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Sample records for nuclear solid-state physics

  1. Recent applications of nuclear orientation to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrell, B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews how certain problems in solid state physics have been clarified by low temperature nuclear orientation and nuclear magnetic resonance of oriented nuclei. The advantages of these techniques, a brief survey of recent progress in traditional applications, and new developments are discussed, and, finally, future trends are suggested. (Auth.)

  2. Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The activity of the Department of Nuclear Methods in the Solid State Physics is focused on experimental research in condensed matter physics. Thermal neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect are the main techniques mastered in the laboratory. Most of the studies aim at better understanding of properties and processes observed in modern materials. Some applied research and theoretical studies were also performed. Research activities of the Department in 2001 can be summarized as follows: Neutron scattering studies concerned the magnetic ordering in TbB 12 and TmIn 3 and some special features of magnetic excitations in antiferromagnetic γ-Mn-alloys. Some work was devoted to optimization of the neutron single crystal monochromators and polarizers grown in Crystal Growth Laboratory. Small angle scattering studies on the surfactant - water ternary system were performed in cooperation with JINR Dubna. Moessbauer effect investigations of dysprosium intermetallic compounds yielded the new data for Pauling-Slater curves. The same technique applied to perovskites and ferrocene adduct to fullerene helped to resolve their structure. X-ray topographic and diffractometric studies were performed on hydrogen implanted semiconductor surfaces employing the synchrotron radiation sources. The X-ray method was applied also to investigations of plasma spraying process and phase composition of ceramic oxide coatings. Large part of studies concerned the structure of biologically active, pharmacologically important organic complexes, supported by modeling of their electron structure. Crystal growth of large size single-crystals of metals and alloys was used for preparation of specimens with mosaic structure suitable for neutron monochromator and polarizer systems. The construction work of the Neutron and Gamma Radiography Station has been completed. The results of first tests and studies proved the expected abilities of the systems. The possibility to visualize inner structures

  3. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  4. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  5. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  6. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  7. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  8. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: esm041@mail.harvard.edu

    2016-01-18

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  9. On the Fer expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Fer expansion that is helpful to describe the evolution of the spin system in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics based on the Fer expansion which provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Significant applications of the Fer expansion are illustrated in NMR and in physics such as classical physics, nonlinear dynamics systems, celestial mechanics and dynamical astronomy, hydrodynamics, nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, high energy physics, electromagnetism. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics.

  10. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  11. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  12. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hook, J R

    1991-01-01

    This Second Edition is aimed at students taking a first course in this subject, although it will also be of interest to professional physicists and electronic engineers requiring a grasp of the fundamentals of this important area of physics. Basic concepts are introduced in an easily accessible context: for example, wave propagation in crystals is introduced using one-and two-dimensional geometries. Only when these basic ideas are familiar are generalisations to three dimensions and the elegant framework of the reciprocal lattice made. Extensively rewritten, the Second Edition now includes

  14. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  15. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  16. Application of nuclear-physical methods for studies in the solid state physics area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlachrv, I.D.; Knyazev, B.B.; Platov, A.B.

    2004-01-01

    The set of nuclear-physical methods developed on the heavy ion accelerator at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan allows to conduct an examination of elementary content as well as to obtain the elements distribution in a sample in their depth and surface. This information could be very important for study of samples wide range integral parameters and the characteristics of sputtered layers and implanted films. The beam analysis methods, as well as Rutherford backscattering methods (RBS), nuclear reaction analysis (NRA), proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE) are included in the complex structure. Besides for expand an analyzed elements range and precision increase for quantitative characteristics of elementarily content of samples the X-ray florescent analysis method with isotope excitation (RFA) is using in the capacity complementary PIXE method. Modernization of proton beam transportation system at the heavy ion accelerator allows to develop a new analytical trend - combination of the proton micro-probe with PIXE analysis. In this case the information about examined sample elementary content is within size field ∼10 μm. The beam scanning by the surface is allowing to obtain the elements distribution by the two spatial coordinates connected with the surface. This information may be useful in the case of an existence of a micro-inclusions in the sample

  17. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  18. Introduction to solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Philip

    2013-01-01

    A compact introduction to solid-state physics for students of physics, material,and engineering sciences - ideal for a one- to two-semestral course. In easily understable form the author introduces to phenomena and concepts. Thereby he avoids expensive mathematical derivations and refers to outgoing literature. The successful didactical preparation makes an easy access to the theme possible. Numerous illustrations clarify the connections and make the explained well understandable. With about 170 questions and exercise problems.

  19. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  20. KfK, Institute for Nuclear Solid-State Physics. Report of results on research and development work 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Solid-State Physics pursues at time mainly basis-oriented work in the fields of superconductivity and the boundary-surface and microstructure research. The experimental and theoretical works aim to a better understanding of the microscopical and macroscopical properties of certain solids. At time superconductors with high transition point, highly correlated electron systems, conducting polymers, and amorphous substances are studied especially intensively. Technologically relevant materials have in the comparative case preference. Beside the experimental methods of nuclear solid-state physics (neutron scattering, Moessbauer spectroscopy, ion-implantation technology, irradiation and analysis with fast ions) the institute disposes of further highly specificated techniques, like electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy, special material preparation, X-ray diffractometry, and two UHV facilities for the study of the first surface respectively near-surface regions with thermal helium atoms as well as with fast ions. (orig./HSI) [de

  1. Division of solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, O.

    1983-09-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, and optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  2. Physical changes associated with gamma doses of PM-555 solid-state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouh, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the electrical, molecular and structural properties of copolymers of methacrylic esters and olefins, PM-555 solid-state nuclear track detector was investigated. DC conductivity measurements were studied in the temperature range 293-417 K using solid-state samples of the PM-555 polymer. These samples were irradiated with gamma doses in the range 5-63 kGy. Furthermore, the activation energy was measured, at various temperatures, as a function of the gamma dose. It was found that many changes in electrical resistance of PM-555 polymer could be produced by gamma irradiation via the degradation mechanism. Also, the gamma dose gives an advantage for the increasing correlation between the DC conductivity and the number and mobility of the charge carriers created by the ionizing effect of gamma radiation. Moreover, solutions of different loadings (0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6% and 0.8%) were prepared from the irradiated and non irradiated sheets using pure chloroform as a solvent. The effect of both temperature and gamma dose on the intrinsic viscosity of the liquid samples, as a measure of the mean molecular mass of the PM-555 polymer, were studied. In addition, structural and optical property studies using X-ray diffraction and refractive index measurements were performed on all irradiated and non irradiated PM-555 samples. The results indicate that both the degree of ordering or disordering and the anisotropic character of the PM-555 polymer are dependent on the gamma dose

  3. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  4. Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics (INFP). Progress report on research and development in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    About 90 percent of the research activities of the INFP in 1994 were devoted to superconductivity as the priority research field of the Institute. In the domain of fundamental research, the work on oxidic HT superconductors was continued, concentrating on the electronic structure and details of the lattice dynamics. New tasks were opened up with studies on the recently discovered boron nitrides of the type LnNi 2 B 2 C (Ln=Y,Lu,..) with superconducting transition temperatures of up to T c ∼23K. Good progress was achieved in the preparation of MPMG superconducting bulk specimens intended for use in self-stabilising magnetic bearings. A prototype flywheel power storage system was developed for demonstrating the technological feasibility. Application-oriented studies were concerned with the growth of epitactic thin films on application-relevant substrates and including suitable buffer layers, and with the examination of the high-frequency performance of these films. Fullerene research continued with studies into the solid-state physics of crystalline fullerenes or fullerene compounds, and the preparation and characterisation of endofullerenes such as La C 82 . The remaining approximately 10 percent of the Institute's research activities covered experimental and theoretical work on the physics of surfaces and boundary surfaces, and the physics of mesoscopic systems. (orig./MM) [de

  5. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  6. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  7. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D; Kettle, P R [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  8. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C.

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  10. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  11. Radioactive isotopes in solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Deicher, M

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive atoms have been used in solid-state physics and in material science for many decades. Besides their classical application as tracer for diffusion studies, nuclear techniques such as M\\"ossbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, $\\beta$-NMR, and emission channelling have used nuclear properties (via hyperfine interactions or emitted particles) to gain microscopical information on the structural and dynamical properties of solids. During the last decade, the availability of many different radioactive isotopes as a clean ion beam at ISOL facilities such as ISOLDE at CERN has triggered a new era involving methods sensitive for the optical and electronic properties of solids, especially in the field of semiconductor physics. Extremely sensitive spectroscopic techniques like deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL), and Hall effect have gained a new quality by using radioactive isotopes. Because of their decay the chemical origin of an observed electronic and optical b...

  12. Nuclear solid-state physics. Nuclear-physics measureing methods and their applications. 4. upd. ed.; Nukleare Festkoerperphysik. Kernphysikalische Messmethoden und ihre Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, Guenter; Weidinger, Alois; Deicher, Manfred

    2010-07-01

    This book is thought as accompanying textbook for a course about nuclear solid-state physics, as book for the preparation of experiments in the physical graduate practicum, and as introducing book in one of the treated fields of research. At each theme theory and measurement technique are presented, measurement results shown, detectors explained, and experimental slopes explained. The text was for the 4th edition completely modernized and revised. Newly included were sections about the radiotracer methods (trace diffusion, photoluminescence, and capacitance-transient spectroscopy with radioactive probes), which were hitherto not presented. In the neutron diffraction the for the application especially important field of the small-angle scattering and the reflectometry were newly included in the book, in the Moessbauer effect the application of the synchrotron radiation for Moessbauer studies is described. Important applications like the magnetic-resonance tomography and the positron-emission tomography are also treated in the new edition.

  13. Nuclear Level Mixing: From a Curiosity to Applications in Nuclear Physics, Solid State Physics and Gamma Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyens, Gerda

    2001-01-01

    The history of 'Nuclear Level Mixing' is closely related to the research that Prof. Coussement performed during the last 25 years. In particular, the impact of this quantum mechanical concept on different research fields will be discussed. Without going in detail, we aim to give the reader an idea of how one single concept may lead to different discoveries

  14. Proceedings of the DAE solid state physics symposium. V. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    DAE Solid State Physics Symposium, sponsored by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, is organized annually. The topics covered are phase transitions, soft condensed matter, nano-materials, experimental techniques, instrumentation and solid state devices, superconductivity, magnetism, electronic structure and phonons, semiconductor physics, transport properties, surface - interface and thin films, liquids, glasses and amorphous systems, etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  15. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, B

    2006-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  16. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  17. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  18. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Written by the 2011 Gaede Award Winner Filling a gap in the literature for a brief course in solid sate physics, this is a clear and concise introduction that not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also discusses such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. This textbook assumes only basic mathematical knowledge on the part of the reader and includes more than 100 discussion questions and some 70 problems with solutions as well as further supplementary material available for free to lecturers from the Wiley-VCH website. From the Contents:Chemical Bonding in So

  19. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  20. KfK Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The INFP is primarily occupied with basic research work in the field of solid state physics and materials science, with preference being given to subjects and problems of interest from the point of view of potential applications. This is particularly true for research work devoted to the high-temperature superconductors, which currently are the area of main effort of the Institute, but also for work performed in the fields of interface and microstructure research. In 1991, about 80% of the activities were superconductivity research. (orig./MM) [de

  1. Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development work in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Solids Physics carried out about 90% of its work in the year of the report, 1993, on the main point of superconductivity. The work on high temperature superconductors on a cuprate basis was continued on a large scale. The availability of better samples (eg: non-twinned single crystals) make it possible to clear up a series of important detailed questions regarding the structure, grid dynamics and electronic structure. The activities closely related to applications of superconducting films were concentrated on the growth of a-axis and c-axis orientated films on technically relevant substrates (above all on sapphire, including suitable buffer layers and the examination of these films regarding their high frequency behaviour. Considerable progress was achieved in the manufacture of wafers coated on both sides. The work on Fullerene (carbon molecules C 60 , C 70 etc) and Fullerene compounds was continued. The Institute quickly succeeded not only in preparing these systems, but also in making a considerable contribution to a physical understanding of them. Among the Institute's activities, which are not directly connected to superconductivity (about 10%), one should mention above all, the experimental and theoretical work on the physics of surfaces and boundary surfaces, on polymer physics and on the physics of mesoscopic systems. (orig.) [de

  2. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  3. KfK Institute of Nuclear Solid State Physics. Progress report on research and development activities in 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The INFP is primarily occupied with basic research work in the field of solid state physics and materials science, with preference being given to subjects and problems of interest from the point of view of potential applications. This is particularly true for research work devoted to the high-temperature superconductors, which currently are the area of main effort of the Institute, but also for work performed in the fields of interface and microstructure research, polymer physics, or studies on amorphous and glassy materials. In 1990, about 70% of the activities were superconductivity research. Basic research investigated the lattice dynamics and electronic structure of HT superconductors by means of inelastic neutron scattering, or electron energy loss spectroscopy and tunnel spectroscopy. Application-oriented work concentrated on the development of HTSC-films required for equipment in microwave engineering, microelectronics, and sensor engineering. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  5. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  7. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  8. Solid state nuclear track detection : theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) technique is simple and inexpensive in nature. The two main steps involved in SSNTD are the formation of latent tracks and their subsequent development (visualisation) by chemical or other means. These are discussed in detail. Applications of SSNTD in the fields of nuclear physics, dosimetry, biology and for determination of contents of an element and its spatial distribution are described. The monograph is intended to serve both beginners and specialists. It also gives a list of simple experiments that can be conveniently introduced at the undergraduate/postgraduate level. (M.G.B.). 20 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  10. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  11. Renormalization methods in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozieres, P [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1976-01-01

    Renormalization methods in various solid state problems (e.g., the Kondo effect) are analyzed from a qualitative vantage point. Our goal is to show how the renormalization procedure works, and to uncover a few simple general ideas (universality, phenomenological descriptions, etc...).

  12. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  13. 2. International workshop Solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The 2. Workshop on Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) held in Dubna, 24-26 Mar 1992. Possibilities of SSNTD applications in the fields of high and low energy physics, dosimetry and radioecology were discussed

  14. Spring meeting of the DPG Working Group 'Solid state physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The volume contains abstracts of the contributions to the Spring Meeting of the Solid State Physics Section with the topics dielectric solids, thin films, dynamics and statistical physics, semiconductor physics, magnetism, metal physics, surface physics, low temperature physics, vacuum physics and engineering, chemical physics. (MM)

  15. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  16. Solid state nuclear track detectors kit for the use in teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.; Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-11-01

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and unetched sheets: an alpha source of 241 Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author) [pt

  17. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  18. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off [de

  19. Solid State nuclear track detector - [Part] III : applications in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Nand

    1992-01-01

    The present article describes the applications of solid state nuclear track detection techniques in different branches of science (e.g. life sciences, nuclear physics, cosmic ray and solar physics, earth sciences, teaching laboratories) and technology with selected examples from voluminous literature available on the subject. (author). 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Solid-state physics for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moliton, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Describing the fundamental physical properties of materials used in electronics, the thorough coverage of this book will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the fabrication of electronic and photonic devices. The book opens with an introduction to the basic applied physics of simple electronic states and energy levels. Silicon and copper, the building blocks for many electronic devices, are used as examples. Next, more advanced theories are developed to better account for the electronic and optical behavior of ordered materials, such as diamond, and disordered ma

  1. Solid state physics and actinide spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamoye, P.; Hubert, S.; Khan Malek, C.; Krupa, J.C.; Simoni, E.; Genet, M.

    1985-01-01

    We studied the physical and spectroscopic properties of ThBr 4 and ThCl 4 . We made first a synthesis and studied the crystal growth to determinate the Uranium concentration in the crystals. This work allows an interpretation of the optical properties of an ion embedded in an incommensurate structure [fr

  2. Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnun, Jacob J.; Leftin, Avigdor; Brown, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy finds growing application to inorganic and organic materials, biological samples, polymers, proteins, and cellular membranes. However, this technique is often neither included in laboratory curricula nor typically covered in undergraduate courses. On the other hand, spectroscopy and…

  3. Quantum technologies for solid state physics using cold trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdinand Schmidt-Kaler

    2014-01-01

    The quantum states of ions are perfectly controlled, and may be used for fundamental research in quantum physics, as highlighted by the Nobel Prize given to Dave Wineland in 2012. Two directions of quantum technologies, followed by the Mainz group, have high impact on solid state physics: I) The delivery of single cold ions on demand for the deterministic doping of solid state materials with nm spatial precision to generate design-structures optimized for quantum processors. II) The simulation of solid state relevant Hamiltonians with AMO systems of one or two dimensional arrays of trapped ions. I will talk about the recent progress in both fields. http://www.quantenbit.de/#Number Sign#/publications/(author)

  4. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  5. Atomic and solid state physics with the 14UD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, C.S.

    1975-02-01

    The use of energetic heavy ions in atomic and solid state physics is discussed. Topics that are discussed include: 1) Properties of excited ions, 2) radiation damage studies by channeling, 3) energy loss of ions and range measurements, 4) oscillating effects in channeling, 5) x-ray production in solids, 6) coherence effects in channeling and 7) formation of united atoms. (author)

  6. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  7. Performance of a 229Thorium solid-state nuclear clock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, G A; Schreitl, M; Winkler, G; Schumm, T; Litvinov, A N; Romanenko, V I; Yatsenko, L P; Romanenko, A V

    2012-01-01

    The 7.8 eV nuclear isomer transition in 229 thorium has been suggested as a clock transition in a new type of optical frequency standard. Here we discuss the construction of a ‘solid-state nuclear clock’ from thorium nuclei implanted into single crystals transparent in the vacuum ultraviolet range. We investigate crystal-induced line shifts and broadening effects for the specific system of calcium fluoride. At liquid nitrogen temperatures, the clock performance will be limited by decoherence due to magnetic coupling of the thorium nuclei to neighboring nuclear moments, ruling out the commonly used Rabi or Ramsey interrogation schemes. We propose clock stabilization based on a fluorescence spectroscopy method and present optimized operation parameters. Taking advantage of the large number of quantum oscillators under continuous interrogation, a fractional instability level of 10 −19 might be reached within the solid-state approach. (paper)

  8. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  9. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  10. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  11. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  12. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  13. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule......Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...

  14. Men of physics pioneer in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, V A

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Karl Lark-Horovitz presents the biography of Karl Lark-Horovitz, a physicist who significantly contributed in the then-young field of experimental nuclear physics. This book discusses the Lark-Horovitz important work in structure determination by X-ray and electron diffraction methods. Organized into two parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the biographical account of Karl Lark-Horovitz. This text then describes Lark-Horovitz's creation of a highly regarded graduate program in physics at Purdue University, which is a feat involving both the acqui

  15. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1986-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and its application in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used are the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulations experiments and field measurements were carried out to verify the method possibilities. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  16. The solid state physics programme at ISOLDE: recent developments and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karl; Schell, Juliana; Correia, J. G.; Deicher, M.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Fenta, A. S.; David-Bosne, E.; Costa, A. R. G.; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2017-10-01

    Solid state physics (SSP) research at ISOLDE has been running since the mid-1970s and accounts for about 10%-15% of the overall physics programme. ISOLDE is the world flagship for the on-line production of exotic radioactive isotopes, with high yields, high elemental selectivity and isotopic purity. Consequently, it hosts a panoply of state-of-the-art nuclear techniques which apply nuclear methods to research on life sciences, material science and bio-chemical physics. The ease of detecting radioactivity—scientists and specialists in nuclear solid state techniques. This article describes the current status of this programme along with recent illustrative results, predicting a bright future for these unique research methods and collaborations.

  17. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present various reports on different problems of solid state physics

  18. Majorana Fermions in Particle Physics, Solid State and Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsten, L.; Duff, M. J.

    This review is based on lectures given by M. J. Duff summarising the far reaching contributions of Ettore Majorana to fundamental physics, with special focus on Majorana fermions in all their guises. The theoretical discovery of the eponymous fcrmion in 1937 has since had profound implications for particlc physics, solid state and quantum computation. The breadth of these disciplines is testimony to Majorana's genius, which continues to permeate physics today. These lectures offer a whistle-stop tour through some limited subset of the key ideas. In addition to touching on these various applications, we will draw out some fascinating relations connecting the normed division algebras R, ℂ, H, O to spinors, trialities. K-theory and the classification of stable topological states of symmetry-protected gapped free-fermion systems.

  19. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  20. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  1. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  2. Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector

    CERN Document Server

    Koguchi, Y; Ashida, T; Tsuruta, T

    2003-01-01

    Diallyl phthalate (DAP) solid state nuclear track detector is suitable for detecting heavy ions such as fission fragments, because it is insensitive to right ions such as alpha particles and protons. Detection efficiency of fission tracks is about 100%, which is unaffected under conditions below 240degC lasting for 1h or below 1 MGy of gamma-ray irradiation. Optimum etching condition for the DAP detector for detection of fission fragments is 2-4 h using 30% KOH aqueous solution at 90degC or 8-15 min using PEW-65 solution at 60degC. DAP detector is useful in detecting induced fission tracks for dating of geology or measuring intense heavy ions induced by ultra laser plasma. The fabrication of copolymers of DAP and CR-39 makes it possible to control the discrimination level for detection threshold of heavy ions. (author)

  3. Television-aided thermographic investigations in nuclear and solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettig, H.; Wollschlaeger, K.

    1983-01-01

    After a brief review of the physical and hardware fundamentals of televison-aided thermographic investigations, two practical examples of nuclear and solid state research work are presented. The problems discussed concern studies of the relative density distribution in beams of particles (ions, electrons, neutral atoms) or of visible radiation on the one hand, and the optimization of operating conditions in heavy-current implantations (ion implantation in Si at ion beam currents up to 60 μA) on the other hand

  4. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N.; Lunes, P.; Saenz T, C.

