiological impact assessments, smaller waste volumes and lower costs, accelerated clean-up, reduced worker doses, enhanced public confidence and diminished grounds for objection to waste disposal. Mathematical models are of significant value in nuclear waste processing since the extent of characterisation of wastes is in general low. Additionally, waste processing involves a diverse range of flows, within vessels, ponds and pipes. To investigate experimentally all waste form characteristics and potential flows of interest would be prohibitively expensive, whereas the use of mathematical models can help to focus experimental studies through the more efficient use of existing data, the identification of data requirements, and a reduction in the need for process optimisation in full-scale experimental trials. Validated models can also be used to predict waste transport behaviour to enable cost effective process design and continued operation, to provide input to process selection, and to allow the prediction of operational boundaries that account for the different types and compositions of particulate wastes. In this paper two mathematical modelling techniques, namely Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES), have been used to investigate particle-laden flows in a straight square duct and a duct with a bend. The flow solutions provided by

  14. Nuclear waste management, reactor decommisioning, nuclear liability and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with several issues that are frequently raised by the public in any discussion of nuclear energy, and explores some aspects of public attitudes towards nuclear-related activities. The characteristics of the three types of waste associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, i.e. mine/mill tailings, reactor wastes and nuclear fuel wastes, are defined, and the methods currently being proposed for their safe handling and disposal are outlined. The activities associated with reactor decommissioning are also described, as well as the Canadian approach to nuclear liability. The costs associated with nuclear waste management, reactor decommissioning and nuclear liability are also discussed. Finally, the issue of public attitudes towards nuclear energy is addressed. It is concluded that a simple and comprehensive information program is needed to overcome many of the misconceptions that exist about nuclear energy and to provide the public with a more balanced information base on which to make decisions

  15. Nuclear energy from radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The global energy demand is increasing. Sound forecasts indicate that by the year 2020 almost eight thousand million people will be living on our planet, and generating their demand for energy will require conversion of about 20 thousand million tonnes of coal equivalents a year. Against this background scenario, a new concept for energy generation elaborated by nuclear scientists at CERN attracts particular interest. The concept describing a new nuclear energy source and technology intends to meet the following principal requirements: create a new energy source that can be exploited in compliance with extremely stringent safety requirements; reduce the amount of long-lived radioactive waste; substantially reduce the size of required radwaste repositories; use easily available natural fuels that will not need isotopic separation; prevent the risk of proliferation of radioactive materials; process and reduce unwanted actinides as are generated by the operation of current breeder reactors; achieve high efficiency both in terms of technology and economics. (orig./CB) [de

  16. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation

  17. Nuclear waste repository in basalt: preconceptual design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The development of the basalt waste isolation program parallels the growing need for permanent, environmentally safe, and secure means to store nuclear wastes. The repository will be located within the Columbia Plateau basalt formations where these ends can be met and radiological waste can be stored. These wastes will be stored such that the wastes may be retrieved from storage for a period after placement. After the retrieval period, the storage locations will be prepared for terminal storage. The terminal storage requirements will include decommissioning provisions. The facility boundaries will encompass no more than several square miles of land which will be above a subsurface area where the geologic makeup is primarily deep basaltic rock. The repository will receive, from an encapsulation site(s), nuclear waste in the form of canisters (not more than 18.5 feet x 16 inches in diameter) and containers (55-gallon drums). Canisters will contain spent fuel (after an interim 5-year storage period), solidified high-level wastes (HLW), or intermediate-level wastes (ILW). The containers (drums) will package the low-level transuranic wastes (LL-TRU). The storage capacity of the repository will be expanded in a time-phased program which will require that subsurface development (repository expansion) be conducted concurrently with waste storage operations. The repository will be designed to store the nuclear waste generated within the predictable future and to allow for reasonable expansion. The development and assurance of safe waste isolation is of paramount importance. All activities will be dedicated to the protection of public health and the environment. The repository will be licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Extensive efforts will be made to assure selection of a suitable site which will provide adequate isolation.

