WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear submarine visits

  1. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  2. Potential radiological impact assessment related to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols for receiving the visit of nuclear ships and submarines. Such naval units, during their stays in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, there is always the possibility of an accident, leading to environmental release of radioactive material. This work had the objective of assessing the potential radiological environmental impact due to the eventual occurrence of an accident during the permanence of ships and submarines of nuclear propulsion in the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Guanabara Bay. The accident scenarios considered include releases to the marine environment and to the atmosphere. Previous results indicated that, in normal operation conditions, no significant radiological impact is foreseen due to the visits of nuclear submarines to the city, even if small routine radionuclide releases occur. The analysis of the accidental releases, however, indicates that the anchorage points should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km of inhabited areas in the contour the Bay. (author)

  3. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Nuclear-powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed acquisition of nuclear-powered submarines by the Canadian Armed Forces raises a number of legitimate concerns, including that of their potential impact on the environment. The use of nuclear reactors as the propulsion units in these submarines merits special consideration. Radioactivity, as an environmental pollutant, has unique qualities and engenders particular fears among the general population. The effects of nuclear submarines on the environment fall into two distinct categories: those deriving from normal operations of the submarine (the chief concern of this paper), and those deriving from a reactor accident. An enormous body of data must exist to support the safe operation of nuclear submarines; however, little information on this aspect of the proposed submarine program has been made available to the Canadian public. (5 refs.)

  5. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port; Avaliacao do impacto radiologico potencial relativo a visita de submarinos nucleares ao Porto do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-07-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  6. To the problem of utilization of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanov, E.; Larin, V.

    1999-01-01

    Paper discusses a concept of step-by-step utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia. By the late 2000 minimum 160 nuclear submarines with over 300 nuclear reactors should be removed. Unloading of spent nuclear fuel from reactors, dismounting of nuclear submarines, efforts to arrange storage facilities for liquid and solid radioactive waste are the main steps of nuclear submarine utilization. Under the rates of nuclear submarine utilization being as they are, the utilization of 160 nuclear submarines will take about 30 years. Paper analyzes the alternative variants of nuclear submarine utilization and discusses the social and ecological aspects of utilization of nuclear submarines [ru

  7. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enohara, Masami; Araragi, Fujio.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  8. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

  9. Taking a Dive for a Friend - The Decision to Transfer Nuclear Submarine Technology to Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brubaker, Gerald L

    1990-01-01

    .... national security bureaucracy: President Reagan had approved the transfer of U.S.-developed nuclear submarine propulsion technology to Canada and would inform Prime Minister Brian Mulroney during his visit to Washington later that month...

  10. The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1995-01-01

    A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

  11. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  12. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  13. France and nuclear proliferation: the new generation of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ten years after the end of the 'cold war' the French government has pursued its national defense program with the construction of a new generation of nuclear submarines with new type of missiles and nuclear heads. This book analyzes the possible solutions for a step by step elimination of nuclear weapons from the French weapons stock. (J.S.)

  14. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  15. Assessment of the environmental consequences of demolishing two Russian nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Norway has financed the demolition of two Russian Viktor II nuclear submarines through the Government's plan of action for nuclear issues. The British company Enviros Consulting has made an independent assessment of the environmental consequences of the project, which has been evaluated by the Foreign Department in cooperation with The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The consequence assessment has examined the health, environment and safety aspects of the entire demolition process, from towing the submarine to delivering the rubbish at the destination site. From Russian documentation and by visiting the shipyards it has been concluded that the demolition has been carried out in agreement with Russian law and in accordance with international instructions

  16. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, I.; Lind, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)

  17. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  18. The brazilian nuclear submarine dossier: Navy's priority and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work discusses the feasibility of the brazilian nuclear submarine. It is related to navy's remodeling and is considered as a priority. It would bring Brazil closer to developed countries. It considers the slip, itself, the weapon's system as well as the nuclear propulsion. (author)

  19. Nuclear submarine utilization. Financial deadlock and search for its output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Tikhonov, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    Program of nuclear submarine utilization in the Russian Federation is described. The program provides for complete solution of all problems, connected with nuclear submarine utilization, including reconstruction of ship-repair and ship-cutting plants, metal fabrication plants, construction of points of temporary radioactive waste storages, new burials, as well as required social support of personnel, working under unhealthy conditions. The program is based on guaranteed and sufficient financing from extra-budgetary sources, as well as on new technologies, enabling to utilize all written off ships during 10-15 years

  20. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  1. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out to develop an IKBS for use in surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise, i.e. to return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information

  2. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper describes work being carried out to develop an intelligent knowledge-based system (IKBS) for use in the surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise and return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information. (author)

  3. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  4. Worldwide overview of nuclear submarine decommissioning plans and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1995-06-01

    The number of nuclear propelled vessels that have reached the end of their useful life, is increasing. This raises the question of what to do with these vessels. In this paper the order of magnitude of the problem is first discussed, i.e. the number of nuclear ships built and the number already taken out of service. Next the problems of the first stages of decommissioning are discussed, i.e. the removal of the fuel and the preparation of the reactor parts for final disposal, including the amounts of radioactivity involved. Thirdly, the various methods of final disposal are considered, sea disposal, shallow land burial and deep land burial. Finally, the risks involved in nuclear submarine decommissioning are briefly discussed. (au)

  5. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, E.; Ball, R.; Simpson, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2001. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2001 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  6. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  7. A Nuclear Submarine in the South Atlantic: The Framing of Threats and Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Herz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we analyse one aspect of Brazilian nuclear policy during the tenure of the Workers Party (2003–2016: the development of a nuclear-propelled submarine. We propose that the project of building a nuclear-propelled submarine has become possible partly because of the mobilisation of a set of arguments for the construction of the South Atlantic as a strategic area, framed in terms of security and development. On the other hand, we contend that the need for a nuclear-propelled submarine is framed through the mobilisation of a specific notion of deterrence. In other words, we claim that the notions of ‘strategic area’, ‘general deterrence’, ‘conventional deterrence’, and ‘deterrence by denial’ can help us analyse the fundamental aspects involved in the framing of the South Atlantic as a security concern, justifying the nuclear-propelled submarine project.

  8. In-service inspection of the vessels of nuclear submarine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, R.; Mercier L'Abbe, G.

    1977-02-01

    Description is given of a machine of automatic inspection of the reactor vessels of nuclear submarines, that was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A focused ultrasound testing method is used. The equipment such described meets the safety requirements prescribed for the primary circuits of nuclear submarine boiler plants. The sensitivity and resolution power of the apparatus allow such high precision to be obtained as rupture mechanics gains a credibility that could not have been obtained with using conventional apparatus [fr

  9. Design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to conceptually design a small, inherently safe, quasi-homogeneous nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope. This research is in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background of the research, present results found to date, and indicate the direction of the research over the next two years. The Canadian Forces has recently acquired four U.K. built Upholder Class submarines to replace the ageing Oberon Class submarines purchased in the early 1960's. The Upholders, like the Oberons, are diesel-electric powered. The Upholders were renamed the Victoria Class upon commissioning in Canada. Submarines are strategic military weapons that have several roles including: intelligence gathering, inflicting surprise attacks, controlling shipping lanes and covert operations. For each of these roles the submarine must remain undetected. To remain undetected, it is imperative that the submarine remains submerged. To remain submerged and continue to function, a submarine requires an air-independent power generation system, such as a nuclear reactor. (author)

  10. Modelling and Monitoring in Preparedness for Nuclear Powered Warship Visits in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzechnik, Marcus P.; Orr, Blake W.; Bokor, Ilonka; Solomon, Stephen B. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, Victoria, 3084 (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    As a part of reciprocal inter-Governmental arrangements, Australia hosts regular Governmental-approved peacetime visits of naval vessels. These vessels can be conventionally or nuclear-powered. Because of the nature of Nuclear Powered Warships (NPWs), special procedures have been adopted to ensure that the safety of the general public is maintained during visits by such vessels (Nimitz class carriers or submarines). These procedures include Conditions of Entry and the arrangements for visits, as well as contingency arrangements in the unlikely event of an accident resulting in the hazardous release of radioactivity to the environment. The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) is involved in an inter-departmental committee, the Visiting Ships Panel (Nuclear) (VSP(N)), which oversees the arrangements for visits to Australian Ports by NPWs. This panel includes representatives from Navy and Jurisdictions which host NPW visits. As well as existing arrangements (including reference accident scenarios and sampling of sediment and local seafood), ARPANSA has initiated programmes to; - Present automated atmospheric dispersion products based on current and predicted weather - these are expected to be housed on a secure web site with outputs tailored to the needs of first responders using the ARGOS decision support tool. - Monitor water concentrations within NPW ports prior to visits, in order to establish baseline values. The monitoring (for Cs-137) involves a high volume filtering and extraction technique which has been developed at ARPANSA and will be discussed. An update on progress will be discussed. This includes an overview of relevant systems, procedures in place and work to be completed. Issues to be resolved and lessons learned will also be considered. (authors)

  11. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    million annually in the NSWC’s Card- erock Division submarine design workforce in excess of reimburs - able demand to sustain skills that might...large testing infrastructure. Conse- quently, the Navy retains management and operation of these facili- ties under direct reimbursement from private...the water. 4 These facilities are maintained within the naval warfare centers, which, as working capi- tal organizations, require reimbursement from

  12. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  13. The use of nuclear powered submarines for oceanographic research in ICE covered regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrotto, Raymond; Chayes, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear powered submarines offer a variety of advantages as platforms for oceanographic research. Their speed and ability to remain submerged for extended periods greatly extends their spatial coverage and isolates them from surface ocean conditions as compared to conventional ships. These advantages are particularly obvious in ice covered oceans that remain among the least explored regions on the globe. Scientific research in these regions has been limited to selected seasons and places where ice conditions are favorable for available observational platforms. However, much broader scientific observations are needed to assess such impacts as pollutants and possible climate variations on polar regions. To overcome some of the observational limitations of surface ships in the Arctic, the U.S. Navy made available nuclear powered submarines for civilian oceanographic research during the Scientific Ice Expedition (Scicex) program from 1993 to 1999. Together, these cruises sampled along more than 85,000 km of track throughout the international waters of the Arctic Ocean during selected periods from March to October. This sampling forms the basis of the present analysis of the limitations and capabilities of nuclear submarines as observational platforms for scientific research. Scientific observations were made in four general disciplines: ocean physics; biology and chemistry; sea ice; and marine geology and geophysics. Sampling of ocean biology and chemistry was most constrained because the water samples typically required in such studies were limited to the operating depths of the submarine. However, the surface 250 m contains all of the biological production, as well as informative chemical tracers for the flow of Atlantic and Pacific water masses. Measurements of ocean physics were less constrained because in addition to the on-board measurements, expendable probes are available to sample water depths inaccessible to the submarine. The submarine proved to be an

  14. Russian Nuclear Submarines: U.S. Participation in the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation Program Needs Better Justification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... AMEC has primarily focused on Russia's aging fleet of nuclear submarines. Section 324 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 required GAO to review AMEC, including its relationship to the Department of Defense's (DoD...

  15. Visit of the RPII to the Wylfa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-08-01

    This document is a report of the visit of RPII representatives to the Wylfa Nuclear Power Plant in Anglesey in North Wales. The principal topics covered are radioactive waste management, safety issues and the future of the Wylfa NPP. There was also a site tourwhich included the reactor building, the control room, the turbine hall and the simulator. Staff from Magnox Electric, which operates the Wylfa NPP, the NII and the UK Environment Agency participated in the visit

  16. Russian nuclear submarine elimination 2001 - 2011 by the international community - 59041

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael; Heyes, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Following the 911 attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. As an integral component of this initiative the international community agreed to assist Russia in advancing the elimination of its Cold War legacy of nearly 200 nuclear powered submarines left over from the collapse of the Soviet Union. This presentation presents an overview of the 10 years work that has now entirely eliminated that submarine legacy. The scale and complexity of the challenge along with each country's contribution and approach is discussed along with key success factors and unique solutions adopted. (authors)

  17. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  18. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The

  19. O projeto do submarino nuclear brasileiro The Brazilian nuclear submarine project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Martins Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura reconstruir a trajetória do programa do submarino nuclear brasileiro desde suas origens, no governo Geisel, aos dias atuais. Lançando mão do conceito de oportunismo tecnológico, procura analisar a atitude dos diferentes governos federais sobre o projeto, mostrando que os governos neoliberais de Fernando Collor, Itamar Franco e Fernando Henrique Cardoso cortaram radicalmente verbas para o programa, sem, no entanto, suspendê-lo por completo. Surpreendentemente, parece haver uma continuidade entre os governos militares e o governo Lula, quanto ao apoio decidido à ideia do submarino nuclear. Quanto às relações de força na Marinha, o texto conclui que não há divergências significativas sobre a relevância do programa, o que não exclui choques de personalidades navais, em virtude do caráter autárquico assumido pelo projeto e da dificuldade de continuá-lo apenas com verbas da própria força. O artigo utilizou entrevistas recentes com atores-chaves do processo.The article aims to reconstruct the history of the Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine program, from its origins to the present. Using the concept of technological opportunism, it seeks to understand the position of the different federal administrations vis-à-vis the project, concluding that the Collor, Franco and Cardoso administrations did not support the program. However, they did not terminate the project. Surprisingly, there is a continuity between the military governments and the Lula administration, in the decisive support each gave to the program. With repect to the Navy, the analysis concludes that there were no significant disagreements, with the exception of personal conflicts originating in the autarchic features that the program had assumed and in the problem of scarcity of resources. The article is based on interviews with key actors.

  20. The new generation of nuclear submarines: in violation of the non proliferation treaty - Booklet No. 3, June 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The Observatory of French nuclear weapons looks forwards to the elimination of nuclear weapons in conformity with the aims of the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty. The object of this booklet of the Observatory of French nuclear weapons about the program of new generation missile-launching nuclear submarines is to show the amplitude of this program that is going to mobilize considerable industrial resources and energies to the detriment of other security alternatives

  1. The creation of the analytical information system to serve the process of complex decommissioning of nuclear submarines (NSM) and surface ships (SS) with nuclear power installations (NPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentiev, V.G.; Yakovlev, N.E.; Tyurin, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Management of the decommissioning of nuclear vessels includes information collection, accumulation, systematisation and analysis on the complex utilization of nuclear submarines and surface ships with nuclear power installations and on treatment of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes. The relevant data on radiation and ecology, science and technology, law and economy, administration and management should be properly processed. The general objective of the analytical information system (AIS) development, described in the present paper, is the efficiency upgrading for nuclear submarine utilization management and decision making. The report considers information provision and functioning principles as well as software/hardware solutions associated with the AIS creation. (author)

  2. Visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The aim of this document is to prescribe the conditions, procedures and responsibilities for the conduct of visits to Australia by United States and Royal Navy nuclear powered warships. The Commonwealth government requires contingency arrangements to be in place at all Australian ports visited and that there be the capability to undertake radiation monitoring of the port environment. Release mechanisms such as the failure or maloperation of radioactive waste control systems within the vessel, or an accident involving the reactor plant are dealt with in the plan

  3. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  4. Norwegian monitoring (1990-2015) of the marine environment around the sunken nuclear submarine Komsomolets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Flo, Janita K; Sværen, Ingrid; Gäfvert, Torbjörn; Haanes, Hallvard; Føyn, Lars; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2018-02-01

    Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected 134 Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of 137 Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993. Since then and up to 2015, no increased activity concentrations of radionuclides above values typical for the Norwegian Sea have been observed in any environmental sample collected by Norwegian monitoring. In 2013 and 2015, Norwegian monitoring was carried out using an acoustic transponder on the sampling gear that allowed samples to be collected at precise locations, ∼20 m from the hull of Komsomolets. The observed 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in surface sediments sampled close to Komsomolets in 2013 did not indicate any releases of Pu isotopes from reactor or the torpedo warheads. Rather, these values probably reflect the overprinting of global fallout ratios with fluxes of these Pu isotopes from long-range transport of authorised discharges from nuclear reprocessing facilities in Northern Europe. However, due to the depth at which Komsomolets lies, the collection of seawater and sediment samples in the immediate area around the submarine using traditional sampling techniques from surface vessels is not possible, even with the use of acoustic transponders. Further monitoring is required in order to have a clear understanding of the current status of Komsomolets as a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Norwegian marine environment

  5. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1989. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1989 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. These findings have been confirmed by independent monitoring undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. (author)

  6. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by DRPS during 1991. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1991 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  7. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1990. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1990 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  8. IAEA team to visit North Korean nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A technical team from the IAEA will visit nuclear facilities in the Nyongbyon area of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) from 15-19 January. The visit will include the Isotope Production Laboratory, an installation that the DPRK has stated was involved in the early stages of development of their nuclear programme. Since 1993, the IAEA has been unable to fully implement its comprehensive safeguards agreement with the DPRK, and has been therefore unable to verify the completeness and correctness of the DPRK's initial 1992 declaration of its nuclear inventory. In May 2001, the IAEA proposed to the DPRK concrete steps that need to be carried out in that verification process, and indicated its readiness to start implementing these measures immediately. At a technical meeting between the DPRK and the IAEA in November 2001, the DPRK did not agree to promptly start to implement those proposals, citing the delay in implementation of the USA/DPRK Agreed Framework as the principal reason for declining. However, the DPRK did agree to a visit, not an inspection, by IAEA inspectors to the Isotope Production Laboratory. The DPRK withdrew its membership from the Agency in June 1994. The Director General encourages the DPRK to normalize its relations with the IAEA including resumption of full safeguards inspections

  9. Analysis of the Radio-Ecological State of Units and Installations Involved in Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning in the Northwest Region of Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkissov, A

    2003-01-01

    .... in the first section of the report, all nuclear-powered units and installations involved in the process of nuclear submarine utilization in the northwest region of Russia are listed and considered in detail...

  10. Development of SPEEDI-MP and its application to a hypothetical accident of a nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takuya; Nagai, Haruyasu; Chino, Masamichi; Togawa, Orihiko

    2004-01-01

    A software system SPEEDI-MP is being developed to resolve the environmental problems by simulating the behavior of pollutants in the atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial environment. Verification of oceanic dispersion prediction codes on the system was carried out to assess the migration behavior of the released 241 Am from a hypothetically sunken nuclear submarine in the Japan Sea. (author)

  11. Bank of models for estimation of radioactive contamination consequences at the places where nuclear submarines are awaiting decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiev, V.; Nosov, A.; Hitrikov, V.; Kiselev, V.; Korjov, M.; Krylov, A.; Kanevsky, M.; Petuhov, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper presents a description of a computer bank of models for estimation of reactor accident consequences in harbors where Russian nuclear submarines are awaiting decommissioning. The computer bank is intended for an estimation of the consequences of a possible contamination of the surface water. It will also support the decision making in a tense situation. 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H.

    2005-01-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  13. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: chris.cole@rmc.ca; bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2005-07-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  14. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)

  15. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.D. [PREKSAT Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Derevyankin, A.A. [Reseaarch and Development Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khamyanov, L.P. [All-Russian Research Institute on NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, V.N. [Ministry for Nuclear Energy Of Russian, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalivich, O.M. [Research and Technological Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Supervisory, Nuclear Energy State Commitee of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, P.L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS

  16. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.D.; Derevyankin, A.A.; Khamyanov, L.P.; Kovalenko, V.N.; Kovalivich, O.M.; Smirnov, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  17. Should the public be encouraged to visit nuclear plant sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. de la

    1993-01-01

    As we all know, technological progress does not only depend on the innovation capacity of scientists and engineers or the sophistication of technology, but also on public acceptance. People - today - are not only more curious about new applications of technology but also more inquiring about their potential impact on their own safety and environment. This is particularly true in the nuclear field, where the people are afraid of nuclear installations and processes unknown to them. On the contrary, the more opportunities they have to see or live near nuclear plants, the less they are inclined to reject them as a whole. The past two decades have confirmed the increasing importance of visitor centres at nuclear plant sites as a major communication tool between the nuclear industry and the public. Already today, for example, 16% of the US public and 11% of the French public have visited a nuclear power plant or its information centre. A rich experience is therefore available from existing visitor centres at nuclear power stations in most industrialised countries. Furthermore, the construction and industrial operation of new facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle presents new challenges in terms of public understanding and acceptance which are progressively taken into account. As a result, visitor centres with new communication strategies and tools are now being put in place at radioactive waste management sites and nuclear fuel cycle sites as well as near nuclear installations being dismantled. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised an international Seminar in November 1992 in Madrid (Spain) in co-operation with the Spanish Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste (ENRESA) and the Union of Spanish Electricity Utilities (UNESA) to: 1. take stock of the experience of OECD countries in the design and operation of visitor centres; 2. assess the educational and information methods and tools used in these centres, and 3. measure their impact on public opinion and

  18. Should the public be encouraged to visit nuclear plant sites?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferte, J de la [External Relations and Public Affairs, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    1993-07-01

    As we all know, technological progress does not only depend on the innovation capacity of scientists and engineers or the sophistication of technology, but also on public acceptance. People - today - are not only more curious about new applications of technology but also more inquiring about their potential impact on their own safety and environment. This is particularly true in the nuclear field, where the people are afraid of nuclear installations and processes unknown to them. On the contrary, the more opportunities they have to see or live near nuclear plants, the less they are inclined to reject them as a whole. The past two decades have confirmed the increasing importance of visitor centres at nuclear plant sites as a major communication tool between the nuclear industry and the public. Already today, for example, 16% of the US public and 11% of the French public have visited a nuclear power plant or its information centre. A rich experience is therefore available from existing visitor centres at nuclear power stations in most industrialised countries. Furthermore, the construction and industrial operation of new facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle presents new challenges in terms of public understanding and acceptance which are progressively taken into account. As a result, visitor centres with new communication strategies and tools are now being put in place at radioactive waste management sites and nuclear fuel cycle sites as well as near nuclear installations being dismantled. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) organised an international Seminar in November 1992 in Madrid (Spain) in co-operation with the Spanish Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste (ENRESA) and the Union of Spanish Electricity Utilities (UNESA) to: 1. take stock of the experience of OECD countries in the design and operation of visitor centres; 2. assess the educational and information methods and tools used in these centres, and 3. measure their impact on public opinion and

  19. FAPIG's activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    The First Atomic Power Industry Group (FAPIG) organized eighteenth visit of woman employees to nuclear power stations. They would have few chance of such a visit and to unfamiliar with mechanism of nuclear power generation as well as radiation and radioactivity. Participants were required to have a lecture on energy in general and basic understanding of nuclear energy and then had a visit to nuclear power stations to learn nuclear energy as correct knowledge. They also filled out the same questionnaire before the lecture and after the visit to express their ideas or comments on nuclear energy. This paper described analytical results of the questionnaire and significance of the organized visit for public acceptance of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Estimations of radiation characteristics of spent fuel in reactors of nuclear submarines and the ice-breaker Lenin dumped near Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsov, P.M.; Ruzhanskij, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of radionuclide composition and radiation characteristics of actinides and fission products for the reactor spent nuclear fuel of the nuclear submarines and the ice-breaker Lenin dumped near Novaya Zemlya are calculated on the basis of the actual data on the regimes of operation of the above reactors. It is determined that the maximum total activity in 1995 in all reactor sections of the nuclear submarines is concentrated in the fuel (M = 261.9 kg, W = 2.75 GW x day) of the left reactor of the nuclear submarine APL-285 and constitutes 51.9 Ci for actinides and 1.68 x 10 4 Ci for fission products. The corresponding values for the dumped fuel (M = 856 kg, W = 14.2 GW x day) of the ice-breaker Lenin are equal to 3.9 x 10 3 and 5.22 x 10 4 Ci

  1. Potential Impact of Atmospheric Releases at Russian Far East Nuclear Submarine Complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, F.; Mahura, A.; Compton, K.; Brown, K.; Takano, M.; Novikov, V.; Soerensen, J. H.; Baklanov, A.

    2003-02-25

    An ''Assessment of the Impact of Russian Nuclear Fleet Operations on Far Eastern Coastal Regions'' is being performed as part of the Radiation Safety of the Biosphere Project (RAD) of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) of Laxenburg, Austria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive unclassified analysis of the potential impact of accidents at the Russian Far East nuclear submarine sites near Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk. We have defined the situation there based upon available information and studies commissioned by RAD in collaboration with Russian research institutes including Russian Research Center-''Kurchatov Institute'', Institute of Northern Environmental Problems and Lazurit Central Design Bureau. Further, in our original work, some in collaboration with the staff of the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and members of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, we have calculated the nuclide trajectories from these sites in the atmospheric boundary layer, less than 1.5 kilometers high, and determined their probability of crossing any of the nearby countries as well as Asiatic Russia. We have further determined the concentrations in each of these crossings as well as the total, dry and wet depositions of nuclides on these areas. Finally, we have calculated the doses to the Japanese Island population from typical winter airflow patterns (those most likely to cross the Islands in the minimum times), strong north winds, weak north winds and cyclonic winds for conditions similar to the Chazhma Bay criticality accident (fresh fuel) and for a criticality accident for the same type of reactor with fuel being withdrawn (spent fuel). The maximum individual committed dosages were less than 2 x 10-7 and 2 x 10-3 mSv, respectively. The long-term external doses by radionuclides deposited on the ground and the internal doses by consumption of foods were not evaluated as it is

  2. Organization of intervention in case of a nuclear accident on the Ile Longue nuclear submarine base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, P.; Doussot, P.; Rousset, J.

    2003-01-01

    When a nuclear accident has occurred, intervention teams have to work out the actions in order to limit results of accident on personnel, installations and environment. Initial stage, that begin applying special cards, allows to organize command and rescue, and brings intervention teams on the accident site. Intervention is composed of three stages: victims' rescue, struggle against conflagration, and technical support to the damaged structure. The diversity of teams allows to carry out these operations at the same time. According as personnel is injured or able bodied, decontamination is carried out in specific structure. Victims' rescue is a priority. Casualties are treated in the Ile Longue treatment center of technical shelters (CTBRC/ETNI). Able-bodied people in the area of accident have to reach refuges immediately after the alarm. They are presumed contaminated and first are checked in the advanced command station. Then they are evacuated, after a stage station, to the large capacity decontamination and triage center, where treatment and control can be effectuated; the evacuation is now possible. Some of them are treated in the Ile Longue contamination treatment center in case of internal or obstinate contamination. (author)

  3. Pirates of the Nuclear Age: The Role of U.S. Submarines in Modern Trade Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    has been a net oil importer 7 importing 6.2 million barrels per day (BPD) in 2014. 8 One estimate noted that in 2011, oil reserves in the PRC...almost immediately. With only 50 days of oil reserves , 29 there would not be time for alternative routes, additional tankers, or a surge in Chinese...of merchant shipping being attacked by submarines where the associated insurance premiums can be analyzed for trends. However, a parallel is

  4. The project of the submarine of nuclear propulsion under the optics of its protagonists: an historical analysis from Geisel to Lula 1974 - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Fernanda das Gracas

    2009-01-01

    This work is a historical analysis of the project of construction of the submarine of nuclear propulsion under the optics of the people who direct or had indirectly become involved themselves with it. Geisel undertook a more autonomous type of politics. The Europe started to be the strategical region for the acquisition of nuclear technology. The only favorable country transfer nuclear technology to Brazil was the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). The idea to construct a nuclear submarine is product of the negotiations between authorities of Brazilian politics and political, diplomatical, scientific and business authorities of the FRG. In 1978, the engineer Othon Luiz Pinheiro da Silva came back to Brazil after completing his doctorate in nuclear technology in the MIT. Commander Othon developed the idea to construct a nuclear submarine in the Brazilian Navy. Due to the events in the national and in the international scenario, Geisel decided to construct the nuclear submarine, but he opted to allow the Brazilian Navy to lead this construction. Although Geisel sketched a project of naval nuclear propulsion, it was the project elaborated by commander Othon which became the nuclear project of the Brazilian Navy. In order to prevent international attention toward this work, Geisel guided it for the subversion. This way, the idea to construct a nuclear submarine ceases to belong to the Brazilian nuclear program to become parallel nuclear program. When Figueiredo became president he kept the diversification politics of partnerships, kept the nuclear Agreement Brazil-FRG in 1975 and kept the project of construction of a nuclear reactor. Figueiredo, after observing the performance of the English nuclear submarines in the south Atlantic and to perceive the real intentions of U.S.A. towards Brazil, Figueiredo decided to support politically and financially and the project of construction of the nuclear submarine. Despite all aversion that Figueiredo had in relation to

  5. Independent verification in operations at nuclear power plants: Summaries of site visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donderi, D.C.; Smiley, A.; Ostry, D.J.; Moray, N.P.

    1995-09-01

    A critical review of approaches to independent verification in operations used in nuclear power plant quality assurance programs in other countries was conducted and are detailed in volume 1. This paper is a compilation of the visits to nuclear power plant sites to study independent verification in operations at sites in Canada, USA, Japan, United Kingdom, France and Germany. 3 tabs., 22 figs

  6. About the accident of the american nuclear propulsion submarine Uss Hartford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprieur, F.; Guillevic, J.; Alferes, M.L.; Thebault, H.; Lemaitre, N.

    2004-01-01

    On the 25. october 2003, the submarine had hit the bottom of the sea. The tightness of the ship and the reactor did not be affected. As a precaution, the Office of environment of Corsica has required a campaign of radioactivity analysis in the area of the natural reserve of the mouths of Bonifacio. The results of the measurements made on the 18.november were comparable to the ones made regularly on the samples coming from Bastia and Ajaccio sampling stations. This article presents an extract of the results of the analysis campaign made by the I.R.S.N. (N.C.)

  7. Effectiveness for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analysis of questionnaire distributed at organized visits to Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In First Atomic Power Industry Group, as a part of the public acceptance activities for nuclear power, the visit to nuclear power stations for the inspection have been held. This aims at acquiring the correct knowledge on nuclear power by seeing the various facilities of nuclear power stations actually by own eyes. In the execution of the visits, mainly female employees were asked to participate, calling to the various companies in the group. On November 16 and 17, 1995, the visit to Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station of Tokyo Electric Power Co. was held. In this study, the impression and opinion that all the participants possess through the visit and the seminar held beforehand were collected and analyzed by the questionnaire. The schedule of the visit, and the contents of the questionnaire are shown. As the feature of the questionnaire, the same questions were made before and after the inspection, and the change of opinion was examined. The results are summarized. The participants who trust the safety of nuclear power stations were 37% before the inspection and increased to 84% after the inspection. (K.I.)