    1996-01-01

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε 0 , which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε 0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε 0 is constant for track densities between 10 3 and 10 5 cm -2 . At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 10 5 cm -2 . For track densities less than 10 3 cm -2 , ε 0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  5. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelson, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Principles of solid state NMR; Relaxation processes: Introduction to pulse sequences; Quantitative analysis; Removal of artifacts from CPMAS FT experiments; Line broadening mechanisms; Resolution enhancement of solid state NMR spectra; and /sup 13/C CPMAS NMR of fossil fuels--general applications

  6. Report of the Solid State Physics Division (1991-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out in the Solid State Physics Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) covering the period from 1991-1992. The activities are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings: Research Activities, Instrumentation and Software Development. The main research activity of the Division is centered around the utilisation of the neutron beams at the Dhruva and Cirus reactors. A number of research proposals from the universities, funded by the Inter University Consortium come under the category of powder diffraction studies. Another area of research where there is a good demand from universities is in the field of small angle neutron scattering. In addition to the neutron beam research, a number of other investigations pertaining to Raman scattering, liquid crystals, model membranes, magnetism, protein crystallography etc. have contributed significantly to the research programme. The fully indigenous guide laboratory is expected to become operational soon. A list of published papers, internal reports and submitted theses is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  7. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    During the academic year of 1978 to 1979, the 12 UD pelletron tandem accelerator has operated successfully. Ion species used were polarized p, polarized d, α(from the polarized ion source), p, d, 16 O and 18 O (from the direct extraction ion source), and C, O, Cu and Au (from the sputtering ion source). Improvements were made in the detector and data acquisition system. The data handling system 'SHINE' was completed and is in full operation. Research works are reported in individual summaries under the following chapters: accelerator and beam transport system, general equipments nuclear physics, atomic and solid-state physics, and biological and medical science and others. (Mori, K.)

  8. Annual Report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator has been operated by the University's researchers and engineers. Except for the tank opening for regular inspection we met twice the troubles which forced to change the accelerating tube. The experiences teach us that it needs about 20 days to finish the conditioning after changing the accelerating tube. A sputter ion source of new version is now being installed on the top floor. Two devices for the detection of X-rays were tested. An apparatus for bombardment of samples in air for biological and medical sciences has been successfully used. The subjects of researches on nuclear physics cover the light-ion reactions, heavy-ion reactions and nuclear spectroscopy. A special emphasis has been put on the measurements on vector- and tensor-analyzing powers in the light-ion reactions, because of a higher efficiency of the polarized ion source. Elaborate works on the heavy-ion reactions including the angular correlation patterns and excitation functions have been made in parallel. Papers of these works are now being prepared, a few having been published already. Moreover, in the University of Tsukuba, a new research system, called Special Research Project on Nuclear and Solid State Sciences Using Accelerated Beams (Nuclear and Solid State Research Project) started in 1978 and will continue for five years. In this research project, researchers from various Institutes in the University of Tsukuba, as well as visiting researchers from other institutions in Japan and from abroad, participate. Using a variety of accelerated beams, i.e. of heavy, light and polarized beams, this research project aims mainly at the high excitation, short life, transient and inhomogeneous states both in nuclear and extra-nuclear world. It covers both fundamental research in nuclear, atomic and solid state sciences as well as their application in various fields. (J.P.N.)

  9. K. S. Krishnan Memorial Lecture: The role of crystallography in solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinier, A [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1977-06-01

    The role of crystallography in solving problems in solid state physics, is explained. A few domains in solid state physics such as detection of localized defects, structure of metallic solid solutions, mechanism of phase transitions and the intermediate states between crystalline and amorphous states, have been investigated successfully by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The studies have helped a deeper understanding of solid state phenomena. Structures of CuBa, AlZn, ..beta..-alumina etc. are discussed.

  10. Simple material physics experiment for studying phase diagrams and solid state transformations in alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S; Kamal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1977-09-01

    Study of phase diagram and accompanying solid state transformations is essential to determine the best possible composition, manufacturing techniques and physical properties of an alloy. A simple technique having wide applications in metallurgical industry is to study the temperature--time curve of the alloy undergoing cooling with an uniform rate. An experiment which uses this technique is described. It is widely applicable in the fields of materials science, applied solid state physics, physical metallurgy and physical chemistry.

  11. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: investigating the spins of nuclear related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpentier, Th.

    2007-10-01

    The author reviews his successive research works: his research thesis work on the Multiple Quantum Magic Angle Spinning (MQMAS) which is a quadric-polar nucleus multi-quanta correlation spectroscopy method, the modelling of NMR spectra of disordered materials, the application to materials of interest for the nuclear industry (notably the glasses used for nuclear waste containment). He presents the various research projects in which he is involved: storing glasses, nuclear magnetic resonance in paramagnetism, solid hydrogen storing matrices, methodological and instrument developments in high magnetic field and high resolution solid NMR, long range distance measurement by solid state Tritium NMR (observing the structure and dynamics of biological complex systems at work)

  12. Proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Kishore, Sangeeta; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    The proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications (SSNTD-17) contains a number of research papers on different areas of solid state nuclear track detectors. It provides a common scientific platform to the scientists for sharing their knowledge and reviews the present state-of-art and advancements in the field of solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications and also some aspects of nuclear energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  13. Proceedings of the twentieth national conference on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) - A class of passive detectors, developed by R.L. Fleischer, P.B. Price and R.M. Walker in the early 1960s have found numerous applications in various fields of science and technology. SSNTDs have been recognized as very potential and effective tools in exploring various areas of research. The intrinsic features of SSNTDs like low cost , availability, versatility and their remarkable stability have contributed to applications in a wide range of fields opening up new vistas which were practically unthinkable and unbelievable about a decade or two ago. Apart from the direct applications of far reaching consequences in nuclear physics, other areas as diverse as bio-medical sciences, cosmic rays and space physics, environmental research, geochronology and geophysics, materials sciences, lunar science, meteorites and tektites; microanalysis, mine safety, nuclear technology, uranium prospecting and most recently nano/micro technology etc., have been greatly influenced by SSNTDs. They have a very important role to play in radiation measurement, micro technology and dosimetry and thus are potential enough in spreading awareness about the radiation environment and its impact on the general public and the academic peers. In order to disseminate the knowledge generated in this fast growing field, there is a need to bring material science and radiation community on a common platform and discuss various operational and radiation protection aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  14. The physics of solid-state neutron detector materials and geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, A N

    2010-11-10

    Detection of neutrons, at high total efficiency, with greater resolution in kinetic energy, time and/or real-space position, is fundamental to the advance of subfields within nuclear medicine, high-energy physics, non-proliferation of special nuclear materials, astrophysics, structural biology and chemistry, magnetism and nuclear energy. Clever indirect-conversion geometries, interaction/transport calculations and modern processing methods for silicon and gallium arsenide allow for the realization of moderate- to high-efficiency neutron detectors as a result of low defect concentrations, tuned reaction product ranges, enhanced effective omnidirectional cross sections and reduced electron-hole pair recombination from more physically abrupt and electronically engineered interfaces. Conversely, semiconductors with high neutron cross sections and unique transduction mechanisms capable of achieving very high total efficiency are gaining greater recognition despite the relative immaturity of their growth, lithographic processing and electronic structure understanding. This review focuses on advances and challenges in charged-particle-based device geometries, materials and associated mechanisms for direct and indirect transduction of thermal to fast neutrons within the context of application. Calorimetry- and radioluminescence-based intermediate processes in the solid state are not included.

  15. Studies on neutron detection with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.C.; Vilela, E.C.; Andrade, C. de.

    1993-03-01

    The detection of thermal and fast neutrons was studied. For thermal neutrons, alpha sensitive plastic was used in order to register the products of nuclear reactions taking place in boron and /or lithium converters. Fast neutrons produce recoil tracks within the detector. In the present case, CR-39 and Makrofol E were used. Chemical and electrochemical etching processes were used for thermal and fast neutron detectors, respectively. (F.E.). 6 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  17. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Als-Nielsen, J.; Skov Pedersen, J.; Lebech, B.

    1992-01-01

    Research in the department covers the field of condensed matter physics. The principal activities of the department are presented in the Progress Report covering the period from 1 January to 31 December 1991. The condensed matter physics research is predominantly experimental utilizing diffraction of neutrons and X-rays. The research topics range from studies of two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy femions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems to studies of precipitation phenomena and nano-scale structures in various materials. The major interest of the department is in basic research, but projects of more applied nature are often taken up, prompted by the applicability of the developed technique and expertise. (au) 2 tabs., 94 ills., 82 refs

  18. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subba Ramu, M.C.; Mishra, U.C.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of the application of nuclear track detectors with emphasis on recent developments in the field of radiation protection. Track etch detectors have been used for the measurements of low level radiation in the environment, fast neutron and radon daughter inhalation dose. Recent developments in the field of dosimetry seem to be promising. In fast neutron dosimetry, track etch detectors can be used without inclusion of fissile materials by using the electrochemical etching technique. These detectors can provide important information in the energy range upto 250 keV. Survey of this range of energy with TLD is difficult because they are extremely energy dependent and over-respond to low energy neutrons. Measurement of radon using track detectors can help to lower the cost of the radon dosimeters. Certain detectors are sensitive to alpha particles from radon and their progeny. Higher sensitivity permits their use in a passive type of personnel dosimeter, which does not require the troublesome aspects of air sampling for the collection of radon daughter samples. (author), 38 refs., 8 tabs., 12 figs

  19. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    , where the former is the most widely used approach in NMR. AHT and Floquet theory, which use mathematical tools namely, Magnus expansion and Van Vleck transformations respectively, yield the same effective Hamiltonian that is valid for stroboscopic observation. The equivalence between the theories has...... coupling) interactions are referred to as dipolar recoupling pulse sequences and forms the subject of this dissertation. NMR experiments, that involve repeating (periodic) pulse sequences, are generally understood by finding an average or effective Hamiltonian (interaction, in the language of physics...... been discussed in the past in literature. Generalised expressions for the effective Hamiltonian using AHT are derived in the frequency domain in this dissertation, to allow for appreciation of the equivalence with Floquet theory mediated effective Hamiltonian. The derivation relies on the ability...

  20. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  1. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Progress report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1975-09-01

    Experimental investigations are being carried out in a broad area of low-temperature and solid-state physics which includes superconductivity, magnetism in metals and liquid and solid helium. The pair-field susceptibility of superconductors is being studied. A propagating mode in the phase of the superconducting order parameter has been found. Heat capacities of superconducting films in the vicinity of T/sub c/ are also being investigated. An investigation in the time-dependent high conductivity of dilute solid solutions of sodium in ammonia has been initiated. Nuclear orientation studies of the dilute magnetic impurity problem in metals in the 1 mK temperature region are being carried out. Refrigeration requirements for this work are being met using enhanced hyperfine nuclear cooling. Measurements of the differential osmotic pressure of 3 He/ 4 He liquid mixtures near the tricritical point have shown a peak in the ''concentration susceptibility'' at the lambda line. Data obey a simple tricritical scaling relation. The dynamics of superfluid flow through submicron pores are being studied in both pure 4 He and in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures in an apparatus provided with a 3 He refrigerator. The quantization of circulation in superfluid liquid 4 He is being investigated using the Vinen method. The low temperature heat capacity of bcc solid 3 He is being studied

  2. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperture physics. Progress report for 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental investigations are being carried out in a broad area of low-temperature and solid-state physics which includes superconductivity, magnetism in metals and liquid and solid helium. The pair-field susceptibility of superconductors is being studied. A propagating mode in the phase of the superconducting order parameter is under investigation. Superconducting fluctuations are being used to probe critical fluctuations in magnetic systems using the proximity effect. Heat capacities of superconducting films in the vicinity of T/sub c/ are also being investigated. The properties of thin film solid solutions of sodium in ammonia, sodium in argon, and mercury in xenon are being studied. Nuclear orientation studies of the dilute magnetic impurity problem in metals in the 1 mK temperature region are being carried out. Refrigeration requirements for this work are being met using enhanced hyperfine nuclear cooling. The dynamics of superfluid flow through submicrometer pores are being studied in both pure 4 He and in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures in an apparatus provided with a 3 He refrigerator. A search for an ac Josephson effect in superfluid 4 He is being initiated. The quantization of circulation in superfluid liquid 4 He is being investigated using the Vinen method. An analysis of measurements of the concentration susceptibility in 3 He/ 4 He mixtures near the tricritical point has been completed. The electrical resistance of metallic screw-fastened joints is being studied to assess the usefulness of such demountable joints for thermal contact at millikelvin temperatures

  3. Photoemission from solids: the transition from solid-state to atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.A.

    1980-08-01

    As the photon energy is increased, photoemission from solids undergoes a slow transition from solid-state to atomic behavior. However, throughout the energy range hν = 10 to 1000 eV or higher both types of phenomena are present. Thus angle-resolved photoemission can only be understood quantitatively if each experimenter recognizes the presence of band-structure, photoelectron diffraction, and photoelectron asymmetry effects. The quest for this understanding will build some interesting bridges between solid-state and atomic physics and should also yield important new insights about the phenomena associated with photoemission

  4. Demonstration Experiments for Solid-State Physics Using a Table-Top Mechanical Stirling Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, M. R.; Morales, A. Palacio; Rodrigo, J. G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid-free cryogenic devices are acquiring importance in basic science and engineering. But they can also lead to improvements in teaching low temperature and solid-state physics to graduate students and specialists. Most of the devices are relatively expensive, but small-sized equipment is slowly becoming available. Here, we have designed…

  5. Impact of solid state fermentation on nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui-Min; Guo, Xiao-Na; Zhu, Ke-Xue

    2017-02-15

    To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3-4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Report of the Solid State Physics Division (July 1, 1990 to December 31, 1991)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is the first report summarizing the activities carried out by scientists in the recently constituted Solid State Physics Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) covering the period from July 1990 to December 1991. The activities are reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under headings : Research Activities, Instrumentation, Papers published, Papers presented, Lectures, Physics colloquia, Theses and other activities. The main thrust of the research activities of the Division relates to experimental investigations of a variety of materials using microscopic scattering techniques like neutron scattering, light scattering, x-ray diffraction and related other techniques like Moessbauer Spectroscopy, calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance etc. During the period under review, a large number of high T c superconductors, proteins and enzyme derivatives, micellar systems, model membranes and other complex systems have been investigated to understand their basic structural and dynamical aspects. As a result, the structure-property correlations are better appreciated, whether they relate to drug-membrane interactions or biological functions of enzymes or nature of superconductivity etc. (author). figs

  7. High-energy shadowing effect and its application to atomic and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroshi; Shima, Kunihiro; Ishihara, Toyoyuki; Takeshita, Hidefumi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Naramoto, Hiroshi

    1994-01-01

    Ion-beam shadowing effects for projectiles in the MeV/u energy range have been studied with high-energy (keV) secondary electrons emitted from the surface of a target crystal. This article reviews and discusses applications of the high-energy shadowing effect to atomic and solid state physics, as well as physical and technical aspects of the electron spectroscopy under channeling incidence conditions. (orig.)

  8. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After the satisfactory and busy operation of the 12 UD tandem accelerator for five years, the accelerating tubes showed the symptom of deterioration mainly due to stain, so that a few tubes were changed. In spite of this trouble, the operation over 3000 hours was maintained. The development of peripheral apparatus around the tandem accelerator and detectors was made. Above all, a beam pulsing system was successfully installed. The experimental works on nuclear physics were directed to the studies on polarization phenomena and heavy ion-induced reactions. The importance of the two-step process in the reaction mechanism was established. As the remarkable theoretical progress, a self-consistent collective coordinate method for the large amplitude collective motion was successfully developed, and the boson expansion theory was refined. The yield of X-ray and radiative electron capture and the equilibrium charge state in the collision of heavy ions were studied in detail. By the back scattering of 18 MeV alpha particles channeled in solid state, the shift of resonant peak energy was clearly observed, thus the influence of lattice effect in crystals was shown. (Kako, I.)

  9. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyuez, T.; Tretyakova, S. P.; Guezel, T.; Akyuz, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 μg/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium

  10. Uranium analysis by neutron induced fissionography method using solid state nuclear track detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Akyuez, T; Guezel, T; Akyuz, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study total twenty samples (eight reference materials and twelve sediment samples) were analysed for their uranium content which is in the range of 1-17 mu g/g, by neutron induced fissionography (NIF) method using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) in comparison with the results of neutron activation analysis (NAA), delayed neutron counting (DNC) technique or fluorometric method. It is found that NIF method using SSNTDs is very sensitive for analysis of uranium.

  11. The calibration of the solid state nuclear track detector LR 115 for radon measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Gericke, C; Jönsson, G; Freyer, K; Treutler, H C; Enge, W

    1999-01-01

    An experimental calibration of indoor room and outdoor soil detector devices which are based on LR 115 as sensitive element has taken place at the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm (Sweden) in 1994 and 1996, at the Physikalisch-Technischen Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (Germany) in 1997 and at the Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany) in 1997. Special properties of the used solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) material LR 115 have been measured to define the application of the experimental calibration.

  12. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of prion peptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Jonathan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    High-resolution structural studies using x-ray diffraction and solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are not feasible for proteins of low volubility and high tendency to aggregate. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) is in principle capable of providing structural information in such systems, however to do this efficiently and accurately, further SSNMR tools must be developed This dissertation describes the development of three new methods and their application to a biological system of interest, the priori protein (PrP).

  13. Solid state nuclear track detectors and their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1993-09-01

    Passive Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors are electrically non conductive solids, mainly used for the registration of α-particles and neutron induced recoils. The stability of the particle tracks in the solid allow longer integration periods, what is essential for the measurement of small, time variant radiation exposures. This report gives an overview on non-photographic track detectors, their processing, dosimetric properties and examples for their application in industrial health, radiological and environmental protection. (orig.) [de

  14. Experimental studies in solid state and low temperature physics. Final report for 1966-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.; Weyhmann, W.V.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations have been carried out in a broad area of low temperature and solid state physics which includes superconductivity, theory of quantum crystals (through 1973), magnetism in metals, and liquid helium. The work in superconductivity has involved investigations of the Josephson effect, studies of the pair-field susceptibility of superconductors and investigations of the thermodynamics of the superconducting phase transition. The competition between the metal-nonmetal transition and superconductivity has also been studied in random metal-rare gas systems. In the area of magnetism, magnetically ordered materials and dilute magnetic alloys have been investigated. Enhanced hyperfine nuclear magnetic ordering was discovered in PrCu 6 at about 2.5 mK. The research on liquid 4 He and 3 He/ 4 He mixtures has been directed at the quantum aspects of superfluid flow and rotation, the critical behavior near the lambda transition and the properties of the tricritical point. The theoretical program (through 1973) encompassed a broad spectrum of research on the properties of quantum liquids and solids with particular emphasis on crystalline 3 He

  15. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Paul, Susan M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The development of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has, to a large extent, focused on using spin-1/2 nuclei as probes to investigate molecular structure and dynamics. For such nuclei, the technique of cross polarization is well-established as a method for sensitivity enhancement. However, over two-thirds of the nuclei in the periodic table have a spin-quantum number greater than one-half and are known as quadrupolar nuclei. Such nuclei are fundamental constituents of many inorganic materials including minerals, zeolites, glasses, and gels. It is, therefore, of interest to explore the extent to which polarization can be transferred from quadrupolar nuclei. In this dissertation, solid-state NMR experiments involving cross polarization from quadrupolar nuclei to spin-1/2 nuclei under magic-angle spinning (MAS) conditions are investigated in detail.

  17. Study on some characteristics of the polycarbonate Durolon used as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciani, V.; Pugliesi, R.; Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Menezes, M.O. de; Miranda, A.

    1994-01-01

    Some characteristics of the polycarbonate Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector were investigated. These were determined by means of irradiations performed at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results were compared with those obtained for Makrofol-E at the same conditions. Although Durolon is grooved, it presents a track registration efficiency and a light transmission of about 30% and 2,4 greater than the former, respectively. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  18. In-core gamma dosimetry by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.

    1980-02-01

    Results are reported of a study undertaken to develop Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) for the measurement of gamma doses in the megarad region such as those existing in and around a nuclear reactor core. The changes brought about in the track etching parameters and in the ultraviolet and infrared transmittances, have been studied for possible use as gamma dose measuring indices. Effects of various parameters in the core such as neutron flux, beta particles, water, temperature, and gamma ray spectrum have been investigated and found to have only small influence on the proposed gamma dose measuring indices

  19. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  20. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, A.R. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.r.cowen@leeds.ac.uk; Kengyelics, S.M.; Davies, A.G. [LXi Research, Academic Unit of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H.