  18. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  19. Regional waste treatment facilities with underground monolith disposal for all low-heat-generating nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An alternative system for treatment and disposal of all ''low-heat-generating'' nuclear wastes from all sources is proposed. The system, Regional Waste Treatment Facilities with Underground Monolith Disposal (RWTF/UMD), integrates waste treatment and disposal operations into single facilities at regional sites. Untreated and/or pretreated wastes are transported from generation sites such as reactors, hospitals, and industries to regional facilities in bulk containers. Liquid wastes are also transported in bulk after being gelled for transport. The untreated and pretreated wastes are processed by incineration, crushing, and other processes at the RWTF. The processed wastes are mixed with cement. The wet concrete mixture is poured into large low-cost, manmade caverns or deep trenches. Monolith dimensions are from 15 to 25 m wide, and 20 to 60 m high and as long as required. This alternative waste system may provide higher safety margins in waste disposal at lower costs

  20. Utilization of crushed radioactive concrete for mortar to fill waste container void space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko; Oguri, Daiichiro; Ueki, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    Minimizing the volume of radioactive waste generated during dismantling of nuclear power plants is a matter of great importance. In Japan waste forms buried in a shallow burial disposal facility as low level radioactive waste must be solidified by cement or other materials with adequate strength and must provide no harmful opening. The authors have developed an improved method to minimize radioactive waste volume by utilizing radioactive concrete for fine aggregate for mortars to fill void space in waste containers. Tests were performed with pre-placed concrete waste and with filling mortar using recycled fine aggregate produced from concrete. It was estimated that the improved method substantially increases the waste fill ratio in waste containers, thereby decreasing the total volume of disposal waste. (author)

  1. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  2. Candidate container materials for Yucca Mountain waste package designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Halsey, W.G.; Gdowski, G.E.; Clarke, W.L.

    1991-09-01

    Materials considered as candidates for fabricating nuclear waste containers are reviewed in the context of the Conceptual Design phase of a potential repository located at Yucca Mountain. A selection criteria has been written for evaluation of candidate materials for the next phase -- Advanced Conceptual Design. The selection criteria is based on the conceptual design of a thin-walled container fabricated from a single metal or alloy; the criteria consider the performance requirements on the container and the service environment in which the containers will be emplaced. A long list of candidate materials is evaluated against the criteria, and a short list of materials is proposed for advanced characterization in the next design phase

  3. Nuclear waste immobilisation in SYNROC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1984-04-01

    SYNROC is a crystalline titanate ceramic designed to immobilise the elements occurring in high level wastes. It has been demonstrated that the great majority of elements present in high level wastes can be incorporated within the crystalline lattices of the SYNROC minerals. In this state they are extremely resistant to attack by aqueous solutions. Extensive experimental data demonstrates that SYNROC is 1,000 to 10,000 times more resistant to leaching than borosilicate glass wasteforms at 100 - 200 deg C. SYNROC displays exceptional stability at higher temperatures where glasses disintegrate rapidly. The essential minerals of SYNROC occur in nature where they have demonstrated their capacity to survive in a wide range of geological and geochemical environments for periods of 10 8 - 10 9 years. These characteristics, in combination with the experimental studies, demonstrate that SYNROC offers important advantages over borosilicate glass as a wasteform, both in terms of performance and capacity to achieve public acceptability. Studies of the properties of ancient naturally occurring SYNROC minerals containing uranium and thorium which have received very large cumulative radiation doses demonstrate that the capacity of these minerals to retain waste elements is not substantially retarded by radiation damage. Process technology for the production of SYNROC on a large scale is now under development. A novel method employing uniaxial hot pressing of SYNROC powder contained in free sanding steel bellows at 1150 deg C yields a fully dense product. Production costs are estimated to be in the same range as for borosilicate glass

  4. Development of comprehensive waste acceptance criteria for commercial nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, F.A.; Miller, N.E.; Ausmus, B.S.; Yates, K.R.; Means, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.; Kulacki, F.A.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed methodology is presented for the identification of the characteristics of commercial nuclear waste which may require criteria. This methodology is analyzed as a six-step process which begins with identification of waste operations and proceeds until the waste characteristics affecting the potential release of radionuclides are determined. All waste types and operations were analyzed using the methodology presented. Several illustrative example are included. It is found that thirty-three characteristics can be identified as possibly requiring criteria

  5. Nuclear waste repository simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothfuchs, T.; Wieczorek, K.; Feddersen, H.K.; Staupendahl, G.; Coyle, A.J.; Kalia, H.; Eckert, J.