  8. Implementation of the environmental management plan for the dismantling of nuclear powered submarines at Zvezdochka Shipyard, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, M.; Cull, M.; Crocker, C.; Ivanov, V.; Shepurev, A.; Khan, B.U.Z.; Lee, M.; Gerchikov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada is funding the dismantling of twelve nuclear powered submarines (NPS) from the Russian Federation's Northern Fleet as part of the Global Partnership Initiative against weapons and materials of mass destruction. In this paper, work performed by Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd. and its collaborators in support of these activities is described. First, an environmental impact assessment of towing and dismantling NPS in the Kola Peninsula, and the Barents and White Seas was performed. The assessed activities included: towing of NPS from Naval Bases in Murmansk Region to the Zvezdochka shipyard (Severodvinsk); defuelling of onboard reactors; dismantling of NPS at Zvezdochka; and waste management. The assessment helped identify mitigation measures that could prevent the occurrence of adverse effects. Next, the project team defined and implemented an environmental management plan (EMP) based on the shipyard's existing environmental policy and the mitigating measures identified during the environmental assessment. Specific targets were defined to track the progress of the EMP implementation, and are described in this paper. During the study period, three Victor Class NPS were dismantled at Zvezdochka. The major benefits realized include: removal and spent nuclear fuel assemblies; treatment/decontamination of liquid and solid radioactive waste; and the cultivation of collaboration between Russian and Western expertise. (author)

  9. Implementation of the environmental management plan for the dismantling of nuclear powered submarines at Zvezdochka shipyard, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, M.; Cull, M.; Crocker, C.; Ivanov, V.; Shepurev, A.; Khan, B.U.Z.; Lee, M.; Gerchikov, M.

    2008-01-01

    Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada is funding the dismantling of twelve nuclear powered submarines (NPS) from the Russian Federation's Northern Fleet as part of the Global Partnership Initiative against weapons and materials of mass destruction. In this paper, work performed by Nuclear Safety Solutions Ltd. and its collaborators in support of these activities is described. First, an environmental impact assessment of towing and dismantling NPS in the Kola Peninsula, and the Barents and White Seas was performed. The assessed activities included: towing of NPS from Naval Bases in Murmansk Region to the Zvezdochka shipyard (Severodvinsk); defuelling of onboard reactors; dismantling of NPS at Zvezdochka; and waste management. The assessment helped identify mitigation measures that could prevent the occurrence of adverse effects. Next, the project team defined and implemented an environmental management plan (EMP) based on the shipyard's existing environmental policy and the mitigating measures identified during the environmental assessment. Specific targets were defined to track the progress of the EMP implementation, and are described in this paper. During the study period, three Victor Class NPS were dismantled at Zvezdochka. The major benefits realized include: removal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies; treatment/ decontamination of liquid and solid radioactive waste; and the cultivation of collaboration between Russian and Western expertise. (author)

  10. Appendix Q: siting considerations for submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal red clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. A paleoenvironmental model of Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific has been constructed from sedimentological, geotechnical and stratigraphic data derived from a single giant piston core collected in the central North Pacific (GPC-3: 30 0 N, 157 0 W; 5705 m). This core represents a record of nearly continuous sedimentation for nearly 70 million years. The core was taken from a region of abyssal hill topography located beneath the present-day carbonate compensation depth. It contains 24.5 meters of undisturbed sediment composed of oxidized brown clay with altered ash layers. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy for the upper 4.5 meters indicates sedimentation rates are 2.5 mm/1000 years for the last 2 m.y. and 1.1 mm/1000 years before that to 2.4 Ma. Ichthyolith stratigraphy shows sedimentation rates of 0.2 to 0.3 mm/1000 years from 65 to 5 Ma. The observed sedimentological variations can be explained in terms of present sedimentation patterns in the central North Pacific and by the NNW motion of the Pacific plate during the Cenozoic

  11. Guards: An approach safety-related systems using cots example of MMI and reactor automation in nuclear submarine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, M.

    1998-01-01

    For at least 10 years, the nuclear industry designs and licences specific digital safety-critical systems (IEC 1226 class A). One key issue for future programs is to design and licence safety-related systems providing more complex functions and using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components. This issue is especially raised for Reactor automation and Man-Machine-Interface. The usual I and C (Instrumentation and Control) organisation for these functions is based on redundancy between a commercial, up-to-date, unclassified > system and a simplified classified > system using traditional technologies. It clearly appears that such organisation is not satisfying from the point of view of people who have actually to operate these systems: The operator is supposed not to trust the normal system and rely on the back-up system which is less helpful and that he use very few. This paper presents a new approach to that problem using COTS components in low-level layers, safety architecture and mechanisms at medium level layer (GUARDS architecture developed in the current ESPRIT project number 20716), and a pre-validated functional layer. The aim of this solution is to comply with the > IEC 1226 class B requirements, at lower overall cost (design, implementation, licensing, long term confidence). This approach is illustrated by its application in Man-Machine-Interface (MMI) for our future program of Nuclear submarine. (author)

  12. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  13. Box model of radionuclide dispersion and radiation risk estimation for population in case of radioactivity release from nuclear submarine number-sign 601 dumped in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yefimov, E.I.; Pankratov, D.V.; Ignatiev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    When ships with nuclear reactors or nuclear materials aboard suffer shipwreck or in the case of burial or dumping of radioactive wastes, atmospheric fallout, etc., radionuclides may be released and spread in the sea, contaminating the sea water and the sea bottom. When a nuclear submarine (NS) is dumped this spread of activity may occur due to gradual core destruction by corrosion over many years. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical model of radionuclide dispersion and to assess the population dose and radiation risk for radionuclide release from the NS No. 601, with Pb-Bi coolant that was dumped in the Kara Sea

  14. The near boiling reactor: Conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J. P.

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the Victoria Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96°C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional areas

  15. The near boiling reactor : conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the 'Victoria' Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96 o C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional

  16. Radiation monitoring handbook for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.A

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to detail the Radiation Monitoring (RMG) roles and procedures, and to provide technical and background information useful to RMG personnel. It has been written on the assumption that all members of the RMG have had appropriate radiation safety (Health Physics) training. Separate standing procedures, for both routine and emergency activities, are required for each port. These are incorporated in Port Safety Plans and specify the routine monitoring requirements for individual berths or anchorages and the procedures to be followed after indication of a reactor accident to a nuclear powered warship. A Visit Operation Order, issued for each Nuclear Powered warships (NPW) visit, presents information specific to that visit. Routine monitoring is performed to confirm normal conditions. The objectives of emergency radiation monitoring are: to provide early detection of a reactor accident of sufficient severity to possibly cause a major release of fission products to the environment; to determine the nature and extent of any fission product release; to provide information to assist in evaluating the accident; to assess the need and extent of required countermeasures; and to determine when the release has terminated and when affected areas have returned to normal Prepared on behalf of the Visiting Ship Panel (Nuclear), Department of Defence; 11 refs., 11 tabs., 21 figs.

  17. The public visits a nuclear waste site: Survey results from the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of the 1986 survey taken at the West Valley Demonstration Project Open House where a major nuclear waste cleanup is in progress. Over 1400 people were polled on what they think is most effective in educating the public on nuclear waste. A demographic analysis describes the population attending the event and their major interests in the project. Responses to attitudinal questions are examined to evaluate the importance of radioactive waste cleanup as an environmental issue and a fiscal responsibility. Additionally, nuclear power is evaluated on its public perception as an energy resource. The purpose of the study is to find out who visits a nuclear waste site and why, and to measure their attitudes on nuclear issues

  18. Maintenance Practices for Emergency Diesel Generator Engines Onboard United States Navy Los Angeles Class Nuclear Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawks, Matthew A

    2006-01-01

    .... All underway Navy nuclear reactors are operated with diesel generators as a backup power system, able to provide emergency electric power for reactor decay heat removal as well as enough electric...

  19. FAPIG's activities for public acceptance of nuclear energy. Analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Tadao

    1999-01-01

    FAPIG organizes a visit to nuclear power station in every November. It is an object that visitors acquire the correct knowledge of nuclear power by looking at the various facilities in the nuclear power stations. The paper showed the analytical results of questionnaire executed at organized visits to the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power station. The visitors were 18 women. The questionnaire was carried out by the same problems before and after seminar and a conducted tour. Their impressions and opinions and the changes are analyzed. The speakers used easy words, video, OHP, pamphlet and experimental equipment. These means showed very good results to visitors. The seminar had very large effect on just recognition of safety and need of it. The change of answer proved from 3 to 6 of need and from 0 to 7 of safety of it. Nine members indicated good understanding of seminar content. The interested items in the seminar were measurement of radiation, effects of radiation, reason of decreasing average life, Chernobyl accident, difference between nuclear power and atomic bomb and nuclear power dose not generate carbon dioxide and recycle plutonium after nuclear fission of uranium. (S.Y.)

  20. How long does the reactor in a nuclear submarine remain intact on the sea bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    In a brief report from a conference held by OECD in Hamburg on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the need for international conventions in this field was stressed by a representative of the Ministry of Research and Technology of the FRG. It was also maintained that nuclear ships are the safest in the world. A representative of the FRG's reactor safety dept. said, however, that nuclear warships will never become subject to international control and that the safety of such ships was not reassuring. At a press conference a U.S. Coastguard representative refused to reply to a question on how long it would take before radioactive materials ieaked from the wreck of the 'Thresher', as this was classified information. A German worker maintained that the oxygen content in the water was too low at that depth for corrosion to take place, while another maintained that there was evidence that the reactor was already leaking. (JIW)

  1. Report on radioactivity monitoring during the visits of nuclear powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Radiation Laboratory of the Department of Health is required under NZAEC Report 500 'New Zealand Code for Nuclear Powered Shipping' (June 1976) to monitor for release of radioactivity during the stay of such a ship in a New Zealand port and to provide technical assistance to Civil Defence organisations charged with dealing with any emergency arising from an accidental release of radioactive materials. This report outlines the activities undertaken for the two visits which took place in 1976

  2. Radiation monitoring handbook for visits by nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to detail the Radiation Monitoring (RMG) roles and procedures, and to provide technical and background information useful to RMG personnel. It has been written on the assumption that all members of the RMG have had appropriate radiation safety (Health Physics) training. Separate standing procedures, for both routine and emergency activities, are required for each port. These are incorporated in Port Safety Plans and specify the routine monitoring requirements for individual berths or anchorages and the procedures to be followed after indication of a reactor accident to a nuclear powered warship. A Visit Operation Order, issued for each Nuclear Powered warships (NPW) visit, presents information specific to that visit. Routine monitoring is performed to confirm normal conditions. The objectives of emergency radiation monitoring are: to provide early detection of a reactor accident of sufficient severity to possibly cause a major release of fission products to the environment; to determine the nature and extent of any fission product release; to provide information to assist in evaluating the accident; to assess the need and extent of required countermeasures; and to determine when the release has terminated and when affected areas have returned to normal

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports: requirements, arrangements and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Commonwealth Government has determined conditions to be met when nuclear powered warships visit Australian ports. These conditions include a requirement that appropriate State/Territory and Commonwealth authorities provide a radiation monitoring program to determine whether any radioactivity has been discharged or accidently released from a nuclear powered warship in port; to determine actual or potential levels of any consequent exposure to radiation of members of the public; and to provide this information within a timescale that allows remedial action to be taken. Part 1 of this document sets out the requirements of a radiation monitoring program capable of meeting these objectives. The fundamental arrangements and procedures for implementing the requirements are presented at Part 2 and provide a basis for the development of fully detailed, port specific, radiation monitoring programs

  4. Chernobyl today. Impressions and informations from a visit to the nuclear power plant in July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, J.

    1996-01-01

    A visit to Chernobyl by Western experts was organized within the 1995 Nuclear Technology Conference. The region, which had been evacuated after the reactor accident in the Chernobyl-4 nuclear generating unit on April 26, 1986, now again offers employment to some 15,000 people. 120 scientific organizations are conducting studies in the protected zone. No indications of any consequences of the accident can be seen in the natural environment. As the manager of the power plant put it: 'This is a good region to live in.' In order to maintain this standard of living, the agencies responsible in Ukraine plan to repair unit 2, which has been down because of a fire in the turbine building since 1991, resynchronize it with the power grid, and run it up until 2002. Unit 1 is to be decommissioned in 1998; unit 3, in 2001. The biggest problem on site is the stability of the sarcophagus around unit 4. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Benchmark accident scenarios for nuclear powered warship visits to Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frikken, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Port safety arrangements for visits of nuclear powered warships (NPWs) to Australian ports require compliance with a number of Conditions of Entry. One of these Conditions of Entry is the provision of 'an operating safety organisation, competent to produce a suitable radiation monitoring program and able to initiate actions and provide services necessary to safeguard the public in the event of a release of radioactivity following an accident'. The States and Territories which receive NPW visits have the responsibility for this contingency planning, although the Commonwealth provides assistance through the Visiting Ships Panel Nuclear (VSP(N)). The visit of a NPW to an Australian port may only proceed if the VSP(N) is satisfied that the port safety plan has been exercised in sufficient depth to demonstrate its adequacy and efficacy. Emergency exercises are held on a regular basis in Australian ports which have been validated for visits by NPWs to ensure compliance with the Conditions of Entry. Important aspects of these exercises are the procedures for estimating radiation doses to members of the public following an accident, and the process for making decisions on the need for countermeasures based on the results of dose estimates. To exercise these aspects of the emergency response, detailed emergency exercise scenarios, including simulated radiological monitoring data, are required. To date, emergency exercises have usually been based on a severe and highly improbable scenario, termed the Reference Accident, which is used to assess the suitability of ports for visits by NPW's. The repeated adoption of this scenario does not adequately test the flexibility of the emergency plans to cope with all possible accidents, particularly more likely, less severe accidents. At the request of the VSP(N), the Nuclear Safety Bureau has analysed a spectrum of NPW accident scenarios and developed a set of Bench Mark Accident (BMA) scenarios for emergency response

  6. Brazil-Argentina bilateral cooperation - Protocol 11. Nuclear safety and radiation protection. Visit of CNEA engineers to Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparian, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The activities carried out by Techniques of Argentine Organization (CNEA) during visitation to Angra dos Reis (Brazil) are related. Licensing procedures for nuclear installations (reactors), and transport, licensing of personnels for nuclear installations, quality assurance and regulatory inspections were discussed. (M.C.K.)

  7. Report on environmental radiation monitoring associated with visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships in 1980; and, amendments to the guidelines for environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Australian Government requires that an environmental radiation monitoring program be carried out in association with visits of nuclear ships to Australian ports. The objectives and requirements of the program are summarised and the results of the marine environmental sampling program undertaken at berths are presented, together with radiation measurements taken during visits. During 1980, no releases of radioactive material were detected, nor were any radiation measurements recorded in excess of natural background levels

  8. Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, Alexandre; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Stepennov, Boris; Eremenko, Valery; Zakharchev, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

  9. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion; Modelo de uma Agência Naval de Segurança Nuclear para o controle radiológico do complexo industrial de construção e manutenção do submarino com propulsão nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  10. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  11. Visits to Australia by nuclear powered or armed vessels: contingency planning for the accidental release of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report refers to the adequacy of current contingency planning by the Australian Federal and Senate authorities to deal with the accidental release of ionizating radiation from visiting nuclear powered or armed vessels in Australian waters and ports. Much of the material was obtained in response to questions put in writing by the Senate Standing Committee to the Department of Defence, ANSTO and others. In addition, the report contains relevant information from Commonwealth documents as well as the Committee findings and recommendations. Issues considered include: types of visiting nuclear powered vessels, accident likelihood and consequences, differences between naval and land-based reactors, safety records. The persons or organizations who made submissions or appeared in all public hearings are listed in the appendixes, along with all visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships from 1976 to 1988

  12. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  13. Benchmarking visit at the Braidwood nuclear power plant. Report no. 311

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.; Schieber, C.; Faure, J.L.; Valendru, N.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the French utility EDF, CEPN - ISOE European Technical Center - organized a benchmarking visit at the Braidwood nuclear power plant in the United States of America, Illinois. The mission took place from 20 to 22 October 2009. The French team was composed of two representatives of EDF and two representatives of CEPN. The first part of the mission allowed discussing the general organization and management of radiation protection in the Braidwood station, especially during outages. The second part was mainly focused on two peculiar topics that EDF is currently interested in: the radiation protection training of RP specialists and exposed workers and the RP instrumentation available in the plant. This benchmarking visit allowed underlining the following points. Radiation protection benefits from an important consideration in the daily running of the Braidwood plant. In particular, during outages, a strong RP organization is implemented. Thus, during the preparation period, a detailed 'RP Outage Preparation Checklist' is established: it includes more than 275 tasks and allows ensuring that every RP item is taken into account. During outages realization, the RP Department relies on 12 hour-shifts covering both day and night. Finally, the RP Department ensures a permanent presence in the Outage Control Center: it is represented by a 'superintendent', which is the hierarchical level just under the radiation protection manager. Several comments can be proposed on the structure and the roles of the RP Department. From a first view, the RP personnel can appear quite numerous for a 2-unit plant compared to the situation in EDF plants. However, RP specialists do not have the same roles in Braidwood as in EDF units. Indeed, in Braidwood, the RP staff deals with any activity related to radiation protection including decontamination and shielding; in EDF plants, RP specialists do not manage these last two activities but cover industrial risks. The Braidwood RP

  14. Tourism and visiting activities in Tierp. Threats and possibilities with a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerne, S.; Sandberg, M.; Sahlberg, B.

    1999-10-01

    Consequences for tourism and visiting at Tierp from siting a spent fuel repository in the community are studied. Tierp has little tourism as of today, and siting of the repository will probably lead to increased visiting of Tierp professionally and as a leisure activity

  15. Nuclear and isotopic techniques for the characterization of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal zones. Results of a coordinated research project 2001-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is now recognized as an important pathway between land and sea. As such, this flow may contribute to the biogeochemical and other marine budgets of nearshore waters. These discharges typically display significant spatial and temporal variability, making direct assessments difficult. Groundwater seepage is patchy, diffuse, temporally variable, and may involve multiple aquifers. Thus, the measurement of its magnitude and associated chemical fluxes is a challenging enterprise. An initiative on SGD characterization was developed by the IAEA and UNESCO in 2000 as a 5-year plan to assess methodologies and importance of SGD for coastal zone management. The IAEA component included a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Nuclear and Isotopic Techniques for the Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD) in Coastal Zones, carried out jointly by the IAEA's Isotope Hydrology Section in Vienna and the Marine Environment Laboratory in Monaco, together with 9 laboratories from 8 countries. In addition to the IAEA, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) have provided support. This overall effort originally grew from a project sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR) who established a Working Group (112) on SGD. The activities included joint meetings (Vienna 2000, 2002, and 2005; Syracuse, Italy, 2001; and Monaco 2004), sampling expeditions (Australia 2000; Sicily 2001 and 2002; New York 2002; Brazil 2003; and Mauritius 2005), joint analytical work, data evaluation, and preparation of joint publications. The objectives of the CRP included the improvement of capabilities for water resources and environmental management of coastal zones; application of recently developed nuclear and isotopic techniques suitable for quantitative estimation of various components of SGD; understanding of the influence of SGD on coastal processes and on groundwater

  16. History of Military Psychology at the U. S. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-23

    the first nuclear submarine, were gigantic increases in the environmental demands imposed upon the submarine crewmembers. Some of these changes had to...urgency for an empirical determination of the maximum duration a submarine could remain submerged before debilitative symptoms appeared in significant

  17. What the submarine is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzi, A

    1972-03-01

    A short review of submarine problems and design is presented. Included are trim and stability concepts; propulsion and steering gears (surface and submerged); batteries on a conventional (diesel) submarine; optical and electronic sensing equipments; and an outline of new hull designs and shipbuilding methods.

  18. Report of the CEA visiting committee on R and D for future nuclear energy systems, May 11-13, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechet, Y.; Ebbesen, T.; Fujiie, Y.; Richter, B.; Stormer, H.; Zinkle, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    This was the fifth meeting of the Visiting Committee of the CEA since its creation in year 2000. The first meeting gave members of the committee a broad overview of the entire spectrum of CEA research and subsequent meetings have focused on specific topics. These included the nuclear fuel cycle, biology, and micro and nano technologies. This meeting focused on research and development for future nuclear energy systems. The main division of CEA concerned with this topic is the Nuclear Energy Division. Some of the laboratories of the Technological Research and Matter Science Divisions are also involved in areas such as materials and basic nuclear data. The report deals with the fuels and waste, the SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) and GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) programs, the Very High temperature reactor (VHTR), the actinide separation, the materials, the irradiation tests facilities and the personnel for the future. (A.L.B.)

  19. Report of the CEA visiting committee on R and D for future nuclear energy systems, May 11-13, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechet, Y. [Institut National Polytechnique, ENSEEG/LTPCM, 38 - Grenoble (France); Ebbesen, T. [Universite Louis Pasteur, ISIS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Fujiie, Y. [Nuclear Salon Fuj-ie (Japan); Richter, B. [Director Emeritus, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (United States); Stormer, H. [Columbia Univ., Dept. of Physics (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oac Ridge National Laboratory, Metals and Ceramics Div. (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This was the fifth meeting of the Visiting Committee of the CEA since its creation in year 2000. The first meeting gave members of the committee a broad overview of the entire spectrum of CEA research and subsequent meetings have focused on specific topics. These included the nuclear fuel cycle, biology, and micro and nano technologies. This meeting focused on research and development for future nuclear energy systems. The main division of CEA concerned with this topic is the Nuclear Energy Division. Some of the laboratories of the Technological Research and Matter Science Divisions are also involved in areas such as materials and basic nuclear data. The report deals with the fuels and waste, the SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) and GFR (Gas Fast Reactor) programs, the Very High temperature reactor (VHTR), the actinide separation, the materials, the irradiation tests facilities and the personnel for the future. (A.L.B.)

  20. Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH plan and build wet decontamination plant for disposal of components of Russian nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jan; Konitzer, Arnold; Luedeke, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald, on behalf of Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Lubmin, plan and build a wet decontamination facility for the waste management center at Saida Bay, Russia (EZS). The plant is part of a large project with a total volume on the order of 3-digit millions funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology. This project involves construction at Saida Bay near the port city of Murmansk of a complete waste management center and a long-term interim store for radioactively contaminated components. These components are mainly parts of decommissioned nuclear vessels and submarines whose metals, after decontamination, can be returned to economic use. The basis of the wet decontamination plant is a former AKB project for disposal and re-use of contaminated metal components of Energiewerke Nord GmbH at Lubmin, which is being adapted and developed further. The plant is to allow unrestricted re-use of the metals after surface cleaning and surface abrasion, respectively. For this purpose, the contaminated layer is removed far enough for the clearance limits under the Radiation Protection Ordinance to be met. A large fraction of the metals can be re-used after cleaning and do not have to be stored in a financially and logistically expensive process. The contract gives AKB an excellent opportunity to demonstrate its capabilities in plant construction, especially in the very sensitive area of disposal of radioactively contaminated objects. (orig.)

  1. Devices and methods used for radiation monitoring of sea water during salvage and transportation of the Kursk nuclear submarine to dock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, Igor; Kharitonov, Igor; Laykin, Andrey; Olshansky, Yury

    2003-06-01

    The paper contains the description and the results of the measurements of the Russian system for radiation control, which was mounted on the hull of the "Kursk" nuclear submarine during its salvage. The main tasks for carrying out measurements with this system were the control of possible leaks of radioactive substances into the ocean water and the assessment of radioactive effects on the environment. The system consisted of eight underwater gamma spectrometric detectors with scintillation crystals of NaI(Tl) 63×250 mm. A special evaluation method and a computer program were developed for carrying out long-term continuous measurements, which allowed for the automation of the control process. International compatibility of the measurement results was provided by the traceability to the national standard. For this reason, each detector was tested for sensitivity to the 137Cs radionuclide, uniformly spread in a quasi-infinite aqueous medium. The measurements showed that no gamma-irradiating radionuclides were released into the environment.

  2. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M

    1999-07-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined.

  3. Approaches of the state committee on the environment protection to development of ecological requirements for radioactive wastes management generated in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechkurov, A. V.; Shusharina, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, handling of radioactive waste from the Russian nuclear submarines (NS) is complex because of a lack of sufficient infrastructure for the management of such wastes. The considerable part of decommissioned NSs is located at the main bases of the North and Pacific Navies and at the territories of the enterprises dealing with building and maintenance of NSs. Existing stationary and floating facilities for radioactive wastes are practically filled up completely and there is no adequate reserve facilities. Norway and the USA render their assistance in increasing the existing capacity of the liquid radioactive waste reprocessing facility of Atomflot, and Japan assists in the creation of a floating facility at Zvezda in the far east. The coastal infrastructure created in the 1960s for radioactive waste processing and long-term storage at the Fleet was not commissioned. The present storage facilities, particularly of trench and open type, are dangerous contamination sources for the environment. Realisation of the full-scaled and complex disposal scheme for reactor compartments of disposed NSs requires the solution of a large number of problems and the fundamental requirements on this work are outlined

  4. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  5. Capacity building in nuclear science and technology through the IAEA fellowship and scientific visit programme for Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saliza Jam; Ainul Hayati Daud

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia participates actively in the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme (TCP) since it becomes a member to IAEA in 1969. The primary objective of the programme is to assist member states in achieving self-reliance in nuclear science and technology by strengthening human resource and the institutions. Human resource development has always been considered to be the most important sector cross-cutting all national programme areas. One of the technical assistance offers under the IAEA Technical Co-operation Programme (TCP) is the fellowship and scientific visits programme. This report analyses the development of capacity building in Malaysia through the IAEA fellowship and scientific visit programme during the period of 2003-2005. It also describes the success and challenges encountered during the implementation of the programme. (Author)

  6. Cosmic visits

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Saturday, 19 September, ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano and Amalia Ercoli Finzi, Principal Investigator of the SD2 experiment on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, visited the AMS Control Centre and other CERN installations.   From left to right: Sergio Bertolucci (CERN Director of Research and Computing), Amalia Ercoli Finzi (Emeritus Professor in the Aerospace department of the Polytechnic University of Milan and Principal Investigator of the SD2 experiment on board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft), Maurice Bourquin (AMS-02 Senior Scientist and Honorary Professor in the Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics department of the University of Geneva) and Luca Parmitano (Major in the Italian Air Force and European Space Agency astronaut) in the AMS Payload and Operation Control Centre. They were welcomed in the early morning by Sergio Bertolucci and then headed to the Prévessin site to visit the CERN Control Centre and the Payload and Operation Control Centre (POCC) of the Alpha Magnetic Sp...

  7. Problems faced by host nations in accepting visits by nuclear powered merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1978-01-01

    An international Code of Practice would make a major contribution to the effective regulation of nuclear merchant ships. Ensuring compliance with such a Code would be a significant problem for host nations. An impediment to the development of nuclear shipping is the absence of third party liability provision. There are also problems in host port acceptance into crowded ports and some limitations may be imposed until there is more confidence. There are indications that ship accidents will become the predominant risk and considerably more attention to the problem is required. Waste management need not be a major issue to the acceptance of nuclear merchant ships

  8. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to

  10. Main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to the dumping sites of the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste in Stepovogo Fjord, Novaya Zemlya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Nikitin, Aleksander; Shershakov, Viacheslav; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Lind, Bjørn; Teien, Hans-Christian; Lind, Ole Christian; Sidhu, Rajdeep Singh; Bakke, Gunnar; Kazennov, Alexey; Grishin, Denis; Fedorova, Anastasia; Blinova, Oxana; Sværen, Ingrid; Lee Liebig, Penny; Salbu, Brit; Wendell, Cato Christian; Strålberg, Elisabeth; Valetova, Nailja; Petrenko, Galina; Katrich, Ivan; Logoyda, Igor; Osvath, Iolanda; Levy, Isabelle; Bartocci, Jean; Pham, Mai Khanh; Sam, Adam; Nies, Hartmut; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the main results of the 2012 joint Norwegian-Russian expedition to investigate the radioecological situation of the Stepovogo Fjord on the eastern coast of Novaya Zemlya, where the nuclear submarine K-27 and solid radioactive waste was dumped. Based on in situ gamma measurements and the analysis of seawater and sediment samples taken around the submarine, there was no indication of any leakage from the reactor units of K-27. With regard to the radioecological status of Stepovogo Fjord, activity concentrations of all radionuclides in seawater, sediment and biota in 2012 were in general lower than reported from the previous investigations in the 1990s. However in 2012, the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and, to a lesser extent, those of (90)Sr remained elevated in bottom water from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord compared with surface water and the outer part of Stepovogo Fjord. Deviations from expected (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in some sediment samples from the inner part of Stepovogo Fjord observed in this study and earlier studies may indicate the possibility of leakages from dumped waste from different nuclear sources. Although the current environmental levels of radionuclides in Stepovogo Fjord are not of immediate cause for concern, further monitoring of the situation is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of the Radio-Ecological State of Units and Installations Involved in Nuclear Submarine Decommissioning in the Northwest Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-31

    mechanisms. 109 The main sources of atmospheric pollution are gas cutting and air-arc shaving, used to clean the cutting line from paint and varnish ...and varnish covering and from the metal of the dismantled construction. The dust content is determined by the type of the paint- varnish covering and...Submarines Solid aerosol component, kg Gas aerosol component, kg Design Total amount Including Carbon oxide Nitrogen dioxide Fluorine Manganese

  12. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  13. Report on the visit of a U.S. Nuclear Safety Delegation to the Soviet Union, August 19-31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    During August 1988 a US delegation of nuclear reactor safety specialists, led by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Lando W. Zech, Jr., visited the Soviet Union to initiate cooperative activities in civilian nuclear reactor safety between the two countries under their April 1988 Memorandum of Cooperation. Areas of future cooperation and a schedule of working group meetings to explore these areas were defined in a protocol signed during this visit. The delegation met with Soviet representatives in Moscow as the Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Additionally, while in Moscow, Chairman Zech held discussions with leaders and other senior officials of Soviet organizations with responsibility for nuclear power safety. Nuclear facilities were also visited, including the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), the Novovoronezh Atomic Power Station, the Novovoronezh Training and Commissioning Center, the Izhora Heavy Equipment Production Plant (Kolpino), the V. G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Gatchina), the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, the All-Union Center for Radiation Medicine (Kiev), and the Rovno Atomic Power Station. 35 figs

  14. Visit of the chinese Vice-President of the people's republic of China, Hu Jintao, at the Bugey nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    During the visit of the Vice-President of the people's republic of China at the Bugey nuclear power plant, EDF showed its will of cooperation with China in the energy domain. This document presents the main aspects of this cooperation: the chinese electric power system panorama, the EDF investments in China and the future development. (A.L.B.)