  1. Characterization of the polymer Durolon as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliesi, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    The polymer Durolon has been characterized as a solid state nuclear track detector. In these detectors a track, resulting from the damages in its molecular structure, induced by a heavy charged particle, is the testimony of the passage of the particle through the polymer. In order to characterize the Durolon the track diameter, track production rate, light transmission through the polymer and the critical angle of incidence of the particle have been studied. The main objective of such studies was to provide the necessary subsidies to understand the information registered. The damages have been induced by alpha particles from the nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, by irradiating a boron screen in a thermal neutron field from an experimental facility installed in the beam-hole 08 of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The study of the parameters have been performed by using a digital system developed in the present work. Its use has provided a higher quality and quickness regarding data acquisition and data analysis as well as the opportunity to quantify several other parameters regarding the imaging formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors. The characteristics of the Durolon have been compared with the ones of two other detectors Makrofol-E and Makrofol-DE and have demonstrated its potentiality to use. (author)

  2. Development of low temperature solid state joining technology of dissimilar for nuclear heat exchanger tube components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    By conventional fusion welding process (TIG), a realization of reliable and sound joints for the nuclear heat exchanger components is very difficult, especially for the parts comprising of the dissimilar metal couples (Ti-STS, Ti-Cu alloy etc.). This is mainly attributed to the formation of brittle intermetallics (Ti{sub x}Cu{sub y}, Ti{sub x}Fe{sub y}, Ti{sub x}Ni{sub y} etc.) and wide difference in physical properties. Moreover, it usually employs very high thermal input, so making it difficult to obtain sound joints due to generations of high residual stresses and degradation of the adjacent base metals, even for similar metal combinations. In this project, the low temperature solid-state joining technology was established by developing new alloy fillers, e.g. the multi-component eutectic based alloys or amorphous alloys, and thereby lowering the joining temperature down to {approx}800 .deg. C without affecting the structural properties of base metals. Based on a low temperature joining, the interlayer engineering technology was then developed to be able to eliminate the brittleness of the joints for strong Ti-STS dissimilar joints, and the diffusion brazing technology of Ti-Ti with a superior joining strength and corrosion-resistance comparable to those of base metal were developed. By using those developed technologies, the joining procedures feasible for the heat exchanger components were finally established for the dissimilar metal joints including Ti tube sheet to super STS tube, Ti tube sheet to super STS tube sheet, and the joints of the Ti tube to Ti tube sheet

  3. Fast neutron dosimetry by means of different solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurny, F.; Turek, K.

    1977-01-01

    The comparative study of three different types of fast neutron dosimeters based on solid state nuclear track detectors is presented; the dosimeters studied were: - microscopic soda glass in contact with 232 Th; - polycarbonate Makrofol E; and - cellulose nitrate Kodak LR 115. All detectors were evaluated by visual counting in a microscope. The authors have studied such properties as the background, angular as well as energetical dependences of detectors. The results obtained show that all studied detectors are suitable for fast neutron dosimetry; their application depends however on the concrete experimental conditions (neutron spectrum, fluence etc.). Both advantages and disadvantages of each of them are presented. (Auth.)

  4. Application of solid state nuclear track detectors in measurement of natural alpha- radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maged, A F; El-Behay, A Z; Borham, E [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) is one of the most convenient techniques to assess the average radiation levels of alpha activities in the environment. This technique has been used to assess radon gas and its daughters in buildings. Exposed SSNTD films are chemically etched in an alkali solution and alpha tracks are evaluated by using the image analyzer system. The detailed procedure for this study and the etched films for conversion of alpha track density to radon concentration in Bq m{sup -}3 are given and discussed in the text.1 fig., 3 tabs.

  5. Measurement of fission track of uranium particle by solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, S. C.; Pyo, H. W.; Ji, K. Y.; Kim, W. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we discussed results of the measurement of fission tracks for the uranium containing particles by solid state nuclear track detector. Uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were prepared by uranium sorption onto silica powder in weak acidic medium and laser ablation on uranium pellet, respectively. Fission tracks for the uranium containing silica and uranium oxide particles were detected on Lexan plastic detector. It was found that the fission track size and shapes depend on the particle size uranium content in particles. Correlation of uranium particle diameter with fission track radius was also discussed

  6. Radon diffusion in polymer vessels using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Rocha, Zildete; Pereira, Marcio Tadeu, E-mail: andreccarneiro@gmail.com, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Santos, Talita de Oliveira; Lara, Evelise Gomes; Braga, Mario Roberto Martins S.S., E-mail: mariomartins@gmail.com, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: talitaolsantos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    At CDTN/CNEN, the method to determine {sup 226}Ra in several matrices by gamma spectrometry is already established; however, the method should be improved. This paper is about the first step of this improvement. Several polymer vessels were studied verifying the effect of radiolysis on the walls of the vessel. A test about the diffusion of {sup 222}Rn through the walls was carried out using the CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector. The results pointed out that the vessel made up by acrylic material is the best candidate to replace the vessel actually used. (author)

  7. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET

  8. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  9. Technical aspects in the obtention of tissue autoradiography using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Martin, Gisela; Bernaola, Omar A.; Pozzi, Emiliano; Thorp, Silvia; Cabrini, Romulo L.; Tomasi, V.H.

    2007-01-01

    The autoradiography images produced in solid state nuclear track detectors by heavy ions originated in tissue provide relevant information about the spatial biodistribution of heavy particle emitters. Some preliminary aspects of the autoradiography technique are evaluated by two experiments which are in progress, using Lexan and CR 39 foils as solid state nuclear track detectors. In the first case, a tissue sample from rat kidney intoxicated with UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 was embedded in paraffin and put in contact with a 1 mm thick CR 39 foil. After a two months exposure the foil was chemically developed resulting in scarce tracks. A satisfactory image cannot be obtained in these conditions. More prolonged exposure time is needed to obtain better images of such samples. The second experience consisted in the irradiation of fresh kidney tissue slices from healthy rats in contact with 250 μm thick Lexan foils, in a thermal neutrons flux. The irradiation was performed at the RA-3 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE). The contribution to image produced by tracks of particles due to reactions between neutrons and tissue elements (i.e. 14 N) was evaluated. The etching conditions should be modified in order to desensitize the detector material. (author) [es

  10. Characterization of proton exchange membrane materials for fuel cells by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Zueqian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been used to explore the nanometer-scale structure of Nafion, the widely used fuel cell membrane, and its composites. We have shown that solid-state NMR can characterize chemical structure and composition, domain size and morphology, internuclear distances, molecular dynamics, etc. The newly-developed water channel model of Nafion has been confirmed, and important characteristic length-scales established. Nafion-based organic and inorganic composites with special properties have also been characterized and their structures elucidated. The morphology of Nafion varies with hydration level, and is reflected in the changes in surface-to-volume (S/V) ratio of the polymer obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The S/V ratios of different Nafion models have been evaluated numerically. It has been found that only the water channel model gives the measured S/V ratios in the normal hydration range of a working fuel cell, while dispersed water molecules and polymer ribbons account for the structures at low and high hydration levels, respectively.

  11. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué, Kamal H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the first solid-state 27Al NMR study of three aluminum phthalocyanine dyes: aluminum phthalocyanine chloride, AlPcCl (1); aluminum-1,8,15,22-tetrakis(phenylthio)-29H,31H-phthalocyanine chloride, AlPc(SPh)4Cl (2); and aluminum-2,3-naphthalocyanine chloride, AlNcCl (3). Each of these compounds contains Al3+ ions coordinating to four nitrogen atoms and a chlorine atom. Solid-state 27Al NMR spectra, including multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) spectra and quadrupolar Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (QCPMG) spectra of stationary powdered samples have been acquired at multiple high magnetic field strengths (11.7, 14.1, and 21.1 T) to determine their composition and number of aluminum sites, which were analyzed to extract detailed information on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry parameters (η) ranging from 0.10 to 0.50, and compared well with the results of quantum chemical calculations of these tensors. We also report the largest 27Al chemical shielding anisotropy (CSA), with a span of 120 ± 10 ppm, observed directly in a solid material. The combination of MQMAS and computational predictions are used to interpret the presence of multiple aluminum sites in two of the three samples.

  12. Charged projectile spectrometry using solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.

  13. Development of neutron personnel monitoring system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massand, O.P.; Kundu, H.K.; Marathe, P.K.; Supe, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Personnel neutron monitoring aims at providing a method to evaluate the magnitude of the detrimental effects on the personnel exposed to neutrons. Neutron monitoring is done for a small though growing number of personnel working with neutrons in a wide range of situations. Over the years, many solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) have been tried for neutron personnel monitoring. CR-39 SSNTD is a proton sensitive polymer and offers a lot of promise for neutron personnel monitoring due to its high sensitivity and lower energy threshold for neutron detection. This report presents the mechanism of track formation in this polymer, the development of this neutron personnel monitoring system in our laboratory, its various characteristics and its promise as a routine personnel neutron monitor. (author). 1 tab., 7 figs

  14. Evaluation study between the chemical and electrochemical etching for solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Since there are several methods of etching in the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) it is necessary to know which gives the best results for a specific problem. The purpose of this work is to analyze and compare both the chemical etching and the electrochemical etching. The SSNTD has a preferential response to certain kinds of particles and energies, according to the material used as detector. On the other hand the efficiency is a function of the incidence angle of the radiation and some other parameters such as temperature, concentration and type of solvent used in the etching process, and the method used for the etching. Therefore, it is necessary to extend as much as possible our knowledge of such parameters in order to choose the more efficient one for a specific problem

  15. Applications of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector to ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanasaki, Masato; Hattori, Atsuto; Oda, Keiji; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Fukuda, Yuji; Sakaki, Hironao; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kondo, Kiminori; Kurashima, Satoshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2012-01-01

    CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector, which was developed for optical lens, has been applied for various field such as radon surveys, measurement of galactic cosmic ray, cell irradiation experiment and so on. The CR-39 detectors have the great advantages of being insensitive to high energy photons and electrons and capable of detecting only ions in the mixed fields such as laser driven relativistic plasmas. Though there are some analytical methods of CR-39 to diagnose ion beam, unfortunately, only few researchers in the field of plasma know the methods. This article looks at how to use CR-39 detectors and introduce the accomplishment of the joint study JAEA and Kobe Univ. for application of CR-39 detectors to ion beam diagnosis. (author)

  16. Ventilation rate in equilibrium factor measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Leitao, R.M.S.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.

    1994-08-01

    Ventilation rate values are calculated from track density measurements in solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), both when ventilation is the main cause of radioactive disequilibrium in radon progeny and when it shares importance with other agents. The method consists in exposing a SSNTD of high intrinsic efficiency (CR-39) in filtered and unfiltered conditions and, in addition, covered with a thin Aluminium foil, to stop alpha particles from 218 Po and 222 Rn. No calibrations are required but, when necessary, independent measurements of the loss rates of radioactivity to aerosol and to walls have to perform. Ventilation rates depend upon geometry detection efficiencies for alpha particles, here obtained by Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account the space distribution of emission positions. This may lead to sizeable corrections in ventilation and equilibrium factor values. Since geometric detection efficiencies depend upon alpha-particle ranges in air, the influences of barometric variables are also discussed. (author). 7 refs

  17. Measurement of indoor radon levels in Erbil capital by using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.H.; Khdar, S. per; Abdulla, H.Y.; Muhamad, N.Q.; Othman, M.M.; Qader, S.

    2005-01-01

    Radon alpha activity concentration has been measured in 28 homes in the Erbil Capital-Iraqi Kurdistan region during the autumn season by using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors 'SSNTDs'. The radon activity concentrations in these homes range from (10.33-90.34) Bqm -3 with an average of 44+/-23Bqm -3 . The average absorption effective dose equivalent for a person living in homes for which the investigation were done was found to be 1.3+/-0.65mSvy -1 , obtained by using an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and an occupancy factor of 0.8. The average lung cancer cases per year per 10 6 person was found to be 23+/-12

  18. Detection of fission fragments using thick samples in contact with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de; Martins, J.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Whenever use is made of thick samples in contact with solid state nuclear track detectors for determining fission yields, one of the fundamental problems is the evaluation of the effective number of target nuclei which contributes to the fraction of the number of fission events that will be recorded. The evaluation of the effective number of target nuclei which contributes to recorded events is based on the effective thickness of the sample. A method for evaluating effective thickness of thick samples for binary fission modes, is presented. A cross section equation which takes into account all the necessary corrections due to fragment attenuation effects by a thick target for calculation induced fission yields, was obtained. (Author) [pt

  19. The measurement of radon and thoron by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Akhwand, R.A.; Bukhari, K.M.; Saddarudin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study a) the development and annealing properties of the latent damage trails produced by radon/thoron alpha particles in plastic Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), and b) the diffusion properties of radon and thoron in various media by using SSNTDs. The information thus obtained has been employed for a) the optimization of the conditions for the construction of radon/thoron dosimeters for uranium/thorium mines, and b) the use of SSNTDs for the prospection and estimation of uranium and thorium. The results indicate that these gases can diffuse even through rocks, and cellulose nitrate detectors, LR-115 and CA80-15, can be profitably employed in dosimetry, prospection, and for the discrimination between uranium and thorium deposits. (orig.) [de

  20. An automatic analyzer of solid state nuclear track detectors using an optic RAM as image sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staderini, E.M.; Castellano, A.

    1986-01-01

    An optic RAM is a conventional digital random access read/write dynamic memory device featuring a quartz windowed package and memory cells regularly ordered on the chip. Such a device is used as an image sensor because each cell retains data stored in it for a time depending on the intensity of the light incident on the cell itself. The authors have developed a system which uses an optic RAM to acquire and digitize images from electrochemically etched CR39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) in the track count rate up to 5000 cm -2 . On the digital image so obtained, a microprocessor, with appropriate software, performs image analysis, filtering, tracks counting and evaluation. (orig.)

  1. Study of the reinforcement of rubber styrene-butadiene with mesoporous silices by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Ligia; Lopez, Betty; Pena, Bibiana; Rios, Juan Esteban; Castano, Nelson

    2001-01-01

    The knowledge about the interaction rubber/filler for the rubber reinforced with carbon black of silica is important to understand the physical properties, which determine the reinforcement. This paper presents a comparative study of the interactions between styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) and silica for a silica Ultrasil type and mesoporous silica MCM-41 type prepared by different procedures, based on solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H MAS NMR; 13C MAS NMR, 13C CP/MAS, 29Si MAS and 29Si CP/MAS NMR. Mesoporous silica synthesized under certain specific conditions showed better interaction with the rubber than the ultrasil VN3 silica, commonly used as a reinforcement load. Mechanical tests for the SBR vulcanised with this silica indicate an important increase for values of elongation and tearing resistance, but an increase in the vulcanization time in it is compared with the SBR vulcanise with Ultrasil

  2. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  3. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  4. PREFACE: 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-04-01

    The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES) started in Caracas-Venezuela, and over time the symposia have taken place in 9 different Latin American countries. The last five events took place in Mérida-Venezuela (2002), Havana-Cuba (2004), Puebla-Mexico (2006), Puerto Iguazú-Argentina (2008) and Maragogi-Brazil (2011). During the last years, in the different SLAFES editions, the aim has been to bring together researches from Latina America and invite renowned scientists from around the world to a unique forum to discuss the latest developments regarding Solid state Physics. The 21st Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XXI) was held in Villa de Leyva-Colombia, from September 30 to October 04, 2013. The 21st SLAFES version featured the participation of experts in various areas of Solid State Physics from countries such as Belgium, Germany, United States, Spain, Ireland, Chile, Argentina and Brazil, had 270 submitted works and was attended by 140 researchers. The development of this event was made possible by financial support from the Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Universidad del Norte-CO, Universidad de Magdalena-CO, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco-BR and the Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exatas, Naturales y Física. Editors Professor J Albino Aguiar Departamento de Física Universidade Federal de Pernambuco 50670-901 Recife PE Brazil e-mail: albino@df.ufpe.br Professor Jairo Roa-Rojas Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC, Colombia e-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co Professor Carlos Arturo Parra Vargas Grupo Física de Materiales Escuela de Física Universidad Padagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia Tunja Colombia e-mail: carlos.parra@uptc.edu.co Professor David A Land\\'i nez Téllez Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales Departamento de Física Universidad Nacional de Colombia A.A. 5997 Bogotá DC

  5. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herpin, A.

    1962-01-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10 13 n/cm 2 , and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10 14 n/cm 2 . The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [fr

  6. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    During the academic year 1980 - 1981, the 12 UD Pelletron tandem accelerator in UTTAC has experienced several troubles. The accelerator tank had to be opened six times including the scheduled overhaul. Due to these troubles, both the beam time and the chain operation time were reduced by 20% as compared with the preceding year. However, the beam pulsing system was completed, and pulsed beam has been in use. The polarized ion source and the sputter ion source have worked well. A heavy ion booster with interdigital H-structure was designed, and has been under construction. Special efforts have been exerted on the detectors and detector systems. The examples of the achievements mainly associated with the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project are enumerated as follows. The complete experiment on d-p system provided the data on nuclear three body problem. The information about the mechanism of two-nucleon transfer reaction (p,t) was obtained. The mechanisms of (p,p) and (p,d) reactions were clarified. The experiment on the measurement of the magnetic moment of β-emitting products with polarized beam began. The properties of very highly excited states were clarified by the study of heavy ion-induced reactions. A new model for heavy ion fusion reaction was proposed. The mechanism of inner shell ionization was clarified by passing heavy ions through solids. (Kako, I.)

  7. Detection of boron in metal alloys with solid state nuclear track detector by neutron induced autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Nabipour; Hosseini, A.; Afarideh, H.

    2002-01-01

    Neutron induced autoradiography is very useful technique for detection as well as measurement of Boron densities in metal alloys. The method is relatively simple and quite sensitive in comparison with other techniques with resolution in the range of PPM. Using this technique with it is also possible to investigate microscopic scattering of Boron in metal alloys. In comparison with most techniques neutron induced autoradiography has its own difficulties and limitations. In this research measurement of Boron densities and investigation of that diffusion in metal alloys has been carried out. A flat nicely polished Boron doped metal samples is covered with a track detecting plastic (CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector) and exposed to thermal neutron dose. After irradiation the plastic detector have been removed and put in an etching solution. Since the diffusion rate of corrosive solution in those area, which heavy ions have been, produces as the result of nuclear reaction with thermal neutron are more than the other areas, some cavities are formed. The diameter of cavities or tracks cross section are increased with increasing the etching time, to some extent that it is possible to observe the cavities with optical microscopes. The density of tracks on the detector surface is directly related to the Boron concentration in the sample and thermal neutron dose. So by measuring the number of tracks on surface of the detector it would possible to calculate the concentration of Boron in metal samples. (Author)

  8. Solid state nuclear track detection: a useful geological/geophysical tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Qureshi, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) is a relatively new nuclear particle detection technique. Since its inception, it has found useful application in almost every branch of science. This paper gives a very brief review of the role it has played in solving some geological/geophysical problems. Since the technique has been found useful in a wide spectrum of geological/geophysical applications, it was simply not possible to discuss all of these in this paper due to severe space restrictions. However, an attempt has been made to discuss the salient features of some of the most prominent applications in the geological and geophysical sciences. The paper has been divided into two parts. Firstly, applications based on radon measurements by SSNTDs have been described. These include: Uranium/thorium and mineral exploration, search for geothermal energy sources, study of volcanic processes, location of geological faults and earthquake prediction, for example. Secondly, applications based on the study of spontaneous fission tracks in geological samples have been described briefly. The second group of applications includes: fission track dating (FTD) of geological samples, FTD in the study of emplacement times, provenance studies, and thermal histories of minerals. Necessary references have been provided for detailed studies of (a) the applications cited in this paper, and (b) other important geological/geophysical applications, which unfortunately could not be covered in the present paper. (author)

  9. Preparation of cellulose nitrate films using a spinning disc for solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, B.; Iyer, M.R.; Samant, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are widely used in the detection and measurement of ionizing particles. Cellulose nitrate (CN) films are commonly used as SSNTD for the measurement of radon/thoron gases and their decay products. A simple method for making uniform thin CN films of various thickness has been developed. Performance of these films is compared with commercially available film. (Author)

  10. Preparation of cellulose nitrate films using a spinning disc for solid state nuclear track detection (SSNTD) applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunath, B.; Iyer, M.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Samant, S.D. [Bombay Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1995-01-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are widely used in the detection and measurement of ionizing particles. Cellulose nitrate (CN) films are commonly used as SSNTD for the measurement of radon/thoron gases and their decay products. A simple method for making uniform thin CN films of various thickness has been developed. Performance of these films is compared with commercially available film. (Author).

  11. Calibration of a solid state nuclear track detector for the measurements of volumic activity of Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAKAM, O.K.; LFERDE, M.; BERRADA, M.