    1986-12-01

    This document is the third joint annual report on the Cooperative German-American 'Brine Migration Tests' that are in progress at the Asse salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). This Government supported mine serves as an underground test facility for research and development (R and D)-work in the field of nuclear waste repository research and simulation experiments. The tests are designed to simulate a nuclear waste repository to measure the effects of heat and gamma radiation on brine migration, salt decrepitation, disassociation of brine, and gases collected. The thermal mechanical behavior of salt, such as room closure, stresses and changes of the properties of salt are measured and compared with predicted behavior. This document covers the following sections: Issues and test objectives: This section presents issues that are investigated by the Brine Migration Test, and the test objectives derived from these issues; test site: This section describes the test site location and geology in the Asse mine; test description: A description of the test configuration, procedures, equipment, and instrumentation is given in this section; actual test chronology: The actual history of the test, in terms of the dates at which major activities occured, is presented in this section. Test results: This section presents the test results observed to data and the planned future work that is needed to complete the test; conclusions and recommendations: This section summarizes the conclusions derived to date regarding the Brine Migration Test. Additional work that would be useful to resolve the issues is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Engineering properties of nuclear waste slurries - 16378

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, Simon; Fairweather, Michael; Hunter, Timothy; Omokanye, Qanitalillahi; Peakall, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The type of particulate systems encountered in legacy nuclear waste slurries is highly complicated, with the aggregation and flow behaviour being at times very variable. However, deconstructing the complex overall slurry activity to singular particle-particle interactions can lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved with particle aggregation, and so to predictions of their settling and flow in nuclear systems. Of particular importance to legacy waste is the role of salts in controlling the attraction of particles (and so in dictating the rheological properties of the system) as sludge may contain a variety of specific ions and generally have high ionic conductivity [1]. In this paper, particle-particle interactions are characterised using a number of complimentary methods, and their influence on resulting flow and bed compression is measured. The methods used to characterise the particle-particle interactions under various salt and pH conditions were electro-acoustic analysis (zeta potential) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Following on from the analysis of particle-particle properties, bulk sediment behaviour was investigated using shear and compressive yield stress measurements, vital parameters in dictating flow and dewatering performance, respectively. Together, these techniques enable the characterisation of a range of particulate systems that may be encountered in legacy wastes, and results point to a number of important factors that can help explain the observed variability in industrial slurry behaviour. (authors)

  7. Nuclear-waste problems are deemed less technological than institutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear waste management needs administrative re-organization to separate management, regulation, and research and development responsibilities. New stable, but adaptable, institutions need to be established to clarify criteria for containing and isolating nuclear waste and to ensure that criteria are met. Present structure, which puts much of the temporary responsibility on the private sector and permanent responsibility on ERDA, does not encourage efficiency. Government regulations and public pressure have provided some incentives, but military nuclear wastes have no independent regulation to protect the public, and the states have proved ineffective in regulating commercial operations. Recommendations for reorganization are: (1) to establish a national public corporation to manage high-level and transuranic wastes; (2) to consolidate regulatory authority under a comprehensive Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) to establish a commission within the International Atomic Energy Agency for licensing and review of disposal operations

  8. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-01-01

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost

  9. Iron Phosphate Glasses: An Alternative for Vitrifying Certain Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delbert E. Day; Chandra S. Ray; Cheol-Woon Kim

    2004-12-28

    Vitrification of nuclear waste in a glass is currently the preferred process for waste disposal. DOE currently approves only borosilicate (BS) type glasses for such purposes. However, many nuclear wastes, presently awaiting disposal, have complex and diverse chemical compositions, and often contain components that are poorly soluble or chemically incompatible in BS glasses. Such problematic wastes can be pre-processed and/or diluted to compensate for their incompatibility with a BS glass matrix, but both of these solutions increases the wasteform volume and the overall cost for vitrification. Direct vitrification using alternative glasses that utilize the major components already present in the waste is preferable, since it avoids pre-treating or diluting the waste, and, thus, minimizes the wasteform volume and overall cost.