  15. Management of national nuclear power programs for assured safety. Report of visit by international participants to INEL on August 24, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhani, S.Z.

    1985-10-01

    Through a special arrangement with the US State Department and support from the Department of Energy a group of high ranking officials from six different countries visited the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory on August 24, 1985. They were briefed on the highlights of the US-NRC's nuclear safety research programs at the INEL. The purpose of this project was to broadcast the advancements of the US nuclear safety technology to other nations that are at the start of major programs for peaceful use of nuclear energy in their countries

  16. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  17. Visit safety

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Experiment areas, offices, workshops: it is possible to have co-workers or friends visit these places.     You already know about the official visits service, the VIP office, and professional visits. But do you know about the safety instruction GSI-OHS1, “Visits on the CERN site”? This is a mandatory General Safety Instruction that was created to assist you in ensuring safety for all your visits, whatever their nature—especially those that are non-official. Questions? The HSE Unit will be happy to answer them. Write to safety-general@cern.ch.   The HSE Unit

  18. Visit ISOLDE!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    CERN Internal Communication is organising a visit to ISOLDE – an opportunity for you to see the CERN set-up that can produce over 1000 different isotopes!   If you wish to participate, you can sign up for a visit by sending us an e-mail. Note that the visits will take place between 18 and 22 February, and will be open only to CERN access-card holders.   The visit will include an introduction by experts and a tour of the ISOLDE set-up. NB: For security reason, pregnant women and kids under the age of 16 can not take the tour.  

  19. Radioactivity around naval nuclear bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    Between 12th July and 2nd August 1988, Greenpeace took sediment samples from around four Royal Navy bases in the United Kingdom. Faslane, where nuclear powered submarines are berthed; Devonport and Rosyth where refit work is carried out and Portsmouth where US and UK nuclear submarines often visit. Samples were also taken from the US Navy base at Holy Loch, Scotland, where nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines are based. The samples were analysed at St Bartholomew Hospital Medical School, London. Identical samples were provided to the MoD personnel at Faslane and Devonport on the date taken. The purpose of carrying out the sampling programme was to highlight the fact that publicly available statistics from Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food (MAFF) are too limited in range, concentrating as they do merely on radioactive levels found between tides. The findings point to the necessity of monitoring subtidal as well as intertidal areas since levels of radioactivity found in the samples at Faslane and Holy Loch were four to nine times the figures published by MAFF. Until such time as nuclear power is no longer used at sea, it is the contention of Greenpeace that a more independent and comprehensive picture of the nature of radioactive contamination from around UK naval establishments must be obtained, than that presently available from MAFF. (author)

  20. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  1. Visit Itinerary

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The visit itinerary includes five area of halls 191 and 180:. End-Cap Toroid Integration Area . Barrel Toroid Integration Area . Cryogenic Test Facility for Toroid Magnets and Helium Pumps . Liquid Argon Cryostats Assembly Area . Central Solenoid Magnet Test Station

  2. Croatian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 11 December, President Stjepan Mesic of the Republic of Croatia visited CERN. He was welcomed by Director General, Robert Aymar, and the President of CERN Council, Maurice Bourquin. Afterwards he met, among others, the Directors of CERN and Croatian scientists working here. He finished his tour by visiting the underground cavern for the ATLAS experiment. The arrival at CERN of the President of the Republic of Croatia, Stjepan Mesic. In the first row, from left to right: Maurice Bourquin, President of CERN Council, Stjepan Mesic, President of the Republic of Croatia and Robert Aymar, Director General of CERN.

  3. Polish visit

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 6 October, Professor Michal Kleiber, Polish Minister of Science and Chairman of the State Committee for Scientific Research, visited CERN and met both the current and designated Director General, Luciano Maiani and Robert Aymar. Professor Kleiber visited the CMS and ATLAS detector assembly halls, the underground cavern for ATLAS, and the LHC superconducting magnet string test hall. Michal Kleiber (left), Polish minister of science and Jan Krolikowski, scientist at Warsaw University and working for CMS, who shows the prototypes of the Muon Trigger board of CMS.

  4. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  5. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  6. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (characteristics of these systems before they can be considered a viable resource. Until several of the most promising areas are carefully defined and drilled, the problem will remain unresolved. ?? 1976.

  7. Armenian visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    During his visit to CERN on 4 July 2003, Karen Chshmaritian, Armenian Minister for Trade and Economic Development, toured the ATLAS experimental cavern and assembly hall. From left to right: Aram Kotzinian, from the international organization JINR from Dubna, Marzio Nessi from ATLAS, Karen Chshmaritian, Armenian Minister for Trade and Economic Development, Zohrab Mnatsakanian, Ambassador at the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Armenia to the United Nations in Geneva, Alexandre Sissakian, Vice-Director of JINR and Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman.

  8. Information Assurance as a System of Systems in the Submarine Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Shell SSL Secure Socket Layer SSN Submerged Ship Nuclear STDA Submarine Tactical Display Auxiliary SUBLAN Submarine Local Area Network...Internet Protocol TLS T Transport Layer Security TS-SCI Top Secret-Special Compartment Information TYCOM Type Commander USB Universal...administrators or users. Layer 4 and 5: This is the layer that deals with providing a protected connection via a Secure Socket Layer ( SSL ) and Transport Layer

  9. Health Risks Among Submarine Personnel in the U.S. Navy, 1974-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-11

    observed dif- ferences in hospitalization rates ( Lilienfeld , 1980). T- tests were used to assess statistical significance of the descriptive variables...the direct method of adjustment ( Lilienfeld , 1980). The standard population was the sum of the two groups. Age-adjusted rates for submariners and...must undergo stringent psychological and medical screening prior to assignment aboard a nuclear submarine because of the relatively long periods of

  10. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  11. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  12. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Simplified Notional Submarine FRP (Independent Deployer) ..................11  Figure 8.  Evolution of Los Angeles Class Submarine Notional...Number TFP Technical Foundation Paper URO Unrestricted Operations xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my lead advisor, Professor Nick Dew...only on Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines. Being the higher quantity and older generation submarine hull type, the Los Angeles class submarine

  13. A Helicopter submarine Search Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except

  14. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  15. Methodology and techniques of early detection anomalies 85Kr and 3H in near bottom layer of sea water by water infiltration in spent nuclear fuel in dumpsites of the ship and submarine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyfer, V.N.; Goryachev, V.A.; Andreev, D.V.; Barabanov, I.R.; Yanovich, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the future radioactive environmental contamination threat by releases from the dumped submarine and ship reactors with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a project goal. The methodology of search and detection of traces of noble gases ( 85 Kr, 222 Rn) and 3 H (which leaking the first from the SNF) on them plume on a bottom in dumpsites of ship nuclear reactors is advanced. Investigation of releases from the dumped ship reactors with SNF of icebreaker enin in Kara Sea is launched (September 2003). Research has multi-plane character: experiments with SNF, creation of techniques and expeditions. Preliminary observation of current field and hydrological characteristics in zone of marked dumpsites on the shelf has been fulfilled. For an estimation of a gas fission products release (including Kr-85) from the irradiated fuel during the corrosion in conditions a near-bottom layer of the sea in Arctic the special installation has been created in the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' hot laboratory. Then the following experiment (modeling the conditions a near-bottom layer of the sea in Arctic) was made: First, samples of irradiated VVER-1000 type reactor fuel (UO 2 ) are loaded into capsules filled with pure sea water or sea water with the silt sampled in Kara Sea. The fuel samples have been selected due to similarity of its burnup level (62 MWd/kg) and other parameters to the one of icebreaker 'Lenin' reactor, that had been buried (1965) in Kara sea. The average sample activity was about 1 GBq for 137 Cs. Second, the capsules and the vacuum system are pumped out and checked on tightness by the helium leak tester. Then capsules are filled with the artificial gas mixture without traces of 85 Kr. Temperature of capsules are maintained in a range 0;1 deg C. Each 1-2 month gas samples are taken from the capsules into the previously pumped out flask, then capsules are refilled by the gas mixture. The measurements of 85 Kr concentration in the samples are carried out on low

  16. Actual Implementation of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Sweden: Seizing Opportunities. Synthesis of the FSC National Workshop and Community Visit - Oesthammar, Sweden 4-6 May 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 8. Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) National Workshop and Community Visit was held 4-6 May 2011 in Gimo (Oesthammar), Sweden. The Swedish National Council for Nuclear Waste, Oesthammar municipality, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) assisted the FSC in the organisation and logistics and provided financial support for the event. The central theme of the workshop was 'Actual Implementation of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository: Seizing Opportunities'. The three day event took place in Gimo, a locality of Oesthammar. There were 90 participants from 13 countries who included representatives of local, regional and national government, civil society organisations and environmental groups, universities, waste management agencies and regulatory authorities. In all, 63 persons participated from Sweden. The workshop provided an overview of the different aspects involved in the Swedish nuclear waste management programme from different viewpoints, mainly those of the implementer SKB, the regulator SSM, the two municipalities involved - Oskarshamn and Oesthammar - and civil society organisations. The visions for the future of the two municipalities were presented by local representatives on the first evening. The second day, after a brief historical overview of waste management, the Swedish funding system and how it contributes to the participation of local and regional stakeholders was addressed as well as the role and perspective of different actors in the new licensing phase for the repository. After a session on the role of dialogue, information exchange and transparency throughout the process, participants at eight round tables discussed the concept of transparency and how it could be affected in the repository licensing phase. The third day, presentations and round table discussions addressed the specific aspects of consultation through the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and economic

  17. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  18. Results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the USS Hartford submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    No radiological impact has been revealed in relation with the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine at the north of Sardinia. The analysis have been made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.).The Uss Hartford submarine had hit the bottom of the sea, on the 25. of october 2003, between the islands of Sardinia at a thirty kilometers distance in the south of Bonifacio. The accident had been declared to the public only on the 12. of November 2003. (N.C.)

  19. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  20. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  1. STUK visited Chelyabinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.

    1994-01-01

    Early this year, experts of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) visited the Chelyabinsk reprocessing plant in Russia to get an idea of the safety of the plant and the state of its environment. The plant is used, among other things, to process spent fuel from the Loviisa nuclear power plant. Chelyabinsk was originally established for the development of nuclear weapons. At the time, after the Second World War, safety was grossly neglected. Later the plant concentrated on the production of raw materials for bombs, and then safety was also taken into account as an issue of concern. Production of weapon grade plutonium ceased at Chelyabinsk in 1990. STUK's experts did not find any safety reasons that would justify stopping the transport of spent fuel. The principal threat to the area is by untended waste within the plant site. The waste was produced during the initial years of the plant's operation; it should be isolated from the environment quickly. Greenpeace has disclosed that the hospitals of the area have many cancer patients. Mismanagement during the early years of operation and two major accidents at Chelyabinsk resulted in radiation doses dangerous to the health of the population. It has not, however, been shown to what extent the current health problems are caused by the Chelyabinsk plant, and to what extent by other factors, for instance, the heavy-metal industry in the area. (orig.)

  2. Submarine films as narratives of masculinity

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The research for this thesis is on representations of masculinity in Anglo-American submarine films since 1943. The discussion will draw on relevant work on the representation of masculinity and popular cinema in film and cultural studies. In particular, the thesis will account for the notion of hegemony in relation to masculinity in the submarine film. Further, the notion of hegemonic masculinity will be addressed in terms of four key claims. These are as follows: that relations between grou...

  3. The visit is the medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, P [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France). Service de la Production Thermique

    1990-12-31

    In France the number of visitors to nuclear plants every year is comparable to the number of annual visitors to the Musee de l`Homme (approximately 300,000). Plant visits play an important role in the nuclear industry`s commnications and should be made as effective as possible. An appropriate discourse consisting of the following should be available: a warm reception; an open attitude; an ability to listen; and a willingness to inform. During the tour, the message received by the public should be positive. This message should consist of the benefits of electronuclear energy, and that the people working within the industry are ordinary people with concerns similar to the public. The words used during the visit should be chosen to avoid words with negative connotations. The use of measurement figures should be put in a comparative mode that can be understoood by the visitors. The site itself should be well signed with various amenities available. There are two stages to any visit: getting to the site and the actual site visit. Proper signage to the visitor center is important. Once there, two types of signage are important: directional and informationl. For the visit, have someone available to greet visitors. The visitor should receive an itinerary of the tour, with the end providing an opportunity for questions and answers, and refreshments. An adequate program for children should be available.

  4. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  5. 28 November 2013 - N. N. Kudryavtsev, Russian Rector of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology signing an Agreement and the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with AGH University of Science and Technology A. Erokhin. M. Savino, Physics Department, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research also present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    28 November 2013 - N. N. Kudryavtsev, Russian Rector of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology signing an Agreement and the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer; visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Deputy Spokesperson B. Heinemann and visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with AGH University of Science and Technology A. Erokhin. M. Savino, Physics Department, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research also present.

  6. Changes in body composition of submarine crew during prolonged submarine deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Increased body fat along with lack of physical activity can lead to development of lifestyle disorders in submarine crew. These crew members need to be actively encouraged to participate in physical activity when in harbour. In addition dieting program specifically to encourage reduced fat consumption needs to be instituted in submarines during sorties at sea.

  7. Italy's Prime Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 7 July 2015, the Prime Minister of the Italian Republic, Matteo Renzi, visited CERN. He was accompanied by a delegation that included Italy's Minister for Education, University and Research, Stefania Giannini.   From left to right: Fernando Ferroni, President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN); Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing; Stefania Giannini, Italy's Minister of Education, University and Research; Matteo Renzi, Prime Minister of the Italian Republic; Fabiola Gianotti, CERN Director-General Designate; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General.   The Prime Minister was welcomed by members of the CERN Management together with former CERN Director-General and Senator for Life of the Italian Republic, Carlo Rubbia. After a brief general introduction to CERN’s activities by Rolf Heuer, the Italian delegation visited LHC Point 1. After a tour of the ATLAS control room, they donned helmets to visit th...

  8. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, D.S.; Feltus, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels

  9. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  10. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  11. What Controls Submarine Groundwater Discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. B.; Cable, J. E.; Cherrier, J.; Roy, M.; Smith, C. G.; Dorsett, A.

    2008-05-01

    Numerous processes have been implicated in controlling submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to coastal zones since Ghyben, Herzberg and Dupuit developed models of fresh water discharge from coastal aquifers at the turn of the 19th century. Multiple empirical and modeling techniques have also been applied to these environments to measure the flow. By the mid-1950's, Cooper had demonstrated that dispersion across the fresh water-salt water boundary required salt water entrained into fresh water flow be balanced by recharge of salt water across the sediment-water interface seaward of the outflow face. Percolation of water into the beach face from wind and tidal wave run up and changes in pressure at the sediment-water interface with fluctuating tides have now been recognized, and observed, as processes driving seawater into the sediments. Within the past few years, variations in water table levels and the 1:40 amplification from density difference in fresh water and seawater have been implicated to pump salt water seasonally across the sediment- water interface. Salt water driven by waves, tides and seasonal water table fluctuations is now recognized as a component of SGD when it flows back to overlying surface waters. None of these processes are sufficiently large to provide measured volumes of SGD in Indian River Lagoon, Florida, however, because minimal tides and waves exist, flat topography and transmissive aquifers minimize fluctuations of the water table, and little water is entrained across the salt water-fresh water boundary. Nonetheless, the saline fraction of SGD represents more than 99% of the volume of total SGD in the Indian River Lagoon. This volume of saline SGD can be driven by the abundance of burrowing organisms in the lagoon, which pump sufficient amounts of water through the sediment- water interface. These bioirrigating organisms are ubiquitous at all water depths in sandy sediment and thus may provide one of the major sources of SGD world wide

  12. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    World War, with a number of opportunistic attacks also made by submarines travelling to the Far ..... This time round, however, the strategic importance of the Indian Ocean ... offensive operations in the Indian Ocean between the Gulf of Aden and the ... American seaboards, which ensured that an attack around the coast off ...

  13. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  14. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Scientia Militaria vol 44, no 1, 2016, pp 168-189. doi: 10.5787/44-1-1166 ..... report the presence of a body of German submarines moving south towards Cape Town. Despite ...... London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989, 100–101; Keegan op.

  15. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  16. Modeling Submarine Lava Flow with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvick, E. R.; Lu, H.; Choi, E.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine lava flow is not easily observed and experimented on due to limited accessibility and challenges posed by the fast solidification of lava and the associated drastic changes in rheology. However, recent advances in numerical modeling techniques might address some of these challenges and provide unprecedented insight into the mechanics of submarine lava flow and conditions determining its wide-ranging morphologies. In this study, we explore the applicability ASPECT, Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, to submarine lava flow. ASPECT is a parallel finite element code that solves problems of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. We will assess ASPECT's capability to model submarine lava flow by observing models of lava flow morphology simulated with GALE, a long-term tectonics finite element analysis code, with models created using comparable settings and parameters in ASPECT. From these observations we will contrast the differing models in order to identify the benefits of each code. While doing so, we anticipate we will learn about the conditions required for end-members of lava flow morphology, for example, pillows and sheet flows. With ASPECT specifically we focus on 1) whether the lava rheology can be implemented; 2) how effective the AMR is in resolving morphologies of the solidified crust; 3) whether and under what conditions the end-members of the lava flow morphologies, pillows and sheets, can be reproduced.

  17. NDT in submarines construction-HY 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, C.A.; Talmadge, J.

    1988-01-01

    In submarines construction, provided that metallurgic characteristics have been established, the NDT methods and equipments as well as the application ways should be taken into account. It is then fundamental purpose of this work to emphasize all that coming from conventional context in the field of use of already known nondestructive techniques

  18. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  19. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  20. Undersea Communications Between Submarines and Unmanned Undersea Vehicles in a Command and Control Denied Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION A. BACKGROUND Nuclear powered submarines make their own air and water and store months of food on...2014 search for missing Malaysian flight 370 [6]. This UUV can endure up to 25 hours at three knots with a standard payload and can reach depths of... Malaysian Airlines Plane. Business Insider [Online] http://www.businessinsider.com/bluefin-robotics-and-missing- malaysian -airlines- flight-2014-4 [7

  1. Complementary results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The results of analysis made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety in the area of the Bonifacio estuary do not reveal any increase of artificial radioactivity following the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine. They confirm the previous published results. (N.C.)

  2. Learning from Experience, Volume 2: Lessons from the U.S. Navy’s Ohio, Seawolf, and Virginia Submarine Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    commercial use. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please see RAND Permissions. Skip all front matter: Jump to Page 16 The RAND...law. For information on reprint and linking permissions, please visit the RAND permissions page (http://www.rand.org/publications/ permissions.html... pedo payload at 50 to allow the submarine to remain in a forward combat area without resupply for an extended period of time. These aggressive

  3. Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH plan and build wet decontamination plant for disposal of components of Russian nuclear submarines; Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH plant und errichtet eine Nassdekontaminationsanlage zur Entsorgung von Komponenten russischer Atom U-Boote

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jan; Konitzer, Arnold; Luedeke, Michael [AKB Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald GmbH (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Anlagen- und Kraftwerksrohrleitungsbau Greifswald, on behalf of Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Lubmin, plan and build a wet decontamination facility for the waste management center at Saida Bay, Russia (EZS). The plant is part of a large project with a total volume on the order of 3-digit millions funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economics and Technology. This project involves construction at Saida Bay near the port city of Murmansk of a complete waste management center and a long-term interim store for radioactively contaminated components. These components are mainly parts of decommissioned nuclear vessels and submarines whose metals, after decontamination, can be returned to economic use. The basis of the wet decontamination plant is a former AKB project for disposal and re-use of contaminated metal components of Energiewerke Nord GmbH at Lubmin, which is being adapted and developed further. The plant is to allow unrestricted re-use of the metals after surface cleaning and surface abrasion, respectively. For this purpose, the contaminated layer is removed far enough for the clearance limits under the Radiation Protection Ordinance to be met. A large fraction of the metals can be re-used after cleaning and do not have to be stored in a financially and logistically expensive process. The contract gives AKB an excellent opportunity to demonstrate its capabilities in plant construction, especially in the very sensitive area of disposal of radioactively contaminated objects. (orig.)

  4. Safe disposal of nuclear submarines of the Russian Federation. Final report on the German-Russian project. Reporting period: October 2003 - December 2016; Sichere Entsorgung von Atom-U-Booten der Russischen Foederation. Abschlussbericht ueber das Deutsch-Russische Projekt. Berichtszeitraum: Oktober 2003 - Dezember 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    As part of the ''Global Partnership Against the Proliferation of Weapons and Materials for Mass Destruction'' agreed by the G8 countries in June 2002, the Federal Republic of Germany has taken on the project ''Safe Disposal of Nuclear Submarines of the Russian Federation''. Following the conclusion of an intergovernmental agreement, project work began at the end of 2003 under the auspices of the Federal Ministry of Economics. At the end of 2016, this project of German-Russian cooperation could now be completed successfully, within the set financial and time frame. The final report documents the project goals, project organization as well as the task, work results and financial expenses of several sub-projects and summarizes the results of the overall project. [German] Im Rahmen der von den G8-Staaten im Juni 2002 vereinbarten ''Globalen Partnerschaft gegen die Verbreitung von Massenvernichtungswaffen und -materialien'' hat die Bundesrepublik Deutschland das Projekt ''Sichere Entsorgung von Atom-U-Booten der Russischen Foederation'' uebernommen. Nach Abschluss eines Regierungsabkommens begannen Ende 2003 unter der Federfuehrung des Bundeswirtschaftsministeriums die Projektarbeiten. Ende 2016 konnte dieses Projekt deutsch-russischer Kooperation nun vollumfaenglich, innerhalb des gesetzten Finanz- und Zeitrahmens erfolgreich abgeschlossen werden. Der Abschlussbericht dokumentiert die Projektziele, Projektorganisation sowie Aufgabenstellung, Arbeitsergebnisse und finanziellen Aufwendungen mehrerer Teilprojekte und fasst die Ergebnisse des Gesamtprojekts zusammen.

  5. Berliner Philarmoniker ATLAS visit

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Berliner Philarmoniker in on tour through Europe. They stopped on June 27th in Geneva, for a concert at the Victoria Hall. An ATLAS visit was organised the morning after, lead by the ATLAS spokesperson Karl Jakobs (welcome and overview talk) and two ATLAS guides (AVC visit and 3D movie).

  6. Visiting Filmmakers: Why Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Argues that visits by independent filmmakers to campus are exciting and intellectually invigorating for students and teachers, and these visits add to the cultural energy of the college. Notes that a commitment to independent cinema challenges the assumptions and the economics of conventional cinema. Discusses how much independent filmmakers are…

  7. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.

    2001-12-01

    The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be

  8. Submarine paleoseismology based on turbidite records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Many of the largest earthquakes are generated at subduction zones or other plate boundary fault systems near enough to the coast that marine environments may record evidence of them. During and shortly after large earthquakes in the coastal and marine environments, a spectrum of evidence may be left behind, mirroring onshore paleoseismic evidence. Shaking or displacement of the seafloor can trigger processes such as turbidity currents, submarine landslides, tsunami (which may be recorded both onshore and offshore), and soft-sediment deformation. Marine sites may also share evidence of fault scarps, colluvial wedges, offset features, and liquefaction or fluid expulsion with their onshore counterparts. This article reviews the use of submarine turbidite deposits for paleoseismology, focuses on the dating and correlation techniques used to establish stratigraphic continuity of marine deposits, and outlines criteria for distinguishing earthquake deposits and the strategies used to acquire suitable samples and data for marine paleoseismology.

  9. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  10. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  11. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  12. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  13. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover

  14. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watenpaugh, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... However, most submariners do not exercise during deployment for a variety of reasons, including lack of space, time limitations, equipment limitations, lack of entertainment or recreational value...

  16. Visit by two Ministers

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Last December CERN received visits from two Ministers. Bulgaria’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Education, Daniel Vylchev, visited the CMS experiment in the company of the CMS Spokesman, T. Virdee, and several Bulgarian physicists. From left to right: J. Stamenov, M. Mateev, S. Stavrev, T. Virdee, V. Genchev, the Minister Daniel Vylchev, A. Hristova Vutsova, L. Litov and G. Soultanov. CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, and Montenegro’s Minister of Education and Science, Slobodan Backović. On 18 December, Robert Aymar welcomed Bulgaria’s Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Science and Education, Daniel Vylchev. A particular highlight of his visit was a tour of the CMS site, during which he met the many Bulgarian physicists working on the experiment. He also attended a presentation of the LHC Computing Grid and visited the Computer Centre. Bulgaria has been a CERN ...

  17. Unplanned Hospital Visits - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Unplanned Hospital Visits – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hospital return days (or excess days in acute care) measures, the...

  18. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  19. NOTE FROM VISITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    ETT Division; Division ETT; Service des visites

    2000-01-01

    The Visit Service noticed that for many years countries such as Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries visit CERN less than other member countries and that is due to the high price of the trip for the students. To improve the situation the Visit Service plans to create a network of 'Family-Accommodation' ('Famille-Accueil') in Geneva and in France nearbywith the aim to facilitate the trip to foreign students especially from the more distant member countries and to encourage them to visit our unique laboratory. We expect this exchange to be an interesting experience for both the students and the welcoming family ('famille d'accueil'). If you are interested in participating in this family network, please fill in the questionnaire below. The questionnaire is to be returned to the Visit Service, Mrs Christine Fromm, e-mail Christine.Fromm@cern.ch.Name: First name: CERN address: E-mail: Portable phone number: Home address...

  20. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  1. Dutch ministerial visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science R. Plasterk (third from left) in the ATLAS cavern with NIKHEF Director F. Linde, CERN Chief Scientific Officer J. Engelen, Ambassador J. van Eenennaam, ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni, Mission Representative G. Vrielink and ATLAS Magnet Project Leader H. ten Kate.Minister of Education, Culture and Science from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ronald Plasterk, visited CERN on 25th October. With Jos Engelen, CERN Scientific Director, as his guide he visited Point 1 of the LHC tunnel and ATLAS, where Nikhef (the national institute for subatomic physics, a Dutch government and university collaboration) constructed all 96 of the largest muon drift chambers in the barrel as well as parts of the magnet system, the inner detector, the DAQ and triggering. Overall the Netherlands contribute 4.5% to the annual CERN budget and the minister’s visit celebrated the contributions of the 79 ...

  2. Displaying Uncertainty: A Comparison Between Submarine Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    known as the “submarine capital of the world” and is the home for many of the schools relating to the submarine service. The administering officer for...and Woods, D. D. (1988). Aiding Human Performance: I. Cognitive Analysis, Le Travail Humain 51(1), 39-64. Roth, E. M., Patterson, E. S., and Mumaw

  3. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the latter half of 1942, the High Command of the German U-boats (BdU) realised that the 'sinking results' of the North Atlantic had decreased immensely. The successes of the Allied anti-submarine operations in the North Atlantic precluded the successful employment of the German submarines in said waters.

  4. Sick-visit immunizations and delayed well-baby visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-07-01

    Giving recommended immunizations during sick visits for minor and acute illness such as acute otitis media has long been an American Academy of Pediatrics/Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice recommendation. An addition to the American Academy of Pediatrics policy in 2010 advised considering whether giving immunizations at the sick visit would discourage making up missed well-baby visits. This study quantifies the potential tradeoff between sick-visit immunizations and well-baby visits. This study was a retrospective cohort analysis with a case-control component of sick visits for acute otitis media that supplanted normal well-baby visits at age 2, 4, or 6 months. Infants were stratified for sick-visit immunization, no sick-visit immunization but quick makeup well-baby visits, or no sick-visit immunizations or quick makeup visits. Immunization rates and well-baby visit rates were assessed through 24 months of age. For 1060 study cases, no significant difference was detected in immunization rates or well-baby visits through 24 months of age between those with or without sick-visit immunizations. Thirty-nine percent of infants without a sick-visit shot failed to return for a quick makeup well-baby visit; this delayed group was significantly less likely to be up-to-date for immunizations (relative risk: 0.66) and had fewer well-baby visits (mean: 3.8) from 2 through 24 months of age compared with those with sick-visit shots (mean: 4.7). The substantial risk that infants will not return for a timely makeup well-baby visit after a sick visit should be included in any consideration of whether to delay immunizations.

  5. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  6. Auger Physicists visit CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Visit at CERN P5 CMS in the experimental cavern Alan Watson, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Leeds; Jim Cronin, Nobel Laureate, Auger Spokesperson Emeritus, University of Chicago; Jim Virdee, CMS Former Spokesperson, Imperial College; Jim Matthews, Auger Co-Spokesperson, Louisiana State University

  7. Thomas Kibble visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Emeritus Professor Sir Thomas W.B. Kibble, from Imperial College London visited LHC for the first time last week and delivered a colloquium on the genesis of electroweak unification and the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism.   From left to right: Jim Virdee, Tiziano Camporesi, Tom Kibble and Austin Ball on the visit to CMS. On his way back from Trieste, where he received the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics' Dirac Medal, Tom Kibble stopped by CERN for his first visit to the LHC. Kibble had a standing invitation from Jim Virdee, former CMS spokesperson, who is also a researcher from Imperial College London. Peter Jenni (left) and Tom Kibble tour the ATLAS detector. (Image: Erwan Bertrand) Kibble made the trip to CERN a family outing and brought along 14 relatives,  including his children and grandchildren. He visited the ATLAS detector with Peter Jenni, its former spokesperson, on Friday 10 October. In the afternoon, Kibble delivered a colloquium in the...