    1994-01-01

    Time - integrated measurements of environmental radiation activity are commonly carried out using solid state nuclear track detectors ( SSNTD ). These detectors should be calibrated of volumic activity of radon. This paper reports the results of experiments conducted to calibrate cellulose nitrate films LR - 115 type II used for measurements of volumic activity of radon in indoor air in dwellings and enclosed work areas in Morocco. Calibration measurements were made in laboratory using a calibration chamber and a radon source. The calibration chamber is a cylindric box ( 2613,6 cm sup 3)which we have manufactured of aluminium. The radon source is a natural sample rich of aluminium (17,29 + 0 ,12) Bq/g. The films are placed in detector holder with membrane and exposed inside the calibration chamber to varying concentrations of radon. Following the exposure, the films were chemically etched in sodium hydroxide (2,5 N) at 60 C for 120 minutes. The number of registered alpha particle tracks were counted with an optical microscope. In the used etching conditions, the removed mean thickness is in the order of 6 micro m. Therefore, we have normalized the track density to this value . We obtained a calibration factor of 0, 58 tracks . cm sup -2/ K Bq . h . m sup -3 . 1 tab.; 1 fig.; 2 refs. (author)

  12. Estimation of radon progeny equilibrium factors and their uncertainty bounds using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eappen, K.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Patnaik, R.L.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    For the assessment of inhalation doses due to radon and its progeny to uranium mine workers, it is necessary to have information on the time integrated gas concentrations and equilibrium factors. Passive single cup dosimeters using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are best suited for this purpose. These generally contain two SSNTDs, one placed inside the cup to measure only the radon gas concentration and other outside the cup for recording tracks due to both radon gas and the progeny species. However, since one obtains only two numbers by this method whereas information on four quantities is required for an unambiguous estimation of dose, there is a need for developing an optimal methodology for extracting information on the equilibrium factors. Several techniques proposed earlier have essentially been based on deterministic approaches, which do not fully take into account all the possible uncertainties in the environmental parameters. Keeping this in view, a simple 'mean of bounds' methodology is proposed to extract equilibrium factors based on their absolute bounds and the associated uncertainties as obtained from general arguments of radon progeny disequilibrium. This may be considered as reasonable estimates of the equilibrium factors in the absence of a knowledge of fluctuation in the environmental variables. The results are compared with those from direct measurements both in the laboratory and in real field situations. In view of the good agreement found between these, it is proposed that the simple mean of bounds estimate may be useful for practical applications in inhalation dosimetry of mine workers

  13. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of phosphorus and boron in coals and combustion residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchill, P.; Howarth, O.W.; Richards, D.G.; Sword, B.J. (British Coal Corporation, Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-04-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with magic angle spinning (MAS-n.m.r.) was used to study the occurrence of phosphorus and boron in coal, and their fate on combustion. These elements are only minor components of coal, but may significantly influence the utilization properties. {sup 31} P MAS-n.m.r. spectroscopy has confirmed that phosphorus is present in coal predominantly as apatite. This mineral is thermally stable under oxidizing conditions, and survives largely unaltered in high temperature ashes. However, under the semi-reducing bed conditions of certain stoker-fired boilers, it may be decomposed, volatilizing the phosphorus. The {sup 31}P MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show phosphorus in a markedly different coordination environment to that in apatite, the chemical shift suggesting aluminium phosphate or boron phosphate. {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of coals exhibit resonances due to both trigonal and tetrahedrally coordinated boron. Trigonal boron is probably present as tourmaline, but the nature of the tetrahedral boron is less certain; it may be held in tetrahedral sites within certain clay minerals. In common with phosphorus, boron may be volatilized during combustion. The {sup 11}B MAS-n.m.r. spectra of bonded deposits show a tetrahedral resonance with a chemical shift quite consistent with that of boron phosphate. 39 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, Nuclear and Solid State Research Project, University of Tsukuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth annual report of the Tandem Accelerator Center, as well as the third of the Nuclear and Solid State Research Project at the University of Tsukuba. It contains the short descriptions of the activities during the period from April, 1979, to March, 1980. The 12 UD Pelletron has worked well and was utilized over 2900 hours as the time of beam on targets. The performance of the polarized ion source has been quite good, and it produced the beams of polarized protons and deuterons as well as of alpha particles. The sputter ion source (TUNIS) replaced the direct extraction duoplasmatron in most cases, and it produced the beams of isotopes of O, F, Si, Cl, Ni, Cu, etc., without gas injection. The construction of the second measuring room has been completed, and four beam courses are equipped with a general purpose scattering chamber, the devices for perturbed angular correlation, inner and outer shell ionization, and biological studies. The beam pulsing system was installed on the accelerator, and will be in operation soon. Further efforts have been made to develop detection and data processing systems. The examples of the recent researches mainly under the program of the NSSRP in various fields are enumerated. The exchange and collaboration with other institutions were active. (Kako, I.)

  15. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,α) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30 0 C, under a 44,2 kV.cm -1 electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10 -3 tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10 -4 tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a 241 Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10 3 tr.mSv -1 .cm -2 and operational limits between 7(3)μSv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app

  16. Experimental aspect of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of biomaterials such as bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandan; Rai, Ratan Kumar; Sinha, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is increasingly becoming a popular technique to probe micro-structural details of biomaterial such as bone with pico-meter resolution. Due to high-resolution structural details probed by SSNMR methods, handling of bone samples and experimental protocol are very crucial aspects of study. We present here first report of the effect of various experimental protocols and handling methods of bone samples on measured SSNMR parameters. Various popular SSNMR experiments were performed on intact cortical bone sample collected from fresh animal, immediately after removal from animal systems, and results were compared with bone samples preserved in different conditions. We find that the best experimental conditions for SSNMR parameters of bones correspond to preservation at -20 °C and in 70% ethanol solution. Various other SSNMR parameters were compared corresponding to different experimental conditions. Our study has helped in finding best experimental protocol for SSNMR studies of bone. This study will be of further help in the application of SSNMR studies on large bone disease related animal model systems for statistically significant results. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Atomic Scale Structural Studies of Macromolecular Assemblies by Solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loquet, Antoine; Tolchard, James; Berbon, Melanie; Martinez, Denis; Habenstein, Birgit

    2017-09-17

    Supramolecular protein assemblies play fundamental roles in biological processes ranging from host-pathogen interaction, viral infection to the propagation of neurodegenerative disorders. Such assemblies consist in multiple protein subunits organized in a non-covalent way to form large macromolecular objects that can execute a variety of cellular functions or cause detrimental consequences. Atomic insights into the assembly mechanisms and the functioning of those macromolecular assemblies remain often scarce since their inherent insolubility and non-crystallinity often drastically reduces the quality of the data obtained from most techniques used in structural biology, such as X-ray crystallography and solution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). We here present magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy (SSNMR) as a powerful method to investigate structures of macromolecular assemblies at atomic resolution. SSNMR can reveal atomic details on the assembled complex without size and solubility limitations. The protocol presented here describes the essential steps from the production of 13 C/ 15 N isotope-labeled macromolecular protein assemblies to the acquisition of standard SSNMR spectra and their analysis and interpretation. As an example, we show the pipeline of a SSNMR structural analysis of a filamentous protein assembly.

  18. Solid state physics and actinide spectroscopy with ThBr4 and ThCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.

    1984-01-01

    From the solid state physics to the optical spectroscopy of 5 f elements, we have described in details how ThBr 4 and ThCl 4 are acting an important role in the applied and basic research field. The possible applications are based on the scintillation properties of these crystals while the fundamental aspect is related to their special incommensurate structure which modulates the host properties of these matrices at low temperature. This very small perturbation of bromine atom positions have optical consequences on the absorption and emission of the actinide studied ions which are interpreted in function of the modulated structure parameters determined by inelastic and elastic neutron scattering and by Raman spectroscopy. The structural model proposed shows, for the first time, how the optical properties of the investigated ion are influenced by the sinusoidal displacements of the bromine atoms, leading to an energy continuum in the absorption and reducing the site symmetry from Dsub(2d) to a multisite of D 2 symmetry

  19. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  20. Physics of laser fusion. Volume IV. The future development of high-power solid-state laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Trenholme, J.B.

    1982-11-01

    Solid state lasers, particularly neodymium glass systems, have undergone intensive development during the last decade. In this paper, we review solid state laser technology in the context of high-peak-power systems for inertial confinement fusion. Specifically addressed are five major factors: efficiency, wavelength flexibility, average power, system complexity, and cost; these factors today limit broader application of the technology. We conclude that each of these factors can be greatly improved within current fundamental physical limits. We further conclude that the systematic development of new solid state laser madia, both vitreous and crystalline, should ultimately permit the development of wavelength-flexible, very high average power systems with overall efficiencies in the range of 10 to 20%

  1. Present status of fast neutron personnel dosimetry system based on CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Kumar, Valli; Babu, Rajesh; Kar, S.; Joshi, V.M.

    2011-08-01

    Neutron sources are of different types depending upon the method of production such as nuclear reactors, particle accelerators and laboratory sources. Neutron sources depending upon their energy, flux, size etc. are used for variety of applications in basic and applied sciences, neutron scattering experiments and in industry such as oil well - digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing etc. Personnel working in nuclear installations such as reactors, accelerators, spent fuel processing plants, nuclear fuel cycle operations and those working in various industries such as oil refining, oil well-digging, coal mining and processing, ore processing, etc. need to be monitored for neutron exposures, if any. Neutron monitoring is especially necessary in view of the fact that the radiation weighting factor for neutron is much higher than gamma rays and also it varies with energy. Radiological Physics and Advisory Division is involved in monitoring of personnel working in neutron fields. Around 2100 workers from 70 institutions (DAE and Non-DAE) are monitored on a quarterly basis. Neutron personnel monitoring, carried out in the country is based on Solid State Nuclear Track Detection (SSNTD) technique. In this technique, neutrons interact with hydrogen in CR-39 polymer to produce recoil protons. These protons create damages in the polymer, which are enlarged and appear as tracks when subjected to electrochemical etching (ECE). These tracks are counted in an optical system to evaluate the neutron dose. The neutron dosimetry system based on SSNTD has undergone a significant development, since it was started in 1990. The development includes upgradation of image analysis system for counting tracks, introduction of chemical etching (CE) at elevated temperatures for evaluation of dose equivalents above 10 mSv and use of carbon laser for cutting of CR-39 detectors. The entire dose evaluation process has been standardized, which includes calibration and performance tests

  2. Theoretical solid-state physics. From the classical models to modern themes of research. 3. upd. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czycholl, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    This book gives an introduction in methods, contents, and results of modern solid-state physics. It is based on the fundamental course of theoretical physics, i. e. presupposed are knowledges in classical mechanics, electrodynamics, and especially quantum mechanics and statistical physics, as they are mediated in the at all German-speaking universities usual course in theoretical physics generally until the end of the 6th special semester. The especially for the treatment of many-body effects unavoidable formalism of the 2nd quantization (occupation number representation) is introduced and used in the book. The content reaches from the classical fields of solid-state physics (phonons and electrons in the periodic potentia, Bloch theorem, Hartree-Fock approximation, electron-phonon interactions) through fields of applications as superconductivity and magnetism until fields, which are actual object of research (for instance quantum Hall effect, high-temperature superconductivity). The third editions was comprehensively revised [de

  3. Proton induced target fragmentation studies on solid state nuclear track detectors using Carbon radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.; Strádi, A.; Bilski, P.; Swakoń, J.; Stolarczyk, L.

    2018-04-01

    One of the limiting factors of an astronaut's career is the dose received from space radiation. High energy protons, being the main components of the complex radiation field present on a spacecraft, give a significant contribution to the dose. To investigate the behavior of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) if they are irradiated by such particles, SSNTD stacks containing carbon blocks were exposed to high energy proton beams (70, 100, 150 and 230 MeV) at the Proteus cyclotron, IFJ PAN -Krakow. The incident protons cannot be detected directly; however, tracks of secondary particles, recoils and fragments of the constituent atoms of the detector material and of the carbon radiator are formed. It was found that as the proton energy increases, the number of tracks induced in the PADC material by secondary particles decreases. From the measured geometrical parameters of the tracks the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum and the dosimetric quantities were determined, applying appropriate calibration. In the LET spectra the LET range of the most important secondary particles could be identified and their abundance showed differences in the spectra if the detectors were short or long etched. The LET spectra obtained on the SSNTDs irradiated by protons were compared to LET spectra of detectors flown on the International Space Station (ISS): they were quite similar, resulting in a quality factor difference of only 5%. Thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) were applied in each case to measure the dose from primary protons and other lower LET particles present in space. Comparing and analyzing the results of the TLD and SSNTD measurements, it was obtained that proton induced target fragments contributed to the total absorbed dose in 3.2% and to the dose equivalent in 14.2% in this particular space experiment.

  4. A new method for determining the uranium and thorium distribution in volcanic rock samples using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Bakhchi, A.; Ktata, A.; Koutit, A.; Lamine, J.; Ait nouh, F.; Oufni, L.

    2000-01-01

    A method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR- 39 and LR-115 type II and calculating the probabilities for the alpha particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on these films was utilized for uranium and thorium contents determination in various geological samples. The distribution of uranium and thorium in different volcanic rocks has been investigated using the track fission method. In this work, the uranium and thorium contents have been determined in different volcanic rock samples by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). The mean critical angles of etching of the solid state nuclear track detectors utilized have been calculated. A petrographical study of the volcanic rock thin layers studied has been conducted. The uranium and thorium distribution inside different rock thin layers has been studied. The mechanism of inclusion of the uranium and thorium nuclei inside the volcanic rock samples studied has been investigated. (author)

  5. Solid-state physics. An introduction to principles of materials science. 4. ext. upd. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completely updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. (orig.)

  6. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, K.; Baumann, H.; Jex, H.; Rauch, F.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings of the seventh divisional conference of the Nuclear Physics Division held at Darmstadt, Germany, from 23rd through 26th of September, 1980. The scope of this conference was defined as follows: i) to inform solid state physicists and materials scientists about the application of nuclear physics methods; ii) to show to nuclear physicists open questions and problems in solid state physics and materials science to which their methods can be applied. According to the intentions of the conference, the various nuclear physics methods utilized in solid state physics and materials science and especially new developments were reviewed by invited speakers. Detailed aspects of the methods and typical examples extending over a wide range of applications were presented as contributions in poster sessions. The Proceedings contain all the invited papers and about 90% of the contributed papers. (orig./RW)

  7. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwaikat, N., E-mail: ndwaikat@kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, College of Sciences, Department of Physics, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  8. Development of alpha spectroscopy method with solid state nuclear track detector using aluminium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwaikat, N.

    2015-10-01

    This work presents the development of alpha spectroscopy method with Solid-state nuclear track detectors using aluminum thin films. The resolution of this method is high, and it is able to discriminate between alpha particles at different incident energy. It can measure the exact number of alpha particles at specific energy without needing a calibration of alpha track diameter versus alpha energy. This method was tested by using Cf-252 alpha standard source at energies 5.11 MeV, 3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV, which produced by the variation of detector -standard source distance. On front side, two detectors were covered with two Aluminum thin films and the third detector was kept uncovered. The thickness of Aluminum thin films was selected carefully (using SRIM 2013) such that one of the films will block the lower two alpha particles (3.86 MeV and 2.7 MeV) and the alpha particles at higher energy (5.11 MeV) can penetrate the film and reach the detectors surface. The second thin film will block alpha particles at lower energy of 2.7 MeV and allow alpha particles at higher two energies (5.11 MeV and 3.86 MeV) to penetrate and produce tracks. For uncovered detector, alpha particles at three different energies can produce tracks on it. For quality assurance and accuracy, the detectors were mounted on thick enough copper substrates to block exposure from the backside. The tracks on the first detector are due to alpha particles at energy of 5.11 MeV. The difference between the tracks number on the first detector and the tracks number on the second detector is due to alpha particles at energy of 3.8 MeV. Finally, by subtracting the tracks number on the second detector from the tracks number on the third detector (uncovered), we can find the tracks number due to alpha particles at energy 2.7 MeV. After knowing the efficiency calibration factor, we can exactly calculate the activity of standard source. (Author)

  9. Solid-State NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Bardet, Michel; De Paepe, Gael; Hediger, Sabine; Ayala, Isabel; Simorre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool. (authors)

  10. Solid-state NMR on bacterial cells: selective cell wall signal enhancement and resolution improvement using dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Ayala, Isabel; Bardet, Michel; De Paëpe, Gaël; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Hediger, Sabine

    2013-04-03

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has recently emerged as a powerful technique for the study of material surfaces. In this study, we demonstrate its potential to investigate cell surface in intact cells. Using Bacillus subtilis bacterial cells as an example, it is shown that the polarizing agent 1-(TEMPO-4-oxy)-3-(TEMPO-4-amino)propan-2-ol (TOTAPOL) has a strong binding affinity to cell wall polymers (peptidoglycan). This particular interaction is thoroughly investigated with a systematic study on extracted cell wall materials, disrupted cells, and entire cells, which proved that TOTAPOL is mainly accumulating in the cell wall. This property is used on one hand to selectively enhance or suppress cell wall signals by controlling radical concentrations and on the other hand to improve spectral resolution by means of a difference spectrum. Comparing DNP-enhanced and conventional solid-state NMR, an absolute sensitivity ratio of 24 was obtained on the entire cell sample. This important increase in sensitivity together with the possibility of enhancing specifically cell wall signals and improving resolution really opens new avenues for the use of DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR as an on-cell investigation tool.

  11. Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop “Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems”

    CERN Document Server

    Kadyrzhanov, K. K; SSP 2004

    2006-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the 8th International Conference on Solid State Physics (SSP 2004), Workshop "Mössbauer Spectroscopy of Locally Heterogeneous Systems", held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, 23–26 August 2004. It should be of interest to researchers and PhD students working or interested in recent results in the locally inhomogeneous system investigations by Mössbauer Spectroscopy and the new concepts of data evaluation of complex Mössbauer spectra.

  13. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  14. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization below 25 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Potapov, Alexey; Yau, Wai-Ming; Tycko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We describe an apparatus for solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and magic-angle spinning (MAS) at 20-25 K and 9.4 Tesla. The MAS NMR probe uses helium to cool the sample space and nitrogen gas for MAS drive and bearings, as described earlier, but also includes a corrugated waveguide for transmission of microwaves from below the probe to the sample. With a 30 mW circularly polarized microwave source at 264 GHz, MAS at 6.8 kHz, and 21 K sample temperature, greater than 25-fold enhancements of cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals are observed in spectra of frozen glycerol/water solutions containing the triradical dopant DOTOPA-TEMPO when microwaves are applied. As demonstrations, we present DNP-enhanced one-dimensional and two-dimensional (13)C MAS NMR spectra of frozen solutions of uniformly (13)C-labeled l-alanine and melittin, a 26-residue helical peptide that we have synthesized with four uniformly (13)C-labeled amino acids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a simple and direct introduction to the tools of modern nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. Emphasizes physical intuition and illuminating analogies, rather than formal mathematics. Topics covered include particle accelerators, radioactive series, types of nuclear reactions, detection of the neutrino, nuclear isomerism, binding energy of nuclei, fission chain reactions, and predictions of the shell model. Each chapter contains problems and illustrative examples. Pre-requisites are calculus and elementary vector analysis

  16. Serber says: About nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serber, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book is a distillation of a set of lecture notes used by the author at Columbia. Written with a pedagogical aim it emphasizes topics of current interest not only in nuclear physics but also in other branches of physics such as atomic physics and solid state physics. Contents: Some Arguments Concerning Nuclear Forces; The Neutron-Proton Force; Low Energy Neutron-Proton Scattering Experiments; Photo-Effect of the Deuteron; The Slowing Down and Diffusion of Neutrons; Nucleon Magnetic Moments and Quadrupole Moment of the Deuteron; Proton-Proton and Neutron-Neutron Interactions; Isotopic Spin Invariance; High Energy Reactions; Resonance Levels

  17. Design of all solid state tunable single-mode Ti: sapphire laser for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Nam, S.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Lee, J.M.; Horn, Roland E.; Wendt, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    We designed a Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a diode laser pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). The DPSSL was intra-cavity frequency doubled and it had 20 W output power. The Ti:Sapphire laser was designed for single longitudinal mode lasing. For single mode lasing, the laser used several solid etalons. We simulated temporal evolution of the laser pulse and single pass amplification rate of the photons in each modes from rate equations. From the result, we found that single mode lasing is viable in this cavity

  18. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  19. Contribution to the study of radio toxicity of aromatic and medicinal plants using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortassim, A.; Misdaq, M.A.; Naaman, A

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of uranium (238 U), thorium (232 Th), radon (222 Rn) and thoron (220 Rn) were measured in twenty aromatic and medicinal plants in f ind a new method based on using solid state nuclear track detectors type Cr-39 and Rs-115. He emerges from this study that the verbena and salvia have higher levels of uranium (radon) higher than that of other plants while the leaves of olive and saturja have concentrations of thorium (thoron) higher than other plants therefore radio toxicity of these plants is higher than that of others and may pose a radiological hazard if the masses are incorporated by consumers high. [fr

  20. Measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakam, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    In this work, a new method of measuring volumic activity of radon has been developed. This method is based on using solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 type II. It has been applied to measurement of volumic activities of radon in air in houses and in working rooms in different regions of Morocco. These measurements, carried out for the first time in the country, allowed to estimate the dose equivalents of radon received by the population of the studied regions. 59 refs., 38 figs., 38 tabs. (F.M.)

  1. Determination of boron in aqueous solutions by solid state nuclear track detectors technique, using a filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1985-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique has been used for determination of boron in aqueous solutions, using a filtered neutron beam. The particles tracks from the 10 B(n,α)Li 7 reaction were registered in the CR-39 film, chemically etched in a (30%) KOH solution 70 0 C during 90 minutes. The obtained results showed the usefulness of this technique for boron determination in the ppm range. The inferior detectable limit was 9 ppm. The combined track registration efficiency factor K has been evaluated in the solutions, for the CR-39 detector and its values is K= (4,60 - + 0,06). 10 -4 cm. (Author) [pt

  2. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Explains the concepts in detail and in depth. Provides step-by-step derivations. Contains numerous tables and diagrams. Supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Sketches also the historical development of the subject. This textbook explains the experimental basics, effects and theory of nuclear physics. It supports learning and teaching with numerous worked examples, questions and problems with answers. Numerous tables and diagrams help to better understand the explanations. A better feeling to the subject of the book is given with sketches about the historical development of nuclear physics. The main topics of this book include the phenomena associated with passage of charged particles and radiation through matter which are related to nuclear resonance fluorescence and the Moessbauer effect., Gamov's theory of alpha decay, Fermi theory of beta decay, electron capture and gamma decay. The discussion of general properties of nuclei covers nuclear sizes and nuclear force, nuclear spin, magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment. Nuclear instability against various modes of decay and Yukawa theory are explained. Nuclear models such as Fermi Gas Model, Shell Model, Liquid Drop Model, Collective Model and Optical Model are outlined to explain various experimental facts related to nuclear structure. Heavy ion reactions, including nuclear fusion, are explained. Nuclear fission and fusion power production is treated elaborately.