  10. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  11. State of nuclear waste management of German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The waste management of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany is today prevailing in the public discussion. Objections raised in this connection, e.g. that the nuclear waste management has been omitted from the development of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy or remained insolved, are frequently accepted without examination, and partly spread as facts. This is, however, not the truth: From the outset in 1955 the development of nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany has included investigations of the problems of reprocessing and non-detrimental disposal of radioactive products, and the results have been compiled in a national nuclear waste management concept. (orig.) [de

  12. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana V.

    2003-01-01

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is' or 'there is not' (there is or there is not

  13. Nuclear waste in public acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vastchenko, Svetlana V. [Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research - Sosny / National Academy of Science, A.K.Krasin Str., 99, Minsk 220109 (Belarus)

    2003-07-01

    The existing problem on a faithful acceptance of nuclear information by population is connected, to a considerable extent, with a bad nuclear 'reputation' because of a great amount of misrepresented and false information from 'the greens'. In contrast to a bare style of professionals often neglecting an emotional perception, a loud voice of 'the greens' appeals both to the head, and to the heart of the audience. People pattern their behaviour weakly on problems of safe application of different irradiation sources in industry, conditions of life, medicine and everyday life. Radiation danger of some sources is often exaggerated (computers, nuclear technologies, radiation treatment) and the danger of the others is, on the contrary, underestimated (nuclear and roentgen methods of diagnostics and medical treatment). The majority of our citizens do not know which level of radiation is normal and safe, which ways radioactive substances intake into the organism of a human being and how to diminish the dose load on the organism by simple measures. Only specialists can be orientated themselves in a great number of radiation units. Low level of knowledge of the population and false conceptions are connected with the fact that they are mainly informed about nuclear technologies from mass media, where the voice of 'Greenpeace' is loudly sounded, but they often give misrepresented and false information doing it in the very emotional form. In contrast to them, scientists-professionals often ignore a sensitive part of apprehending of information and do not attach importance to it. As a rule, the style of specialists is of a serious academician character when they meet with the public. People preconception to nuclear waste and distrust to a positive information concerning nuclear technologies are explained, to a considerable extent, by a bivalent type of thinking when people operate by two opposite conceptions only, such as 'there is

  14. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, H.; Van den Berg, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  15. Nuclear Waste Imaging and Spent Fuel Verification by Muon Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkmans, G.; Anghel, V. N. P.; Jewett, C.; Thompson, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the use of cosmic ray muons to image the contents of shielded containers and detect high-Z special nuclear materials inside them. Cosmic ray muons are a naturally occurring form of radiation, are highly penetrating and exhibit large scattering angles on high Z materials. Specifically, we investigated how radiographic and tomographic techniques can be effective for non-invasive nuclear waste characterization and for nuclear material accountancy of spent fuel inside dry stor...

  16. The politics of nuclear-waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarricone, P.

    1994-01-01

    After 72 days of public hearings and testimony from more than 100 witnesses, the first commission of its kind in the US found that politics--not science and engineering--led to the selection of Martinsville, Ill. as the host site for a nuclear-waste-disposal facility. This article examines how the plan to dispose of nuclear waste in Martinsville ultimately unraveled

  17. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  18. Scientific basis for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the fourth International Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management, held in Boston, Massachusetts, on November 16-19, 1981, as part of the Annual Meeting of the Materials Research Society. The purpose of this Symposium was to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of scientific research dealing with all levels and types of radioactive wastes and their management. These symposia have been held annually since 1978. The proceedings of the first three meetings were published as Volumes 1, 2, and 3 in a series. With this, the fourth meeting, the volume numbering system is changed to coincide with the system used to number Materials Research Society Annual Meeting Proceedings. The reports presented here give the results of research and development activities from a large number of universities, government laboratories and private industry in nine countries. The 92 papers published in these proceedings have been divided into 92 chapters. These encompass various aspects of high-level and non-high-level radioactive waste management ranging from repository characterization and waste form production to product and performance assessment. All of the papers have been abstracted and indexed for the data base

  19. Characterization of cement and bitumen waste forms containing simulated low-level waste incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1984-08-01