  8. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  9. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  10. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  11. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  12. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  13. Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    information. 2.0 DESCRIPTION Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) is seeking information from the eyewear industry that will provide...Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway by Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD...Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway 50818 Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD Naval Submarine Medical Research

  14. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  15. One-visit endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenaz, P J

    1984-10-01

    I would like to conclude with some personal observations and comments on the use of single-visit endodontics in private practice based on my 12 years of experience utilizing this procedure. I cannot stress in strong enough terms that one-visit endodontics should not be undertaken by the novice. As an evolutionary philosophy of treatment, its use grows out of a full understanding of fundamental endodontic principles by the experienced practitioner. It is only after considering all of the indications and contraindications in each case on an individual basis, that a decision should be made as to whether or not it can be completed in a single visit. However, it is also important for the practitioner to have a clinical sense of what can be accomplished once the rubber dam has been placed and work commenced on the tooth. I submit to you that this very important clinical sense can be gained only after many years of clinical experience. Therefore, the endodontic competence of the practicing dentist becomes the overriding factor in determining the outcome of any one particular case. This is not to say that only a specialized few can and should perform this procedure. However, it does mean that a high degree of clinical skill is necessary to perform it in a successful manner. The performance of better endodontics in multiple visits will ensure success in single visits. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the individual practitioner to objectively evaluate his or her endodontic skills. The clinician should critically evaluate every aspect of his or her endodontic practice by determining the incidences of biomechanical errors such as ledging, perforations, overinstrumentation, broken instruments, interappointment flare-ups, and failures. For only after evaluating these areas will the clinician have an indication as to his or her level of endodontic skill and whether or not future study and practice need be done in one or more specific aspects of endodontic practice. Once a high

  16. Belgian Firms Visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Fifteen Belgian firms visited CERN last 2 and 3 April to present their know-how. Industrial sectors ranging from precision machining to electrical engineering and electronics were represented. And for the first time, companies from the Flemish and Brussels regions of the country joined their Walloon compatriots, who have come to CERN before. The visit was organised by Mr J.-M. Warêgne, economic and commercial attaché at the Belgian permanent mission for the French-speaking region, Mr J. Van de Vondel, his opposite number for the Flemish region, and Mrs E. Solowianiuk, economic and commercial counsellor at the Belgian permanent mission for the Brussels-Capital region.

  17. German visits to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    State secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar.On 21 February, Professor Frieder Meyer-Krahmer, State Secretary to Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research, came to CERN. He visited the ALICE and ATLAS experiments and the computing centre before meeting the CERN's Director-General, some German physicists and members of the top management. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Peter Frankenberg, and CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, signing an agreement on education. In the background: Sigurd Lettow, CERN's Director of Finance and Human Resources, and Karl-Heinz Meisel, Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe. The Minister of Science, Research and the Arts of the Baden-Württemberg regional government, Prof. Peter Frankenberg, visited CERN on 23 February. He was accompanied by the Rector of the Fachhochschule Karlsruhe, Prof. Karl-Heinz Meisel, and b...

  18. Romanian President Visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Director General Luciano Maiani watches as Romanian President Ion Iliescu signs the CERN guest book. On Friday the 12th of October, Romanian President Ion Iliescu arrived at CERN and was warmly greeted by Director General Luciano Maiani at the steps of building 500. After initial greetings and a general presentation of the laboratory, President Iliescu and his entourage embarked on a whistle stop tour of the CERN facilities. They visited the CMS magnet assembly hall and civil engineering work where presentations were made by CMS spokesperson Michel Della Negra and the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter where the president was introduced to Romanian physicists working here at CERN. Michel Della Negra explains some of the general principles behind CMS to President Iliescu during his visit last week. The Romanian teams working on CERN projects make very visible contributions, for example to the construction of the ATLAS experiment and to the preparation of its eventual scientific exploitation. 'Those of us on the ATLAS ...

  19. Indian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 1 October, her Excellency Mrs Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, picked CERN as the first stop on her official state visit to Switzerland. Accompanied by a host of Indian journalists, a security team, and a group of presidential delegates, the president left quite an impression when she visited CERN’s Point 2!   Upon arrival, Pratibha Patil was greeted by CERN Director General Rolf Heuer, as well as senior Indian scientists working at CERN, and various department directors. After a quick overview of the Organization, Rolf Heuer and the President addressed India’s future collaboration with CERN. India is currently an Observer State of the Organization, and is considering becoming an Associate Member State. A short stop in LHC operations gave Steve Myers and the Accelerator team the opportunity to take the President on a tour through the LHC tunnel. From there, ALICE’s Tapan Nayak and Spokesperson Paolo Giubellino took Pratibha Patil to the experiment&am...

  20. A royal visit

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On Wednesday, 21 May, CERN received His Majesty Philippe, King of the Belgians, for a full-day visit of the Laboratory.   From left to right: Tiziano Camporesi, CMS Spokesperson; François Englert, Nobel Prize in Physics 2013; Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General; His Majesty Philippe, King of the Belgians; Philippe Courard, Belgium's State Secretary for Scientific Policy and Walter Van Doninck, CERN Council Vice-President. Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed King Philippe to CERN at Point 5 (Cessy). This was to be no small visit, with His Majesty accompanied by a host of diplomats, prominent Belgian physicists - including François Englert - and even members of Belgium's press corps. After quick introductions, the morning began with a tour of the CMS underground experimental area and the LHC tunnel at Point 5, guided by the CMS Collaboration Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bord...

  1. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2018-01-22

    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  2. Supriya Jindal visits school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Louisiana First Lady Supriya Jindal (left) speaks to teachers and students at A.P. Tureaud Elementary School in New Orleans during a March 19 visit. At the school, Jindal was joined by retired NASA astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman in space. Ride was a crew member on space shuttle Challenger during its STS-7 mission in 1983. She also was a crew member of space shuttle discovery on the STS-41 mission in 1984.

  3. Visiting 'J' Village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomek, J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to entrance into twenty km evacuated zone of Fukushima Daiichi, there is so called 'J' Village. Until now, it was a centre used by the Japan football representation. Today, employees working at this locality as well as all visits pass this village. They can only enter the evacuated area in a bus, equipped with an electronic dosimeter, with a face mask, gloves, and shoe covers. (author)

  4. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  5. Serbian President visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On Tuesday 10 January, Serbian President Boris Tadić visited the Laboratory to sign the Agreement of granting the status of Associate Membership as the pre-stage to full Membership of CERN.    Before the signing ceremony, the President, welcomed by Director-General Rolf Heuer at CERN’s Point 5, took the opportunity to visit CERN. After a general introduction, the President took advantage of the shutdown to visit the LHC’s underground caverns. Leading the President through their respective experiments were spokespersons Fabiola Gianotti (ATLAS) and Joe Incandela (CMS).  After a morning of tours, President Tadić and Rolf Heuer signed the Agreement. Serbia’s status as an Associate Member as pre-stage to full Membership is expected to come into force following ratification by the Serbian Parliament. After a maximum period of five years, the CERN Council will decide on the admission of Serbia to full Membership. This new agreement continues Serbia&a...

  6. A boost to visits

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Several guides were rewarded by CERN's Director-General and Secretary-General for their contributions in 2004. Left to right: Géraldine Chuste, the Director-General Robert Aymar, Klaus Batzner, Philippe Moret, Joanna Weng, Alberto Ribon, Head of the Visits Service, Emma Sanders, and the Secretary-General, Maximilian Metzger. Three other guides not in the photograph, Antonio Francano, Christoph Ilgner and Tzanko Spassoff, were also rewarded for their contributions. As every year, the CERN Visits Service has paid tribute to its guides, all of whom are volunteers and devote some of their time to showing people around their Laboratory. The guides were invited to a get-together in Microcosm during which the Director-General, Robert Aymar, expressed his special gratitude for their efforts and presented awards to the most dedicated among them. He encouraged members of the Laboratory to become guides and underlined that 2004 had been an exceptional year for visits, which had risen by 15% to almost 22,000. Including ...

  7. EU Commissioner visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    European Commissioner Viviane Reding in front of one of the computers showing how the Grid works and, from left to right, Robert Aymar, CERN's Director-General, Wolfgang von Rüden, Head of the Information Technology Department, and Bob Jones, the newly appointed director of the EGEE project since 1st November. Viviane Reding, European Commissioner for Information Society and Media, visited CERN on 28 October. Accompanied throughout by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, and the Head of the Information Technology Department, Wolfgang von Rüden, the Commissioner visited the ATLAS cavern before going on to the Information Technology Department, where she was given a complete overview of CERN's activities in the strategic field of Grid computing. Viviane Reding's visit coincided with the end of the EGEE (Enabling Grids for E-sciencE) conference, which took place in Pisa in Italy. Co-ordinated by CERN and funded by the European Commission, the EGEE project aims to set up a worldwide grid infrastructure for sc...

  8. EUCYS prizewinner visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jennifer Toes

    2016-01-01

    Young Turkish student Baris Volkan Gürses visited CERN from 4 to 8 July after winning the prize in the 2015 European Contest for Young Scientists (EUCYS).    Baris Volkan Gürses, EUCYS prizewinner, visiting the Microcosm. After winning both regional and national competitions in Turkey, 18-year-old student Baris Volkan Gürses competed against 169 young scientists and was awarded a visit to CERN by EIROforum for his physics project in EUCYS 2015. His project, entitled “Generation of artificial gravity by using electrostatic force for prevention of muscle atrophy and osteoporosis occurring in gravity-free environments”, focused on the design of a mechanism to help with the impact of spaceflight on the human body. “My objective was to eliminate the negative effects of a gravity-free environment on astronauts who stay in space for longer periods of time, like in the International Space Station,” explained Volkan. &...

  9. 14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    14 November 2013 - Director of Indian Institute of Technology Indore P. Mathur with members of the Indian community working at CERN; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 2, the ALICE experimental area and SM18 with ALICE Collaboration Spokesperson, Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare P. Giubellino and Technology Department, Accelerator Beam Transfer Group Leader V. Mertens

  10. Tsunamis induced by submarine slumpings off the coast of Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striem, H.; Miloh, T.

    1975-07-01

    The historical description of tsunamis or seismic sea waves at the coast of Israel is related. It is found that such an event was followed more often by a sea recession than by a shore flooding. A quantitative evaluation based on data of actual submarine scars, which may have been caused by slumpings on the continental slope, is carried out. It was found that the slumping of a mass 6 km long, 2 km wide and about 50 m deep would cause the formation of a shock-induced solitary wave of about 10 m in height at the edge of the continental slope. The accompanying draw-down of the sea level at the coast would last about 1/2 - 1.5 hours and lay the sea floor bare for a distance of about 1/2 - 1.5 km in agreement with some of the historical descriptions. Though possibly occurring only once or twice in a millenium, earthquake-induced slumpings may constitute a danger to nuclear power plants. (B.G.)

  11. What can nuclear energy do for society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    It is pointed out that the earth's crust holds 30,000 times as much energy in the form of fissionable atoms as fossil fuel. Moreover, nuclear fuel costs less per unit of energy than fossil fuel. Capital equipment used to release nuclear energy, on the other hand, is expensive. For commercial electric-power production and marine propulsion, advantages of nuclear power have outweighed disadvantages. As to nuclear submarines, applications other than military may prove feasible. The industry has proposed cargo submarines to haul oil from the Alaskan North Slope beneath the Arctic ice. Other possible applications for nuclear power are in air-cushion-vehicles, aircraft, and rockets.-

  12. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-06

    ban on that flail away at each other in maneuvers designed to nuclear tests (sic), even for peaceful purposes, across build up influence . Whatever...uranium and develop reactors for nuclear can help Mr. Collor nudge (away from the nuclear submarines. program) his fractious military along by suspending...two and a half years to behaviour to qualify for a certificate. WASHINGTON permit the second six-year aid package for 1988-93, was POST has meanwhile

  13. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  14. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  15. Origin of Abiotic Methane in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, J. S.; German, C. R.; Grozeva, N. G.; Klein, F.; McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Reeves, E. P.; Wang, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    Results of recent investigations into the chemical and isotopic composition of actively venting submarine hydrothermal fluids and volatile species trapped in fluid inclusions will be discussed in the context of processes responsible for abiotic CH4 formation.

  16. Fracture propagation in gas pipelines - relevance to submarine lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnehough, G D [British Gas Corp., Newcastle upon Tyne. Engineering Research Station

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews the factors which control fracture propagation in pipes and suggests how they are influenced by submarine environments. If fracture arrest capability is required then these factors should be considered in terms of the design philosophy and the maximum tolerable length of fracture which can be repaired. The paper shows that brittle fracture characteristics of submarine pipelines are probably similar to land based lines and fracture arrest can only be guaranteed by appropriate material toughness specification. Resistance to ductile fracture propagation in submarine lines is enhanced by lower design stresses, thicker pipe, concrete coating and the effect of hydrostatic head on gas dynamics. However, additional factors due to submarine design can be deleterious viz: uncertainty about backfill integrity and a tendency of thicker steels to low fracture resistance arising from 'separation' formation. Attention is drawn to problems which may arise with transportation of gases rich in hydrocarbons and the use of mechanical methods of fracture arrest.

  17. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  18. Submarine Biofouling Control- Chlorination DATS Study at Pearl Harbor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegand, John

    2001-01-01

    The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...

  19. The CERN Visits Service proposes: Lab Visits for CERN People

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CMS assembly hall at point 5 - one of the new Visits Service itineraries. Discover the new visits itineraries of your laboratory with the Visits Service! The recently completed visitors platform in the CMS detector assembly hall at point 5, first of a series of new visit tours, will be the destination for special summer visits organised by the Visits Service for CERN people. Each week the Visits Service will reserve a slot to take CERN people to visit the CMS assembly hall and get first hand experience of the magnitude of the LHC endeavour. Tours will be shorter than the public visit programme, and will include a short introduction in the bus along with a guided tour of the CMS visitor platform. Visits will start at 3.30 pm from the visits meeting point in the reception of building 33, and the bus will be back at reception at 5 pm. Up to 24 people can take part in each visit. The calendar for the coming weeks is: Friday 27 July in French Thursday 2 August in English Wednesday 8 August in French Booking...

  20. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  1. Steven Weinberg visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Steven Weinberg visiting the ATLAS cavern accompanied by Peter JenniIt was no surprise that the CERN audience arrived early in the Globe of Science and Innovation for the colloquium on 7 July. Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg is one of the major contributors to the Standard Model of particle physics. He received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1979 for his work on the unified theory of the electromagnetic and weak interactions, one of the essential pillars of the Standard Model. After lunch at CERN and a visit to ATLAS, Weinberg gave a colloquium on "The Quantum Theory of Fields: Effective or Fundamental" to a packed audience. In his talk, he looked at how the use of quantum field theory in particle physics has fluctuated in popularity since Paul Dirac first introduced the approach to describe the interaction of particles with electromagnetic fields in the late 1920s. In particular, he posed the question: Is quantum field theory fundamental or does it a...

  2. Kofi Annan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 13 September, former Secretary-General of the United Nations and Nobel Peace Laureate Kofi Annan paid a visit to CERN.   Arriving in the early afternoon, Kofi Annan and his family were greeted by Director-General Rolf Heuer on the steps of Building 500. After a quick introduction to the Laboratory, they were whisked off to SM18 for a tour of the LHC’s superconducting magnet test hall, guided by Technology Department Head Frédérick Bordry. After a light lunch in Restaurant 2, Kofi Annan added his signature to CERN’s Guest Book. He is the second UN Secretary-General to add their name to CERN’s roster; his successor Ban Ki-Moon’s visited CERN in 2008.  Kofi Annan was then guided by spokesperson Fabiola Gianotti on a tour of ATLAS’s Visitor Centre. This was an opportunity for some of the younger members of the ATLAS collaboration to meet the former Secretary-General and to answer his questions about the exper...

  3. Operational Planning for Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    or P-8 as a supplementary platform to a ship or sub and never assigned to search alone . This thesis allows the MPRA to search alone and has 10 a...Marina, I will truly miss sitting in class with you guys wondering what a basis is. Finally, to my dog, Dougie: thank you for not eating my homework...can have trouble searching and tracking one submarine, let alone multiple submarines in different regions or mission areas. B. LITERATURE REVIEW

  4. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...pure yaw angles of 0 ◦, 10 ◦ and 18 ◦. The model is used to develop equations for sway-force and yaw-moment coefficients which relate to the hull - form

  5. The CERN Visits Service proposes: Lab Visits for CERN People

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The CMS assembly hall at point 5 - one of the new Visits Service itineraries. Discover the new visits itineraries of your laboratory with the Visits Service! The recently completed visitors platform in the CMS detector assembly hall at point 5, first of a series of new visit itineraries, will be the destination for special summer visits organised by the Visits Service for CERN people. Each week the Visits Service will reserve a slot to take CERN people to visit the CMS assembly hall and get first hand experience of the magnitude of the LHC endeavour. Tours will be shorter than the public visit programme, and will include a short introduction in the bus along with a guided tour of the CMS visitor platform. Visits will start at 3.30 pm from the reception of building 33, and the bus will be back at reception at 5 pm. Up to 22 people can take part in each visit. The calendar for the coming weeks is: Wednesday 15 August in English Wednesday 22 August in French Wednesday 29 August in English Bookings should be m...

  6. The CERN Visits Service proposes: Lab Visits for CERN People

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The CMS assembly hall at point 5 - one of the new Visits Service itineraries. Discover the new visits itineraries of your laboratory with the Visits Service! The recently completed visitors platform in the CMS detector assembly hall at point 5, first of a series of new visit itineraries, will be the destination for special summer visits organised by the Visits Service for CERN people. Each week the Visits Service will reserve a slot to take CERN people to visit the CMS assembly hall and get first hand experience of the magnitude of the LHC endeavour. Tours will be shorter than the public visit programme, and will include a short introduction in the bus along with a guided tour of the CMS visitor platform. Visits will start at 3.30 pm from the reception of building 33, and the bus will be back at reception at 5 pm. Up to 22 people can take part in each visit. The calendar for the coming weeks is: Wednesday 8 August in French Wednesday 15 August in English Wednesday 22 August in French Bookings should be mad...

  7. The CERN Visits Service proposes: Lab Visits for CERN People

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The CMS assembly hall at point 5 - one of the new Visits Service itineraries. Discover the new visits itineraries of your laboratory with the Visits Service! The recently completed visitors platform in the CMS detector assembly hall at point 5, first of a series of new visit itineraries, will be the destination for special summer visits organised by the Visits Service for CERN people. Each week the Visits Service will reserve a slot to take CERN people to visit the CMS assembly hall and get first hand experience of the magnitude of the LHC endeavour. Tours will be shorter than the public visit programme, and will include a short introduction in the bus along with a guided tour of the CMS visitor platform. Visits will start at 3.30 pm from the reception of building 33, and the bus will be back at reception at 5 pm. Up to 22 people can take part in each visit. The calendar for the coming weeks is: Thursday 2 August in English Wednesday 8 August in French Wednesday 15 August in English Bookings should be made...

  8. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  9. Tourism and visiting activities in Tierp. Threats and possibilities with a repository for spent nuclear fuel; Turism och besoeksnaering i Tierp. Hot och moejligheter med ett djupfoervar av anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerne, S.; Sandberg, M. [EuroFutures AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sahlberg, B. [EBS Invent AB (Sweden)

    1999-10-01

    Consequences for tourism and visiting at Tierp from siting a spent fuel repository in the community are studied. Tierp has little tourism as of today, and siting of the repository will probably lead to increased visiting of Tierp professionally and as a leisure activity.

  10. ENIQ-qualified visual examinations by means of a remote controlled submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Elenko; Heinsius, Jan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Remote visual examination is one of the most important methods for non- destructive in-service inspections of primary components in nuclear power plants. It features two main advantages: the short examination duration and the fast interpretation of results. AREVA offers operators of nuclear power plants the ''SUSI 420 HD'' SUbmarine System for Inspections to perform ENIQ-qualified visual examinations during outages without working on the critical path and causing any delay in the time schedule. The system is a remotely operated manipulator equipped with a high definition camera. With a weight of only 25 kg, there is no need for a crane to put the submarine into water. More-over, nor the use of the refueling machine neither the auxiliary bridge is required. In this way the visual examination can be performed in parallel to other activities which are on the critical path. The article takes a closer look at the essential parameters: illumination, examination distance, viewing angle, scanning speed, positioning accuracy and sizing of indications. It describes how the system can fulfill these parameters through some adaptations.

  11. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  12. Intermediate storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines are a product of the arms race and the Cold War. Russia still continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines, and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste. A solution to this problem is proposed: to construct a new regional interim storage facilities at Kola for the spent nuclear fuel instead of transporting it to Mayak, the existing reprocessing plant. This storage should have the capacity to handle the fuel in the existing storage and the fuel still on board of retired nuclear submarines. Its lifetime should be 50 years. later it would be possible to make a decision on the future of this fuel

  13. Modeling tsunamis induced by retrogressive submarine landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, F.; Kim, J.; Harbitz, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Enormous submarine landslides having volumes up to thousands of km3 and long run-out may cause tsunamis with widespread effects. Clay-rich landslides, such as Trænadjupet and Storegga offshore Norway commonly involve retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms that affect the tsunami generation. Therefore, such landslides may involve a large amount of smaller blocks. As a consequence, the failure mechanisms and release rate of the individual blocks are of importance for the tsunami generation. Previous attempts to model the tsunami generation due to retrogressive landslides are few, and limited to idealized conditions. Here, we review the basic effects of retrogression on tsunamigenesis in simple geometries. To this end, two different methods are employed for the landslide motion, a series block with pre-scribed time lags and kinematics, and a dynamic retrogressive model where the inter-block time lag is determined by the model. The effect of parameters such as time lag on wave-height, wave-length, and dispersion are discussed. Finally, we discuss how the retrogressive effects may have influenced the tsunamis due to large landslides such as the Storegga slide. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  14. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Submarine landslides in Arctic sedimentation: Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  16. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Design and analysis of submarine radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, C. Satya; Prasad, U. Shiva; Suresh, R.; Rathan, A.; Sravanthi, G.; Govardhan, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radomes are the electromagnetic windows that protect microwave sub-systems from the environmental effects. The major requirement of radome is its transparency to microwaves and for most of the cases mechanical properties are also equally important. Radome for underwater applications has to withstand high water pressure of the order of 45 bars. Composite materials owing to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and better corrosion resistance are potential source for under water applications. The concept of 'tailoring' the material properties to suit the radome is obtained by selecting proper reinforcement, resin matrix and their compositions. The mechanical properties of composite material, evaluated by testing specimens as per ASTM standards, are utilized in designing the radome. The modulus properties calculated using classical theories of composite materials and compared with test results. ANSYS a Finite Element software package used to analyse the problem. As the cross sectional thickness of radome varies, the complexity in fabrication is overcome by adopting matched die techniques. The radome design and finite element analysis validation concluded by conducting the pressure test on radome. On the design a modal analysis is also carried to check for the natural frequency, So that resonance does not occur if the natural frequency of the radome coincides with the excitation frequency of the submarine Clinical information system (CIS) for UNRWA is a computerized distributed application that used in clinics which follows the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to manage the clinical requirements and services.

  18. Commissaire Moulin visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The French actor and film-maker Yves Rénier was shown around the Laboratory on Friday 6 June by friends at CERN.   Yves Rénier at LEIR. (Photo: Ludwig Pregernig) A keen diver and star of the long-running French television police drama Commissaire Moulin, Yves Rénier took advantage of a stopover in Geneva on his way to the Red Sea to meet up with his friends from the CERN Diving Club, who were only too pleased to take him on a tour of the Laboratory. In the morning, Yves Rénier visited the CERN Control Centre (CCC), Linac2 and LEIR. After lunch at the brasserie in Restaurant No. 2, the actor continued his tour with the CERN Computer Centre, the SM18 superconducting magnet test facility, and lastly the ATLAS experiment. “Thank you so much for showing me around and introducing me to a world I knew so little about,” confided Yves Rénier. “It’s fascinating to see so many scientists of different cultures,...

  19. Claude Nicollier visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jordan Juras

    2011-01-01

    Switzerland’s first astronaut, Claude Nicollier, paid a short visit to CERN on Thursday 22 June, to lead a colloquium about the Hubble Space Telescope. With the Shuttle programme soon coming to an end. Nicollier recalled the enriching experience he had at NASA and gave us a preview of the futuristic project that he is currently involved in.   The colloquium, Hubble, the astronomer, the telescope, the results, surveyed the three themes suggested by its title: the fundamental discoveries made by Edwin Hubble in the early 20th century, servicing the telescope in orbit and the main results recently obtained relating to the structure and history of our universe. Nicollier spoke from the rare perspective of an astronaut who has had real contact with Hubble in orbit and included some of his own photography from the missions. Nicollier has an intimate relationship with the telescope that very few astrophysicists share. “I had the opportunity to service Hubble twice, both from the comf...

  20. Spaceflight participant visits CERN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    On 15 July, CERN welcomed spaceflight participant Anousheh Ansari.   Anousheh Ansari’s grin stretches from ear to ear, during an intriguing conversation with Nobel laureate Samuel C.C. Ting at AMS POCC. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Iranian-American Anousheh Ansari was the first-ever female spaceflight participant, spending eight days on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006. She now has a new addition to her list of extraordinary sights ­– the home of the world’s largest particle accelerator: CERN.   On 15 July, Anousheh Ansari came to CERN and, unsurprisingly, visited the control room of the experiment attached to the ISS: the AMS. At the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (AMS POCC) on CERN’s Prévessin site, she met the Nobel laureate Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the AMS experiment. Ansari and her accompanying guests were thrilled to expand their knowledge about CERN, its research and its...

  1. A royal visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    On 19 February Albert II, King of the Belgians, visited CERN. He took a very active interest during his tour of the tunnel and the CMS cavern, in particular the pixel detector, which was made in Belgium. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 533, 300, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1164771', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002/CERN-MOVIE-2009-002-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Watch the video! Albert II, King of the Belgians receiving a souvenir from Sergio Bertolucci, Director for Research and...

  2. Submarine tectonic relief off Enshunada. Enshunadaoki no hendo chikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, Y; Sasahara, N; Hamamoto, F [Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, S [10th Resional Maritime Safety Headquarters, Kagoshima (Japan); Kondo, T [Maritime Safety School, Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-08-15

    This paper reports on the results of investigations on the submarine relief structure off the Enshunada (a sea area which is on the south of the Tenryu River mouth and has about 50km east and west and about 100km north and south) using a bathymetric surveying ship equipped with a narrow multibeam echo sounder. The submarine relief structure of this sea area is clarified into the following topographical districts arranged north to south (each extends roughly in the northeast-southwest direction): the Enshu trough and Tenryu submarine canyon upper valley located in the center thereof, ridges represented by No.l and No.2 Tenryu knolls, the ridge and trough zone where minor ridges and troughes appear complicatedly and repeatedly, and the Nankai trough. The paper contains causes of formation of the Tenryu submarine canyon, the Ryuyo submarine canyon which is located in the northwestern slope of No.2 Tenryu knoll and has a distinct shape, oval-shaped domes scattered in the bottom of Nankai trough, etc. and also opinions on landslide topography seen in the ridge and trough zone. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. An Air Quality Assessment Onboard an Oberon Class Submarine: HMCS Okanagan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y

    2000-01-01

    ... submarine to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The objective of the study was to obtain information to assist in developing plans for future submarine air quality management...

  4. Subjective Symptomology and Postural Control During Simulation of a Survival Environmemt Aboard a Disabled Submarine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cymerman, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and postural control were assessed in 7 submariners during 5 days exposure to a simulated disabled submarine environment (DISSUB) (4C, 2.5% carbon dioxide, 16.75% oxygen, 85% humidity...

  5. The Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Jessica L; Nothelle, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    The Medicare Annual Wellness Visit is an annual preventive health benefit, which was created in 2011 as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The visit provides an opportunity for clinicians to review preventive health recommendations and screen for geriatric syndromes. In this article, the authors review the requirements of the Annual Wellness Visit, discuss ways to use the Annual Wellness Visit to improve the care of geriatric patients, and provide suggestions for how to incorporate this benefit into a busy clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    USING HYPOTHERMIA AND HYPERBARIC CXYGENATI 1972-3011 0 A CASE REPO+ HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA ABOARD A SUBMERGED SUBMARINE 1972-0014 THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOXIA...G009 LEVEL. VENTILATORY DYNAMICS UNDER HYPERBARIC STATES.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES U. So NAVAL SJBMARINE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARINE BASE...CONNECTICUT. 23 OCT 62 StJRL ____________ 1962-0019 WOO3D W.- - ____ VENTILATORY DYNAMICS UNDER HYPERBARIC STATES.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES

  7. The feasibility of uranium enrichment in Brazil for use in nuclear bombs and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-05-01

    This work reports the steps to define a brazilian system of nuclear safeguards under the congress responsibility. It discusses as well the feasibility of uranium enrichment for nuclear weapons, the construction of a nuclear submarine and the conceptual project of a nuclear explosive. (A.C.A.S.)

  8. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  9. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  10. 33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval Submarine Base... Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (a) Location. The following is a security zone: The waters of... States Naval vessels. (ii) Vessels that are performing work at Naval Submarine Base Bangor pursuant to a...

  11. The Medical Implications of Women On Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-26

    which is in turn influenced by sex, genetics, nutrition, and exercise both before and after this age.50, 51 Postmenopausal women lose bone mass at...for 20-25% of women’s visits, the most common of which were dysfunctional uterine bleeding or amenorrhea , contraceptive issues, pregnancy or ruling...pregnancy induced hypertension, fetal death and low birth weight infants144, and low frequency whole body vibration in the 1-10 hz range, which has been

  12. ERINDA Scientific Results: Transnational Access Activities and Scientific Visits

    CERN Document Server

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Transnational Access Activities and Scientific visits within the FP7 project ERINDA (European Research Infrastructures for Nuclear Data). It highlights the fact that nearly 3200 data - taking hours for external users were made available in the partner installations and 104 man weeks for scientific visits to par tner institutes. This is much more than the 2500 beam hours and 80 weeks promised in the Description of Work of the project.

  13. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  14. 150 Bulgarian students visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    Between 27 March and 8 April 2010, 150 Bulgarian students from the Astronomical Observatory in Varna visited CERN as part of the “From Galileo to CERN” programme. Bulgarian students participating in the "From Galileo to CERN" educational programme. “It’s interesting to combine astronomy and particle physics”, explains Svejina Dimitrova, organiser of the programme and Director of Varna Astronomical Observatory. The three groups, each one comprising 50 students, first visited Pisa, Padua and other places in Italy  related to Galileo’s life. “Thanks to the visit, students understood telescopes and why Galileo is such an important scientist”, says Svejina. After Italy, they came to CERN for three days and visited several sites: Linac, the Computer Centre CCC, etc. Another group of Bulgarian students in their visit to CERN. “They became aware that particle physics is not only the...