  3. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    Major centres of experimental nuclear physics are at Melbourne University, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., James Cook University and the University of Western Australia. Groups working in theoretical nuclear physics exist at Melbourne, A.N.U., the A.A.E.C., Flinders and Adelaide Universities and the University of Western Australia. The activities of these groups are summarised

  4. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  5. International comparison of radon measurement using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Weigen; Song Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    It introduces the radon measurements international comparison using solid state track detectors among Zhejiang Environmental Radiation Monitoring Center (RMTC), Japan Chemical Analysis Center (JCAC) and National Institute for Radiological Protection of China CDC (NIRP). The results of the international comparison show that: Compared to the reference values, the measurements' relative deviations of detectors from 3 labs were 2%∼22%, which were exposed in radon chambers with different radon concentration, while the measurements' relative deviations were 0.5%∼13% when exposed in the environment. The measurement's relative deviations of RMTC were 5%∼3% in radon chambers and 0.5%∼9% in the environment, the results met requirements of the relative standards both at home and abroad. (authors)

  6. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  7. Solid state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.

    1976-11-01

    This paper gives a survey of the present state of the development and the application of solid state track detectors. The fundamentals of the physical and chemical processes of the track formation and development are explained, the different detector materials and their registration characteristics are mentioned, the possibilities of the experimental practice and the most variable applications are discussed. (author)

  8. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  9. The discretized Schroedinger equation for the finite square well and its relationship to solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykin, Timothy B; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The discretized Schroedinger equation is most often used to solve one-dimensional quantum mechanics problems numerically. While it has been recognized for some time that this equation is equivalent to a simple tight-binding model and that the discretization imposes an underlying bandstructure unlike free-space quantum mechanics on the problem, the physical implications of this equivalence largely have been unappreciated and the pedagogical advantages accruing from presenting the problem as one of solid-state physics (and not numerics) remain generally unexplored. This is especially true for the analytically solvable discretized finite square well presented here. There are profound differences in the physics of this model and its continuous-space counterpart which are direct consequences of the imposed bandstructure. For example, in the discrete model the number of bound states plus transmission resonances equals the number of atoms in the quantum well

  10. Progress in the application of solid-state track recorders to reactor physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besant, C.B.; Ipson, S.S.

    1969-03-01

    Heavily ionising particles passing through insulating materials cause tracks due to damage. These strain energy fields may be observed directly with an electron microscope or, after etching, the tracks may be seen with an optical microscope. The etching solution penetrates the damaged portion of the material and enlarges the hole if the etching is continued. This technique has been applied to detecting fission fragments from fissions taking place in a thin source of fissile material. The source, together with the insulating material is called a Solid-State Track Recorder and has been applied to the measurement of fission ratios in the fast critical assembly ZEBRA at Winfrith. The main disadvantage of the technique has been in counting tracks by eye which is laborious and subject to the human element. This has been overcome by counting tracks with a 'Quantimet' Computer Image Analyser. Absolute fission rate measurements are also discussed and it has been shown that measurements to an accuracy of better than ± 1% should be possible with this technique. (author)

  11. A new compact solid-state neutral particle analyser at ASDEX Upgrade: Setup and physics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P. A.; Blank, H.; Geiger, B.; Mank, K.; Martinov, S.; Ryter, F.; Weiland, M.; Weller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    At ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), a new compact solid-state detector has been installed to measure the energy spectrum of fast neutrals based on the principle described by Shinohara et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 3640 (2004)]. The diagnostic relies on the usual charge exchange of supra-thermal fast-ions with neutrals in the plasma. Therefore, the measured energy spectra directly correspond to those of confined fast-ions with a pitch angle defined by the line of sight of the detector. Experiments in AUG showed the good signal to noise characteristics of the detector. It is energy calibrated and can measure energies of 40-200 keV with count rates of up to 140 kcps. The detector has an active view on one of the heating beams. The heating beam increases the neutral density locally; thereby, information about the central fast-ion velocity distribution is obtained. The measured fluxes are modeled with a newly developed module for the 3D Monte Carlo code F90FIDASIM [Geiger et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 65010 (2011)]. The modeling allows to distinguish between the active (beam) and passive contributions to the signal. Thereby, the birth profile of the measured fast neutrals can be reconstructed. This model reproduces the measured energy spectra with good accuracy when the passive contribution is taken into account.

  12. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman B, O.; Vallejo M, J.I.; Cardenas C, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    A historical review of the evolution of the Nuclear Physics Section at the IAN is presented along the 30 years of existence of the Institute. Objectives, structure, programs and goal are historically examined. Present status of the section and its projection on national development is also analyzed

  13. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the actual situation of nuclear physics in Brazil as well as its perspectives of developments and real needs in the next decade. It discusses the main projects and the financing of brazilian research groups and Universities. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  15. Alpha-particle dosimetry using solid state nuclear track detectors. Application to 222Rn and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barillon, R.; Chambaudet, A.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for the determination of the detection efficiency of a solid state nuclear track detector for radon and its short-lived daughters was presented. First, particular attention is paid to the α-particles having energies and angles of incidence that lead to observable tracks after an adapted chemical etching. The results are then incorporated in a mathematical model to determine the theoretical radon detection efficiency of a polymeric detector placed in a cylindrical cell. When applied to LR115 and CR39 detectors, the model reveals the influence of the position of the radon daughters inside the cell. Radon daughters tend to link up with natural atmospheric aerosols and then settle on the cell's inside wall. This model allows to determine, among other things, the cell size for which the detector response is independent of the fraction daughters plated out. (author)

  16. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of polymer thin films: chain conformation, dynamics, and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents solid-state NMR studies of the chain conformation, dynamics and morphology of three adsorbed polymer systems: two random semi-crystalline copolymers, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid) (PEA) and poly(propylene-co-acrylic acid) (PPA), and an amorphous homopolymer, poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA). Zirconia (ZrO 2 ) was chosen as the substrate for all three polymers since the binding of carboxylic acids to this metal oxide is well understood. The choice of polymers was based on their particular bulk conformational and dynamic properties as well as their common use in polymer coatings. These studies are motivated by the general lack of a microscopic picture of adsorbed polymers, which can be provided by NMR, and the relevance of chain conformation and dynamics to important polymer film properties such as adhesion. First the chain conformation and surface binding of adsorbed PEA as a function of acrylic acid content are characterized by 13 C cross polarization - magic angle spinning (CP-MAS), 2D 1 H- 13 C wideline separation (WISE) and 1 H spin diffusion NMR experiments and FTIR-PAS (Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy) measurements. The most important finding is that the chain conformation of adsorbed PEA is determined primarily by the sticker group density rather than the surface coverage. The second study of PEA concerns the chain dynamics in the bulk and adsorbed states. Variable temperature NMR experiments provide evidence that ethylene segments of adsorbed PEA form partially folded loops rather than flat extended trains. Finally 129 Xe NMR studies, used to probe the morphology of adsorbed PEA, show a bulk-like signal only for the highest loadings. The second system investigated, PPA, is another semi-crystalline random copolymer which binds to zirconia via carboxylate linkages. The 13 C CP-MAS NMR spectra of adsorbed PPAC unexpectedly show splittings normally associated with chain-chain packing in the crystalline regions

  17. Solid-state 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of three aluminum-centered dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Mroué , Kamal H.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Power, William P.

    2010-01-01

    on the aluminum electric field gradient (EFG) and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors. The quadrupolar parameters for each 27Al site were determined from spectral simulations, with quadrupolar coupling constants (CQ) ranging from 5.40 to 10.0 MHz and asymmetry

  18. The past and future roles of solid state nuclear tracks detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear tracks in solids can be revealed by a variety of techniques, the simplest and most widely used of which is that of preferential chemical attack. Particle track etching has been used in a diversity of fields, both scientific and applied. This report first reviews the applications and then hazards some predictions for the future. (orig.) [de

  19. Welding of sule elements for nuclear reactors with solid state YAG laser using instrumentated testing equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgault, F.; Lacoste, J.; Schley, R.; Kluzinski, C.; Piednoir, P.

    1985-09-01

    The instrumentation of the equipment for carrying out safety tests on fuel elements for nuclear reactors requires special thermocouples adapted to the prevailing agressive medium. The investigations described deal essentially with the operational and metallurgical weldability tests out on the safety test zircaloy piping in the pressurized water circuit (PHEBUS-programme) [fr

  20. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  1. Perturbation approach for nuclear magnetic resonance solid-state quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Berman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamics of a nuclear-spin quantum computer with a large number (L=1000 of qubits is considered using a perturbation approach. Small parameters are introduced and used to compute the error in an implementation of an entanglement between remote qubits, using a sequence of radio-frequency pulses. The error is computed up to the different orders of the perturbation theory and tested using exact numerical solution.

  2. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacre, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book fills a gap in current literature by covering the increasing nuclear physics content of various A-level syllabuses. In section 1 we outline the background and early development of the subject, in section 2 we deal with nuclear properties and theories at a level suitable for the pre-university student. The majority of topics have been treated with the limited use of mathematics, this necessitating some simplification which we hope to have accomplished without undue error. A few topics have been developed mathematically, to some extent, e.g. series decay. While it is the purpose of a book at this level to introduce the reader to the facts and theories of nuclear physics, we have to recognise that any teacher of science, at any level, must attempt to instill in the young scientist a sense of responsibility and an understanding of the problems attendant on the technological applications are important. These problems have been touched on in the text but we hope the student will be persuaded to read further; for this purpose we have added a short list of suggested additional reading. A selection of A-level past paper questions has been included. (author)

  3. Proceedings of the workshop on new solid state devices for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This paper contains articles on semiconductor devices used in the detection of high energy particles. Some articles reported: Position sensitive semiconductor devices; Scintillation techniques and optical devices; Radiation damage to detectors; VLSI for physics; and experience with Si detectors in NA32

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of nitroxide-based oligoradicals for low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization in solid state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wai-Ming; Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-07-01

    We describe the synthesis of new nitroxide-based biradical, triradical, and tetraradical compounds and the evaluation of their performance as paramagnetic dopants in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with magic-angle spinning (MAS). Under our experimental conditions, which include temperatures in the 25-30 K range, a 9.4 T magnetic field, MAS frequencies of 6.2-6.8 kHz, and microwave irradiation at 264.0 GHz from a 800 mW extended interaction oscillator source, the most effective compounds are triradicals that are related to the previously-described compound DOTOPA-TEMPO (see Thurber et al., 2010), but have improved solubility in glycerol/water solvent near neutral pH. Using these compounds at 30 mM total nitroxide concentration, we observe DNP enhancement factors of 92-128 for cross-polarized 13C NMR signals from 15N,13C-labeled melittin in partially protonated glycerol/water, and build-up times of 2.6-3.8 s for 1H spin polarizations. Net sensitivity enhancements with biradical and tetraradical dopants, taking into account absolute 13C NMR signal amplitudes and build-up times, are approximately 2-4 times lower than with the best triradicals.

  5. Nuclear and solid state investigations for the non-cubic paramagnetic system europium in samarium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.

    1979-01-01

    By means of the time-differential perturbed angular gamma distribution after a nuclear reaction (TDPAD) the g-values of the isomer 1 1/2 - states are measured in 145 Eu and 147 Eu in the host metal Sm. The results are g ( 145 Eu) = + 1.356 + 0.008 g ( 147 Eu) = + 1.28 +- 0.01. The temperature dependence of the paramagnetic correction β obeys a Curie-Weiss law β = 1 + C/CT-, with C = -(50 +- 2) K and THETA = -(29 +- 5) K between 90 K and 1000 K, for both systems, 145 EU Sm and 147 Eu Sm. For room temperature the quadrupole coupling constant νsub(Q) is determined for 145 Eu Sm for the 1 1/2 - state: νsub(Q) = (12.5 +- 0.5) MHz and the paramagnetic relaxation time tausub(p) >= 1 μs. The g values are investigated also theoretically. (BHO)

  6. Understanding mechanisms of solid-state phase transformations by probing nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srikumar; Donthula, Harish

    2018-04-01

    In this review a few examples will be cited to illustrate that a study on a specific nuclear material sometimes lead to a better understanding of scientific phenomena of broader interests. Zirconium alloys offer some unique opportunities in addressing fundamental issues such as (i) distinctive features between displacive and diffusional transformations, (ii) characteristics of shuffle and shear dominated displacive transformations and (iii) nature of mixed-mode transformations. Whether a transformation is of first or higher order?" is often raised while classifying it. There are rare examples, such as Ni-Mo alloys, in which during early stages of ordering the system experiences tendencies for both first order and second order transitions. Studies on the order-disorder transitions under a radiation environment have established the pathway for the evolution of ordering. These studies have also identified the temperature range over which the chemically ordered state remains stable in steady state under radiation.

  7. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January - 31 December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1996-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with 'Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties'. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1995, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 5 tabs., 135 ills., 163 refs

  8. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January -31 December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I

    1997-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with `Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties`. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1996, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T{sub c} superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 6 tabs., 144 ills., 197 refs.

  9. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January -31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgaard, P.-A.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with 'Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties'. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1994, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, and methods of data analysis. (au) (3 tabs., 116 ills., 181 refs.)

  10. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January - 31 December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.

    1996-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with `Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties`. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1995, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T{sub c} superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 5 tabs., 135 ills., 163 refs.

  11. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January -31 December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1997-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with 'Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties'. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January to 31 December, 1996, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutron and x-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Related to these problems there is work going on in theory, Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 6 tabs., 144 ills., 197 refs

  12. Development of Iridium Solid-state Reference Electrode for the Water Chemistry Status Measurement in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Heekwon; Lim, Dongseok; Cho, Jaeseon

    2013-01-01

    The result of ECP measurement of piping material in nuclear power plant at low temperature using the developed iridium (SSRE) reference electrode is approximately -0.370V. Based on the various results of this study, the developed iridium (SSRE) reference electrode can be applied to the water chemistry environments of nuclear power plant. Various metallic materials used in a nuclear power plant have been exposed to a variety of water chemistry environments and the corrosion of metallic materials occurs due to the reactions between metal structures and water chemistry environments. Therefore, the management of the water chemistry factors is needed to prevent corrosion. The chemical factors affecting the corrosion are pH and Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP). The world-wide studies suggest that ECP and pH are effective indicators for preventing the material damage from water chemistry condition. ECP and pH should be measured as the reference electrodes, and should show stable potential characteristics with fast responses. In this study, the iridium reference electrodes using a solid-state metal oxide electrode has been developed to measure effective indicators such as ECP and pH. The iridium (SSRE) reference electrode for the ECP measurement in water chemistry environment of nuclear power plants has been developed. A calibration for water chemistry measurement was performed by potential measurement of iridium (SSRE) reference electrode with Ag/AgCl (SSRE) reference electrode. The result exhibited a stable potential for 117 hours and a super-Nernst ian response with 63.12mV/p H. In this study, the iridium (SSRE) reference electrode shows super-Nernst ian characteristic and it may be caused by the property of electrolytically coated iridium oxide. Considering the long-term stability of the developed electrode, it is possible to apply as a reference electrode through calibration procedure

  13. Applications of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) for fast ion and fusion reaction product measurements in TEXTOR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, A.; Malinowski, K.; Malinowska, A. [Association EURTOM-IPPLM Warsaw, The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Wassenhove, G. Van [EURATOM-Belgium State Association, LPP, ERM/KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Schweer, B. [Association EURATOM-FZJ, Institutte of Plasma Physicx, Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on measurements of fusion reaction protons which were performed on TEXTOR facility in January 2009. The basic experimental scheme was similar to that applied in the previous measurements [1, 2]. The main experimental tool equipment was a small ion pinhole camera which was equipped with a PM-355 detector sample and was attached to a water cooled manipulator. The camera was placed below the plasma ring in the direction of ion drifts, at a distance of 4.4 cm from LCFS. However, in the described experiment it was aligned at an angle to the mayor TEXTOR radius (contrary to previous experiments), so that the input pinhole was oriented first at {gamma} = 45 degrees (shots 108799 - 108818) and then {gamma} = 600 (shots 108832 - 108847). The discharges were executed with one neutral beam of the total power 0.6 - 1.0 MW. In the first series (Nos 108799 - 108818) the plasma was additionally heated by ICRH of frequency 38 MHz. The irradiated detector samples were subjected to the same interrupted etching procedure as the samples used in the CR-39/PM-355 detector calibration measurements [1, 2]. After that, track density distributions and track diameter histograms were measured under an optical microscope. By the use of the calibration curves, it was possible to distinguish craters produced by protons from other craters and to convert the obtained histograms into proton energy spectra. The craters induced by lower energy ions appeared to be concentrated in narrower areas, whereas higher energy ions were registered in a more diffused detector fields. The paper shows again that the CR-39/PM-355 detector is an useful diagnostic tool for tokamak experiments, for measurement of charged ions. References: [1] A. Szydlowski, A. Malinowska, M. Jaskola, A. Korman, M.J. Sadowski, G. Van Wassenhove, B. Schweer and the TEXTOR team, A. Galkowski, 'Application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors in TEXTOR Experiment for Measurements

  14. Finite element analysis of ion transport in solid state nuclear waste form materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, F.; Brinkman, K.; Amoroso, J.; Reifsnider, K.

    2017-09-01

    Release of nuclear species from spent fuel ceramic waste form storage depends on the individual constituent properties as well as their internal morphology, heterogeneity and boundary conditions. Predicting the release rate is essential for designing a ceramic waste form, which is capable of effectively storing the spent fuel without contaminating the surrounding environment for a longer period of time. To predict the release rate, in the present work a conformal finite element model is developed based on the Nernst Planck Equation. The equation describes charged species transport through different media by convection, diffusion, or migration. And the transport can be driven by chemical/electrical potentials or velocity fields. The model calculates species flux in the waste form with different diffusion coefficient for each species in each constituent phase. In the work reported, a 2D approach is taken to investigate the contributions of different basic parameters in a waste form design, i.e., volume fraction, phase dispersion, phase surface area variation, phase diffusion co-efficient, boundary concentration etc. The analytical approach with preliminary results is discussed. The method is postulated to be a foundation for conformal analysis based design of heterogeneous waste form materials.

  15. Training Course of Experimental Chemistry in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Solid State and Solution Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju hyeong; Park, Kwangheon; Kim, Tae hoon; Park, Hyoung gyu; Kim, Jisu [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyuk jin [Dongguk University, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chan ki; Kang, Do kyu; Jeong, Hyeon jun [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this experimental study program in Tohoku University, basic experiments were done by the participants. First one is the hydrogen reduction experiment of the mixture of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}. Second one is to observe microscopic structure of solid solution of UO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} using SEM/EDX and XRD system, simulated fuel debris. Third one is milking process of {sup 239}Np from {sup 243}Am by solvent extraction using Tri-n-Octylamine (TOA). Last one is solvent extraction in PUREX by the simulated mixed aqueous solution of U, {sup 85}Sr and {sup 239}Np which is represented minor actinide elements included in the spent nuclear fuel. Uranium is separated from aqueous phase to organic phase during solvent extraction procedure using TBP and dodecane. Also, neptunium can be extracted to organic phase as nitric acid concentration change. The extraction behavior of neptunium is different by oxidation state in aqueous phase. The behavior of neptunium is represented as a combined form of these oxidation states in experiment. Therefore, because the oxidation states of neptunium can be controlled by controlling the concentration of nitric acid, the extractability of neptunium can be controlled.

  16. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1 January - 31 December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov Pedersen, J.; Almdal, K.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Clausen, K.N.; Bechgaard, K.

    1994-01-01

    Research in the department is concerned with ''Materials with Distinct Physical and Chemical Properties''. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 January, to 31 December, 1993, are presented in this Progress Report. Neutrons and X-ray diffraction techniques are used to study a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics and include: two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nanoscale structures in various materials. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigations of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. This report is organized in 13 categories with the following headings: Theory, Monte Carlo simulations, and methods of data analysis. Magnetic structures, magnetic phase transitions, and spin dynamics. High T c superconductivity. Structures and structural phase transitions. Inclusions and precipitates in alloys and metals. Interaction of particles and photons with surfaces. Surfaces, interfaces, and amorphous structures. Langmuir films. Polymers. Molecular science. Microemulsions and biological systems. Instrument developments. Other activities. (au) (4 tabs., 109 ills., 168 refs.)

  17. From classical physics to quantum physics. An historically-critical deductive derivation with application examples from solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enders, P.

    2006-01-01

    This book goes a novel way from classical physics to quantum physics. After the description of Euler's and Helmholtz's representations of classical mechanics the Schroedinger equation is derivated without making any additional assumptions about the nature of quantum mechanical systems. Thereby not the differences between but the common properties of classical and quantum mechanics are accentuated and four fundamental problems of the quantization named by Schroedinger are solved. Extensively to the historical literature is related. This book applies not only to students and scientists but also to teachers and historians of natural sciences: It contains many details which enter no more into modern presentations of classical mechanics, but are important for the understanding of quantum mechanics [de

  18. A solid state nuclear magnetic resonance study of industrial inorganic pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dajda, Nick

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been used to look at a number of colourful ceramic pigment systems, most of which are sold commercially in large quantities. Doped zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) pigments were examined using 19 F, 23 Na, 29 Si, 51 V and 91 Zr NMR. In these systems, paramagnetic species are incorporated into the sample in small quantities creating the colourful pigment. The impurity dopants in the systems studied either dope directly into lattice sites in the zircon, or form an extra chemical phase. NMR was able to distinguish between these two doping mechanisms in a number of doped zircon pigments. Most spectra showed effects which were due to the magnetic influence of paramagnetic colouring species, and the strength of the interaction depended on the magnetic moment of the ion containing the unpaired electron. In the case of vanadium doped zircon, the moment was small enough that it allowed extra contact shifted peaks to be resolved in the spectra which indicated that the V 4+ colouring ion probably substitutes into both the tetrahedral SiO 4 site, and at the dodecahedral ZrO 8 site. This is of current interest, and many other spectroscopic and computational experiments have also been performed to elucidate which of the two sites V 4+ is located at. A 17 O-enriched zircon sample was also synthesised through a sol-gel route, and the local environment at the oxygen sites was followed through zircon formation from the TEOS and Zr-isopropoxide precursors. A multinuclear approach looking at the 11 B, 23 Na, 27 Al and 29 Si isotopes within silver containing glasses was able to provide information about the coordination of the isotopes within the glasses. 109 Ag NMR was evaluated as an experimental technique for examining silver containing compounds. 119 Sn NMR was used to quantify the amount of Sn(ll) and Sn(IV) in orange coloured SnO-ZnO-TiO 2 (TZT) produced pigments, and the colour of the sample was found to correlate with the width of the Sn(IV) peak. The level of

  19. Annual progress report of the Department of Solid State Physics 1. January - 31 December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skov Pedersen, J.; Lebech, B.; Lindgaard, P.-A.