    Incinerator ash from the combustion of general trash and ion exchange resins was immobilized in cement and bitumen. Tests were conducted on the resulting waste forms to provide a data base for the acceptability of actual low-level waste forms. The testing was done in accordance with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Technical Position on Waste Form. Bitumen had a measured compressive strength of 130 psi and a leachability index of 13 as measured with the ANS 16.1 leach test procedure. Cement demonstrated a compressive strength of 1400 psi and a leachability index of 7. Both waste forms easily exceed the minimum compressive strength of 50 psi and leachability index of 6 specified in the Technical Position. Irradiation to 10 8 Rad and exposure to 31 thermal cycles ranging from +60 0 ) to -30 0 C did not significantly impact these properties. Neither waste form supported bacterial or fungal growth as measured with ASTM G21 and G22 procedures. However, there is some indication of biodegradation due to co-metabolic processes. Concentration of organic complexants in leachates of the ash, cement and bitumen were too low to significantly affect the release of radionuclides from the waste forms. Neither bitumen nor cement containing incinerator ash caused any corrosion or degradation of potential container materials including steel, polyethylene and fiberglass. However, moist ash did cause corrosion of the steel

  20. Monitoring of wastes containing plutonium. Necessity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Y.; Pottier, P.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of problems set by wastes containing plutonium is rapidly growing. Plutonium is not a waste, recycling limits heavily the quantity of plutonium to be stored with wastes. Optimized waste management must take definitive storage and economical limits of plutonium recovery into account. Waste monitoring is a must for safety, economy and waste management. Methods used require reliability, simplicity, sensibility and accuracy particularly for threshold detection [fr

  1. An introduction to nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, M.I.; Lee, W.E.

    2005-08-01

    Safety and environmental impact is of uppermost concern when dealing with the movement and storage of nuclear waste. The 20 chapters in this book cover all important aspects of immobilisation, from nuclear decay, to regulations, to new technologies and methods. Significant focus is given to the analysis of the various matrices used in transport: cement, bitumen and glass, with the greatest attention being given to glass. The last chapter concentrates on the performance assessment of each matrix, and on new developments of ceramics and glass composite materials, thermochemical methods and in-situ metal matrix immobilisation. The book thoroughly covers all issues surrounding nuclear waste: from where to locate nuclear waste in the environment, through nuclear waste generation and sources, treatment schemes and technologies, immobilisation technologies and waste forms, disposal and long term behaviour. Particular attention is paid to internationally approved and worldwide-applied approaches and technologies

  2. The political challenges of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2005-01-01

    This anthology is made up of nine essays on the nuclear waste issue, both its political, social and technical aspects, with the aim to create a platform for debate and planning of research. The contributions are titled: 'From clean energy to dangerous waste - the regulatory management of nuclear power in the Swedish welfare society. An economic-historic review , 'The course of the high-level waste into the national political arena', 'The technical principles behind the Swedish repository for spent fuels', 'Waste, legitimacy and local citizenship', 'Nuclear issues in societal planning', 'Usefulness or riddance - transmutation or just disposal?', 'National nuclear fuel policy in an European Union?', 'Conclusion - the challenges of the nuclear waste issue', 'Final words - about the need for critical debate and multi-disciplinary research'

  3. Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This regulation sets environmental standards for public protection from the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level wastes and wastes that contain elements with atomic numbers higher than uranium (transuranic wastes).

  4. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaktala, H.K.; Interrante, C.G.

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide ''substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig

  5. Technical considerations for evaluating substantially complete containment of high-level waste within the waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaktala, H.K. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (USA). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses); Interrante, C.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA). Div. of High-Level Waste Management)

    1990-12-01

    This report deals with technical information that is considered essential for demonstrating the ability of the high-level radioactive waste package to provide substantially complete containment'' of its contents (vitrified waste form or spent light-water reactor fuel) for a period of 300 to 1000 years in a geological repository environment. The discussion is centered around technical considerations of the repository environment, materials and fabrication processes for the waste package components, various degradation modes of the materials of construction of the waste packages, and inspection and monitoring of the waste package during the preclosure and retrievability period, which could begin up to 50 years after initiation of waste emplacement. The emphasis in this report is on metallic materials. However, brief references have been made to other materials such as ceramics, graphite, bonded ceramic-metal systems, and other types of composites. The content of this report was presented to an external peer review panel of nine members at a workshop held at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, April 2--4, 1990. The recommendations of the peer review panel have been incorporated in this report. There are two companion reports; the second report in the series provides state-of-the-art techniques for uncertainty evaluations. 97 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glubrecht, H.