  15. Carbon transport in Monterey Submarine Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J.; Paull, C. K.; Xu, J. P.; Clare, M. A.; Gales, J. A.; Buck, K. R.; Lovera, C.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Talling, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are important conduits for sediment transport from continental margins to the abyss, but the rate, volume, and time scales of material transport have been measured only rarely. Using moorings with current meters, sediment traps (10 m above bottom) and optical backscatter sensors, we measured near-bottom currents, suspended sediment concentrations, and sediment properties at 1300 m depth in Monterey Canyon and at a non-canyon location on the continental slope at the same depth. Flow and water column backscatter were used to characterize "ambient" conditions when tidal currents dominated the flow field, and occasional "sediment transport events" when anomalously high down-canyon flow with sediment-laden waters arrived at the canyon mooring. The ambient sediment flux measured in sediment traps in Monterey Canyon was 350 times greater than measured at the non-canyon location. Although the organic carbon content of the canyon sediment flux during ambient periods was low (1.8 %C) compared to the slope location (4.9 %C), the ambient carbon transport in the canyon was 130 times greater than at the non-canyon site. Material fluxes during sediment transport events were difficult to measure owing to clogging of sediment traps, but minimal estimates indicate that mass transport during events exceeds ambient sediment fluxes through the canyon by nearly 3 orders of magnitude, while carbon transport is 380 times greater. Estimates of the instantaneous and cumulative flux of sediment and carbon from currents, backscatter, and sediment properties indicated that: 1) net flux is down-canyon, 2) flux is dominated by sediment transport events, and 3) organic carbon flux through 1300 m in Monterey Canyon was ca. 1500 MT C per year. The injection of 1500 MTCy-1 into the deep-sea represents ca. 260 km2 of the sediment C flux measured at the continental slope station (5.8 gCm-2y-1) and is sufficient to support a benthic community carbon demand of 5 gCm-2y-1 over 300 km2.

  16. Nuclear propulsion: an indispensable know-how to national sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, Michel; Tertrais, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    This report proposes a detailed presentation of the role nuclear-powered submarines in the French defence strategy, policy and security, and also a focus on the role of nuclear propulsion in these respects. The first part presents an overview of the role of submarines in the French strategy. It addresses the choice and interest of a deterrence policy for France, describes the role of submarines in this deterrence, and the role of SSNs in the French defence and security policy (support to deterrence, other strategic functions, protection). In the second part, the authors highlight the crucial role of nuclear propulsion by proposing an overview of a century of submarine evolution, by outlining their stealth and detection in above water and underwater warfare, by presenting SSBNs, by giving an overview of the different capacities of modern SSNs (weapons, above water warfare, under water warfare, ground strike capacities, special operations). It finally proposes an assessment of submarine operations. The last part addresses perspectives of evolution of operational requirements within the framework of the French strategy, its consequences on submarine acquisition programmes (for France and for the USA), its consequences in terms of numbers of SSNs and SSBNs, and its consequences in terms necessity of an industrial background. It also addresses European perspectives in terms of design, construction and abilities in the field of nuclear propulsion, and briefly other applications in marine nuclear propulsion. Issues of export and proliferation are also briefly addressed. Appendices propose presentations of the existing fleet of SSNs and SSBNs in the world

  17. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  18. International aid is needed in resolving the military nuclear waste problems in Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forss, S.

    1995-01-01

    Information about military nuclear waste problems in the counties of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has become public on an unprecedented scale since the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Relevant technical details about the nuclear waste problem are still unclassified. The amount of knowledge is, however, steadily increasing despite military secrecy. It is now possible to perform a fairly reliable evaluation of the scope and magnitude of the nuclear waste problem that stems from more than three decades of operation of nuclear submarines and ships of the former Soviet Northern Fleet. The former Soviet Navy built some 240 nuclear submarines, most of them with twin reactors. About 180 nuclear submarines will have to be disposed of in the coming years. Since the late eighties the Soviet/Russian Navy has retired about twenty nuclear submarines a year. Approximately one hundred nuclear submarines now lie in Russian harbours in the North and in the Far East, awaiting disposal. More than seventy are in the Kola and Arkhangelsk areas. Most of the retired submarines still carry nuclear fuel in their reactor. (orig.)

  19. SM18 Visits and Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      VISITS The rules and conditions to be followed for visits in the SM18 Hall are laid out in the EDMS 1205328 document. No visit is allowed without prior reservation.   ACCESS Special access right is needed ONLY from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m. and during week-ends. From 1 December, the current SM18 access database will be closed and a new one “SM18-OWH outside normal hours” started from scratch. Requests, via EDH SM18-OWH, will have to be duly justified.   For further information, please contact Evelyne Delucinge.

  20. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    papers and op-eds; and relevant books . This thesis will not include human subjects because the scope of the research will not permit gathering...Soviet-built submarines required.36 Furthermore, the hulls were purchased secondhand and thus had a shortened

  1. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  2. Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or

  3. PAUT-based defect detection method for submarine pressure hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jae Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine has a pressure hull that can withstand high hydraulic pressure and therefore, requires the use of highly advanced shipbuilding technology. When producing a pressure hull, periodic inspection, repair, and maintenance are conducted to maintain its soundness. Of the maintenance methods, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT is the most effective, because it does not damage the target but sustains its original form and function while inspecting internal and external defects. The NDT process to detect defects in the welded parts of the submarine is applied through Magnetic particle Testing (MT to detect surface defects and Ultrasonic Testing (UT and Radiography Testing (RT to detect internal defects. In comparison with RT, UT encounters difficulties in distinguishing the types of defects, can yield different results depending on the skills of the inspector, and stores no inspection record. At the same time, the use of RT gives rise to issues related to worker safety due to radiation exposure. RT is also difficult to apply from the perspectives of the manufacturing of the submarine and economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT method was applied to propose an inspection method that can address the above disadvantages by designing a probe to enhance the precision of detection of hull defects and the reliability of calculations of defect size. Keywords: Submarine pressure hull, Non-destructive testing, Phased array ultrasonic testing

  4. Multicore fibers for high-capacity submarine transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md.; Morioka, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Applications of multicore fibers (MCFs) in undersea transmission systems are investigated, and various potential architectures of branching units for MCF-based undersea transmission systems are presented. Some MCF-based submarine network architectures based on the amount of data traffic are also...

  5. Hydroids from submarine cliffs near Arthur Harbour, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1972-01-01

    At the instigation of Dr. Joel W. Hedgpeth, Resident Director, Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., I studied samples of hydroids, collected by Dr. John C. McCain and Dr. William E. Stout from submarine cliffs in the region around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The

  6. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2017-04-24

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  7. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  8. A naval nuclear port: the costs to Rosyth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, C.

    1988-07-01

    This report is part of Greenpeace's Nuclear Free Seas Campaign. Previous publications have detailed the global inventory of the growing naval nuclear arsenals, the increasingly dangerous maritime strategies, and the UK's role in the naval nuclear arms race. The purpose of this research is to bring to the public's attention the environmental dangers that threaten Rosyth as a result of its role in the infrastructure that supports the UK's nuclear navy. The dockyard is used for replacing the fuel (refuelling) and maintenance (refitting) of nuclear powered submarines. It is also home port to four Type 42 Destroyers which are capable of carrying nuclear depth bombs for their helicopters. The presence in Rosyth of HMS Dreadnought, the first of Britain's nuclear powered submarines to be decommissioned, raises the additional question of the final destination of this and the nine other nuclear submarines scheduled to have their nuclear fuel removed in the next 12 years. The report considers the likelihood of a serious accident involving a nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon in Rosyth 'Public Safety Scheme' which is supposedly designed to cope with a nuclear reactor accident. The study looks at the dangers inherent in the 'normal' activities of nuclear powered submarines in Rosyth. It considers the adequacy of the present monitoring of the radiation that comes with their presence, looks at the health implications for workers and examines the high level of leukaemia in the under 25 age group that have been recorded in the area. (author)

  9. Three European ministers visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    There have been three ministerial visits to CERN this month. Gediminas Kirkilas, Prime Minister of Lithuania, and Robert Aymar, CERN’s Director-General.On 2 July, the Prime Minister of Lithuania, Gediminas Kirkilas, was welcomed by CERN’s Director-General, Robert Aymar, before being taken on a visit of the ATLAS cavern at Point 2 and the LHC tunnel. Michal Sewerynski, Poland’s Minister for Science and Higher Education, and Robert Aymar, CERN’s Director-General.Ten days later, Poland’s Minister for Science and Higher Education, Michal Sewerynski, visited the CMS cavern and assembly hall and the LHC tunnel. He was also given a tour of the LHC Computer Centre and the CERN Control Centre. His visit was rounded off with a presentation of Polish companies involved in CERN’s activities, followed by a meeting with Polish personnel working at CERN. J�...

  10. Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution, and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Subamrine, Medium) LCDR Lieutenant Commander LT Lieutenant NM Nautical Mile RADM Rear Admiral ST Sen- Taka (Submarine, High Speed) STo Sen-Toku...Special Submarine) STS Sen- Taka -Sho (Submarine, High Speed(Victory)) USS United States Ship VADM Vice Admiral 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On...Kirai-Sen meaning Mine-Layer, KT for Kai-Toku-Chu meaning Medium, Special Submarine, ST for Sen- Taka meaning Submarine, High speed, STo for Sen Toku

  11. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  13. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  14. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  15. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  16. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  17. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  18. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  19. UN Secretary General visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UN Secretary General praises CERN in recent visit. Ban Ki-moon, Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the United Nations Office in Geneva at the CMS site.On Sunday 31 August, Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary General, made an important visit to CERN. Arriving in the late afternoon, he was warmly greeted at Point 5 by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and the Sous-préfet of Gex, Olivier Laurens-Bernard. Accompanied by a UN delegation, Ban Ki-moon was also introduced to Jos Engelen, the Chief Scientific Officer, and Jim Virdee, the CMS spokesperson. He then took the opportunity to visit CMS and the machine tunnel. At the end of his short trip, Ban Ki-moon signed the Guest Book in the tradition of important dignitaries visiting CERN. Expressing his admiration for CERN’s spirit of collaboration, Ban Ki-moon said, "I am very honored to visit CERN, an invaluable scientific institution a...

  20. The ultimate nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdus Salam, A.

    1988-01-01

    The estimated energy equivalent of Chernobyl explosion was the 1/150 th of the explosive energy equivalent of atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima; while the devastation that could be caused by the world's stock pile of nuclear weapons, could be equivalent to 160 millions of Chernobyl-like incidents. As known, the number of nuclear weapons is over 50,000 and 2000 nuclear weapons are sufficient to destroy the world. The Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been blamed on human factors but also the human element, particularly in the form of psychological stresses on those operating the nuclear weapons, could accidentally bring the world to a nuclear catastrophe. This opinion is encouraged by the London's Sunday Times magazine which gave a graphic description of life inside a nuclear submarine. So, to speak of nuclear reactor accidents and not of nuclear weapons is false security. (author)

  1. Visits from Croatia and Belarus

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 23 September, CERN was visited by two Ministers, Anatoly Rusetsky, Chairman of the Committee on Science and Technology of the Republic of Belarus, and Professor Gvozden Flego, Croatian Minister of Science and Technology. Mr Rusetsky met with Roger Cashmore, Research Director for Collider Programmes, and Michel Della Negra, spokesperson of the CMS experiment, and visited the CMS detector assembly hall. Professor Flego also met Mr Cashmore and visited the NA49 and CAST experiments, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, the ALICE experiment cavern, and the assembly hall for the CMS experiment. From left to right: Nikola Godinovic, working at CMS, Jürgen Schukraft, ALICE spokesperson, Gordan Markotic, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Croatia to the United Nations and other international organisations in Geneva, Professor Gvozden Flego, Minister of Science and Technology, Republic of Croatia.

  2. About an Optimal Visiting Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagagiolo, Fabio, E-mail: bagagiol@science.unitn.it; Benetton, Michela [Unversita di Trento, Dipartimento di Matematica (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper we are concerned with the optimal control problem consisting in minimizing the time for reaching (visiting) a fixed number of target sets, in particular more than one target. Such a problem is of course reminiscent of the famous 'Traveling Salesman Problem' and brings all its computational difficulties. Our aim is to apply the dynamic programming technique in order to characterize the value function of the problem as the unique viscosity solution of a suitable Hamilton-Jacobi equation. We introduce some 'external' variables, one per target, which keep in memory whether the corresponding target is already visited or not, and we transform the visiting problem in a suitable Mayer problem. This fact allows us to overcome the lacking of the Dynamic Programming Principle for the originary problem. The external variables evolve with a hysteresis law and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation turns out to be discontinuous.

  3. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  4. Stennis visits Lake Cormorant school

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Alexis Harry, assistant director of Astro Camp at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, talks with students at Lake Cormorant (Miss.) Elementary School during a 'Living and Working in Space' presentation March 30. Stennis hosted the school presentation during a visit to the Oxford area. Harry, who also is a high school biology teacher in Slidell, La., spent time discussing space travel with students and answering questions they had about the experience, including queries about how astronauts eat, sleep and drink in space. The presentation was sponsored by the NASA Office of External Affairs and Education at Stennis. For more information about NASA education initiatives, visit: http://education.ssc.nasa.gov/.

  5. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  6. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  7. MVAC Submarine cable, magnetic fields measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    Standard 60287. Researchers believe that the wire armour of three phased submarine cables is the reason for the inaccurate calculations by the standard. Studies show that the magnetic behaviour of these cables are changed due to the wire armour. In order to investigate this hypothesis, this paper intends...... to supply the theoretical research with data from magnetic field measurements on a wire armoured 3-phase submarine cable, together with an investigation of the induced currents in the different cable components. The influence of the physical arrangement of the armour wires on the electric behaviour is also...... investigated, since several researchers believe that the twisting of the armour wires result in zero net induced voltage over one helix length. This is shown to be valid for the tested cable. Finally a replica of the armour has been built with just a single conductor in the centre. This setup was used...

  8. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H

    2018-02-19

    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  9. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour....

  10. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  11. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.; Young, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda. Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately 400 m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater. SiO 2 , HCO 3 , Ca, K, Li, B, Ba, Rb, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn are enriched in the submarine hot springwater, while Cl, Na, So 4 2 , Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, and perhaps Pb are depleted in relation to average and local seawater values. Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded (102 0 C at 4-atm pressure). Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry (1500-ppm detection limit). X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality (volcanics) versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters. Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin

  12. Software Architecture for Anti-Submarine Warfare Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    would ordinarily require the placement of more sonobuoys in the predicted path of the submarine, but if the USVs could sprint ahead just a few hundred...few yards/ meters . Once an agent has accurately resolved their current position on the globe, and identified obstacles to avoid, the task of navigation...Software Engineering with Abstractions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. [7] B. Harris, “Hitler’s Lost Sub: 400 Years of Subs (1580-1861),” PBS, 2016

  13. Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Harbour, Joel P.

    2001-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanen...

  14. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  15. IAEA Director General to visit Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei announced today that he will visit the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (Libya) in the immediate future with a team of senior IAEA technical experts. 'The purpose of my visit will be to initiate an in-depth process of verification of all of Libya's past and present nuclear activities', Dr. ElBaradei said in a news conference. 'We shall define the corrective actions that need to be taken and consult on the necessary steps to eliminate any weapons related activities.' The announcement follows a meeting held in Vienna on 20 December 2003 between Dr. ElBaradei and H.E. Engineer Matooq Mohamed Matooq, Assistant Secretary for Services Affairs of the General People's Committee of Libya. In that meeting, Mr. Matooq informed Dr. ElBaradei of Libya's decision to eliminate 'materials, equipments and programmes which lead to the production of internationally proscribed weapons'. The Agency was also informed that Libya had been engaged for more than a decade in the development of a uranium enrichment capability. This included importing natural uranium and centrifuge and conversion equipment and the construction of now dismantled pilot scale centrifuge facilities. Some of these activities should have been, but were not, reported to the IAEA under Libya's Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA. Mr. Matooq stated, however, that Libya's nuclear enrichment programme was at an early stage of development and that no industrial scale facility had been built, nor any enriched uranium produced. Libya has asked the IAEA to ensure through verification that all of Libya's nuclear activities will henceforth be under safeguards and exclusively for peaceful purposes. In that regard, Libya has agreed to take the necessary steps to conclude an Additional Protocol to its NPT Safeguards Agreement, which will provide the IAEA with broader inspection rights, and to pursue with the IAEA a policy of full transparency and active co-operation. Dr. ElBaradei said, 'Libya's decision to

  16. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  17. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  18. Submarine Volcanic Eruptions and Potential Analogs for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Fryer, P.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of an analysis program to better understand the diversity of volcanic processes on the terrestrial planets, an investigation of the volcanic landforms which exist on the Earth's ocean floor was initiated. In part, this analysis is focused toward gaining a better understanding of submarine volcanic landforms in their own right, but also it is hoped that these features may show similarities to volcanic landforms on Venus, due to the high ambient water (Earth) and atmospheric (Venus) pressures. A series of numerical modelling experiments was performed to investigate the relative importance of such attributes as water pressure and temperature on the eruption process, and to determine the rate of cooling and emplacement of lava flows in the submarine environment. Investigations to date show that the confining water pressure and the buoyancy effects of the surrounding water significantly affect the styles of volcanism on the ocean floor. In the case of Venusian volcanism, confining pressures will not be as great as that found at the ocean's abyssal plains, but nevertheless the general trend toward reducing magma vesiculation will hold true for Venus as well as the ocean floor. Furthermore, other analogs may also be found between submarine volcanism and Venusian activity.

  19. A local area network and information management system for a submarine overhaul facility

    OpenAIRE

    Bushmire, Jeffrey D

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design of a local area network for a submarine overhaul facility is developed using System Engineering concepts. SOFLAN, the Submarine Overhaul Facility Local Area Network, is necessary to provide more timely and accurate information to submarine overhaul managers in order to decrease the overhaul time period and become more competitive. The network is a microcomputer based system following the Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards with a server .. client architecture. SOFLAN serves...

  20. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    submarine duty could lead to sexual problems aboard ship and marital problems at home .”22 Some argue that wives do not trust women at sea with...enforces the argument that women are here to stay in submarines. While political and military experts continue to debate the roles of women in submarines...ACSC/Meyer, J/FY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States

  1. “VICO”, Visiting Colleagues

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    “Hello, I am your delegate” – have you heard this line? Maybe you have already had the pleasure of receiving a visit from a Staff Association delegate – then you know what this is all about. As for those of you, who have not yet heard these words, it’s time to get curious. The Staff Association has decided to embark upon an adventure called “VICO”, Visiting Colleagues. From past experience, we have understood the value of personal, direct contact with the people we represent. We believe that the best way to achieve this is to knock on your office door and pay you a short visit.  We do not want to make you fill in yet another online questionnaire and would much rather collect your feedback in a short conversation face to face. Of course, we have prepared ourselves thoroughly for these visit rounds, because we do not want to waste your time. We welcome criticism because it can make us aware of our shortcomings, tell us about how y...

  2. Prenatal Care: First Trimester Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider will discuss the importance of proper nutrition and prenatal vitamins. Your first prenatal visit is a good time to discuss exercise, sex during pregnancy and other lifestyle issues. You might also discuss your work environment and the use of medications during pregnancy. If ...

  3. Visiting School Campuses: Reporter Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Spending time in schools and classrooms can be one of the best ways for novice reporters to dive into the education beat, and for veteran journalists to find fresh inspiration. While it is certainly not necessary for every story, education journalists should try their best to make time to visit schools. Classroom observations and campus tours help…

  4. Visit of the Austrian Ambassador

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Austrian Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch (light raincoat) learns about superconducting magnets at the LHC magnet test facility in building SM18 during a visit to CERN. The blue pipe-like structure in the left background is String 2: the 120-m long full-scale model of an LHC cell, which is used to test LHC systems.

  5. President of Ecuador visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    On Friday, 24 October, Dr. Rafael Correa Delgado, President of the Republic of Ecuador, visited CERN.   Visiting Geneva to deliver a lecture at the UN, Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa Delgado seized the chance to have a short but intense visit of the Laboratory. The President was met at LHC Point 1 by the Director for Research and Scientific Computing Sergio Bertolucci, who gave him an introduction to CERN’s activities.He was also introduced to the Director for Accelerators and Technology, Frédérick Bordry, and Department Heads José Miguel Jiménez (TE), Livio Mapelli (PH) and Roberto Saban (EN). President Correa Delgado also met with Martijn Mulders, co-organiser of the CERN Latin America School of High-Energy Physics, which will be held in Ecuador from 4 to 17 March 2015. Shortly after that, he visited the ATLAS experimental cavern which he toured with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson David Charlton and Fernando Monticelli of t...

  6. Beautiful Science: Worth a Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Frederick M.

    2013-01-01

    For those in the profession of teaching physics who reside in or plan to visit the Los Angeles area, I would highly recommend a trip to the Huntington Library in San Marino, specifically to a permanent exhibit entitled "Beautiful Science: Ideas that Changed the World" in the Dibner Hall of the History of Science. The exhibit contains…

  7. Child Custody, Visitation and Maintenance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    2017-12-30

    Dec 30, 2017 ... The important thing here is fixing or determining which custody arrangement is ..... assuring the child's safety.86 Hence, supervised visitation can be ordered to ... safety, physical or mental health or other adverse effects on the feelings and emotional .... However, “In case of death, disability, unworthiness or.

  8. Dr. John Marburger visits DESY

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Dr. John Marburger, Director of the United States Office of Science and Technology Policy, visited the research center DESY in Hamburg. The American physicist wanted to inform himself about the status of the TESLA X-ray laser and the TESLA linear collider as well as the international collaboration at DESY (1/2 page).

  9. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  10. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y. D

    2006-01-01

    .... This trial thus represents a baseline habitability evaluation of Canada's Victoria class submarines to confirm compliance with the current maximum permissible contaminant limits stipulated in the Air...

  11. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  12. Size distributions and failure initiation of submarine and subaerial landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Barkan, R.; Andrews, B.D.; Chaytor, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are often viewed together with other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and fires, as phenomena whose size distribution obeys an inverse power law. Inverse power law distributions are the result of additive avalanche processes, in which the final size cannot be predicted at the onset of the disturbance. Volume and area distributions of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope follow a lognormal distribution and not an inverse power law. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generated area distributions of submarine landslides that show a characteristic size and with few smaller and larger areas, which can be described well by a lognormal distribution. To generate these distributions we assumed that the area of slope failure depends on earthquake magnitude, i.e., that failure occurs simultaneously over the area affected by horizontal ground shaking, and does not cascade from nucleating points. Furthermore, the downslope movement of displaced sediments does not entrain significant amounts of additional material. Our simulations fit well the area distribution of landslide sources along the Atlantic continental margin, if we assume that the slope has been subjected to earthquakes of magnitude ??? 6.3. Regions of submarine landslides, whose area distributions obey inverse power laws, may be controlled by different generation mechanisms, such as the gradual development of fractures in the headwalls of cliffs. The observation of a large number of small subaerial landslides being triggered by a single earthquake is also compatible with the hypothesis that failure occurs simultaneously in many locations within the area affected by ground shaking. Unlike submarine landslides, which are found on large uniformly-dipping slopes, a single large landslide scarp cannot form on land because of the heterogeneous morphology and short slope distances of tectonically-active subaerial regions. However, for a given earthquake magnitude, the total area

  13. Alteration of submarine volcanic rocks in oxygenated Archean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D.; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Most submarine volcanic rocks, including basalts in diverging plate boundaries and andesites/dacites in converging plate boundaries, have been altered by low-temperature seawater and/or hydrothermal fluids (up to ~400°C) under deep oceans; the hydrothermal fluids evolved from shallow/deep circulations of seawater through the underlying hot igneous rocks. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSDs) and banded iron formations (BIFs) were formed by mixing of submarine hydrothermal fluids with local seawater. Therefore, the behaviors of various elements, especially of redox-sensitive elements, in altered submarine volcanic rocks, VMSDs and BIFs can be used to decipher the chemical evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. We have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of >500 samples of basalts from a 260m-long drill core section of Hole #1 of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP #1) in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The core section is comprised of ~160 m thick Marble Bar Chert/Jasper Unit (3.46 Ga) and underlying, inter-bedded, and overlying submarine basalts. Losses/gains of 65 elements were quantitatively evaluated on the basis of their concentration ratios against the least mobile elements (Ti, Zr and Nb). We have recognized that mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of many of these samples are essentially the same as those of hydrothermally-altered modern submarine basalts and also those of altered volcanic rocks that underlie Phanerozoic VMSDs. The similarities include, but are not restricted to: (1) the alteration mineralogy (chlorite ± sericite ± pyrophyllite ± carbonates ± hematite ± pyrite ± rutile); (2) the characteristics of whole-rock δ18O and δ34S values; (3) the ranges of depletion and enrichment of Si, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Mn, and P; (4) the enrichment of Ba (as sulfate); (5) the increases in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios; (6) the enrichment of U; (7) the depletion of Cr; and (8) the negative Ce anomalies. Literature data

  14. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  15. 28 CFR 540.41 - Visiting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Visiting facilities. 540.41 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Visiting Regulations § 540.41 Visiting facilities. The Warden shall have... have a portion of the visiting room equipped and set up to provide facilities for the children of...

  16. Proceedings of the scientific visit on crystalline rock repository development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Hardin, Ernest L.; Miksova, Jitka [RAWRA, Czech Republic

    2013-02-01

    A scientific visit on Crystalline Rock Repository Development was held in the Czech Republic on September 24-27, 2012. The visit was hosted by the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), co-hosted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The purpose of the visit was to promote technical information exchange between participants from countries engaged in the investigation and exploration of crystalline rock for the eventual construction of nuclear waste repositories. The visit was designed especially for participants of countries that have recently commenced (or recommenced) national repository programmes in crystalline host rock formations. Discussion topics included repository programme development, site screening and selection, site characterization, disposal concepts in crystalline host rock, regulatory frameworks, and safety assessment methodology. Interest was surveyed in establishing a %E2%80%9Cclub,%E2%80%9D the mission of which would be to identify and address the various technical challenges that confront the disposal of radioactive waste in crystalline rock environments. The idea of a second scientific visit to be held one year later in another host country received popular support. The visit concluded with a trip to the countryside south of Prague where participants were treated to a tour of the laboratory and underground facilities of the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre.

  17. Young EIROforum prizewinner visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On 27 to 31 July, CERN welcomed Paul Clarke, an 18-year-old Irish mathematician who won a CERN EIROforum prize (second place) at EUCYS 2014 (European Union Contest for Young Scientists).   Paul Clarke, visiting the new Microcosm exhibit. In addition to a €5000 prize, Paul visited the Laboratory and its experiments, meeting and speaking with CERN physicists and computer scientists. Paul's winning project is entitled "Contributions to cyclic graph theory." As the summary of the project suggests, graph theory is an area of pure mathematics which studies properties of linkages and networks. It has applications in several areas including computing, molecular structure, neuroscience, search engines, engineering etc. This project makes a profound contribution to the study of graphs. It identifies key concepts and provides the methodology to apply them to some long-standing major problems in the subject with great success. Paul has just finished high sc...

  18. An Algerian Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Algerian Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Rachid Haraoubia, visited CERN on 14 November. His party included the Rector of the University of Blida and the Director of the Algerian Ecole Nationale Polytechnique. Welcomed by CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, and Secretary-General, Maximilien Metzger, he signed the VIP Visitors' Book before going on to visit the ATLAS experiment and the LHC tunnel. He then had the opportunity to meet Algerian scientists working at CERN. Some fifteen Algerian physicists attached to European and US institutes are participating in the LHC experiments, in particular ATLAS. A formal collaboration agreement between Algeria and CERN is expected to be drawn up in the near future.

  19. DPT Researchers’ Visit to Moscow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Popova, Margarita

    2018-01-01

    to three colleagues from MSUPE. Our staff members’ presentations focused on presenting Problem-oriented Project Learning and group work, RUC’s Social Psychology of Everyday Life study program, as well as research on diversity, migration and cross-cultural psychology in the joint seminars with MSUPE staff......Four researchers from our department (DPT/IMT) Hans S. Andersen, Margarita Popova, Niklas Chimmiri & Rashmi Singla spent five intellectually, geographically and socially stimulating days at Moscow State University of Psychology and Education (MSUPE), as part of an Erasmus+ staff knowledge exchange...... visit. Conceptually grounded discussions of psychological and educational research projects building on the Cultural-Historical School of Psychology, founded in Russia (L. S. Vygotsky, A. N. Leontiev, A. R. Luria), formed the main framing for the visit. In April 2017, RUC had already acted as host...

  20. Two pioneering artists visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    On Monday, 19 January, CERN physicists welcomed musician Tim Blake - progressive rock keyboard and theremin player - and architectural lighting designer Patrice Warrener - inventor of the Chromolithe Polychromatic Illumination system, used in Lyon’s “Fête des Lumières”. Together, they make up the musical duo "Crystal Machine".   The artists visit the Antiproton Decelerator. (Image: Django Manglunki.)   Their visit began with an introduction to CERN by their friend Django Manglunki, project leader for the ion injector chain, and an improvised discussion on the LHC extraction system with Roger Barlow, kicker magnet controls expert and progressive rock fan. This was followed by a quick trip to the CCC, the server room and the SPS RF amplifiers in BA3. Next on the itinerary was a tour of the AD and anti-hydrogen experiments led by Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. A leisurely lunch followed, in the company ...

  1. A Croatian delegation visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Professor Hrvoje Kraljeviç signing the Golden book with Professor Roger Cashmore. A Croatian delegation composed of the Minister of Science and Technology, Professor Hrvoje Kraljeviç, his deputy for international collaboration Prof. Davor Butkovic have visited CERN on the 12 and 13th of February and held talks with the CERN authorities, ALICE and CMS spokespersons on the possibilities to increase the participation of Croatia to the LHC related activities.

  2. US Cub Scouts visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A group of young American Cub Scouts from Den 10, Pack 130 (based in Geneva) at the Microcosm last Saturday. On their trip to CERN, which included the first Visits Service tour of the ATLAS construction site, the scouts were able to satisfy most of the requirements for the Cub Scout engineering badge. From left to right: Edouard Vincent, Ariel Litke, Alexander Richter, Antoine Vidal de Saint Phalle, Jason Iredale and Daniel Reghelini.