    1993-01-01

    Research in the department is in the field of condensed matter physics. The principal activities of the department in the period from 1 january, to 31 December, 1992, are presented in this Progress Report. The department's research is predominantly experimental - utilising diffraction of neutrons and X-rays - and includes studies of two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering, heavy fermions, high T c superconductivity, phase transitions in model systems, precipitation phenomena, and nano-scale structures in various materials. The major interest of the department is in basic research but projects of a more applied nature are often up, prompted by the applicability of the developed techniques and expertise. For clarity, the contributions to this report are organized into 12 categories with the following headings: Theory, Monte Carlo simulations, and methods for data analysis. Magnetic structures, magnetic phase transitions,and spin dynamics. High T c superconductivity. Structures and structural phase transitions. Inclusions and precipitates in alloys and metals. Interaction of particles and photons with surfaces. Surfaces, interfaces, and amorphous structures. Langmuir films. Polymers. Microemulsions and biological systems. Instrumental developments. Other activities. (au) (1 tab., 101 ills., 165 refs.)

  20. Advantages of a monochromated transmission electron microscope for solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogger, W.; Kothleitner, G.; Hofer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The characterization of nanostructured devices and functional materials at a nanometer scale is paramount for the understanding of their physical and chemical properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) plays a central role, especially in terms of structural and chemical analysis on a nearly atomic scale. In particular, electron energy-loss spectrometry (EELS) can obtain information not only about the chemical composition of a thin sample, but also about chemical bonding and electronic structure (ionization edge fine structures) and optical properties (through valence loss EELS). Recent instrumental advances like monochromators for the electron gun in the TEM have made it possible to reduce the energy resolution to 0.15 eV at an acceleration voltage of 200 kV. Another strong point of the method lies in the combination with a fine electron probe (0.2 nm) which allows to record EELS spectra with high energy resolution and spatial resolution in the range of 1 nm. The improved energy resolution opens new possibilities for studying detailed electronic structure and bonding effects in solids such as transmission metal oxides. The experimental results will be compared with x-ray absorption spectroscopy and band structure calculations. A better energy-resolution is particularly important for measurements in the low loss region of the EELS spectrum which provides the information about the band gap and the dielectric function. We will highlight the potential of the method for studying metallic nanoparticles and semiconducting devices. Additionally, the influence of the intrinsic effects like core-hole and excited lifetime broadening and delocalization of the inelastically scattered electrons will be discussed. (author)

  1. Report of the joint seminar on solid state physics, atomic and molecular physics, and materials science in the energy region of tandem accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazumata, Yukio

    1993-01-01

    The joint seminar on Solid State Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics and Materials Science in the Energy Region of Tandem Acceleration was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI, for two days from January 22 to 23, 1991. About 60 physicists and material scientists participated and 18 papers were presented in this seminar. The topics presented in this seminar included lattice defects in semiconductors, ion-solid collisions, atomic collisions by high energy particles, radiation effects on high T c superconducting materials and FCC metals, radiation effects on materials of space and fusion reactors, uranium compounds and superlattice. (J.P.N.)

  2. Some characteristics of the CR-39 solid state nuclear - Track Detector for register of protons and low energy alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results related to registration properties of the CR-39 Solid State Nuclear Track Detector for charged particles are presented and discussed. The existence of an inverse proportion between the induction time and the temperature as well as normal concentration of solutions, is showed by the study of CR-39 chemical etching characteristics in NaOH and KOH solutions, comprising varied concentration and temperature. The bulk-etch rate and activation energy of the process were obtained. The critical energy and critical energy-loss rate of CR-39 track-detectors for registration of protons were experimentally determined. Samples were exposed to 24 Mev proton beams in the IEN/CNEN Cyclotron (CV-28), using scattering chamber with a tantalum thin target and aluminium absorbers in contact with the samples, in order to provide the required fluctuation in the scattered beam energy. From the mean track-diameter plotted against incident proton energy the critical energy was obtained. From the calculated energy-loss rate vs. energy curve, the critical energy loss rate were evaluated. The CR-39 response for low energy alpha particles (E = 7h) under the conditions of 6.25 N NaOH at 70 0 C. It is shown that successive chemical etchings do not produce the same track geometry as obtained by means of a continous revelation with the same total etching time. (Author) [pt

  3. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008–2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  4. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, J., E-mail: julianna.szabo@energia.mta.hu [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Palfalvi, J.K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Centre for Energy Research, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary)

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  5. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  6. Participation of Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, in training of personnel for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterba, F.

    1983-01-01

    Graduates of application oriented fields of all mathematics and physics specializations of Solid state physics and Nuclear physics work successfully in nuclear power. In the mathematics fields great attention is devoted to optimization, control, process modeling, etc. The subject Solid state physics is subdivided into the following specializations: physics of metals, magnetic properties of the solid state and structural analysis. These specializations educate specialists with a good knowledge of the structure and properties of metal materials. Great attention is devoted to the causes and development of defects, materials creep and the radiation damage of crystal lattices. The nuclear physics specialization Applied nuclear physics deals with the use of nuclear methods in diverse fields and provides basic knowledge in nuclear power generation and the operation of nuclear reactors. The Faculty of Mathematics and Physics of the Charles University in Prague also runs postgraduate study courses in nuclear physics measurement methods, solid state physics, etc. (E.S.)

  7. HMI Section of Nuclear and Radiation Physics - annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the scientific work performed at the named institute together with a list of publications and talks. The scientific work is concerned with the theory of nuclear and atomic processes with heavy ions, the experimental study of heavy ion reactions, nuclear structure studies, nuclear solid-state physics, atomic collisions, and the operation of VICKSI. (HSI)

  8. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  9. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  10. Some characteristics of the CR-39 solid state nuclear-track detector for protons and low energy alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.S. da.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental results related to certain registration properties of the CR-39 solid state nuclear-track detector for charged particles are presented and discussed. The determination of the CR-39 chemical etching in NaOH and KOH solutions, comprising concentration (2-10N) and temperature effects (50-90 0 C), showed the existence of an inverse proportion between the induction time and the temperature as well as the normal concentration of the solutions. The critical energy and the critical energy-loss rate of CR-39 track detectors for registration of protons were experimentally determined. A number of samples was exposed to 24MeV proton beams in the IEN-CNEN Cyclotron (CV-28), using a scattering chamber with a tantalum thin target and aluminium absorbers in contact with the samples in order to provide the required fluctuation in the scattered beam energy. From the mean track-diameter plotted against incident proton energy for 16h and 24h chemical etching (6.25 NaOH, 70 0 C), and considering 1.5 μm as the minimum observable track-diameter, the values (21.0 + - 1.5) MeV and (22.5 + - 1.5) MeV were deduced, respectively, for the critical energy. From the calculated energy-loss rate versus energy curve, the critical energy-loss rate was evaluated as 24 + - 2 MeV.cm 2 /g. Finally, the CR-39 response for low energy alpha particles (E [pt

  11. An extrapolation scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shift calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Conventional quantum chemical and solid-state physical approaches include several problems to accurately calculate solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties. We propose a reliable computational scheme for solid-state NMR chemical shifts using an extrapolation scheme that retains the advantages of these approaches but reduces their disadvantages. Our scheme can satisfactorily yield solid-state NMR magnetic shielding constants. The estimated values have only a small dependence on the low-level density functional theory calculation with the extrapolation scheme. Thus, our approach is efficient because the rough calculation can be performed in the extrapolation scheme.

  12. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J R

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13 C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T 1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14 N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl

  13. Verdazyl-ribose: A new radical for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization at high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Le, Thanh-Ngoc; Changcoco, Victor; Brook, David J. R.

    2018-04-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) using the cross-effect relies on radical pairs whose electron spin resonance (ESR) frequencies differ by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) frequency. We measure the DNP provided by a new water-soluble verdazyl radical, verdazyl-ribose, under both magic-angle spinning (MAS) and static sample conditions at 9.4 T, and compare it to a nitroxide radical, 4-hydroxy-TEMPO. We find that verdazyl-ribose is an effective radical for cross-effect DNP, with the best relative results for a non-spinning sample. Under non-spinning conditions, verdazyl-ribose provides roughly 2× larger 13C cross-polarized (CP) NMR signal than the nitroxide, with similar polarization buildup times, at both 29 K and 76 K. With MAS at 7 kHz and 1.5 W microwave power, the verdazyl-ribose does not provide as much DNP as the nitroxide, with the verdazyl providing less NMR signal and a longer polarization buildup time. When the microwave power is decreased to 30 mW with 5 kHz MAS, the two types of radical are comparable, with the verdazyl-doped sample having a larger NMR signal which compensates for its longer polarization buildup time. We also present electron spin relaxation measurements at Q-band (1.2 T) and ESR lineshapes at 1.2 and 9.4 T. Most notably, the verdazyl radical has a longer T1e than the nitroxide (9.9 ms and 1.3 ms, respectively, at 50 K and 1.2 T). The verdazyl electron spin lineshape is significantly affected by the hyperfine coupling to four 14N nuclei, even at 9.4 T. We also describe 3000-spin calculations to illustrate the DNP potential of possible radical pairs: verdazyl-verdazyl, verdazyl-nitroxide, or nitroxide-nitroxide pairs. These calculations suggest that the verdazyl radical at 9.4 T has a narrower linewidth than optimal for cross-effect DNP using verdazyl-verdazyl pairs. Because of the hyperfine coupling contribution to the electron spin linewidth, this implies that DNP using the verdazyl radical would improve at lower

  14. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M A; Hatcher, P G

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studied by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing /sup 13/C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Detection of tannins in modern and fossil barks and in plant residues by high-resolution solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.A.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Bark samples isolated from brown coal deposits in Victoria, Australia, and buried wood from Rhizophora mangle have been studies by high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. Dipolar dephasing 13C NMR appears to be a useful method of detecting the presence of tannins in geochemical samples including barks, buried woods, peats and leaf litter. It is shown that tannins are selectively preserved in bark during coalification to the brown coal stage. ?? 1988.

  16. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, K.A.; Warner, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The first volume of the Annual Report for 1989/90 gives an overview of the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, its development and a selection of highlights of the year's programme. This volume is complementary, presenting brief specialist reports, submitted by the users, describing the progress and results of each individual proposal. The contents reflect the extremely successful year due in good measure to the performance of the tandem accelerator which provided a record number of hours with ''beam on target''. Reports are grouped in four sections: research into nuclear structure with contributions ordered in increasing Z numbers of the nuclei studied; investigations of nuclear reaction mechanisms; nuclear theory; accelerator operations and development plus experimental instrumentation and techniques. The appendix forms a concise summary of the work at the facility for the year. (author)

  17. Nuclear physics methods in materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The brochure contains the abstracts of the papers presented at the 7th EPS meeting 1980 in Darmstadt. The main subjects were: a) Neutron scattering and Moessbauer effect in materials research, b) ion implantation in micrometallurgy, c) applications of nuclear reactions and radioisotopes in research on solids, d) recent developments in activation analysis and e) pions, positrons, and heavy ions applied in solid state physics. (RW) [de

  18. Abstracts of the fourth international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The Fourth International Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 25-29 September, 2001 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. More than 300 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; applied nuclear physics; radiation solid state physics, condensed matter physics; activation analysis, radiochemistry, isotopes. (M.K.)

  19. Solid-state Marx based two-switch voltage modulator for the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, L M; Silva, J Fernando; Canacsinh, H; Ferrão, N; Mendes, C; Soares, R; Schipper, J; Fowler, A

    2010-07-01

    A new circuit topology is proposed to replace the actual pulse transformer and thyratron based resonant modulator that supplies the 60 kV target potential for the ion acceleration of the On-Line Isotope Mass Separator accelerator, the stability of which is critical for the mass resolution downstream separator, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The improved modulator uses two solid-state switches working together, each one based on the Marx generator concept, operating as series and parallel switches, reducing the stress on the series stacked semiconductors, and also as auxiliary pulse generator in order to fulfill the target requirements. Preliminary results of a 10 kV prototype, using 1200 V insulated gate bipolar transistors and capacitors in the solid-state Marx circuits, ten stages each, with an electrical equivalent circuit of the target, are presented, demonstrating both the improved voltage stability and pulse flexibility potential wanted for this new modulator.

  20. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  1. Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.D.; Aitken, T.W.; Rowley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The many diverse programmes of fundamental research and technical development at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) have continued at their usual hectic pace throughout the period 1988/89. An overview of the overall programme and of the Facility has been presented in the first volume of this report, along with an expanded discussion of some of the highlights of the year's work. This second volume presents the more technical and detailed reports on the progress and results of individuals proposals and hence will be of most interest to the more expert reader. The reports are grouped in terms of experimental studies aimed at probing the structure of individual nuclei or series of nuclei, studies devoted to probing the primary nuclear reaction mechanism itself, theoretical work and research devoted to the development of the accelerator, and experimental equipment/techniques. Overall, they provide a concise summary of the year's work at the NSF. (author)

  2. Prospects for sub-micron solid state nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with low-temperature dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2010-06-14

    We evaluate the feasibility of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging with sub-micron voxel dimensions using a combination of low temperatures and dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). Experiments are performed on nitroxide-doped glycerol-water at 9.4 T and temperatures below 40 K, using a 30 mW tunable microwave source for DNP. With DNP at 7 K, a 0.5 microL sample yields a (1)H NMR signal-to-noise ratio of 770 in two scans with pulsed spin-lock detection and after 80 db signal attenuation. With reasonable extrapolations, we infer that (1)H NMR signals from 1 microm(3) voxel volumes should be readily detectable, and voxels as small as 0.03 microm(3) may eventually be detectable. Through homonuclear decoupling with a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg spin echo technique, we obtain 830 Hz (1)H NMR linewidths at low temperatures, implying that pulsed field gradients equal to 0.4 G/d or less would be required during spatial encoding dimensions of an imaging sequence, where d is the resolution in each dimension.

  3. Organic solid-state lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Organic lasers are broadly tunable coherent sources, potentially compact, convenient and manufactured at low-costs. Appeared in the mid 60’s as solid-state alternatives for liquid dye lasers, they recently gained a new dimension after the demonstration of organic semiconductor lasers in the 90's. More recently, new perspectives appeared at the nanoscale, with organic polariton and surface plasmon lasers. After a brief reminder to laser physics, a first chapter exposes what makes organic solid-state organic lasers specific. The laser architectures used in organic lasers are then reviewed, with a state-of-the-art review of the performances of devices with regard to output power, threshold, lifetime, beam quality etc. A survey of the recent trends in the field is given, highlighting the latest developments with a special focus on the challenges remaining for achieving direct electrical pumping of organic semiconductor lasers. A last chapter covers the applications of organic solid-state lasers.

  4. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  5. Abstracts of the third international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 23-27 August, 1999 in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. More than 300 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; activation analysis, radiochemistry, isotopes, applied nuclear physics; radiation solid state physics. (A.A.D.)

  6. Abstracts of the fifth international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    The Fifth Uzbekistan Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 12-15 August, 2003 in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. More than 300 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; activation analysis, radiochemistry, isotopes, applied nuclear physics; radiation solid state physics.

  7. Abstracts of the fifth international conference on modern problems of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The Fifth Uzbekistan Conference on modern problems of nuclear physics was held on 12-15 August, 2003 in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of both fundamental and applied nuclear physics. More than 300 talks were presented in the meeting on the following subjects: particle physics, relativistic nuclear physics and physics of atomic nuclei; activation analysis, radiochemistry, isotopes, applied nuclear physics; radiation solid state physics

  8. Applications of solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in studies of Portland cements-based materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy represents an important research tool in the characterization of a range of structural properties for cement-based materials. Different approaches of the technique can be used to obtain information on hydration kinetics, mobile and bound water, porosity, and local...... atomic structures. After a short introduction to these NMR techniques, it is exemplified how magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR can provide quantitative and structural information about specific phases in anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements with main emphasis on the incorporation of Al3+ ions...

  9. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Tanabe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  10. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m2 array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.; Thompson, A.; O'Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O'C.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    2001-01-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon -1 during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of ∼150 m 2 sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74≤Z≤87), is reported

  11. Results of solid state nuclear track detector technique application in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, for uranium prospecting in Caetite (BA-Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1988-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique has been used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks for uranium prospecting on the ground in Caetite city (Bahia-Brazil). The sensitive film to alpha particles used were CA 8015 exposed during 15 days and the results of three anomalies of this region are showed in a form of maps, made with the density of tracks obtained, and were compared with scintillation counter measurements. The technique showed to be simple and an effective auxiliary for the prospection of uranium ore bodies. The initial uranium exploration costs can be reduced by using this technique. (author) [pt

  12. Modeling of hydrogen/deuterium dynamics and heat generation on palladium nanoparticles for hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    We modeled the dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium adsorbed on palladium nanoparticles including the heat generation induced by the chemical adsorption and desorption, as well as palladium-catalyzed reactions. Our calculations based on the proposed model reproduce the experimental time-evolution of pressure and temperature with a single set of fitting parameters for hydrogen and deuterium injection. The model we generated with a highly generalized set of formulations can be applied for any combination of a gas species and a catalytic adsorbent/absorbent. Our model can be used as a basis for future research into hydrogen storage and solid-state nuclear fusion technologies.

  13. Preparation of thin layer deposits of actinides for studies in nuclear physics and solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwinta, J.; Brossard, P.; Michel, J.J.; Thoreux, J.

    1983-09-01

    Two methods of deposition are described electrospraying and spraying with a ion beam. In the first method a solution is send through a capillary containing an electrode at a positive potential in respect to the support of the coating. In the second method ions (generally rare gases) produced by a source are accelerated and focussed with an electrostatic lens on the material to pulverize. Both are complementary to classical methods like electrodeposition and vacuum vaporization which are difficult to use in the case of rare isotopes [fr

  14. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  15. Applications of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Lastly, each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  16. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Division [for] period ending December 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaper, C.L.; Ajitanand, N.N.; Kailas, S.

    1978-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1976 are reported. The R and D activities of the Division cover the areas of nuclear physics, fission physics and solid state physics. Various experimental techniques and instruments developed are also briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  17. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  18. Development of an area monitor for neutrons using solid state nuclear track detector; Desenvolvimento de um monitor de area para neutrons utilizando detector solido de tracos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    An area monitor for neutrons composed of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) Makrofol DE, together with a (n,{alpha}) converter, in the center of a 25 cm diameter polyethylene sphere, is developed. The optimal electrochemical etching conditions for the detection of thermal neutrons by the Makrofol DE using the BN converter are studied, leading to the choice of 55 min, at 30{sup 0} C, under a 44,2 kV.cm{sup -1} electric field with oscillation frequency of 2,0 khz. The response of this system to thermal neutrons, in the optimal conditions, is of 2,76(10)x 10{sup -3} tr/n. Changing from the BN converter to a 2,73(3)g compressed boric acid tablet this value lowers to 3,88(17)x 10{sup -4} tr/n. The performance of the whole monitor in the detection of fast neutrons is examined using the BN converter and neutrons from a {sup 241} Am Be source, with a response of 4,4(2)x 10{sup 3} tr.mSv{sup -1}.cm{sup -2} and operational limits between 7(3){mu}Sv and 5,6(2)mSv. The result of the monitoring of the control room of the IPEN Cyclotron accelerator are also presented as a final test for the viability of the practical use of the monitor. (author). 34 refs, 15 figs, 6 tabs, 1 app.

  19. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb 3 Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a 7 Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  20. Development of solid state reference electrodes and pH sensors for monitoring nuclear reactor cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, S.; Makela, K.; Macdonald, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The growing interest in the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of structural alloys in high temperature aqueous systems has stimulated research in the design and testing of reliable reference electrodes and pH sensors for use in such environments. External reference electrodes have been successfully used in the recent years in high temperature aqueous environments, although their long-term stability is questionable. On the other hand, more reliable pH sensors have been developed by various workers for high temperature applications, the major drawback being their sensitivity to dissolved hydrogen, oxygen and other redox species. This paper describes the development of both solid-state reference electrodes and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) pH sensors for application in high temperature aqueous systems. (author)

  1. Chemical degradation of proton conducting perflurosulfonic acid ionomer membranes studied by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassemzadeh, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Marrony, M. [European Institute for Energy Research, Emmy-Noether-Strasse 11, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Barrera, R. [Edison, Via Giorgio La Pira, 2, I-10028 Trofarello (Italy); Kreuer, K.D.; Maier, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller, K. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The degradation of two different types of perfluorinated polymer membranes, Nafion and Hyflon Ion, has been examined by solid-state {sup 19}F and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. This spectroscopic technique is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for the study of the membrane structure and its alterations after in situ degradation in a fuel cell. The structural changes in different parts of the polymers are clearly distinguished, which provides unique insight into details of the degradation processes. The experimental NMR spectra prove that degradation mostly takes place within the polymer side chains, as reflected by the intensity losses of NMR signals associated with SO{sub 3}H, CF{sub 3}, OCF{sub 2} and CF groups. The integral degree of degradation is found to decrease with increasing membrane thickness while for a given thickness, Hyflon Ion appears to degrade less than Nafion. (author)

  2. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Anca Laura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black, is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03, indicates a good linearity.