    1986-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle - like in most other industrial processes - some waste is produced which can be harmful to the environment and has to be stored safely and isolated from the Biosphere. This radioactive waste can be compared with toxic chemical waste under many aspects, but it has some special features, some of which make its handling more difficult, others make it easier. The difficulties are that radioactive waste does not only affect living organisms after incorporation, but also from some distance through its radiation. Therefore this waste has not only to be encapsuled, but also shielded. At higher concentrations radioactive waste produces heat and this has to be continuously derived from the storage area. On the other hand the control of even extremely small amounts of radioactive waste is very much easier than that of toxic chemical waste due to the high sensitivity of radiation detection methods. Furthermore radioactive waste is not persistent like most of the chemical waste. Of course some components will decay only after millennia, but a high percentage of radioactive waste becomes inactive after days, weeks or years. An important feature of safety aspects related to nuclear waste is the fact that problems of its treatment and storage have been discussed from the very beginning of Nuclear Energy Technology - what has not been the case in relation to most other industrial wastes

  7. Nuclear waste management policy in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The object of the nuclear waste management policy in France has always been to protect the worker and the public from unacceptable risks. The means and the structures developed to reach this objective, however, have evolved with time. One fact has come out ever more clearly over the years: Nuclear waste problems cannot be considered in a piecemeal fashion. The French nuclear waste management structure and policy aim at just this global approach. Responsibilities have been distributed between the main partners: the waste producers and conditioners, the research teams, the safety authorities, and the long-term waste manager, National Radioactive Waste Management Agency. The main technical options adopted for waste forms are embedding in hydraulic binders, bitumen, or thermosetting resins for low-level waste (LLW) and medium-level waste (MLW), and vitrification for high-level, liquid wastes. One shallow land disposal site for LLW and MLW has been in operation since 1969, the Centre of La Manche. Alpha-bearing and high-level waste will be disposed of by deep geological storage, possibly in granite formations. Further RandD aims mainly at improving present-day practices, developing more durable, long-term, alpha-bearing waste for all solid waste forms and going into all aspects of deep geological disposal characterization

  8. Passive containment system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimola, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A containment system is described that provides complete protection entirely by passive means for the loss of coolant accident in a nuclear power plant and wherein all stored energy released in the coolant blowdown is contained and absorbed while the nuclear fuel is continuously maintained submerged in liquid. The primary containment vessel is restored to a high subatmospheric pressure within a few minutes after accident initiation and the decay heat is safely transferred to the environment while radiolytic hydrogen is contained by passive means

  9. OCRWM International Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.; Levich, R.; Strahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    With the implementation of nuclear power as a major energy source, the United States is increasingly faced with the challenges of safely managing its inventory of spent nuclear materials. In 2002, with 438 nuclear power facilities generating electrical energy in 31 nations around the world, the management of radioactive material including spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, is an international concern. Most of the world's nuclear nations maintain radioactive waste management programs and have generally accepted deep geologic repositories as the long-term solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Similarly, the United States is evaluating the feasibility of deep geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which has responsibility for managing the disposition of spent nuclear fuel produced by commercial nuclear power facilities along with U.S. government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much of the world class science conducted through the OCRWM program was enhanced through collaboration with other nations and international organizations focused on resolving issues associated with the disposition of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  10. The IAEA project on nuclear and non-nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive and chemotoxic agents are common in electricity generation waste. Data and assessments illustrate that nuclear and non-nuclear fuel chains result in waste posing potential long-term hazards. Efforts are focussed on filling data gaps and approaches for comparing impacts of radioactive and chemotoxic agents

  11. Review of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, L.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1979-10-01

    Regardless of future nuclear policy, a nuclear waste disposal problem does exist and must be dealt with. Even a moratorium on new nuclear plants leaves us with the wastes already in existence and wastes yet to be generated by reactors in operation. Thus, technologies to effectively dispose of our current waste problem must be researched and identified and, then, disposal facilities built. The magnitude of the waste disposal problem is a function of future nuclear policy. There are some waste disposal technologies that are suitable for both forms of HLW (spent fuel and reprocessing wastes), whereas others can be used with only reprocessed wastes. Therefore, the sooner a decision on the future of nuclear power is made the more accurately the magnitude of the waste problem will be known, thereby identifying those technologies that deserve more attention and funding. It is shown that there are risks associated with every disposal technology. One technology may afford a higher isolation potential at the expense of increased transportation risks in comparison to a second technology. Establishing the types of risks we are willing to live with must be resolved before any waste disposal technology can be instituted for widespread commercial use

  12. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A. (comps.)