  3. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Amy; Allen, Elizabeth; Lindemann, Claudia; Yamaguchi, Yuko; O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Knox, Kyle; Wyllie, David H

    2016-06-02

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  5. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G H; Kang, W J; Kim, T J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  6. Broaching the Ship: Rethinking Submarines as a Signaling Tool in Naval Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Bateman , “Perils of the Deep: the Dangers of Submarine Proliferation in the Seas of East Asia,” Asian Security 7, no. 1 (Spring 2011), 64. 89 Brent...Science. London: Routledge, 2012. Bateman , Sam. “Perils of the Deep: The Dangers of Submarine Proliferation in the Seas of East Asia.” Asian Security

  7. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    ADM Admiral ASW Anti-submarine warfare BDA Battle damage assessment C2 Command and Control CDR Commander HF/DF High frequency direction finder...damage assessment ( BDA ) if you will, the submarine captain decided if further action might be warranted, and made a decision as to how to engage

  8. Indian, Japanese, And U.S. Responses To Chinese Submarine Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INDIAN, JAPANESE ...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INDIAN, JAPANESE , AND U.S. RESPONSES TO CHINESE SUBMARINE MODERNIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...is unlimited INDIAN, JAPANESE , AND U.S. RESPONSES TO CHINESE SUBMARINE MODERNIZATION David E. Kiser Lieutenant Commander, United States

  9. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others

    1992-01-01

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria

  10. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-01

    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  11. The down canyon evolution of submarine sediment density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine density flows, known as turbidity currents, transfer globally significant volumes of terrestrial and shelf sediments, organic carbon, nutrients and fresher-water into the deep ocean. Understanding such flows has wide implications for global organic carbon cycling, the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, seabed infrastructure hazard assessments, and interpreting geological archives of Earth history. Only river systems transport comparable volumes of sediment over such large areas of the globe. Despite their clear importance, there are remarkably few direct measurements of these oceanic turbidity currents in action. Here we present results from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) which deployed multiple moorings along the axis of Monterey Canyon (offshore California). An array of six moorings, with downward looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were positioned along the canyon axis from 290 m to 1850 m water depth. The ADCPs reveal the internal flow structure of submarine density flows at each site. We use a novel inversion method to reconstruct the suspended sediment concentration and flow stratification field during each event. Together the six moorings provide the first ever views of the internal structural evolution of turbidity current events as they evolve down system. Across the total 18-month period of deployment at least 15 submarine sediment density flows were measured with velocities up to 8.1 m/sec, with three of these flows extending 50 kms down the canyon beyond the 1850 m water depth mooring. We use these novel data to highlight the controls on ignition, interval structure and collapse of individual events and discuss the implications for the functioning and deposits produced by these enigmatic flows.

  12. The Thermal Regime Around Buried Submarine High-Voltage Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Dix, J.; Henstock, T.; Gernon, T.; Thompson, C.; Pilgrim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the desire for "trans-continental shelf" power transmission, all require the use of submarine High Voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70oC and are typically buried at depths of 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the thermal properties of near surface shelf sediments are poorly understood and this increases the uncertainty in determining the required cable current ratings, cable reliability and the potential effects on the sedimentary environments. We present temperature measurements from a 2D laboratory experiment, designed to represent a buried, submarine HV cable. We used a large (2.5 m-high) tank, filled with water-saturated ballotini and instrumented with 120 thermocouples, which measured the time-dependent 2D temperature distributions around the heat source. The experiments use a buried heat source to represent a series of realistic cable surface temperatures with the aim for identifying the thermal regimes generated within typical non-cohesive shelf sediments: coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. The steady state heat flow regimes, and normalised and radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that at temperatures up to 60°C above ambient, the thermal regimes are conductive for the coarse silt sediments and convective for the very coarse sand sediments even at 7°C above ambient. However, the heat flow pattern through the fine sand sediment shows a transition from conductive to convective heat flow at a temperature of approximately 20°C above ambient. These findings offer an important new understanding of the thermal regimes associated with submarine HV cables buried in different substrates and has huge impacts on cable ratings as the IEC 60287 standard only considers conductive heat flow as well as other potential near surface impacts.

  13. Ministers from Belgium and the Netherlands visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.From left to right, Frank Linde, Director of the Netherlands National Institute for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics (NIKHEF), Jos Engelen, CERN's Chief Scientific Officer, Maria van der Hoeven, Netherlands Minister for Education, Culture and Science, and Herman Ten Kate, Head of the ATLAS magnet project, visiting the ATLAS assembly hall. Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested. A few days later, on 21 April, the Netherlands Minister for Education, Culture and Science, Mrs Maria van der Hoeven, was welcomed to CERN by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, and the Chief Scientific Officer, Jos Engelen. Minister van der Hoeven visited the ATLAS installations, t...

  14. U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    abandon the strategy of nuclear deterrence that has served as a core concept in U.S. national security strategy for more than 60 years. In a speech in......stated that “the continuous at-sea deterrence provided by a robust and modern fleet of nuclear -powered ballistic missile submarines is critical to

  15. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  16. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-09-26

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  17. The outcome of the working visits by the experts to the fuel provider enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Y.; Molchanov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The working visits by the international experts to the fabrication plants of nuclear fuels and the zirconium alloy component facility took part in the framework of the „Zero failure level“ project. The purpose of these working visits was to determine whether there are any cause-effect relationships between the production of nuclear fuel and the fuel failures as well as to identify the trends and reasons for such failures. As an outcome of the analysis of the production processes at the fabrication plants of the nuclear fuel and the zirconium alloys component facility, the system root causes affecting the failures of the nuclear fuel were not identified

  18. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  19. Use of Russian technology of ship reactors with lead-bismuth coolant in nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Chitaykin, V.I.; Gromov, B.F.; Grigoryv, O.G.; Dedoul, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Dragunov, Yu.G.; Stepanov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    The experience of using lead-bismuth coolant in Russian nuclear submarine reactors has been presented. The fundamental statements of the concept of using the reactors cooled by lead-bismuth alloy in nuclear power have been substantiated. The results of developments for using lead bismuth coolant in nuclear power have been presented. (author)

  20. Localizing Submarine Earthquakes by Listening to the Water Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J.; Zhan, Z.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mid-Ocean Ridge (MOR) earthquakes generally occur far from any land based station and are of moderate magnitude, making it complicated to detect and in most cases, locate accurately. This limits our understanding of how MOR normal and transform faults move and the manner in which they slip. Different from continental events, seismic records from earthquakes occurring beneath the ocean floor show complex reverberations caused by P-wave energy trapped in the water column that are highly dependent of the source location and the efficiency to which energy propagated to the near-source surface. These later arrivals are commonly considered to be only a nuisance as they might sometimes interfere with the primary arrivals. However, in this study, we take advantage of the wavefield's high sensitivity to small changes in the seafloor topography and the present-day availability of worldwide multi-beam bathymetry to relocate submarine earthquakes by modeling these water column reverberations in teleseismic signals. Using a three-dimensional hybrid method for modeling body wave arrivals, we demonstrate that an accurate hypocentral location of a submarine earthquake (<5 km) can be achieved if the structural complexities near the source region are appropriately accounted for. This presents a novel way of studying earthquake source properties and will serve as a means to explore the influence of physical fault structure on the seismic behavior of transform faults.

  1. Large submarine sand-rubble flow on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, D J [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Moore, J G; Calk, L

    1979-05-01

    Papa'u seamount on the south submarine slope of Kilauea volcano is a large landslide about 19 km long, 6 km wide, and up to 1 km thick with a volume of about 39 km/sup 3/. Dredge hauls, remote camera photographs, and submersible observations indicate that it is composed primarily of unconsolidated angular glassy basalt sand with scattered basalt blocks up to 1 m in size; no lava flows were seen. Sulfur contents of basalt glass from several places on the sand-rubble flow and nearby areas are low (< 240 ppm), indicating that the clastic basaltic material was all erupted on land. The Papa'u sandrubble flow was emplaced during a single flow event fed from a large near-shore bank of clastic basaltic material which in turn was formed as lava flows from the summit area of Kilauea volcano disintegrated when they entered the sea. The current eruptive output of the volcano suggests that the material in the submarine sand-rubble flow represents about 6000 years of accumulation, and that the flow event occurred several thousand years ago.

  2. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen......A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed...... and suspended load descriptions forming the basis for seabed morphology. The model was successfully validated against experimental measurements involving scour development and eventual equilibrium in pure-current flows over a range of Shields parameters characteristic of both clear-water and live-bed regimes....... This validation complements previously demonstrated accuracy for the same model in simulating pipeline scour processes in pure-wave environments. The model was subsequently utilized to simulate combined wave-plus-current scour over a wide range of combined Keulegan–Carpenter numbers and relative current strengths...

  3. The American and Russian plans of nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallois, P.

    2010-01-01

    This text was published in 1991, at the end of the Cold War. The author comments the intentions of the US and Russia leaders, Bush and Gorbachev, on nuclear disarmament and more specifically on limitations and reductions concerning the different nuclear weapons types and vectors (ballistic missiles, submarine launched missiles, Europe-based missiles, nuclear strategic warheads, nuclear weapon movements, short range missiles, cruise missiles). He also evokes the consequences for France of the American propositions

  4. 28 CFR 540.62 - Institutional visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....62 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.62 Institutional visits. (a) A media representative shall make advance appointments for visits. (b) When media representatives visit the institutions...

  5. 42 CFR 409.48 - Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE BENEFITS Home Health Services Under Hospital Insurance § 409.48 Visits. (a) Number of allowable... home health visits. All Medicare home health services are covered under hospital insurance unless there... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visits. 409.48 Section 409.48 Public Health CENTERS...

  6. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  7. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  8. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  9. Birth and early history of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenton, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The history of nuclear generation of electric power is traced from Sir Ernest Rutherford's first pessimistic assessment in 1933 to the present time, when 12% of U.S. electricity comes from nuclear plants. The U.S. Navy is credited with being the first to see the potential for nuclear power reactors for submarine propulsion. The author relates the story of the Manhattan Engineering District during World War II and traces the nuclear submarine development as it paralleled postwar civilian power programs from the first light water reactors to the present controversy over the breeder reactor. The momentum of technology development is seen to have slowed, possibly because the 1955 success of the USS Nautilus prompted world acceptance of the LWR as the dominant power reactor

  10. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  11. Experimental Investigation of Effect of the Sail with Leading Edge Fillet on Flow around a Submarine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Rahmany; Amir Hamzeh Farajollahi; Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-01-01

    Because of connecting the various appendages of submarine to the main body the vortices have been created that disrupt the flow uniformity and make the undesirable features such as vortex formation to flow. Vortices that have been created due to the connectivity of sail to the body of submarines have a significant impact on non-uniformity of submarine wake at location of the propeller disc. In present research the use of hot wire anemometer has created vertical flow field in back of the two s...

  12. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! I’m Dr. Ramji Rajendran, a radiation ... more about nuclear medicine, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! Spotlight Recently posted: ...

  13. A new submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-12-01

    In order to solve the oil field losses of environmental problems and economic benefit caused by the separation of lifting production liquid to offshore platforms in the current offshore oil production, from the most basic separation principle, a new oil-water separation system has been processed of adsorption and desorption on related materials, achieving high efficiency and separation of oil and water phases. And the submarine oil-water separation device has been designed. The main structure of the device consists of gas-solid phase separation device, period separating device and adsorption device that completed high efficiency separation of oil, gas and water under the adsorption and desorption principle, and the processing capacity of the device is calculated.

  14. Submarine Volcanology: 1950 to 2050 and Beyond (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    The vigorous pursuit of submarine volcanism as a major field emerged in the mid 1900’s with the post WWII recognition that there is a Mid-Ocean Ridge System that is a 70,000 km long volcanic mountain chain stretching around the world like the strings on a baseball. By the mid 1960’s it emerged that rocks from volcanic feature were consistently basaltic in character and that they were the direct result of major melting processes associated with rise of much deeper mantle material beneath the spreading ridges in a global plate tectonics framework. More than 60% of the volcanism on the planet occurs in submarine environments. The next major discovery, using the deep diving submarine ALVIN, was in the late 1970’s involving hydrothermal systems near active ridges close to the Galapagos Islands and Baja California. The idea that these vent sites were the locus of major biological productivity based on volcanically-driven chemosynthesis was a fundamental new insight in the deep ocean ecology of our planet. This was a major planetological discovery and was followed within about 15 years with an even more powerful realization: our planet has a vast sub seafloor microbial biosphere thriving in the pores and the cracks of the oceanic crust driven by circulation of modified ocean fluids through large portions of the lithosphere. These organisms are largely supported by degassing and water-rock reactions associated with submarine volcanoes. Some estimates have posited that: 1) these thermally active systems and the chemosynthetic lifestyle are a natural consequence of certain types of planetary evolution, 2) that life may have originated in these systems, and, 3) that the biomass associated with the modern sub seafloor systems rivals most other living carbon on the continents. Indeed, parallel exploration of the outer solar system has lead to propositions that the second moon of Jupiter, Europa, has (or had) a high potential to harbor analogous hydrothermal life forms

  15. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  16. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  17. Total Magnetic Field Signatures over Submarine HVDC Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Tchernychev, M.; Johnston, J. M.; Tryggestad, J.

    2013-12-01

    Mikhail Tchernychev, Geometrics, Inc. Ross Johnson, Geometrics, Inc. Jeff Johnston, Geometrics, Inc. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is widely used to transmit electrical power over considerable distances using submarine cables. The most commonly known examples are the HVDC cable between Italy and Greece (160 km), Victoria-Tasmania (300 km), New Jersey - Long Island (82 km) and the Transbay cable (Pittsburg, California - San-Francisco). These cables are inspected periodically and their location and burial depth verified. This inspection applies to live and idle cables; in particular a survey company could be required to locate pieces of a dead cable for subsequent removal from the sea floor. Most HVDC cables produce a constant magnetic field; therefore one of the possible survey tools would be Marine Total Field Magnetometer. We present mathematical expressions of the expected magnetic fields and compare them with fields observed during actual surveys. We also compare these anomalies fields with magnetic fields produced by other long objects, such as submarine pipelines The data processing techniques are discussed. There include the use of Analytic Signal and direct modeling of Total Magnetic Field. The Analytic Signal analysis can be adapted using ground truth where available, but the total field allows better discrimination of the cable parameters, in particular to distinguish between live and idle cable. Use of a Transverse Gradiometer (TVG) allows for easy discrimination between cable and pipe line objects. Considerable magnetic gradient is present in the case of a pipeline whereas there is less gradient for the DC power cable. Thus the TVG is used to validate assumptions made during the data interpretation process. Data obtained during the TVG surveys suggest that the magnetic field of a live HVDC cable is described by an expression for two infinite long wires carrying current in opposite directions.

  18. Coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria: Geological, geochemical, and radio-isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2004-10-01

    The coastal karst aquifer system (upper Cretaceous) and the submarine springs in the Syrian coast have been studies using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the hydraulic connections between the groundwater and the submarine springs. Results show that the groundwater and submarine springs are having the same slope on the σ 18 O/σ 2 H plot indicate the same hydrological origin for both. In addition this relation is very close to the local meteoric water line (LMWL) reflecting a rapid infiltration of rainfall to recharge coastal aquifer. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the two locations (Bassieh and Tartous) range from 20 to 96%. The estimation rate of the permanent submarine springs (BS1, BS2 and TS2, TS3) is 11m 3 /s or 350 million m 3 /y. The maximum residence time of the groundwater in the Cenomanian/Turonian aquifer was estimated at around 8 years, using the piston-flow model.(author)

  19. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    ... in critical spaces or provide safe ingresslegress routes. This program sponsored six test series between January 1995 and August 1996 and made specific recommendations for the use of ventilation during submarine firefighting...

  20. Surface and Bottom Boundar Layer Dynamics on a Shallow Submarine Bank: Southern Flank of Georges Bank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werner, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    The thesis investigates the circulation at a 75-meter deep study site on the southern flank of Georges Bank, a shallow submarine bank located between the deeper Gulf of Maine and the continental slope...

  1. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 2015 (NCEI Accession 0140278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  2. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical study of the coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A. R.

    2007-08-01

    The groundwater of major karst system and the submarine springs in the Syrian coastal limestone aquifer have been studied using chemical and isotopic techniques. Stable isotopes show that the groundwater and submarine springs originates from the direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The elevation of recharge zones feeding the Banyas area (400-600 m a.s.l). The δ 18 O e xtracted for the major submarine spring at Bassieh suggests a mean recharge area elevation of 600-700 m a.s.l. Based on the measured velocity and percentage of fresh water at the submarine springs outlet (Bassieh and Tartous), the estimated discharge rate is 350 million m 3 /y. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time of groundwater in the Al-sen spring was evaluated to be 60 years. A value of about 3.7 billion m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size.(Author)

  3. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  4. Assessment of Fire Growth and Mitigation in Submarine Plastic Waste Stowage Compartments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndubizu, Chuka

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests to assess the fire growth characteristics and the ease of fire control in the proposed Virginia-class and the Ohio-class submarine plastic waste stowage compartments...

  5. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  6. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 2016 (NCEI Accession 0159429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  7. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  8. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, February (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 1367-9120 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarms * magma migration * submarine volcanic arc Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2016

  9. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tsunami run-up and inundation along the coast of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia due to a potential Brunei submarine mass failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wai Kiat; Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2017-07-01

    Submarine landslides, also known as submarine mass failures (SMFs), are major natural marine disasters that could critically damage coastal facilities such as nuclear power plants and oil and gas platforms. It is therefore essential to investigate submarine landslides for potential tsunami hazard assessment. Three-dimensional seismic data from offshore Brunei have revealed a giant seabed mass deposited by a previous SMF. The submarine mass extends over 120 km from the continental slope of the Baram Canyon at 200 m water depth to the deep basin floor of the Northwest Borneo Trough. A suite of in-house two-dimensional depth-averaged tsunami simulation model TUNA (Tsunami-tracking Utilities and Application) is developed to assess the vulnerability of coastal communities in Sabah and Sarawak subject to potential SMF tsunami. The submarine slide is modeled as a rigid body moving along a planar slope with the center of mass motion parallel to the planar slope and subject to external forces due to added mass, gravity, and dissipation. The nonlinear shallow water equations are utilized to simulate tsunami propagation from deepwater up to the shallow offshore areas. A wetting-drying algorithm is used when a tsunami wave reaches the shoreline to compute run up of tsunami along the shoreline. Run-up wave height and inundation maps are provided for seven densely populated locations in Sabah and Sarawak to highlight potential risks at each location, subject to two scenarios of slide slopes: 2° and 4°. The first wave may arrive at Kudat as early as 0.4 h after the SMF, giving local communities little time to evacuate. Over a small area, maximum inundated depths reaching 20.3 m at Kudat, 26.1 m at Kota Kinabalu, and 15.5 m at Miri are projected, while the maximum inundation distance of 4.86 km is expected at Miri due to its low-lying coast. In view of the vulnerability of some locations to the SMF tsunami, it is important to develop and implement community resilience

  11. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...1,091.1 million in research and development funding for the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic

  12. Gender integration on U.S. Navy submarines: views of the first wave

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Krysten J.; Munson, Garold I.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project is an ethnographic case study documenting the experiences of the first group of women integrated into the United States Submarine Force. The study seeks to: 1) document the process through which each of the women was selected and became a submariner; 2) identify hindering and supporting issues and concerns (e.g., life-work balance, job-role expectations, and career development); 3) describe the organizational culture and c...

  13. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talarico, M.A., E-mail: talaricomarco@hotmail.com [Marinha do Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao do Porgrama de Submarino com Propulsao Nuclear; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  14. Considerations about the licensing process of special nuclear industrial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talarico, M.A.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings a discussion about the challenges involved in the development of a new kind of nuclear facility in Brazil, a naval base for nuclear submarines, with attention to the licensing process and considerations about the risk-informed decision making application to the licensing process. Initially, a model of such a naval base, called in this work, special industrial facility, is proposed, with its systems and respective sets of basic requirements, in order to make it possible the accomplishment of the special industrial facility support function to the nuclear submarine. A discussion about current challenges to overcome in this project is presented: the challenges due to the new characteristics of this type of nuclear facility; existence of several interfaces between the special industrial facilities systems and nuclear submarine systems in design activities; lack of specific regulation in Brazil to allow the licensing process of special industrial facilities by the nuclear safety authority; and comments about the lack of information from reference nuclear facilities, as is the case with nuclear power reactors (for example, the German Grafenrheinfeld nuclear plant is the reference plant for the Brazilian Angra 2 nuclear plant). Finally, in view of these challenges, an analysis method of special industrial facility operational scenarios to assist the licensing process is proposed. Also, considerations about the application of risk-informed decision making to the special industrial facility activity and licensing process in Brazil are presented. (author)

  15. A systematic review of nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong AWY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amy WY Wong, Chengfei Zhang, Chun-hung Chu Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China Abstract: Conventional endodontic treatment used to require multiple visits, but some clinicians have suggested that single-visit treatment is superior. Single-visit endodontic treatment and multiple-visit endodontic treatment both have their advantages and disadvantages. This paper is a literature review of the research on nonsurgical single-visit versus multiple-visit endodontic treatment. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords (endodontic treatment OR endodontic therapy OR root canal treatment OR root canal therapy AND (single-visit OR one-visit OR 1-visit. Review papers, case reports, data studies, and irrelevant reports were excluded, and 47 papers on clinical trials were reviewed. The studies generally had small sample sizes, and the endodontic procedures varied among the studies. Meta-analysis on the selected studies was performed, and the results showed that the postoperative complications of the single-visit and multiple-visit endodontic treatment were similar. Furthermore, neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment had superior results over the other in terms of healing or success rate. Results of limited studies on disinfection of the root canals using low-energy laser photodynamic therapy is inconclusive, and further studies are necessary to show whether laser should be used in endodontic treatment. This review also found that that neither single-visit endodontic treatment nor multiple-visit treatment could guarantee the absence of postoperative pain. Since the study design of many studies displayed significant limitation and the materials and equipment used in endodontic treatment have dramatically changed in recent years, prospective randomized clinical trials are needed to further verify the postoperative pain and success rates of

  16. Effect of Topography on Subglacial Discharge and Submarine Melting During Tidewater Glacier Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, J. M.; Carroll, D.

    2018-01-01

    To first order, subglacial discharge depends on climate, which determines precipitation fluxes and glacier mass balance, and the rate of glacier volume change. For tidewater glaciers, large and rapid changes in glacier volume can occur independent of climate change due to strong glacier dynamic feedbacks. Using an idealized tidewater glacier model, we show that these feedbacks produce secular variations in subglacial discharge that are influenced by subglacial topography. Retreat along retrograde bed slopes (into deep water) results in rapid surface lowering and coincident increases in subglacial discharge. Consequently, submarine melting of glacier termini, which depends on subglacial discharge and ocean thermal forcing, also increases during retreat into deep water. Both subglacial discharge and submarine melting subsequently decrease as glacier termini retreat out of deep water and approach new steady state equilibria. In our simulations, subglacial discharge reached peaks that were 6-17% higher than preretreat values, with the highest values occurring during retreat from narrow sills, and submarine melting increased by 14% for unstratified fjords and 51% for highly stratified fjords. Our results therefore indicate that submarine melting acts in concert with iceberg calving to cause tidewater glacier termini to be unstable on retrograde beds. The full impact of submarine melting on tidewater glacier stability remains uncertain, however, due to poor understanding of the coupling between submarine melting and iceberg calving.

  17. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  18. Research on the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions at the coastal area and submarine formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika; Taniguchi, Makoto; Goto, Junji

    2003-05-01

    One of the major concerns for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is the possibility of the radionuclides to reach biosphere by groundwater flow. Recent research results have shown that the fresh groundwater discharge from subsea formations are widespread phenomena, thus, it is necessary to evaluate the submarine groundwater discharge as possible pathways of contaminant discharge towards the biosphere. It is also important to unravel the groundwater flow and associated material transport at the coastal area and subsea formations. To better understand the groundwater flow processes and the submarine groundwater discharge, we have conducted the hydrological, hydrogeological, geochemical, and numerical modeling studies at the Kurobe alluvial fan and its offshore, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In this report, the results of the following research activities are presented: 1) Development and application of a method to detect the locations of the submarine groundwater discharge. 2) Development and application of a method to collect uncontaminated groundwater samples from subsea formations. 3) Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge fluxes by automated seepage meter. 4) Hydrological and geochemical studies for groundwater flow at the coastal area. 5) Geochemical studies to understand sources of fresh submarine groundwater discharge. 6) Examination of groundwater flow and submarine groundwater discharge using methane concentration and carbon isotope ratio. 7) Numerical modeling studies for coastal groundwater flow system. (author)

  19. Stability of submarine slopes in the northern South China Sea: a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Luan, Xiwu

    2013-01-01

    Submarine landslides occur frequently on most continental margins. They are effective mechanisms of sediment transfer but also a geological hazard to seafloor installations. In this paper, submarine slope stability is evaluated using a 2D limit equilibrium method. Considerations of slope, sediment, and triggering force on the factor of safety (FOS) were calculated in drained and undrained ( Φ=0) cases. Results show that submarine slopes are stable when the slope is 13° with earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.5 g; whereas with a weak layer, a PGA of 0.2 g could trigger instability at slopes >10°, and >3° for PGA of 0.5 g. The northern slope of the South China Sea is geomorphologically stable under static conditions. However, because of the possibility of high PGA at the eastern margin of the South China Sea, submarine slides are likely on the Taiwan Bank slope and eastern part of the Dongsha slope. Therefore, submarine slides recognized in seismic profiles on the Taiwan Bank slope would be triggered by an earthquake, the most important factor for triggering submarine slides on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Considering the distribution of PGA, we consider the northern slope of the South China Sea to be stable, excluding the Taiwan Bank slope, which is tectonically active.

  20. Tourist visitation impacts of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.; Baughman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes tourist visitation impacts of the March 27, 1979 accident at Three Mile Island. A review of the literature, supplemented with recollections from Pennsylvanian public officials, are used to specify a conventional tourism impact model which holds that depressed 1979 summer tourism season was more influenced by gasoline shortages and possibly other confounding variables (such as rainy local weather conditions and a polio outbreak) than by the nuclear accident. Regression analysis using monthly visitation data for Hershey Chocolate World, Gettysburg National Park, The Pennsylvania Dutch Convention and Visitor Bureau, and several state parks as dependent variables provide support for this model. Potential tourism implications of an accident at Yucca Mountain are briefly discussed in light of our findings

  1. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it

  2. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  3. An examination of constraints to wilderness visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary T. Green; J. Michael Bowker; Cassandra Y. Johnson; H. Ken Cordell; Xiongfei Wang

    2007-01-01

    Certain social groups appear notably less in wilderness visitation surveys than their population proportion. This study examines whether different social groups in American society (minorities, women, rural dwellers, low income and less educated populations) perceive more constraints to wilderness visitation than other groups. Logistic regressions were fit to data from...

  4. The Greenpeace book of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, John

    1989-01-01

    This is a comprehensive popular account of both civil and military nuclear accidents. It documents major reactor accidents in certain categories such as where significant injury of death occurred, where there was considerable radioactivity release offsite or where there was actual or suspected core damage. Military accidents on nuclear submarines or involving nuclear weapons and civil incidents such as those involving radioactive waste are also included. the book is organised chronologically from the 1940s through succeeding decades to the 1980s. A concluding chapter gives Greenpeace's own perspective on the state of the nuclear age. (author)

  5. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  6. The use of open sources for the study of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The author illustrates how the evolution of technologies of information and communication (TICs), notably because of the ease and rate of information exchange, has also effects on studies on nuclear proliferation information and their validity. He first describes the case of information about North-Korean missile launchers: information released about the modification of Chinese trucks, use of images published on YouTube and exploitation of Google Earth to actually prove that this information was true. Secondly, he comments the case of the Matiran Iranian complex (an underground nuclear site): questions related to the validity of some photos issued by an Iranian dissident group, use of meta data to check it, use of GPS records to reconstruct the way followed by a European who visited the site. The third case concerns the claim of the launching of ballistic missiles from a submarine by North Korea in January 2016: release of a North Korean video, identification of the location, and frame-by-frame analysis of the video which revealed that the missile actually exploded

  7. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  8. Did a submarine landslide contribute to the 2011 Tohoku tsunami?

    KAUST Repository

    Tappin, David R.

    2014-09-28

    Many studies have modeled the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011 as being due entirely to slip on an earthquake fault, but the following discrepancies suggest that further research is warranted. (1) Published models of tsunami propagation and coastal impact underpredict the observed runup heights of up to 40 m measured along the coast of the Sanriku district in the northeast part of Honshu Island. (2) Published models cannot reproduce the timing and high-frequency content of tsunami waves recorded at three nearshore buoys off Sanriku, nor the timing and dispersion properties of the waveforms at offshore DART buoy #21418. (3) The rupture centroids obtained by tsunami inversions are biased about 60 km NNE of that obtained by the Global CMT Project. Based on an analysis of seismic and geodetic data, together with recorded tsunami waveforms, we propose that, while the primary source of the tsunami was the vertical displacement of the seafloor due to the earthquake, an additional tsunami source is also required. We infer the location of the proposed additional source based on an analysis of the travel times of higher-frequency tsunami waves observed at nearshore buoys. We further propose that the most likely additional tsunami source was a submarine mass failure (SMF—i.e., a submarine landslide). A comparison of pre- and post-tsunami bathymetric surveys reveals tens of meters of vertical seafloor movement at the proposed SMF location, and a slope stability analysis confirms that the horizontal acceleration from the earthquake was sufficient to trigger an SMF. Forward modeling of the tsunami generated by a combination of the earthquake and the SMF reproduces the recorded on-, near- and offshore tsunami observations well, particularly the high-frequency component of the tsunami waves off Sanriku, which were not well simulated by previous models. The conclusion that a significant part of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami was generated by an SMF source has important implications for

  9. Using Google Earth for Submarine Operations at Pavilion Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, M. C.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Lim, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    During the July 2009 Pavilion Lake field test, we supported submarine "flight" operations using Google Earth. The Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames has experience with ground data systems for NASA missions, earth analog field tests, disaster response, and the Gigapan camera system. Leveraging this expertise and existing software, we put together a set of tools to support sub tracking and mapping, called the "Surface Data System." This system supports flight planning, real time flight operations, and post-flight analysis. For planning, we make overlays of the regional bedrock geology, sonar bathymetry, and sonar backscatter maps that show geology, depth, and structure of the bottom. Placemarks show the mooring locations for start and end points. Flight plans are shown as polylines with icons for waypoints. Flight tracks and imagery from previous field seasons are embedded in the map for planning follow-on activities. These data provide context for flight planning. During flights, sub position is updated every 5 seconds from the nav computer on the chase boat. We periodically update tracking KML files and refresh them with network links. A sub icon shows current location of the sub. A compass rose shows bearings to indicate heading to the next waypoint. A "Science Stenographer" listens on the voice loop and transcribes significant observations in real time. Observations called up to the surface immediately appear on the map as icons with date, time, position, and what was said. After each flight, the science back room immediately has the flight track and georeferenced notes from the pilots. We add additional information in post-processing. The submarines record video continuously, with "event" timestamps marked by the pilot. We cross-correlate the event timestamps with position logs to geolocate events and put a preview image and compressed video clip into the map. Animated flight tracks are also generated, showing timestamped position and providing timelapse

  10. Argentina and Brazil: an evolving nuclear relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Argentina and Brazil have Latin America's most advanced nuclear research and power programs. Both nations reject the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), and have not formally embraced the Tlatelolco Treaty creating a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone. Disturbing ambiguities persist regarding certain indigenous nuclear facilities and growing nuclear submarine and missile capabilities. For these, and other reasons, the two nations are widely considered potential nuclear weapon states. However both nations have been active supporters of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and have, in recent years, assumed a generally responsible position in regard to their own nuclear export activities (requiring IAEA safeguards). Most important, however, has been the advent of bilateral nuclear cooperation. This paper considers the evolving nuclear relationship in the context of recent and dramatic political change in Argentina and Brazil. It discusses current political and nuclear developments and the prospects for maintaining and expanding present bilateral cooperation into an effective non-proliferation arrangement. (author)

  11. Chernobyl after Perestroika: Reflections on a recent visit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausubel, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Political change and economic deterioration have drastically affected the handling of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A visit to the site is recounted and five lessons drawn. These are the need for new organizations to manage the decontamination of hazardous waste sites, the limited use of emergency preparedness, the importance of longevity of risks and consequences for environmental management, the need to give international status to sites of major environmental hazards, and the surprises about what prove to be environmentally significant technologies

  12. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  13. Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Chabal, Sarah; Clarke, John M; Fothergill, David M

    2018-06-01

    Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2. The objective of this study was to determine if submariner decision-making performance is impacted by acute exposure to levels of CO2 routinely present in the submarine atmosphere during sea patrols. Using a subject-blinded balanced design, 36 submarine-qualified sailors were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 CO2 exposure conditions (600, 2500, or 15,000 ppm). After a 45-min atmospheric acclimation period, participants completed an 80-min computer-administered SMS test as a measure of decision making. There were no significant differences for any of the nine SMS measures of decision making between the CO2 exposure conditions. In contrast to recent research demonstrating cognitive deficits on the SMS test in students and professional-grade office workers, we were unable to replicate this effect in a submariner population-even with acute CO2 exposures more than an order of magnitude greater than those used in previous studies that demonstrated such effects.Rodeheffer CD, Chabal S, Clarke JM, Fothergill DM. Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):520-525.