  3. A Solid State Pyranometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Anca Laura; Paulescu, Marius; Ercuta, Aurel

    2015-12-01

    The construction of a solid state device-based pyranometer designated to broadband irradiance measurements is presented in this paper. The device is built on the physical basis that the temperature difference between two bodies of identical shape and external surface area, identically exposed to the incident radiation, but having different absorption and heat transfer coefficients (e.g. one body is painted white and the other is painted black), is proportional to the incident irradiance. This proportionality may be put in evidence if the two bodies consisting of identical arrays of correspondingly painted semiconductor diodes, due to the thermal behaviour of their p-n junction. It is theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed that the voltage drop across a diode passed through a constant forward current linearly decreases with the temperature of the junction. In other words, a signal proportional to the irradiance of the light source may be obtained via conventional analog electronics. The calibration of the apparatus, as performed by means of a professional device (LP PYRA 03), indicates a good linearity.

  4. Nuclear physics looks ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-03-15

    A very wide-ranging report published by the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) looks at the future of nuclear physics in general, and in Europe in particular. However in view of the increasing interplay between nuclear and particle physics, many of the report's recommendations are of wider interest.

  5. Nuclear physics looks ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    A very wide-ranging report published by the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) looks at the future of nuclear physics in general, and in Europe in particular. However in view of the increasing interplay between nuclear and particle physics, many of the report's recommendations are of wider interest

  6. Effect of neutron irradiation on etching, optical and structural properties of microscopic glass slide used as a solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Surinder; Kaur Sandhu, Amanpreet; Prasher, Sangeeta; Prakash Pandey, Om

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic glass slides are soda-lime glasses which are readily available and are easy to manufacture with low production cost. The application of these glasses as nuclear track detector will help us to make use of these glasses as solid-state nuclear track detector. The present paper describes the variation in the etching, optical and structural properties of the soda-lime microscopic glass slides due to neutron irradiation of different fluences. The color transformation and an increase in the optical absorption with neutron irradiation are observed. Both the bulk and track etch rates are found to increase with neutron fluence, thus showing a similar dependence on neutron fluence, but the sensitivity remains almost constant

  7. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H.

    2002-01-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H 2 O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction

  8. The abundant excess heat production during low energy nuclear reaction in the nano scale solid state the cold fusion, 14 years' legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho; Miley, George H.; Lipson, Andrei; Kim, Sung O.; Luo, Nie; Castano, Carlos H. [The University of Illinois, Urbana (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The quite abundant excess heat and radioactive materials are found during the solid state reaction. This phenomenon has done during the Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) in the nano scale molecular structure electrodes and Hydrogen compound electrolytes. The Palladium (or Nickel) and Platinum are incorporated as the electrode and the Light Water (H{sub 2}O) as the electrolyte. The excess heat was produced up to 40% in year 2001. The Alpha particles are also detected. The computer code, Coherent Lattice Accelerator Inter-Ionic Reaction Enhancer (CLAIRE) Code System, is constructed for the simulation. The 0.1 A of the distance between two the Hydrogen ion (proton) and Palladium nucleus is the critical point for the nuclear fusion reaction.

  9. Vol. 2: Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceedings are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to nuclear physics

  10. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jeschke, Gunnar [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Matysik, Jörg [Institut für Analytische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Vieth, Hans-Martin [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  11. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  12. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We report solid state 13 C and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, 1 H and cross-polarized 13 C NMR signals from 15 N, 13 C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T 1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations

  13. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, (1)H and cross-polarized (13)C NMR signals from (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T1e is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  14. Perturbation of nuclear spin polarizations in solid state NMR of nitroxide-doped samples by magic-angle spinning without microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, Kent R., E-mail: thurberk@niddk.nih.gov; Tycko, Robert [Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    We report solid state {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with magic-angle spinning (MAS) on frozen solutions containing nitroxide-based paramagnetic dopants that indicate significant perturbations of nuclear spin polarizations without microwave irradiation. At temperatures near 25 K, {sup 1}H and cross-polarized {sup 13}C NMR signals from {sup 15}N,{sup 13}C-labeled L-alanine in trinitroxide-doped glycerol/water are reduced by factors as large as six compared to signals from samples without nitroxide doping. Without MAS or at temperatures near 100 K, differences between signals with and without nitroxide doping are much smaller. We attribute most of the reduction of NMR signals under MAS near 25 K to nuclear spin depolarization through the cross-effect dynamic nuclear polarization mechanism, in which three-spin flips drive nuclear polarizations toward equilibrium with spin polarization differences between electron pairs. When T{sub 1e} is sufficiently long relative to the MAS rotation period, the distribution of electron spin polarization across the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance lineshape can be very different from the corresponding distribution in a static sample at thermal equilibrium, leading to the observed effects. We describe three-spin and 3000-spin calculations that qualitatively reproduce the experimental observations.

  15. Lasers in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction has been reviewed from a point of view of nuclear physics. Recent progress of nuclear spectroscopy with lasers is presented as one of laser studies of fundamental physics currently pursued in Japan. Especially, the hyperfine anomaly is discussed in connection with the origin of nuclear magnetism. (author)

  16. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  17. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  18. A new method for studying the transport of radon and thoron in various building materials using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Ktata, A.; Bakhchi, A.

    2000-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) α-activities per unit volume were measured inside and outside different building materials by using two types of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) (CR-39 and LR-115 type II). In addition, the radon and thoron emanation coefficients of the studied materials were evaluated. Based on these data, the transport of radon and thoron across parallelepipedic blocks of the building materials could be investigated and radon and thoron global α-activities per unit volume outside different building material blocks were determined. Moreover, the diffusion length and the effective diffusion coefficient of radon in the building materials were evaluated and the total alpha activity due to radon in the atmospheres of different rooms consisting of different building materials was studied

  19. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Caroline de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais (PUC-Pocos), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da, E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas

    2011-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m{sup -3}, which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  20. Validation and application of the methodology for analysis of radon concentration in the air through the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Caroline de; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas that occurs naturally in soil and could enter into residential. The decay products of radon are radioactive metals which, when inhaled, can be retained in the respiratory system, leading to an internal dose of radiation. The monitoring of radon levels in residences and workplaces is extremely important, since high concentrations of this gas can cause serious public health problems. This study analyzed the concentration of radon in the air in 94 work environments at the Laboratory of Pocos de Caldas - LAPOC/CNEN, including laboratories, administrative rooms, workshop, warehouse and guardhouse. The method employed in the monitoring was the technique of solid state nuclear track detectors, known as SSNTD. For calibration and validation of this method, controlled experiments were conducted in laboratory with specific instrumentation. The monitoring results indicated that most environments present radon concentrations above 100 Bq m -3 , which is the reference level recommended by the World Health Organization. (author)

  1. The cosmic ray actinide charge spectrum derived from a 10 m{sup 2} array of solid state nuclear track detectors in Earth orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J. E-mail: jd@cp.dias.ie; Thompson, A.; O' Sullivan, D.; Drury, L.O' C.; Wenzel, K.-P

    2001-06-01

    The DIAS-ESTEC Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE) on the Long Duration Exposure Facility, collected approximately 3000 cosmic ray nuclei with Z>65 in the energy region E>1.5 GeV nucleon{sup -1} during a six year exposure in Earth orbit. The entire accessible collecting area of the solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) array has been scanned for actinides, yielding a sample of 30 from an exposure of {approx}150 m{sup 2} sr yr. The UHCRE experimental setup is described and the observed charge spectrum presented. The current best value for the cosmic ray actinide relative abundance, (Z>88)/(74{<=}Z{<=}87), is reported.

  2. Nuclear physics group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    A brief description is given of the operation and maintenance of the cyclotron. The computors and data collection system are also briefly described, as is the nuclear instrumentation at the cyclotron laboratory. A number of experiments in nuclear reactions and nuclear structure which are in progress or soon to be reported are presented. Projects in theoretical nuclear physics and radiation physics are also described. Lists of seminars, lectures, visitors, conferences and publications are given. (RF)

  3. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  4. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  5. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  6. Quadrupole moments of Cd and Zn nuclei: When solid-state, molecular, atomic, and nuclear theory meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Heinz; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear quadrupole moment (Q) of the 5/2+ isomeric state of 111Cd, of particular importance to the interpretation of Perturbed Angular Correlation experiments in condensed matter, was determined by combining existing PAC data with high-level ab initio (CCSD(T)) calculations for Cd-dimethyl an......The nuclear quadrupole moment (Q) of the 5/2+ isomeric state of 111Cd, of particular importance to the interpretation of Perturbed Angular Correlation experiments in condensed matter, was determined by combining existing PAC data with high-level ab initio (CCSD(T)) calculations for Cd...

  7. Measurements of energetic ions produced by high-energy laser pulses by means of solid-state nuclear track detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szydlowski, A.; Badziak, A.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Boody, F. D.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2004), s. 327-332 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : iodine laser * nuclear track detectors * ions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.194, year: 2004

  8. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  9. Solid state detector design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunarwan Prayitno; Ahmad Rifai

    2010-01-01

    Much has been charged particle detector radiation detector made by the industry, especially those engaged in the development of detection equipment and components. The development and further research will be made solid state detector with silicon material. To be able to detect charged particles (radiation), required the processing of silicon material into the detector material. The method used to make silicon detector material is a lithium evaporations. Having formed an intrinsic region contactor installation process, and with testing. (author)

  10. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  11. ''Solid-state fusion'' effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    The ''Solid-State Fusion'' or ''Cold Fusion'' phenomenon, including excess heat generation and the production of nuclear particles, was first reported by Professors Martin Fleischmann and B. Stanley Pons in March 1989. The phenomenon described (the anomalous effects observed when deuterium oxide (heavy water) is electrolysed using a palladium cathode and a platinum anode in the presence of lithium deuteroxide) has many fascinating facets, not least of which is the fact that investigators are unable to produce the effects ''on demand''. Many of the experimental variables which seem to be significant were described and discussed at the ''First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion'' which was held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, from 29th to 31st March 1990. The information presented at the conference is summarised here. Some papers addressed the excess heat effects observed, some the nuclear particles, and others the theoretical aspects. These are reviewed. At the end of the conference Fleischmann summarised all the areas where apparent evidence for solid state fusion had been obtained during the past year, namely: excess enthalpy, bursts in enthalpy; tritium, bursts in tritium; neutrons, bursts in neutrons; X-rays, gamma rays and bursts in these. He recommended that emphasis should now be concentrated on confirming reaction products, such as He 4 . New theories were emerging, but one year was too short a time in which to evaluate them fully. (author)

  12. Nuclear physics and neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paya, D.

    1997-01-01

    After a brief review of the beginnings of the nuclear reaction physics in France in the 40's and 50's, the experimentation neutronics and nuclear physics studies are related and their uses presented, which aims were to provide data for the study of the various reactor concepts and to study fundamental physics. Progressively, pure nuclear physics lost its links with neutronics, and its influence decreases more or less. Long life radioactive waste reprocessing is an important domain where it could regain its contribution

  13. Accelerator physics and nuclear energy education in INRNE-BAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Presently Bulgaria has no research nuclear facility, neither a research reactor, nor an accelerator. With the new cyclotron laboratory in Sofia the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences will restart the experimental research program not only in the fi eld of nuclear physics, but also in many interdisciplinary fields related to nuclear physics. The cornerstone of the cyclotron laboratory is a cyclotron TR24, which provides a proton beam with a variable energy between 15 and 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. The TR24 accelerator allows for the production of a large variety of radioisotopes for medical applications and development of radiopharmaceuticals. The new cyclotron facility will be used for research in radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including especially nuclear energy. Keywords: Cyclotron, PET/CT, radiopharmacy

  14. Annual report 1991 on R and D work by the Institute for Materials and Solid State Research (IMF), Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The annual report summarises the activities of the IMF in the following subject areas: 1) Contributions to the PKF (fusion technology project (refewing to structural materials, superconducting magnets, blanket development); 2) PSU, project for the management of pollutants in the environment (treatment and recycling of hazardous waste); 3) solid state and materials research (high-temperature materials, ceramic materials as protective coatings, polymer materials, high-performance ceramics, high-TC superconducting materials; biomechanics, laser technology); 4) microtechnology (development and testing of compact or layered materials in microtechnology); 5) PSF project, nuclear safety, research (safety and materials aspects of fast breeder reactors, transient behaviour of fuel elements in fact breeder reactors, LWR-specific safety research, containment design concepts for the next generation of PWR-type reactors); 6) NE project, nuclear waste management (analysis of solid wastes from the dissolution of spent LWR fuels, materials testing in nitric acid). The primary reports and other publications of the Institute issued in 1991 are listed in an annex. (orig./MM) [de

  15. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO 3 ) 4 ⋅ 5H 2 O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories

  16. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A.; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Bak, M. S.; Kim, T.

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ṡ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  17. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S., E-mail: tkim@skku.edu, E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, S. [SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V. [Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T., E-mail: tkim@skku.edu, E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); SKKU Advanced Institute of Nano Technology (SAINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  18. Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Model Nuclear Waste Glasses: A Solid-State Double-Resonance NMR Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineau, Ch.; Michaelis, V.K.; Kroeker, S. [Univ Manitoba, Dept Chem, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Schuller, S. [CEA Valrho Marcoule, LDMC, SECM, DTCD, DEN, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2010-07-01

    Double-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used in addition to single-resonance NMR experiments to probe the degree of mixing between network-forming cations Si and B, along with the modifier cations Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +} in two molybdenum-bearing model nuclear waste glasses. The double-resonance experiments involving {sup 29}Si in natural abundance are made possible by the implementation of a CPMG pulse-train during the acquisition period of the usual REDOR experiments. For the glass with lower Mo content, the NMR results show a high degree of Si-B mixing, as well as an homogeneous distribution of the cations within the borosilicate network, characteristic of a non-phase-separated glass. For the higher-Mo glass, a decrease of B-Si(Q{sup 4}) mixing is observed, indicating phase separation. {sup 23}Na and {sup 133}Cs NMR results show that although the Cs{sup +} cations, which do not seem to be influenced by the molybdenum content, are spread within the borate network, there is a clustering of the Na{sup +} cations, very likely around the molybdate units. The segregation of a Mo-rich region with Na{sup +} cations appears to shift the bulk borosilicate glass composition toward the metastable liquid liquid immiscibility region and induce additional phase separation. Although no crystallization is observed in the present case, this liquid liquid phase separation is likely to be the first stage of crystallization that can occur at higher Mo loadings or be driven by heat treatment. From this study emerges a consistent picture of the nature and extent of such phase separation phenomena in Mo-bearing glasses, and demonstrates the potential of double-resonance NMR methods for the investigation of phase separation in amorphous materials. (authors)

  19. Nuclear physics workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Workshop in Nuclear Physics related to the TANDAR, took place in Buenos Aires in April from 23 to 26, 1987, with attendance of foreign scientists. There were presented four seminars and a lot of studies which deal with the following fields: Nuclear Physics at medium energies, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Reactions, Nuclear Matter, Instrumentation and Methodology for Nuclear Spectroscopy, Classical Physics, Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory. It must be emphasized that the Electrostatic Accelerator TANDAR allows to work with heavy ions of high energy, that opens a new field of work in PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). This powerful analytic technique makes it possiblethe analysis of nearly all the elements of the periodic table with the same accuracy. (M.E.L.) [es

  20. Solid state deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance detection of transmembrane-potential-driven tetraphenylphosphonium redistribution across Giant Unilamellar Vesicle bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzin, Carla Maria Mirella

    1995-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ( 2 H NMR) of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) consisting of specifically choline-deuterated 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), plus 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and cholesterol can be used to monitor the transbilayer redistribution of tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP + ) in response to a transmembrane potential (δψ tm ). The 2 H quadrupolar splittings (δν Q 's) measured reflect the level of TPP + bound at the membrane surface due to the latter's effect on the membrane surface electrostatic potential, ψ s . Results reveal the appearance of two distinct δν Q 's, due to differences in bound TPP + at the inner versus the outer monolayer in response to a δψ tm . The observed values of the δν Q 's agree with theoretical predictions based on a derived mathematical model that takes into account δψ tm , plus ψ s , plus the equilibrium binding of TPP + from solution onto the membrane surface, plus the sensitivity of δν Q to the amount of bound TPP + . This model identifies experimental factors that lead to improvements in spectral resolution. Henceforth, 2 H NMR is a valuable tool for quantifying transmembrane asymmetries of ψ s . (author)

  1. Local structures of mesoporous bioactive glasses and their surface alterations in vitro: inferences from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawidjaja, Philips N.; Mathew, Renny; Lo, Andy Y. H.; Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; García, Ana; Arcos, Daniel; Mattias Edén, María Vallet-Regí

    2012-01-01

    We review the benefits of using 29Si and 1H magic angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for probing the local structures of both bulk and surface portions of mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) of the CaO–SiO2−(P2O5) system. These mesoporous materials exhibit an ordered pore arrangement, and are promising candidates for improved bone and tooth implants. We discuss experimental MAS NMR results from three MBGs displaying different Ca, Si and P contents: the 29Si NMR spectra were recorded either directly by employing radio-frequency pulses to 29Si, or by magnetization transfers from neighbouring protons using cross polarization, thereby providing quantitative information about the silicate speciation present in the pore wall and at the MBG surface, respectively. The surface modifications were monitored for the three MBGs during their immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for intervals between 30 min and one week. The results were formulated as a reaction sequence describing the interconversions between the distinct silicate species. We generally observed a depletion of Ca2+ ions at the MBG surface, and a minor condensation of the silicate-surface network over one week of SBF soaking. PMID:22349247

  2. Advanced solid state batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levasseur, A; Delmas, C; Menetrier, M; Hagenmuller, P

    1984-01-01

    Direct electrochemical storage of electricity is attractive because of its adaptability to vehicle traction as well as to stationary applications. Important advancements are necessary to improve primary or secondary batteries so far used. The aim of this study was to develop and to characterize materials for the next generation of advanced, rechargeable solid state batteries for vehicle transport and stationary storage applications. One of the best electricity storage systems was the lithium/intercalation compound secondary battery, though up to now the behavior of liquid organic electrolytes did not allow for good recycling in such systems. The research program for these batteries is described.

  3. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  4. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  5. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the changing role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters. (author)

  6. Physical stabilization of low-molecular-weight amorphous drugs in the solid state: a material science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sheng; McAuley, William J; Yang, Ziyi; Tipduangta, Pratchaya

    2014-07-01

    Use of the amorphous state is considered to be one of the most effective approaches for improving the dissolution and subsequent oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. However as the amorphous state has much higher physical instability in comparison with its crystalline counterpart, stabilization of amorphous drugs in a solid-dosage form presents a major challenge to formulators. The currently used approaches for stabilizing amorphous drug are discussed in this article with respect to their preparation, mechanism of stabilization and limitations. In order to realize the potential of amorphous formulations, significant efforts are required to enable the prediction of formulation performance. This will facilitate the development of computational tools that can inform a rapid and rational formulation development process for amorphous drugs.

  7. Dependence of actinide solid state chemistry and physics on the changing role of the 5f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    It is well established that the chemistry, physics, and material science of the actinides do not reflect perfectly a series of elements with a regular increase in the number of localized f-electrons (f-orbital occupation). This situation results from the hanging role of the 5f-electrons across the series. Therefore, a full understanding of the properties of the individual elements necessitates an understanding of the series as a whole. The changing influence of the f-electrons is reflected in many of the actinide's properties. Systematic comparisons of selected high-temperature and high-pressure behaviors of actinide materials are discussed to demonstrate the variable nature and roles of the f-electrons, as well as their susceptibility to experimental parameters

  8. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are

  9. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  10. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  11. Black Hole on a Chip: Proposal for a Physical Realization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model in a Solid-State System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A system of Majorana zero modes with random infinite-range interactions—the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK model—is thought to exhibit an intriguing relation to the horizons of extremal black holes in two-dimensional anti–de Sitter space. This connection provides a rare example of holographic duality between a solvable quantum-mechanical model and dilaton gravity. Here, we propose a physical realization of the SYK model in a solid-state system. The proposed setup employs the Fu-Kane superconductor realized at the interface between a three-dimensional topological insulator and an ordinary superconductor. The requisite N Majorana zero modes are bound to a nanoscale hole fabricated in the superconductor that is threaded by N quanta of magnetic flux. We show that when the system is tuned to the surface neutrality point (i.e., chemical potential coincident with the Dirac point of the topological insulator surface state and the hole has sufficiently irregular shape, the Majorana zero modes are described by the SYK Hamiltonian. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the system indeed exhibits physical properties expected of the SYK model, including thermodynamic quantities and two-point as well as four-point correlators, and discuss ways in which these can be observed experimentally.