    1985-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Waste Management. Semiannual progress report, October 1984-March 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.L.; Powell, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    Progress reports are presented for the following studies on radioactive waste management: defense waste technology; nuclear waste materials characterization center; and supporting studies. 19 figs., 29 tabs

  14. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-01-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Treatment of low and intermediate aqueous waste containing Cs-137 by chemical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Alamares, A.L.; Junio, J.B.; Dela Cruz, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The use of radioactive materials in various applications has been increasing since its introduction in the early sixties. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has established a centralized facility for treating radioactive wastes i.e. aqueous wastes with assistance from the International Atomic Energy Agency - Technical Cooperation Programme. Liquid wastes containing Cs-137 are generated from aqueous wastes containing Cs-137 by nickel ferrocyanide precipitation will be presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency treatment in removing Cs-137 from an aqueous effluent. Actual aqueous wastes known to contain Cs-137 were used in the experiments. Low cost and simple nickel ferrocyanide precipitation method with the aid of a flocculant has been selected for the separation of Cs-137 from low and intermediate aqueous waste. By varying the chemical dosage added into the aqueous waste, different decontamination factors were obtained. Hence, the optimum dosage of the chemicals that give the highest decontamination factor can be determined. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and other nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek-Fink, P.

    1976-01-01

    After estimating the amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes that will be produced in nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, by the fuel cycle industry, and in the nuclear research centers in the FRG until 1990, it is reported on the state of technology and on the tendencies in the development of processing radioactive waste. The paper also describes, how waste disposal is managed by those producing radioactive waste (see above), and discusses the future development of the complex of waste disposal from the industry's point of view. (HR/LN) [de

  17. Nuclear waste disposal educational forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In keeping with a mandate from the US Congress to provide opportunities for consumer education and information and to seek consumer input on national issues, the Department of Energy's Office of Consumer Affairs held a three-hour educational forum on the proposed nuclear waste disposal legislation. Nearly one hundred representatives of consumer, public interest, civic and environmental organizations were invited to attend. Consumer affairs professionals of utility companies across the country were also invited to attend the forum. The following six papers were presented: historical perspectives; status of legislation (Senate); status of legislation (House of Representatives); impact on the legislation on electric utilities; impact of the legislation on consumers; implementing the legislation. All six papers have been abstracted and indexed for the Energy Data Base

  18. A global nuclear waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wunan

    As a concerned scientist, I think that having a global nuclear waste repository is a reachable goal for human beings. Maybe through this common goal, mankind can begin to treat each other as brothers and sisters. So far, most human activities are framed by national boundaries, which are purely arbitrary. Breaking through these national boundaries will be very beneficial to human beings.Formation of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program in 1986 indicates a growing awareness on the part of scientists regarding Earth as a system. The Apollo missions gave us a chance to look back at Earth from space. That perspective emphasized that our Earth is just one system: our only home. It is in deed a lonely boat in the high sea of dark space. We must take good care of our “boat.”

  19. Managing nuclear waste: the underground perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A simplified, very-general overview of the history of nuclear waste management is presented. The sources of different wastes of different levels of radioactivity are discussed. The current governmental program, including three DOE programs currently studying the problems of isolating waste in geological repositories, is discussed briefly. The general thrust of ensuing articles in the same magazine dealing with different facets of the waste-management program is outlined. (BLM)

  20. Plan for spent fuel waste form testing for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of spent fuel waste form testing is to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from failed disposal containers holding spent fuel, under conditions appropriate to the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project tuff repository. The information gathered in the activities discussed in this document will be used: to assess the performance of the waste package and engineered barrier system (EBS) with respect to the containment and release rate requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as the basis for the spent fuel waste form source term in repository-scale performance assessment modeling to calculate the cumulative releases to the accessible environment over 10,000 years to determine compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency, and as the basis for the spent fuel waste form source term in repository-scale performance assessment modeling to calculate cumulative releases over 100,000 years as required by the site evaluation process specified in the DOE siting guidelines. 34 refs