  14. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. The nuclear deterrence history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumoulin, Andre

    2013-01-01

    This book relates the history of French nuclear deterrence, from its political, scientific and military genesis, to its context, sometimes complex, of the relations between France and its strategic environment. It details the air and submarine means and the evolution of the political context, from the cold war to the present day. This book is intended to be a synthesis in which all topics, doctrine, means, capacity and nuclear diplomacy are approached. At a time when France is reconsidering the future of its deterrence, this book addresses all the questions: the open debate of the abolitionists' policy, the new fields of proliferation, and the question of the French nuclear situation in the case of a withdrawal of the last US missiles from Europe

  16. Deliberating Together on Geological Repository Siting: Expectations and Challenges in the Czech Republic. Synthesis and International Perspective of the 9. Community Visit and National Workshop of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) - Czech Republic, 24-26 October 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The 9. OECD Nuclear Energy Agency 'Forum on Stakeholder Confidence' Community Visit and National Workshop was held in Karlovy Vary, Chyse and Blatno in the Czech Republic in October 2012. Entitled 'Deliberating Together on Geological Repository Siting', the workshop focussed on the process for siting an installation for the final management of spent nuclear fuel, and the expectations and challenges raised by this process. Three themes were examined: developing confidence in a participatory process; local and regional partnership and added value; and expectations for safety assurance by national, local and regional authorities. The workshop was held under the patronage of the Minister of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic. It was hosted by SURAO, the state-controlled Radioactive Waste Repository Authority, in cooperation with the pluralistic Working Group for Dialogue on the Site Selection Process for a Deep Geological Repository (including representatives from directly concerned municipalities and civil society, as well as from the national authorities, technical organisations; the group is chaired by a professor of sociology from the Czech Academy of Sciences). A large number of mayors and community representatives attended the full workshop. The international FSC contingent was made up of 49 delegates from 14 countries as well as the European Commission. Several citizens attended from municipalities across Europe, of which all had hosted FSC workshops in the past. For the first time in an FSC event, the Community Visit took the form of a public meeting. This was created as a neutral platform to enable debate about Czech and international siting experience. About one hundred residents of communities concerned by the Czech siting process attended this 2-hour meeting hosted by a mayor and chaired by the FSC Secretariat. A small panel of Czech stakeholders from both the national technical level and local civil society presented their positions and concerns

  17. NESTOR - Neutrino Extended Submarine Telescope with Oceanographic Research

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    {\\bf NESTOR} is a deep-sea neutrino telescope that is being deployed in the Mediterranean off the south-west coast of the Peleponnese in Greece. Neutrinos, when they interact in the earth below or in the seawater around the detector, produce muons that can be observed by the Cherenkov radiation, which they emit. At an operating depth of 4000 metres, the detector is effectively shielded from muons produced in atmospheric interactions. {\\bf The site:} A major feature of the Ionian Sea floor is the Hellenic Trench, the deepest in the Mediterranean, which in places exceeds 5000 meters. It runs close to the western coast of the Peleponnese and is protected on its western side by the submarine Eastern Mediterranean Ridge. It is far from big city pollution or the effluent of major river systems flowing into the Mediterranean and is protected from deep-water perturbations.\\\\ The NESTOR site is located on a broad plateau some 8 $\\times$ 9 kilometres in area on the eastern side of the Hellenic Trench at a mean depth of...

  18. Initial studies of submarine groundwater discharge in Mississippi coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, A. M.; Moore, W. S.; Joung, D. J.; Box, H.; Ho, P.; Whitmore, L. M.; Gilbert, M.; Anderson, H.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a critical component of coastal ecosystems, affecting biogeochemistry and productivity. The SGD flux and effect on the ecosystem of the Mississippi (MS) Bight has not previously been studied. We have determined Ba, δ18O of water, and Ra-isotopes, together with nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen (DO) during multiple cruises from fall 2015 to summer 2016. Water isotope distributions (δ18O) show that, although the MS River Delta bounds the western side of the Bight, nonetheless, Mobile Bay and other local rivers are the Bight's dominant freshwater sources. But elevated dissolved Ba and Ra isotopes cannot be explained by river input. Spatially, SGD in the MS Bight occurs over a wide area, with hot spots near the barrier islands (e.g., Chandeleurs, Horn and Dauphin Islands) and the mouth of Mobile Bay, probably in association with old buried river channels, or dredged ship channels. Based on their high concentrations in saline groundwaters sampled on the barrier islands, the elevated Ba and Ra in MS Bight water are likely due to SGD. In subsurface waters, long-lived Ra isotopes were negatively correlated with DO during spring and summer 2016, suggesting direct discharge of DO-depleted groundwater and/or accumulation of SGD-derived Ra and microbial DO consumption under strongly stratified conditions. Our ongoing study suggests that seasonal variability in flushing, water stratification, and SGD input play important roles in biological production and bottom water hypoxia in the MS Bight.

  19. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  20. The nuclear arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    During his visit to South Africa, dr. Edward Teller, one of the most outstanding nuclear physicists of the age, and intimately associated with American research during the most sensitive period in the development of nuclear energy, were interviewed. Dr. Teller was questioned on the following: his feelings about nuclear weapons; the American atomic bomb that was dropped on Japan; the Soviet Union's development of a hydrogen bomb and the nuclear balance between the Soviet Union and America

  1. Visiting CERN… like “common people”

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Paul Young, the British pop star who made his name in the 80s, came to visit CERN on 17 December. His son brought him here because of his passion for science in general and physics in particular. Father and son found the visit exciting and CERN’s activities really thrilling. We could even expect a surprise for Paul's next visit…   The visiting group in the CMS Control Room (Photo credit: P. Geeraert, ESO). Paul Young, famous for his interpretation of “Love of the Common People”, came to CERN because his teenage son is going to be studying A-level physics at school next year and wanted to visit the Laboratory. “I was fascinated by the visit. CERN is a place I didn’t know much about, but my son knows a lot more about science than I do. The explanations we got were great. We enjoyed the visit very much,” he said enthusiastically. Paul Young and his son visited the CMS underground cavern with Michael Hoch. &...

  2. First tooth, first visit, zero cavities: a practical approach to the infant oral health visit

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, Kirsten

    2017-04-01

    The IDA adopted a formal policy on children’s oral health in 2011. There is increasing evidence to support early dental visits for children. The background to the infant oral health visit is discussed and a systematic approach to the practicalities of the visit is offered. General dental practitioners are encouraged to offer the first oral health visit before the first birthday, and this paper aims to give them practical advice concerning this visit. The feature is accompanied by a companion paper that reviews the literature pertaining to the topic, and serves to complement the recent clinical feature published in the Journal of the Irish Dental Association.

  3. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  4. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  5. They don't have a submarine, but enjoy being out of the limelight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.; Jesny, M.

    2007-01-01

    Though in terms of assets the Slavia Capital group is smaller than the richest Slovak financiers, J and T and Penta, it did not avoid problems in the past. Seven or eight years ago, the politicians and media attacked the company for its supposedly very close relations with the Minister of Economy, Ludovit Cernak, and for trying to take control of the Industrial Bank. According to the owners of Slavia this was defamation. They subsequently paid for a humorous advertisement in the media that they had bought Bratislava Castle and a nuclear submarine. But the reason for real satisfaction has only appeared recently. Their assets are growing and they have avoided scandals. They backed away from privatisation consultancy and stopped issuing the securities of state-owned companies and institutions. According to the chairman of the Board of Directors, Peter Gabalec, the equity of the group amounts to two billion crowns and this is only the base. In his opinion, together with bank loans and the contributions of business partners, Slavia will be able to manage around five to ten times more money. To put it simply, the group has changed its priorities. It now focuses on the energy sector, the production of biofuels and rail transport. In the finance sector, it focuses on trading with difficult to enforce receivables. In the Czech Republic, it purchased Czech Aircraft Works, a manufacturer of light sport aircraft. The group is also involved in real estate and has joined the Three Towers project in Bratislava and cooperated in the logistic park belonging to PSA Peugeot Citroen in Trnava. When asked why the group stopped privatisation consulting, P. Gabalec explains that privatisations are on the decline and therefore there is not much work for consultants. And he added that Slavia is able to use its experience in purchasing companies for itself. (authors)

  6. The American and Russian plans of nuclear disarmament; Les plans americain et sovietique de desarmement nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallois, P.

    2010-07-15

    This text was published in 1991, at the end of the Cold War. The author comments the intentions of the US and Russia leaders, Bush and Gorbachev, on nuclear disarmament and more specifically on limitations and reductions concerning the different nuclear weapons types and vectors (ballistic missiles, submarine launched missiles, Europe-based missiles, nuclear strategic warheads, nuclear weapon movements, short range missiles, cruise missiles). He also evokes the consequences for France of the American propositions

  7. IAEA Fact-Finding Team Completes Visit to Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a preliminary assessment of the safety issues linked with TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The team - created by an agreement of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Government of Japan - sought to identify lessons learned from the accident that can help improve nuclear safety around the world. To conduct its work, the team held extensive discussions with officials from the full range of Japanese nuclear-related agencies and visited three nuclear sites, including the nuclear power plant at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi. These visits gave the team a first-hand appreciation of the scale of devastation wreaked by the earthquake and tsunami on 11 March and of the extraordinary efforts Japanese workers have been applying ever since to stabilize the situation. ''Our entire team was humbled by the enormous damage inflicted by the tsunami on Japan. We are also profoundly impressed by the dedication of Japanese workers working to resolve this unprecedented nuclear accident,'' said team leader Mike Weightman, the United Kingdom's Chief Inspector of Nuclear Installations. The team was comprised of international experts with experience across a range of nuclear specialties. They came from 12 countries: Argentina, China, France, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Russia, South Korea, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and the United States. In a draft report summary delivered to Japanese authorities today, the team prepared a set of preliminary conclusions and identified lessons learned in three broad areas: external hazards, severe accident management and emergency preparedness. The final report will be delivered to the Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety at IAEA headquarters in Vienna from 20 to 24 June. The expert team made several preliminary findings and lessons learned, including: Japan's response to the nuclear

  8. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  9. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  10. Darwin-Bali Exchange School Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, T.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an exchange program between Indonesian language students and teachers from Darwin and a group of students and teachers from Bali. The visits related to the subject areas of history, geography, Asian studies, and Bahasa Indonesia. (RM)

  11. VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Krajewski, Yann Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project with Dr -.Ing. Tarek Kamel [Senior Advisor to the President for Government Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office] and Dr Nigel Hickson [VP, IGO Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office

  12. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  13. Effect of submarine groundwater discharge containing phosphate on coral calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumoto, J.; Yasumoto, K.; Iijima, M.; Nozaki, M.; Asai, K.; Yasumoto, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the anthropogenic eutrophication enriched with various substances including phosphate in coastal waters has resulted in coral degradation. However, to the best of our knowledge, the phosphate threshold value to inhibit the coral calcification has been unclear, due to the unknown mechanisms involved in the inhibition of the calcification by phosphate. In island regions, groundwater is one of the most important clues to transport the nutrients contained in livestock or agricultural wastewaters. However, the actual conditions of coastal pollution with such nutrients have not been understood because of unperceived submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). In this study, to quantify of extremely rapid and localized SGD from Ryukyu limestone aquifer, we investigated the rate and concentration of phosphate of SGD using automated seepage mater in Yoron Island, which is located southern part of Japan. And, to elucidate the inhibition mechanisms for phosphate against coral calcification, we examined its effect on the bottom skeleton formation in primary polyps of Acropora digitifera by using the fluorescence derivatizing reagent having phosphate group (FITC-AA). As a result, the SGD was found to contain 1 to 2 µM of phosphate as much as the concentration in the coastal ground water under agricultural land. Moreover, the amount of phosphate contained in the surface layers of bottom calcareous sands close to the region of SGD were about 5 µmol/g. When the primary polyps were treated with 50 µM of FITC-AA, the bottom skeleton of the primary polyps showed the fluorescence from FITC-AA within a few minutes, suggesting the phosphate binding. Furthermore, when the polyps were treated with 10 µM of FITC-AA, irregular patterns of the elongated skeleton were observed. These results led us to conclude that phosphate is transported via a paracellular pathway to the subcalicoblastic extracellular calcifying medium. These results indicate that the phosphate adsorbed

  14. Potential Impact of Submarine Power Cables on Crab Harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, A. S.; Nishimoto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Offshore renewable energy installations convert wave or wind energy to electricity and transfer the power to shore through transmission cables laid on or buried beneath the seafloor. West coast commercial fishermen, who harvest the highly prized Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) and the rock crab (Cancer spp.), are concerned that the interface of crabs and electromagnetic fields (EMF) from these cables will present an electrified fence on the seafloor that their target resource will not cross. Combined with the assistance of professional fishermen, submarine transmission cables that electrify island communities and offshore oil platforms in the eastern Pacific provide an opportunity to test the harvest of crab species across power transmission cables. In situ field techniques give commercial crab species a choice to decide if they will cross fully energized, EMF emitting, power transmission cables, in response to baited traps. Each independent trial is either one of two possible responses: the crab crosses the cable to enter a trap (1) or the crab does not cross the cable to enter a trap (0). Conditions vary among sample units by the following categorical, fixed factors (i.e., covariates) of cable structure (buried or unburied); direction of cable from crab position (west or east, north or south); time and season. A generalized linear model is fit to the data to determine whether any of these factors affect the probability of crabs crossing an energized cable to enter baited traps. Additionally, the experimental design, aside from the number of runs (set of sample trials) and the dates of the runs, is the same in the Santa Barbara Channel for rock crab and Puget Sound for Dungeness crab, and allows us to compare the capture rates of the two species in the two areas. We present preliminary results from field testing in 2015.

  15. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  16. Origin of the Easter Submarine Alignment: morphology and structural lineaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter submarine alignment corresponds to a sequence of seamounts and oceanic islands which runs from the Ahu-Umu volcanic fields in the west to its intersection with the Nazca Ridge in the east, with a total length of about 2.900 km and a strike of N85°E. Recent bathymetric compilations that include combined satellite derived and shipboard data (Global Topography and multibeam bathymetric data (from NGDC-NOAA are interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively by using a morphological analysis, which was comprised of the determination of bathymetric patterns, trends in lineations and structures; height measurements, computation of basal areas and volumes of seamounts, in order to establish clues on the origin of this seamount chain and to establish relationships with the regional tectonics. In the study region 514 seamounts were counted, of which 334 had a basal area less than the reference seamount (Moai. In general, the largest seamounts (>1000 m in height tend to align and to have a larger volume, with an elongation of their bases along the seamount chain. On the other hand, smaller seamounts tend to be distributed more randomly with more circular bases. As a consequence of the morphological analysis, the best possible mechanism that explains the origin of the seamount chain is the existence of a localized hotspot to the west of the Salas y Gómez Island. The corresponding plume would contribute additional magmatic material towards the East Pacific Rise through canalizations, whose secondary branches would feed intermediate volcanoes. It is possible that within the Easter Island region there would be another minor contribution through fractures in the crust, due to the crustal weakening that was produced by the Easter Fracture Zone.

  17. Nuclear challenges in Asia, an industrial perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffou, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author first gives a brief overview of military programmes implemented by India, China, Pakistan and North Korea to develop and manufacture the various vectors of nuclear weapons (submarines, missiles, bombers), the objective being (not always reached) to possess a nuclear triad (intercontinental ground-based missiles, submarines, and bombers). In this respect, the author briefly comments the evolutions of defence budgets, discusses the evolutions of the Chinese defence industry since the end of World War II (strong relationship with USSR, emergence of other various trade relationships, a more independent production but with a search for new technological partnerships). The author then discusses whether China is a threatening military power, more particularly for some Asian countries like Japan and South Korea

  18. Effect of submarine canyons on tsunami heights, currents and run-up off the southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Baldock, T.E.

    Tsunami numerical model studies are mostly focused on inundation and run-up onto the coast. Fewer studies have been aimed at investigating role of submarine canyons on the tsunami heights, currents and run-up. The influence of submarine canyons...

  19. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Y. T.; Hodgson, D. M.; Flint, S. S.; Mountney, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown

  20. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  1. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  2. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III

    2014-01-01

    luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry...... dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL......While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated...

  3. International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

  4. Relativistic Archimedes law for fast moving bodies and the general-relativistic resolution of the 'submarine paradox'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, George E. A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate and solve in the context of general relativity the apparent paradox which appears when bodies floating in a background fluid are set in relativistic motion. Suppose some macroscopic body, say, a submarine designed to lie just in equilibrium when it rests (totally) immersed in a certain background fluid. The puzzle arises when different observers are asked to describe what is expected to happen when the submarine is given some high velocity parallel to the direction of the fluid surface. On the one hand, according to observers at rest with the fluid, the submarine would contract and, thus, sink as a consequence of the density increase. On the other hand, mariners at rest with the submarine using an analogous reasoning for the fluid elements would reach the opposite conclusion. The general relativistic extension of the Archimedes law for moving bodies shows that the submarine sinks. As an extra bonus, this problem suggests a new gedankenexperiment for the generalized second law of thermodynamics

  5. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  6. Detecting frontal ablation processes from direct observations of submarine terminus morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, M.; Carroll, D.; Catania, G. A.; Sutherland, D. A.; Stearns, L. A.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Shroyer, E.; Nash, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Tidewater glacier termini couple glacier and ocean systems. Subglacial discharge emerging from the terminus produces buoyant plumes that modulate submarine melting, calving, fjord circulation and, in turn, changes in ice dynamics from back-stress perturbations. However, the absence of critical observational data at the ice-ocean interface limits plume and, by extension, melt models from incorporating realistic submarine terminus face morphologies and assessing their impact on terminus behavior at tidewater glaciers. Here we present a comprehensive inventory and characterization of submarine terminus face shapes from a side-looking, multibeam echo sounding campaign across Kangerdlugssuaq Sermerssua glacier, central-west Greenland. We combine these observations with in-situ measurements of ocean stratification and remotely sensed subglacial discharge, terminus positions, ice velocity, and ice surface datasets to infer the spectrum of processes sculpting the submarine terminus face. Subglacial discharge outlet locations are confirmed through observations of sediment plumes, localized melt-driven undercutting of the terminus face, and bathymetry of the adjacent seafloor. From our analysis, we differentiate terminus morphologies resulting from submarine melt and calving and assess the contribution of each process to the net frontal ablation budget. Finally, we constrain a plume model using direct observations of the submarine terminus face and conduit geometry. Plume model simulations demonstrate that the majority of discharge outlets are fed by small discharge fluxes, suggestive of a distributed subglacial hydrologic system. Outlets with the largest, concentrated discharge fluxes are morphologically unique and strongly control seasonal terminus position. At these locations, we show that the spatiotemporal pattern of terminus retreat is well correlated with time periods when local melt rate exceeds ice velocity.

  7. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  8. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  9. First dental visit of a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the common chief complaints of the Indian children and the average age group at which they report for in their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using the case records of 716 children who reported to the postgraduate section of Department of Pediatric dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai, in 2007. The age groups of the children were divided into three categories 0-3 years, 3-6 years and 6-12 years. The various chief complaints were categorised as follows, Orientation to prevention, Routine visit, Deposits / Discoloration, Habits, Unerupted / Missing or Extra Tooth, Pain, Dental caries, Malocclusion, Trauma, others. The average age group and most common complaint at the first dental visit was assessed. A prospective study was done in January 2008, were 215 children were screened. The assessment was made as explained above. Results: Retrospective study Maximum number of children who reported for their first dental visit was between 6-12 years (59.08%. Most common chief complaint for the visit was pain (42.04%. Second common complaint being dental caries (28.49%. Prospective study Maximum number of children who reported for their first dental visit was between 6-12 years (69.77%. Most common chief complaint was dental caries (34.88%. Second common complaint being pain (27.91%. Conclusion: Children report for the first dental visit most commonly only after 6 years and for complaints like pain and dental caries. Orientation to prevention is not considered and preventive dentistry is yet to reach the common population in India.

  10. Risk factors associated with visiting or not visiting the accident & emergency department after a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Alice C; van Hensbroek, Pieter Boele; van Dijk, Nynke; Luitse, Jan S K; Goslings, Johannes C; Luigies, René H; de Rooij, Sophia E

    2013-07-26

    Little is known about the prevalence of modifiable risk factors of falling in elderly persons with a fall-history who do not visit the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department after one or more falls. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of modifiable risk factors in a population that visited the A&E Department after a fall (A&E group) and in a community-dwelling population of elderly individuals with a fall history who did not visit the A&E Department after a fall (non-A&E group). Two cohorts were included in this study. The first cohort included 547 individuals 65 years and older who were visited at home by a mobile fall prevention team. The participants in this cohort had fall histories but did not visit the A&E Department after a previous fall. These participants were age- and gender-matched to persons who visited the A&E Department for care after a fall. All participants were asked to complete the CAREFALL Triage Instrument. The mean number of modifiable risk factors in patients who did not visit the A&E Department was 2.9, compared to 3.8 in the group that visited the A&E Department (pfalling, impaired vision, mood and high risk of osteoporosis were all independently associated with visiting the A&E Department. All modifiable risk factors for falling were found to be shared between community-dwelling elderly individuals with a fall history who visited the A&E Department and those who did not visit the Department, although the prevalence of these factors was somewhat lower in the A&E group. Preventive strategies aimed both at patients presenting to the A&E Department after a fall and those not presenting after a fall could perhaps reduce the number of recurrent falls, the occurrence of injury and the frequency of visits to the A&E Department.

  11. Environmental Analysis of U.S. Navy Submarine Solid Waste Discharges. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    generation rates between the USS Cincinnati and the USS Kamehameha (shown in table 6-1) were described in the NNS study (1994) as due to differences in crew...habits, menus, variations in at-sea time, and differences in waste reduction efforts. It was noted that some boats, including the USS Kamehameha , have...kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) (kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) Submarine Submarine USS Cincinnati USS Kamehameha Cardboard 0.21 0.05 Paper(FC) 0.06 0.06 Paper(NFC

  12. A kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in a submarine silicic caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa; Fiske; Ishizuka; Yuasa; Hashimoto; Ishibashi; Naka; Horii; Fujiwara; Imai; Koyama

    1999-02-12

    Manned submersible studies have delineated a large and actively growing Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit 400 kilometers south of Tokyo in Myojin Knoll submarine caldera. The sulfide body is located on the caldera floor at a depth of 1210 to 1360 meters, has an area of 400 by 400 by 30 meters, and is notably rich in gold and silver. The discovery of a large Kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in this arc-front caldera raises the possibility that the numerous unexplored submarine silicic calderas elsewhere might have similar deposits.

  13. Collection of Arctic Ocean Data from US Navy Submarines on the New SCICEX Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethie, W. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Boyd, T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Corbett, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SCICEX submarine Arctic science program originated in the 1990s when six dedicated science cruises were conducted in the Arctic Ocean aboard US Navy Sturgeon class submarines. After the cold war era Sturgeon class submarines were retired, several Science Accommodation cruises, for which a few days for scientific measurements were added to planned submarine transits through the Arctic Ocean, were carried out when opportunities arose. Renewed interest in conducting further Science Accommodation cruises on a regular basis to better document and understand how the Arctic Ocean responds to climate change resulted in publication of a scientific plan in 2010 (http://www.arctic.gov/publications/scicex_plan.pdf). In the spring of 2011 testing of data collection and water sampling methods aboard newer Virginia and Seawolf class submarines on transit from a Navy ice camp in the Beaufort Sea, was conducted in order to develop protocols and evaluate techniques. Ice draft measurements were also taken in the vicinity of the ice camp and near the North Pole to evaluate new data collection systems. This evaluation will include a comparison of the ice draft data with a comprehensive set of in situ ice thickness measurements taken near the ice camp. Under-ice submarine-launched eXpendable Condutivity Temperature Depth (XCTD) probes were deployed from the USS Connecticut (SSN-22), a Seawolf class submarine, and the resulting profiles compared to CTD casts from the APLIS ice station and historical profiles. Water samples were collected through the hull for measurements of tritium, helium isotopes, oxygen isotopes, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and particulates levels. These samples were returned to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and were in the process of being measured at the time this abstract was written. Measurements completed at this time indicate good samples can be collected for CFC-12

  14. Determination of diffusion parameters using radioactive tracers, aiming at a project of a submarine sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.L. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive tracers technology is applied to pollutant dispersion studies in water bodies, for the project of submarine sewage outfall. The models proposed by Hansen/Harremoes and Okubo, respectively, for the prediction of physical dilution rates and determination of turbulent diffusion laws, are discussed. The methodology for field work as well as data processing is described. The results from field investigations carried out in Brazilian litoral waters for submarine release of sewage in Santos - Sao Vicente, Guaruja and Maceio, are presented and commented. (Author) [pt

  15. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulai, Henrietta; Waters, Ch.A.; Kennedy, Joseph; Kamenik, Jan; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We developed a fully autonomous underwater gamma-spectrometer for long-term coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The instrument represents a significant improvement over previous submarine gamma-spectrometers in that it is very robust, has high sensitivity allowing high temporal resolution, and is completely autonomous. Here we describe the technical parameters of the new instrument as well as data collected over its 9-month deployment in Kiholo Bay, HI, USA. We also present methods to convert the measured activities to SGD rates. In Kiholo Bay, the derived SGD matched previous estimates but in addition it revealed previously undocumented short- and long-term patterns in SGD. (author)

  16. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  17. Father Attendance in Nurse Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, John R.; Olds, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the rates and predictors of father attendance at nurse home visits in replication sites of the Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP). Early childhood programs can facilitate father involvement in the lives of their children, but program improvements require an understanding of factors that predict father involvement. The sample consisted of 29,109 low-income, first-time mothers who received services from 694 nurses from 80 sites. We conducted mixed-model multiple regression analyses to identify population, implementation, site, and nurse influences on father attendance. Predictors of father attendance included a count of maternal visits (B = 0.12, SE = 0.01, F = 3101.77), frequent contact between parents (B = 0.61, SE = 0.02, F = 708.02), cohabitation (B = 1.41, SE = 0.07, F = 631.51), White maternal race (B = 0.77, SE = 0.06, F = 190.12), and marriage (B = 0.42, SE = 0.08, F = 30.08). Random effects for sites and nurses predicted father-visit participation (2.7 & 6.7% of the variance, respectively), even after controlling for population sociodemographic characteristics. These findings suggest that factors operating at the levels of sites and nurses influence father attendance at home visits, even after controlling for differences in populations served. Further inquiry about these influences on father visit attendance is likely to inform program-improvement efforts. PMID:25521707

  18. VA Outpatient Visits by Administrative Parent, FY2010-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Outpatient visits by Administrative Parent. A visit is counted as a visit to one or more clinics or units within 1 calendar day at the site of care level. A patient...

  19. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited

  20. Report on the visit to Saclay related to the VISA-2 Project, February - March 1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milasin, N.

    1963-01-01

    This report includes activities related to planned irradiation of samples (Zircaloy, stainless steels, beryllium) within VISA-2 project, namely welding, leak testing and preparing the samples for the irradiation capsules. Visits to nuclear center in Grenoble as well as factories which fabricate reactor materials are included

  1. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 2A. GSFLS visit findings (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-31

    This appendix is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. This appendix provides the legal/regulatory reference material, supportive of Volume 2 - GSFLS Visit Finding and Evaluations; and certain background material on British Nuclear Fuel Limited (BNFL).

  2. CERT TST December 2015 Visit Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Robert Currier [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bailey, Teresa S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, G. Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olinger, Chad Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Alan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The annual PSAAP II TST visit to Texas A&M’s CERT Center was held on December 1-3, 2015. The agenda for the visit is attached. Non-TAMU attendees were: TST Members – Teresa Bailey (LLNL), Todd Gamblin (LLNL), Bob Little (LANL) – Chair, Chad Olinger (LANL), Shawn Pautz (SNL), Alan Williams (SNL);Other Lab staff – Skip Kahler (LANL), Ana Kupresanin (LLNL), and Rob Lowrie (LANL); AST Members – Nelson Hoffman (LANL) and Bob Voigt (Leidos) The TST wishes to express our appreciation to all involved with CERT for the high-quality posters and presentations and for the attention to logistics that enabled a successful visit. We have broken our comments into four sections: (1) Kudos, (2) Recommendations, (3) Feedback on Priorities for April Review, and (4) Follow-Up Activities with Labs.

  3. This way for the new CERN visits!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    As the LHC start-up draws near, visits to the underground experiments by members of the public are no longer possible. Still, that doesn’t mean that there will be no more CERN visits. Far from it! Three new itineraries for visits to the above-ground facilities are already available to visitors. Follow the guide… CAST: How a magnet became a telescope. Hunting axions from the sun. Visitors to the CAST experiments will see, among other things, how a prototype dipole magnet built for the LHC has been turned into an unusual telescope that tracks the sun in search of the ‘axion’ particle postulated by theory. SM18: Super-cool magnets. This strategic building, where thousands of superconducting magnets for the LHC were assembled in their cryostats and tested, lets visitors into the secret world of magnet technology, radio frequency and cryogenics, ...

  4. Managing ecotourism visitation in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.; Lindberg, Kreg; Wood, Megan Epler; Engeldrum, David

    1998-01-01

    Ecotourism management seeks to integrate and balance several potentially conflicting objectives: protection of natural and cultural resources, provision of recreation opportunities and generation of economic benefits. In the absence of effective planning and management, ecotourism can lead to significant negative impacts on vegetation, soil, water, wildlife, historic resources, cultures, and visitor experiences. This chapter reviews visitor-related natural resource and experience impacts associated with ecotourism within protected areas. The influence of factors that control the nature and extent of impacts are also reviewed, including type and amount of use, the variable resistance and resilience of environmental attributes such as vegetation and soil types, and the role of management in shaping visitation, resources and facilities to support visitation while minimizing associated impacts. Implications for managing the effects of protected area visitation are highlighted, including carrying capacity decision frameworks and selecting management strategies and tactics.

  5. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would

  6. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    creating pathways for free gas to migrate from a shallow reservoir within the gas hydrate stability zone into the water column. Our results imply that free hydrocarbon gas trapped beneath a local gas hydrate seal was mobilized through earthquake-induced mechanical failure and in that way circumvented carbon sequestration within the sediment. These findings lead to conclude that hydrocarbon seepage triggered by earthquakes can play a role for carbon budgets at other seismically active continental margins. The newly identified process presented in our study is conceivable to help interpret data from similar sites. Reference: Fischer, D., Mogollon, J.M., Strasser, M., Pape, T., Bohrmann, G., Fekete, N., Spieß, V. and Kasten, S., 2013. Subduction zone earthquake as potential trigger of submarine hydrocarbon seepage. Nature Geoscience 6: 647-651.

  7. Emerging insights into the dynamics of submarine debris flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Elverhøi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and theoretical work on the dynamics of submarine debris flows is summarized. Hydroplaning was first discovered in laboratory flows and later shown to likely occur in natural debris flows as well. It is a prime mechanism for explaining the extremely long runout distances observed in some natural debris flows even of over-consolidated clay materials. Moreover, the accelerations and high velocities reached by the flow head in a short time appear to fit well with the required initial conditions of observed tsunamis as obtained from back-calculations. Investigations of high-speed video recordings of laboratory debris flows were combined with measurements of total and pore pressure. The results are pointing towards yet another important role of ambient water: Water that intrudes from the water cushion underneath the hydroplaning head and through cracks in the upper surface of the debris flow may drastically soften initially stiff clayey material in the 'neck' of the flow, where significant stretching occurs due to the reduced friction at the bottom of the hydroplaning head. This self-reinforcing process may lead to the head separating from the main body and becoming an 'outrunner' block as clearly observed in several natural debris flows. Comparison of laboratory flows with different material composition indicates a gradual transition from hydroplaning plug flows of stiff clay-rich material, with a very low suspension rate, to the strongly agitated flow of sandy materials that develop a pronounced turbidity current. Statistical analysis of the great number of distinguishable lobes in the Storegga slide complex reveals power-law scaling behavior of the runout distance with the release mass over many orders of magnitude. Mathematical flow models based on viscoplastic material behavior (e.g. BING successfully reproduce the observed scaling behavior only for relatively small clay-rich debris flows while granular (frictional models

  8. Life satisfaction and frequency of doctor visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Sun, Jennifer K; Smith, Jacqui; Peterson, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Identifying positive psychological factors that reduce health care use may lead to innovative efforts that help build a more sustainable and high-quality health care system. Prospective studies indicate that life satisfaction is associated with good health behaviors, enhanced health, and longer life, but little information about the association between life satisfaction and health care use is available. We tested whether higher life satisfaction was prospectively associated with fewer doctor visits. We also examined potential interactions between life satisfaction and health behaviors. Participants were 6379 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults older than 50 years. Participants were tracked for 4 years. We analyzed the data using a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link. Higher life satisfaction was associated with fewer doctor visits. On a 6-point life satisfaction scale, each unit increase in life satisfaction was associated with an 11% decrease in doctor visits--after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (relative risk = 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.86-0.93). The most satisfied respondents (n = 1121; 17.58%) made 44% fewer doctor visits than did the least satisfied (n = 182; 2.85%). The association between higher life satisfaction and reduced doctor visits remained even after adjusting for baseline health and a wide range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related covariates (relative risk = 0.96, 95% confidence interval = 0.93-0.99). Higher life satisfaction is associated with fewer doctor visits, which may have important implications for reducing health care costs.

  9. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: "Kursk"? submarine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2003-03-01

    There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.). Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2) forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning) of the "Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs) showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 1011 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  10. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: "Kursk" submarine study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, A.; Mahura, A.; Sørensen, J. H.

    2003-06-01

    There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.). Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1) probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2) forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning) of the ``Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs) showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release (e.g. 1 Bq) are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 10-11 (Bq/m2) over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 (Bq/m2) for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  11. Methodology for prediction and estimation of consequences of possible atmospheric releases of hazardous matter: 'Kursk' submarine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baklanov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available There are objects with some periods of higher than normal levels of risk of accidental atmospheric releases (nuclear, chemical, biological, etc.. Such accidents or events may occur due to natural hazards, human errors, terror acts, and during transportation of waste or various operations at high risk. A methodology for risk assessment is suggested and it includes two approaches: 1 probabilistic analysis of possible atmospheric transport patterns using long-term trajectory and dispersion modelling, and 2 forecast and evaluation of possible contamination and consequences for the environment and population using operational dispersion modelling. The first approach could be applied during the preparation stage, and the second - during the operation stage. The suggested methodology is applied on an example of the most important phases (lifting, transportation, and decommissioning of the ``Kursk" nuclear submarine operation. It is found that the temporal variability of several probabilistic indicators (fast transport probability fields, maximum reaching distance, maximum possible impact zone, and average integral concentration of 137Cs showed that the fall of 2001 was the most appropriate time for the beginning of the operation. These indicators allowed to identify the hypothetically impacted geographical regions and territories. In cases of atmospheric transport toward the most populated areas, the forecasts of possible consequences during phases of the high and medium potential risk levels based on a unit hypothetical release (e.g. 1 Bq are performed. The analysis showed that the possible deposition fractions of 10-11 (Bq/m2 over the Kola Peninsula, and 10-12 - 10-13 (Bq/m2 for the remote areas of the Scandinavia and Northwest Russia could be observed. The suggested methodology may be used successfully for any potentially dangerous object involving risk of atmospheric release of hazardous materials of nuclear, chemical or biological nature.

  12. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  13. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  14. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  15. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  16. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  17. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage

  18. 3-D seismic characterization of submarine landslides on a Miocene carbonate platform (Luconia Province, Malaysia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampetti, V.; Schlager, W.; van Konijnenburg, J.H; Everts, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    3-D seismic reflection data and a variance cube are used to determine the architecture and investigate the triggering processes of submarine landslides affecting the flanks of a Miocene carbonate platform in the Luconia Province, Malaysia. The slide masses exhibit, in time-slice displays, chaotic,

  19. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  20. Experimental Support for Evaluation of the Victoria Class Virtual Submarine (VCVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    comportementales de ce genre . y A P P R O V A L S H E E T Document No. 5283-001 Version 03 Document Name: Experimental Support for Evaluation...encountered that reduced access to HMCS Corner Brook: 11  Cold moves to charge submarine batteries;  Filming events; and,  Slight delays due

  1. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  2. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  3. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 45 Stephen J. Hadley and William J. Perry, co...Generally speaking, delays in maintenance periods will impact the overall operational availability of the submarine force,” Lt. Cmdr. Tim Hawkins

  4. The Importance of Submarine Tenders to a Modern Naval War: Naval Combat Logistics and Seabasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 15. SUBJECT TERMS TENDER, SEABASING, SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE, NAVAL COMBAT LOGISTICS...anywhere in the world’s oceans, with minimal concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 1 INTRODUCTION...logistics beyond the basic peacetime considerations of food and fuel. If a maritime conflict occurs in a distant theatre, the Navy will find that it

  5. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  6. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  7. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Foodweb implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Romero, S.; Molina-Ramírez, A.; Höfer, J.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rumín-Caparrós, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Canals, M.; Acuña, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface

  8. Lifestyle counseling in hypertension-related visits – analysis of video-taped general practice visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dulmen Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general practitioner (GP can play an important role in promoting a healthy lifestyle, which is especially relevant in people with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases due to hypertension. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency and content of lifestyle counseling about weight loss, nutrition, physical activity, and smoking by GPs in hypertension-related visits. A distinction was made between the assessment of lifestyle (gathering information or measuring weight or waist circumference and giving lifestyle advice (giving a specific advice to change the patient's behavior or referring the patient to other sources of information or other health professionals. Methods For this study, we observed 212 video recordings of hypertension-related visits collected within the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice in 2000/2001. Results The mean duration of visits was 9.8 minutes (range 2.5 to 30 minutes. In 40% of the visits lifestyle was discussed (n = 84, but in 81% of these visits this discussion lasted shorter than a quarter of the visit. An assessment of lifestyle was made in 77 visits (36%, most commonly regarding body weight and nutrition. In most cases the patient initiated the discussion about nutrition and physical activity, whereas the assessment of weight and smoking status was mostly initiated by the GP. In 35 visits (17% the GP gave lifestyle advice, but in only one fifth of these visits the patient's motivation or perceived barriers for changing behavior were assessed. Supporting factors were not discussed at all. Conclusion In 40% of the hypertension-related visits lifestyle topics were discussed. However, both the frequency and quality of lifestyle advice can be improved.

  9. Travel websites: Changing visits, evaluations and posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Many studies concerning the role of web-based information in tourism measure one-time interactions. This paper presents results of a longitudinal study. Data collected in 2014 about website visits, evaluations and posts, are compared with data from 2007. The main finding is the advance of sites

  10. Imperial College London mascot visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Hills, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Boanerges (‘Son of Thunder’) is one of the mascots of Imperial College and is looked after by volunteer students of the City and Guilds College Motor Club. Team Bo visited CERN as part of a wider tour of France and Switzerland.

  11. President of the Slovak Republic visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2012-01-01

    On 11 September 2012, the President of the Slovak Republic, Ivan Gašparovič, visited CERN accompanied by the First Lady and a delegation of 67, including the Deputy Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Economy and the Ambassadors of the Slovak Republic to Switzerland, France and the Office of the United Nations. The visit by representatives of the Slovak Republic follows the Slovak Republic’s hosting of the CERN Accelerator School in the region of Bratislava. After being welcomed to CERN in the morning by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer, the members of the Slovak government were given the opportunity to get a glimpse of the LHC and to visit the ALICE experiment at Point 2. The President and other members of the Slovak delegation then met representatives of Slovak universities and industries at an exhibition of their work in the hall of Building 500. The President then briefly spoke to Slovak journalists and signed the VIP visitors book. The visit last...

  12. Leisure time and museums - motives of visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leisure time, as the time used to engage in a variety of activities, should provide a sense of satisfaction and relaxation. In order to satisfy the needs of the visitors and their desire to experience something new and authentic in tourist destination, it is very important to know what their choices are with regard to leisure activities. The aim of this paper is to determine how museum public usually spends its leisure time, which factors influence the motivation to visit museums, and to try to find a correlation between the two. The paper is based on the results of the study conducted between the end of May and the end of August, 2014 in the museums in Vojvodina Province (northern part of the Republic of Serbia. The main findings of this paper indicate that spending leisure time is primarily related to socialization and education, and that museums are visited mostly due to their educational role. The findings also indicate that there are differences between the choice of leisure activity and motivation for visiting museums and sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. Significant correlation has been found between the choice of leisure activity and motivation for visiting museums.

  13. Japanese Visit CERN's Jardin d'Enfants

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    On 1 November twenty four Japanese teachers from the Association of Private Kindergartens in Osaka visited CERN’s Jardin d’Enfants to exchange experience and learn more about the Swiss educational system. The delegation was lead by Mrs. Nobuko Shirae, President of the Association, and Mr. Takeshi Kakimoto from the Japan Travel Bureau.

  14. Unsupervised visit detection in smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nait Aicha, A.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.

    Assistive technologies for elderly often use ambient sensor systems to infer activities of daily living (ADL). In general such systems assume that only a single person (the resident) is present in the home. However, in real world environments, it is common to have visits and it is crucial to know

  15. Unsupervised visit detection in smart homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nait Aicha, Ahmed; Englebienne, Gwenn; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Assistive technologies for elderly often use ambient sensor systems to infer activities of daily living (ADL). In general such systems assume that only a single person (the resident) is present in the home. However, in real world environments, it is common to have visits and it is crucial to know

  16. How Home Visits Transformed My Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yaafouri-Kreuzer, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Recalling her year as the "English-speaking unicorn" in a class of refugee and immigrant students representing a myriad of languages, the author tells how visiting students at their homes was the strategy that most helped her help students. From discovering that a betel-nut habit was causing one student's hyperactivity to seeing another…

  17. Declining national park visitation: An economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Stevens; Thomas A. More; Marla. Markowski-Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Visitation to the major nature-based national parks has been declining. This paper specifies an econometric model that estimates the relative impact of consumer incomes, travel costs, entry fees and other factors on per capita attendance from 1993 to 2010. Results suggest that entrance fees have had a statistically significant but small impact on per capita attendance...

  18. 28 CFR 540.47 - Media visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CONTACT WITH... who wishes to visit outside his or her official duties, however, must qualify as a regular visitor or, if applicable, a special visitor. [68 FR 10658, Mar. 6, 2003] ...

  19. Digital screen visits in home care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarakit, Mohamad; Nors Hansen, Louise; Evron, Lotte Orr

    2017-01-01

    with participant observation of three selected screen visits with older patients with a minority ethnic background. Analysis: thematic analysis based on a hermeneutic approach. Primarily results indicate that older patients with a minority ethnic background are screened out during the recruitment phase for digital...

  20. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report contains summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1995 carried out in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University in 1995. As cooperative activities of KUR, 9 projects and 91 ordinary researches are described in their summaries, with 10 ordinary researches in KUCA cooperative activities. Titles of the 9 projects are development of biological effect analysis of monochromatic neutron spectrum field, study on optimization of bottle condition in ultra cold neutron fission experiment, feature improvement of KUR-ISOL and nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear physics using it, fundamental study on development of new compound for thermal neutron trapping therapy and expansion of its adopting illness, study on properties of synthetic metal using nuclear procedure, neutron diffraction of magnetic substances under the extreme conditions (high pressure, high magnetic field), study on movement in environment of harmful substances, fundamental study on radiation protection against controllable radiation in KUR, and dynamic property study of metal materials using low speed neutron scattering method. (G.K.)

  1. The floating nuclear power plant with high safety (''Cruise-M'')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, B.F.; Stepanov, V.N.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Tchekunov, V.V.; Stepanov, V.S.; Vakhrushin, M.P.; Kiryukhin, V.I.; Maltsev, V.P.; Kozlov, B.M.; Landgraf, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of conceptual development for a floating nuclear power plant (FNPP) of 50 MW(e) with a nuclear steam producing unit (NSPU) based on a fast reactor with lead-bismut coolant were presented. A lead-bismuth coolant has a number of important safety advantages and it was developed in Russia for nuclear-powered submarines. This FNPP could be used as a power source for seawater desalination and electricity supply. (author)

  2. Life Satisfaction and Frequency of Doctor Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S.; Park, Nansook; Sun, Jennifer K.; Smith, Jacqui; Peterson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying positive psychological factors that reduce health care use may lead to innovative efforts that help build a more sustainable and high quality health care system. Prospective studies indicate that life satisfaction is associated with good health behaviors, enhanced health, and longer life, but little information is available about the association between life satisfaction and health care use. We tested whether higher life satisfaction was prospectively associated with fewer doctor visits. We also examined potential interactions between life satisfaction and health behaviors. Methods Participants were 6,379 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50. Participants were tracked for four years. We analyzed the data using a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with fewer doctor visits. On a six-point life satisfaction scale, each unit increase in life satisfaction was associated with an 11% decrease in doctor visits—after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.93). The most satisfied respondents (N=1,121; 17.58%) made 44% fewer doctor visits than the least satisfied (N=182; 2.85%). The association between higher life satisfaction and reduced doctor visits remained even after adjusting for baseline health and a wide range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related covariates (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99). Conclusions Higher life satisfaction is associated with fewer doctor visits, which may have important implications for reducing health care costs. PMID:24336427

  3. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  4. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  5. Go big or die out: Bifurcation and bimodality in submarine sediment flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, P.; Paull, C. K.; Lintern, G.; Gwiazda, R.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Xu, J.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Hage, S.; McGann, M.; Pope, E.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Stacey, C.; Barry, J.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Chapplow, N.; Vendettuoli, D.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine flows of sediment (turbidity currents) flush globally significant volumes of sediment and organic carbon into deep-sea basins. These flows create the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, which hold valuable oil and gas reserves. These flows affect global carbon burial, how deep-sea ecosystems function, and pose a hazard to offshore infrastructure. Only river systems transport such large amounts of sediment across such long distances. However, there are remarkably few direct measurements from active submarine flows, which is a stark contrast to >1 million direct observations from rivers. Here we present unusually detailed information on frequency, power and runout distance of multiple submarine flows at two contrasting locations. The first data set comes from Monterey Canyon, offshore California, which is fed by littoral cells. The second site is a river-fed delta in Bute Inlet, British Columbia. In both cases, the timing and runout distance of submarine flows was documented using instruments on multiple moorings placed along the 50-km long flow pathway. A striking observation is that flow behaviour and runout is strongly bimodal in both locations. Flows tend to either dissipate rapidly, or runout through the entire mooring arrays. We thus test whether i) the character of short or long runout flows can be distinguished at the first mooring and ii) whether long and short runout flows have different triggers. It has been proposed that submarine flows have two modes of behaviour; either eroding and accelerating, or depositing and dissipating. These field data support such a view of bifurcation and bimodality in flow behaviour. However, some short runout flows resemble their longer runout cousins at the first mooring, and there is no clear relationship between flow trigger and runout. Thus, some flows reach a point where their character is no longer dependent on their initial trigger or initial structure, but on factors acting along the flow pathway.

  6. Evolution and Submarine Landslide Potential of Monterey Canyon Head, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Johnson, S. Y.; Hart, P. E.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Monterey Canyon, offshore central California, incises the shelf from near the shoreline to 30 km seaward where axial water depths approach 2,000 m. It is one of the world's most studied submarine canyons, yet debate continues concerning its age, formation, and associated geologic hazards. To address these issues, the USGS, with partial support from the California Seafloor Mapping Program, collected hundreds of kilometers of high-resolution, mini-sparker, single-channel (2009 and 2011 surveys) and multichannel (2015 survey) seismic-reflection profiles near the canyon head. The seismic data were combined with multibeam bathymetry to generate a geologic map of the proximal canyon, which delineates numerous faults and compound submarine landslide headwall scarps (covering up to 4 km2) along canyon walls. Seismic-reflection data reveal a massive ( 100 km2 lateral extent) paleochannel cut-and-fill complex underlying the proximal canyon. These subsurface cut-and-fill deposits span both sides of the relatively narrow modern canyon head, crop out in canyon walls, and incise into Purisima Formation (late Miocene and Pliocene) bedrock to depths of up to 0.3 s two-way travel time ( 240 m) below the modern shelf. We propose that the paleochannel complex represents previous locations of a migrating canyon head, and attribute its origin to multiple alternating cycles of fluvial and submarine canyon erosion and deposition linked to fluctuating sea levels. Thus, the canyon head imaged in modern bathymetry is a relatively young feature, perhaps forming in the last 20,000 years of sea-level rise. The paleocanyon deposits are significantly less consolidated than bedrock in deeper canyon walls, and therefore, are probably more prone to submarine landsliding. Nearby mapped faults occur within the active, distributed, San Andreas fault system, and earthquake-generated strong ground motions are likely triggers for past and future submarine landslides and potential associated tsunamis.

  7. A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lee Liberty,; David Finlayson,; Geist, Eric L.; Labay, Keith A.; Michael Byerly,

    2016-01-01

    During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m. Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11 ± 5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake- triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. 

  8. Monitoring Quality Across Home Visiting Models: A Field Test of Michigan's Home Visiting Quality Assurance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heany, Julia; Torres, Jennifer; Zagar, Cynthia; Kostelec, Tiffany

    2018-06-05

    Introduction In order to achieve the positive outcomes with parents and children demonstrated by many home visiting models, home visiting services must be well implemented. The Michigan Home Visiting Initiative developed a tool and procedure for monitoring implementation quality across models referred to as Michigan's Home Visiting Quality Assurance System (MHVQAS). This study field tested the MHVQAS. This article focuses on one of the study's evaluation questions: Can the MHVQAS be applied across models? Methods Eight local implementing agencies (LIAs) from four home visiting models (Healthy Families America, Early Head Start-Home Based, Parents as Teachers, Maternal Infant Health Program) and five reviewers participated in the study by completing site visits, tracking their time and costs, and completing surveys about the process. LIAs also submitted their most recent review by their model developer. The researchers conducted participant observation of the review process. Results Ratings on the MHVQAS were not significantly different between models. There were some differences in interrater reliability and perceived reliability between models. There were no significant differences between models in perceived validity, satisfaction with the review process, or cost to participate. Observational data suggested that cross-model applicability could be improved by assisting sites in relating the requirements of the tool to the specifics of their model. Discussion The MHVQAS shows promise as a tool and process to monitor implementation quality of home visiting services across models. The results of the study will be used to make improvements before the MHVQAS is used in practice.

  9. Apparent resistivity and spectral induced polarization in the submarine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERCULES DE SOUZA

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively few investigations have employed electrical methods in the submarine environment, which may be promising for mineral deposits or threatened by environmental problems. We have measured the electric field using both disk and bar electrodes in the sea water at three different levels: sea surface, seven meters deep, and sea bottom at a depth of ten meters, employing a 2 m spacing dipole-dipole array with 7 array spacings of investigation, and 13 values of frequencies at steps of (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2,.....10. The measurement allowed the analysis of the electric field as a function of frequency and spacing, and of the spectral induced polarization. Modelling and interpretation of the apparent resistivity yielded a good fit with previous drilling data. Analysis of the spectrum of the complex apparent resistivity and the comparison with equivalent circuits, provided information about the grain size, the mineral composition and the major induced polarization phenomenon occurring below the sea. Therefore the result of the present research show the feasibility of measuring the variation of seawater resistivity in situ, as well as the resistivity of sea bottom sediments.Relativamente poucas investigações têm empregado métodos elétricos no ambiente submarino, o qual pode ser promissor para depósitos minerais ou ameaçado por problemas ambientais. Nós medimos o campo elétrico usando eletrodos em forma de disco e de barra na água do mar, em três níveis distintos: superfície, sete metros de profundidade, e fundo do mar a dez metros de profundidade, empregando um dispositivo dipolo-dipolo com 2m de afastamento, 7 níveis de investigação e 13 valores de freqüência a intervalos de (2N hertz, N = -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, ... 10. A medida permitiu a análise do campo elétrico como uma função de freqüência e afastamento, e da polarização induzida espectral. A modelagem e a interpretação da resistividade aparente se ajustaram bem

  10. Decommissioning of naval nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-10-01

    During the next decade the two major nuclear powers will each have to decommission more than 100 naval nuclear vessels, in particular submarines. The problems connected with this task is considered in this report. Firstly the size of the task is considered, i.e. the number of nuclear vessels that has to be decommissioned. Secondly the reactors of these vessels, their fuel elements, their power level, the number of reactors per vessel and the amount of radioactivity to be handled are discussed. Thirdly the decommissioning procedures, i.e. The removal of fuel from the vessels, the temporary storage of the reactor fuel near the base, and the cleaning and disposal of the reactor and the primary circuit components are reviewed. Finally alternative uses of the newer submarines are briefly considered. It should be emphasizes that much of the detailed information on which this report is based, may be of dubious nature, and that may to some extent affect the validity of the conclusions of the report. (au)

  11. Catastrophes and nuclear accidents in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeau, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the former USSR, the nuclear safety, the environment protection and the preservation of workers and population health were not the first priority for the Soviet Union authorities. The fabrication of nuclear weapons, the construction of nuclear submarines and the production of an abundant energy source were the only goals at that time. This book describes and explains the circumstances of the nuclear catastrophes and accidents that have occurred during this era. It tries to estimate their impacts on populations and environment and their possible consequences in a near or far future. (J.S.)

  12. Prime-Minister of Malta visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, visited CERN and met Director-General, Robert Aymar, on 10 January. The Prime-Minister of Malta, Dr Lawrence Gonzi, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement. Dr Gonzi was given guided tours of the CMS experiment at Point 5 in Cessy and of the LHC magnet test facility, in which his country was involved. One of the high points of the day was the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and the Government of the Republic of Malta, aimed at the development of scientific and technical collaboration. "I’m really enthusiastic about this agreement, which constitutes a first step towards real collaboration between the Maltese government and CERN," said Nicholas Sammut, a Maltese engineer at CERN who was present throughout the visit (on the right). See also the video.

  13. The French Research Minister visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 6 June, the French Minister for Higher Education and Research, Valérie Pécresse, was welcomed by CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar. Robert Aymar accompanies Valérie Pécresse and Bernard Accoyer on a visit to CMS. A dozen physicists took part in the round-table discussion, including the Director-General, project leaders, deputy spokesmen, members of the experiments, CERN personnel and users.At first, the Minister was given a tour of the CMS experiment and the LHC tunnel, accompanied by the President of the French National Assembly, Bernard Accoyer. The delegation then took part in a round-table discussion. The main objective of the Minister’s visit was to obtain input on the organisation of large research infrastructures, based on information concerning CERN’s administrative and scientific configuration and the experiment collaborations. As J.-J. Blaising, Head of the PH Depa...

  14. Simple visit behavior unifies complex Zika outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Manrique

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New outbreaks of Zika in the U.S. are imminent. Human nature dictates that many individuals will continue to revisit affected ‘Ground Zero’ patches, whether out of choice, work or family reasons − yet this feature is missing from traditional epidemiological analyses. Here we show that this missing visit-revisit mechanism is by itself capable of explaining quantitatively the 2016 human Zika outbreaks in all three Ground Zero patches. Our findings reveal counterintuitive ways in which this human flow can be managed to tailor any future outbreak’s duration, severity and time-to-peak. Effective public health planning can leverage these results to impact the evolution of future outbreaks via soft control of the overall human flow, as well as to suggest best-practice visitation behavior for local residents.

  15. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  16. Members of the Forum Engelberg visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrive Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The Forum Engelberg is an annual interdisciplinary conference held in Engelberg, Switzerland intended to act as an international platform for debate and exchange of views on key issues affecting scientific research, technology, economics and philosophy. Its President is Hubert Curien - former French Minister of Research and Space Research, and President of the CERN Council from 1994 to 1996. Photo 01: CERN Director-General Prof. Luciano Maiani (left) speaks to Forum members and public figures from the Geneva area during the visit. In the background is Jean-Claude Landry from the Department of the Interior, Agriculture and Environment, State of Geneva. Photo 02: CERN Director-General Prof. Luciano Maiani (left) speaks to Forum members and public figures from the Geneva area during the visit. In the background is Bernard Ecoffey, Founder of the Forum Engelberg.

  17. Prime Minister of Pakistan visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday, 23 January 2016, CERN welcomed Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, Prime Minister of Pakistan.   From left to right: Minister of Finance Mr Mohammad Ishaq Dar, Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Muhammad Nawaz Sharif, CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti and CMS national contact physicist Hafeez Hoorani. Mr Muhammad Nawaz Sharif arrived at Point 5 in Cessy, where he was welcomed onto French soil by the sous-préfet of Cessy, Stéphane Donnot, and, representing CERN, Director-General Fabiola Gianotti, Directors Eckhard Elsen and Charlotte Warakaulle, and Rüdiger Voss, the adviser for relations with Pakistan. It was the first visit by a head of government of Pakistan since the country became CERN's latest Associate Member State in July 2015. The Prime Minister then had the opportunity to visit the CMS underground experimental area accompanied by the CMS Spokesperson, Tiziano Camporesi, and the CMS collaboration’...

  18. ITER delegation visits the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.

    2003-01-01

    Following the expression of interest of the Republic of Korea in joining the ITER Negotiations, a technical delegation from the ITER International Team and the Participant Teams visited the country on 14-16 April 2003. The goal was to assess, through visits to laboratories and some relevant industries, the capability of the Republic of Korea to contribute 'in kind' to ITER construction. There is presently in the Republic of Korea a strong interest at Government and industry levels in supporting fusion research within the framework of the long term development of alternative energy supplies. The large investment in the Korean Superconducting Tokamak (KSTAR), a very ambitious project from a previously very limited programme, is a concrete demonstration of this interest and the expression of interest to participate in ITER follows the same line

  19. Google Science Fair winner visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Google Science Fair Grand Prize winner Brittany Michelle Wenger today wrapped up a day-and-a-half's visit of the CERN site. Her winning project uses an artificial neural network to diagnose breast cancer – a non-invasive technique with significant potential for use in hospitals.   Brittany Michelle Wenger at CERN's SM18 Hall. Besides winning a $50,000 scholarship from Google and work experience opportunities with some of the contest hosts, Brittany was offered a personal tour of CERN. “This visit has just been incredible,” she says. “I got to speak with [CERN's Director for Accelerators and Technology] Steve Myers about some of the medical applications and technologies coming out of the LHC experiments and how they can be used to treat cancer. We talked about proton therapy and hadron therapy, which could really change the way patients are treated, improving success rates and making treatment not such an excruciating process. That ...

  20. Description Fuel Cycle Spanish. Technical Visits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa Valero, R.; Vinuesa Carretero, A.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle includes all processes and operations from the mining of uranium to the management of radioactive waste generated. These processes include the manufacture of nuclear fuel, the operation of the plants and the storage of radioactive waste in the corresponding temporary stores. (Author)