  12. Nuclear physics program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    The nuclear physics program objectives, resources, applications and implications of scientific opportunities are presented. The scope of projected research is discussed in conjunction with accelerator facilities and manpower. 25 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Study of gamma irradiation effects on the etching and optical properties of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and its application to uranium assay in soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amol Mhatre; Kalsi, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad on the etching and optical characteristics of CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have been studied by using etching and UV-Visible spectroscopic techniques. From the measured bulk etch rates at different temperatures, the activation energies for bulk etching at different doses have also been determined. It is seen that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. The optical band gaps of the unirradiated and the gamma -irradiated detectors determined from the UV-Visible spectra were found to decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation. The present studies can be used for the estimation of gamma dose in the range of 2.5-43.0 Mrad and can also be used for estimating track registration efficiency in the presence of gamma dose. The CR-39 detector has also been applied for the assay of uranium in some soil samples of Jammu city. (author)

  14. Study of variations of radon emanations from soil in Morocco using solid state nuclear track detectors. Correlations with atmospheric parameters and seismic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhal, H.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigates the quantity variations of radon emanating from soil in accordance with time. It aims to verify the possibility of the radon sign use in earthquake prediction. Regular measures of radon concentration in soil have been carried out over the two years 1991 and 1992 in five towns of Morocco: Rabat, Tetouan, Ifrane and Khouribga, and in geophysic observatory of Ibn Rochd (Berchid region). The measuring method is based on the solid state nuclear track detectors technique. The obtained results have shown an influence of the atmospheric effects on the radon emanation. The experiment proved that, on one hand, the variations of the aforesaid influence are correlated to variations of the pluviometry and the atmospheric temperature and, on the other hand, there is no notable effect of atmospheric pressure or atmospheric humidity. The good correlations between the different seismic activities and the variations of radon emanation rate in the five measurement stations, have shown the interest of radon use in the earthquake prediction field. 81 refs., 100 figs., 17 tabs.(F. M.)

  15. Activities at the Institute of Materials and Solid State Research of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre in the field of fuel pin modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel pin modelling has been pursued at the Institute of Materials and Solid State Research (IMF) of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) with the main objective to provide a detailed quantitative analysis of the fuel pin behaviour in a LMFBR under normal and off-normal operation conditions. The computer programs and models developed at the IMF serve the purpose to aid effectively in the development of an optimized fuel pin concept for a LMFBR. What extent of clad deformation can be tolerated without running into clad failure? What is the influence of neutron dose, temperature, corrosion attack, arid cyclic forces on the state of the clad? What may be the reasons for clad failure? In answering these questions computer programs can play an important role. The activities at the IMF in the field of fuel pin modelling cover the following topics: development of computer programs and models; validation of these programs and models, application to the design of fuel pins for irradiation experiments; assistance in the evaluation of operation data and post- irradiation results, and parametric studies on the influence of design parameters, operation conditions and certain material phenomena on the in-pile behaviour of the fuel pin

  16. WORKSHOP: Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheepard, Jim; Van Dyck, Olin

    1985-06-15

    A workshop 'Dirac Approaches t o Nuclear Physics' was held at Los Alamos from 31 January to 2 February, the first meeting ever on relativistic models of nuclear phenomena. The objective was to cover historical background as well as the most recent developments in the field, and communication between theorists and experimentalists was given a high priority.

  17. Nuclear physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruytter, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes the main activities of the Linear Electron Accelerator Section of the Physics Laboratory of the State University of Ghent. The research fields are relative to: 1. Nuclear fission. 2. Photonuclear reactions. 3. Nuclear spectroscopy and positron annihilation. 4. Dosimetry. 5. Theoretical studies. (MDC)

  18. Nuclear physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruytter, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report summarizes the main activities of the Linear Electron Accelerator Section of the Physics Laboratory of the State University of Ghent. The research fields are relative to: 1. Nuclear fission. 2. Photonuclear reactions. 3. Nuclear spectroscopy and positron annihilation. 4. Dosimetry. 5. Theoretical studies. (MDC)

  19. Nuclear physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruytter, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The report summarizes the main activities of the linear Electron Accelerator Section of the Physics Laboratory of the State University of Ghent. The research fields are relative to: 1. Nuclear fission 2. Photonuclear reactions 3. Nuclear spectroscopy and positron annihilation 4. Dosimetry 5. Theoretical studies. (MDC)

  20. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  1. Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fueloep, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details

  2. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    1979-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  3. Solid state detector module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    A solid state detector in which each scintillator is optimally configured and coupled with its associated sensing diode in a way which exploits light piping effects to enhance efficiency, and at the same time provide a detector which is modular in nature. To achieve light piping, the scintillator crystal is oriented such that its sides conform with the crystal cleavage plane, and the sides are highly polished. An array of tungsten collimator plates define the individual channels. Multi-channel scintillator/diode modules are mounted behind and in registry with the plurality of collimator plates. A plurality of scintillators are bonded together after coating the surfaces thereof to minimize optical crosstalk. After lapping the face of the scintillator module, it is then bonded to a diode module with individual scintillators in registration with individual diodes. The module is then positioned in the detector array with collimator plates at the junctions between the scintillators

  4. Nuclear physics at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruo Peng

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The teaching program of nuclear physics at Peking University started in 1955, in answer to the demand of China's nuclear program. In 1958, the Department of Atomic Energy was founded. The name of this department was changed to the Department of Technique Physics in 1961. Graduates in nuclear physics and technical physics had great contribution in China's nuclear program. The nuclear physics specialty from the Department of Technique Physics merged into the School of Physics in 2001. At present, nuclear physics is not any more a major for undergraduate students in the school of physics, but there are Master programs and Ph. D programs in nuclear physics, nuclear techniques and heavy ion physics. About 200 new students are admitted each year in the School of Physics at Peking University. About 20 graduates from the School of Physics work or continue to study in nuclear physics and related fields each year. (author)

  5. Nuclear physics group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description is given of the new cyclotron tested and inaugurated during the period under review, and its main specifications are presented. Preliminary beam measurements are reported. The computers and data collection system are also briefly described, as is the nuclear instrumentation at the cyclotron laboratory. A number of experiments in nuclear structure and nuclear reactions which are in progress, or soon to be reported are presented. Projects in theoretical nuclear physics are also described. Lists of seminars and lectures and of publications are given. (JIW)

  6. Nuclear physics I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Physics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part I the matter of the winter term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  7. Studies on solid-state physics carried out with the Saclay reactor (1962); Etudes de physique du solide realisees a la pile de Saclay (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herpin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This paper deals only with solid-state physics experiments carried out on outgoing beams: rather than giving a general review of the work performed, if refers to only a few of the most important studies or those nearest completion. These are being made with the experimental beams of the two Saclay reactors EL-2, with a central flux of 10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}, and - since 1958 - EL-3, whose central flux is equal ta 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. The experiments are being carried out by two separate groups of physicists, employing different techniques, namely neutron diffraction using a crystal spectrometer, and inelastic scattering using a time-of-flight spectrometer. (author) [French] Cet expose ne relate que des experiences de physique du solide faites sur des faisceaux sortis; plutot que de donner une revue de l'ensemble des travaux effectues, on ne cite que quelques etudes que l'on peut considerer comme plus essentielles ou mieux achevees. On utilise les faisceaux experimentaux des deux piles de Saclay, EL-2 dont le flux au centre est de 10{sup 13}n/cm{sup 2} et, depuis 1958, EL-3 pour laquelle il est egal a 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}. Les experiences sont realisees par deux groupes de physiciens distincts, employant des techniques differentes, la diffraction des neutrons qui utilise un spectrometre a cristal, et la diffusion inelastique avec un spectrometre a temps de vol. (auteur)

  8. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  9. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  10. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  11. Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Jessberger, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    This annual report contains short descriptions of the research performed at the given institute together with an extensive list of publications. The research in nuclear physics is concerned with developments in accelerators and ion sources, radiation detectors, solid-state studies by nuclear methods, counting circuits, data processing, target preparation, fission, fusion, and nuclear friction, giant resonances, nuclear spectroscopy, nuclear reaction mechanisms, atomic physics and interaction of charged particles with matter, medium and high energy physics. The research in cosmophysics works on meteorites and lunar rocks, the gallium-solar-neutrino experiment (project GALLEX), problems of Halley's comet, interplanetary and interstellar dust, planetary atmospheres, interstellar medium and cosmic rays, molecular collision processes in the gas phase, nuclear geology and geochemistry, and archaeometry. (GG)

  12. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Physics program is a comprehensive program of interdependent experimental and theoretical investigation of atomic nuclei. Long range goals are an understanding of the interactions, properties, and structures of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter at the most elementary level possible and an understanding of the fundamental forces of nature by using nuclei as a proving ground. Basic ingredients of the program are talented and imaginative scientists and a diversity of facilities to provide the variety of probes, instruments, and computational equipment needed for modern nuclear research. Approximately 80% of the total Federal support of basic nuclear research is provided through the Nuclear Physics program; almost all of the remaining 20% is provided by the National Science Foundation. Thus, the Department of Energy (DOE) has a unique responsibility for this important area of basic science and its role in high technology. Experimental and theoretical investigations are leading us to conclude that a new level of understanding of atomic nuclei is achievable. This optimism arises from evidence that: (1) the mesons, protons, and neutrons which are inside nuclei are themselves composed of quarks and gluons and (2) quantum chromodynamics can be developed into a theory which both describes correctly the interaction among quarks and gluons and is also an exact theory of the strong nuclear force. These concepts are important drivers of the Nuclear Physics program

  13. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report contains abstracts of ongoing projects in the following areas: strong interaction physics; relativistic heavy ion physics; nuclear structure and nuclear many-body theory; and nuclear astrophysics

  14. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Study of the optical properties and the carbonaceous clusters in thermally-annealed CR-39 and Makrofol-E polymer-based solid-state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazaly, M.

    2012-01-01

    The induced modifications in the optical properties of CR-39 and Makrofol-E polymer-based solid state nuclear track detectors were investigated after thermal annealing at a temperature of 200 .deg. C for different durations. The optical properties were studied using an UV-visible spectrophotometer. From the UV-visible spectra, the direct and the indirect optical band gaps, Urbach's energies, and the number of carbon atoms in a cluster were determined. The absorbance of CR-39 plastic detector was found to decrease with increasing annealing time while the absorbance of Makrofol-E decreased with increasing annealing time. The width of the tail of localized states in the band gap ΔE was evaluated with the Urbach method. The optical energy band gaps were obtained from the direct and the indirect allowed transitions in K-space. Both of the direct and the indirect band gaps of the annealed CR-39 detector decrease with increasing annealing time while in Makrofol-E, they decreased after an annealing time of 15 minute and then showed no remarkable changes for a prolonged annealing times. Urbach's energy decreased significantly for both CR-39 and Makrofol-E with increasing annealing time. The number of carbon atoms in a cluster increased in the CR-39 detector with increasing annealing time while it decreased with increasing annealing time for Makrofol-E. We may conclude that the CR-39 detector undergoes greater modifications than the Makrofol-E detector upon thermal annealing at 200 .deg. C. In conclusion, the induced modifications in the optical properties of CR-39 and Makrofol-E are correlated with the temperature and the duration of annealing.

  16. Contribution to the study of radon risk assessment - Use of Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTD) for the measurement of radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RALAIARISOA, H.L

    2004-01-01

    222 Rn is a natural radioactive gas, originating from the decay of 226 Ra. Both of these radionuclides are elements of 238 U series. Uranium is naturally present in the rocks and soils, therefore radon is always present too because it is a soil gas. Radon takes the most important part in man exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiations. Moreover, it causes lung cancer. It can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, so that its inhalation is a potential risk for human health. Thus radon measurement is necessary for radiation protection. Integrated measurement using Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detector (SSNTD) is a very common method for radon measurement in buildings because of the low cost of the detectors and their easy application. The measurement technics are based on the interaction of alpha particles emitted by radon with a polymer. Alpha particles produce in the polymer latent tracks, which need chemical revelation to be observable with optical microscopy. The number of revealed tracks is proportionnal to the average volumic activity of 222 Rn corresponding to the time exposure of the detectors.The aim of this thesis work is the continuation of previous study on the preliminary investigations of radon levels in the city of Antananarivo, and to extend this study in Antsirabe, which has been shown as a region of interest. The levels of radon measured in buildings in Antananarivo and Antsirabe are typical values of indoor radon concentration. The average values of concentrations are inferior to 60 Bq.m - 3. The health risk is negligible but not nul. A typical protocol of radon level measurement in Malagasy buildings is suggested to allow the implementation of a risk management policy related to radon within the Malagasy context. [fr

  17. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  18. Cellulose-Pectin Spatial Contacts Are Inherent to Never-Dried Arabidopsis Primary Cell Walls: Evidence from Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuo; Park, Yong Bum; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The structural role of pectins in plant primary cell walls is not yet well understood because of the complex and disordered nature of the cell wall polymers. We recently introduced multidimensional solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the spatial proximities of wall polysaccharides. The data showed extensive cross peaks between pectins and cellulose in the primary wall of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), indicating subnanometer contacts between the two polysaccharides. This result was unexpected because stable pectin-cellulose interactions are not predicted by in vitro binding assays and prevailing cell wall models. To investigate whether the spatial contacts that give rise to the cross peaks are artifacts of sample preparation, we now compare never-dried Arabidopsis primary walls with dehydrated and rehydrated samples. One-dimensional 13C spectra, two-dimensional 13C-13C correlation spectra, water-polysaccharide correlation spectra, and dynamics data all indicate that the structure, mobility, and intermolecular contacts of the polysaccharides are indistinguishable between never-dried and rehydrated walls. Moreover, a partially depectinated cell wall in which 40% of homogalacturonan is extracted retains cellulose-pectin cross peaks, indicating that the cellulose-pectin contacts are not due to molecular crowding. The cross peaks are observed both at −20°C and at ambient temperature, thus ruling out freezing as a cause of spatial contacts. These results indicate that rhamnogalacturonan I and a portion of homogalacturonan have significant interactions with cellulose microfibrils in the native primary wall. This pectin-cellulose association may be formed during wall biosynthesis and may involve pectin entrapment in or between cellulose microfibrils, which cannot be mimicked by in vitro binding assays. PMID:26036615

  19. Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Investigation of the Structural Topology and Lipid Interactions of a Viral Fusion Protein Chimera Containing the Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Myungwoon; Liao, Shu-Yu; Hong, Mei

    2016-12-13

    The fusion peptide (FP) and transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins play important roles during virus-cell membrane fusion, by inducing membrane curvature and transient dehydration. The structure of the water-soluble ectodomain of viral fusion proteins has been extensively studied crystallographically, but the structures of the FP and TMD bound to phospholipid membranes are not well understood. We recently investigated the conformations and lipid interactions of the separate FP and TMD peptides of parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein F using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. These studies provide structural information about the two domains when they are spatially well separated in the fusion process. To investigate how these two domains are structured relative to each other in the postfusion state, when the ectodomain forms a six-helix bundle that is thought to force the FP and TMD together in the membrane, we have now expressed and purified a chimera of the FP and TMD, connected by a Gly-Lys linker, and measured the chemical shifts and interdomain contacts of the protein in several lipid membranes. The FP-TMD chimera exhibits α-helical chemical shifts in all the membranes examined and does not cause strong curvature of lamellar membranes or membranes with negative spontaneous curvature. These properties differ qualitatively from those of the separate peptides, indicating that the FP and TMD interact with each other in the lipid membrane. However, no 13 C- 13 C cross peaks are observed in two-dimensional correlation spectra, suggesting that the two helices are not tightly associated. These results suggest that the ectodomain six-helix bundle does not propagate into the membrane to the two hydrophobic termini. However, the loosely associated FP and TMD helices are found to generate significant negative Gaussian curvature to membranes that possess spontaneous positive curvature, consistent with the notion that the FP-TMD assembly may

  20. Nuclear physics accelerator facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes many of the nuclear physics heavy-ion accelerator facilities in the US and the research programs being conducted. The accelerators described are: Argonne National Laboratory--ATLAS; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Tandem/AGS Heavy Ion Facility; Brookhaven National Laboratory--Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) (Proposed); Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--Bevalac; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory--88-Inch Cyclotron; Los Alamos National Laboratory--Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF); Massachusetts Institute of Technology--Bates Linear Accelerator Center; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory--Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center--Nuclear Physics Injector; Texas AandM University--Texas AandM Cyclotron; Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL); University of Washington--Tandem/Superconducting Booster; and Yale University--Tandem Van de Graaff

  1. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical physics program in the Physics Division at ORNL involves research in both nuclear and atomic physics. In nuclear physics there is extensive activity in the fields of direct nuclear reactions with light- and heavy-ion projectiles, the structure of nuclei far from stability and at elevated temperatures, and the microscopic and macroscopic description of heavy-ion dynamics, including the behavior of nuclear molecules and supernuclei. New research efforts in relativistic nuclear collisions and in the study of quark-gluon plasma have continued to grow this year. The atomic theory program deals with a variety of ionization, multiple-vacancy production, and charge-exchange processes. Many of the problems are selected because of their relevance to the magnetic fusion energy program. In addition, there is a joint atomic-nuclear theory effort to study positron production during the collision of two high-Z numbers, i.e., U+U. A new Distinguished Scientist program, sponsored jointly by the University of Tennessee and ORNL, has been initiated. Among the first appointments is G.F. Bertsch in theoretical physics. As a result of this appointment, Bertsch and an associated group of four theorists split their time between UT and ORNL. In addition, the State of Tennessee has established a significant budget to support the visits of outstanding scientists to the Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research at ORNL. This budget should permit a significant improvement in the visitor program at ORNL. Finally, the Laboratory awarded a Wigner post-doctoral Appointment to a theorist who will work in the theory group of the Physics Division

  2. Solid state chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smart, Lesley E

    2012-01-01

    ""Smart and Moore are engaging writers, providing clear explanations for concepts in solid-state chemistry from the atomic/molecular perspective. The fourth edition is a welcome addition to my bookshelves. … What I like most about Solid State Chemistry is that it gives simple clear descriptions for a large number of interesting materials and correspondingly clear explanations of their applications. Solid State Chemistry could be used for a solid state textbook at the third or fourth year undergraduate level, especially for chemistry programs. It is also a useful resource for beginning graduate

  3. Physics in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Simon R; Phelps, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging.

  4. Physics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This course gives an introduction to Nuclear Reactor Physics. The first chapter explains the most important parameters and concepts in nuclear reactor physics such as fission, cross sections and the effective multiplication factor. Further on, in the second chapter, the flux distributions in a stationary reactor are derived from the diffusion equation. Reactor kinetics, reactor control and reactor dynamics (feedback effects) are described in the following three chapters. The course concludes with a short description of the different types of existing and future reactors. (author)

  5. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  6. Study of the influence of the soil and plant natures and pollution on the radon and thoron alpha activities inside various herbal infusions by using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Ait nouh, F.; Bourzik, W.; Lamine, J.

    2000-01-01

    Different medicinal plant, spinach and cereal samples have been analysed by using neutron activation analysis and radiochemical separation. The solid state nuclear track detectors technique was utilized for uranium and thorium contents determination as well as for alpha, beta, and gamma dose rates evaluation in various geological and ceramic samples. In this study, uranium and thorium contents have been determined in different plant samples, soils in which they have been grown and in herbal infusions made by boiling the studied plants in potable water by using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors. Radon and thoron alpha activities per unit volume inside the plants, soils and herbal infusions studied have been evaluated. The radon transfers between soils and plants as well as between plants and herbal infusions have been investigated. The influence of pollution due to different material dusts on radon and thoron alpha activities inside the plants and their corresponding infusions has been studied. (author)

  7. Estimation of track registration efficiency in solution medium and study of gamma irradiation effects on the bulk-etch rate and the activation energy for bulk etching of CR-39 (DOP) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalsi, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The fission track registration efficiency of diethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate (dioctyl phthalate doped) (CR-39 (DOP)) solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) in solution medium (K wet ) has been experimentally determined and is found to be (9.7 ± 0.5).10 -4 cm. This is in good agreement with the values of other SSNTDs. The gamma irradiation effects in the dose range of 50.0-220.0 kGy on the bulk etch rate, V b and the activation energy for bulk etching, E of this solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) have also been studied. It is observed that the bulk etch rates increase and the activation energies for bulk etching decrease with the increase in gamma dose. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the detector due to gamma irradiation

  8. Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundinger, D.; Solarz, R.; Beach, R.; Albrecht, G.; Krupke, W.

    1990-01-01

    Depletion mode pumping of solid state lasers is a new concept which offers features that are of interest for many practical applications. In this paper the authors discuss the physical properties and mechanisms that set the design requirements, present model calculations for a practical laser design, and discuss the results of recent experiments

  9. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Division [for] period ending December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswaran, M.A.; Paranjpe, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    The research and development work of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay for the period ending on 31 December 1982 is reported in the form of individual summaries arranged under the headings: (1) nuclear physics, (2) solid state physics, and (3) instrumentation and techniques. A list of papers by the staff-members of the Division published in journals and presented at conferences during the report period is also given. (author)

  10. Nuclear physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elze, T.

    1988-01-01

    This script consisting of two parts contains the matter of the courses Nuclear Pyhsics I and II, as they were presented in the winter term 1987/88 and summer term 1988 for students of physics at Frankfurt University. In the present part II the matter of the summer term is summarized. (orig.) [de

  11. Fundamentals in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diserbo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author proposes an overview of the main notions related to nuclear physics. He first addresses the atom and the nucleus: brief history, their constituents, energetic aspects for electrons and nucleus. The second part deals with radioactivity: definitions, time law and conservation law, natural and artificial radio-elements, α, β and γ radiations. Nuclear reactions (fission and fusion) are then presented as well as their application to nuclear reactor operation. The next part concerns interactions between radiations and matter, more precisely between charged particles and matter, neutrons and matter, X rays or γ rays and matter. The last chapter presents the various quantities used to characterise a source, the radiation field and the physical action, and quantities and units used in radiobiology and in radiation protection

  12. Physics and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttery, N E

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors

  13. Advances in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Review articles on three topics of considerable current interest make up the present volume. The first, on A-hypernuclei, was solicited by the editors in order to provide nuclear physicists with a general description of the most recent developments in a field which this audience has largely neglected or, perhaps, viewed as a novelty in which a bizarre nuclear system gave some information about the lambda-nuclear intersection. That view was never valid. The very recent developments reviewed here-particularly those pertaining to hypernuclear excitations and the strangeness exchange reactions-emphasize that this field provides important information about the models and central ideas of nuclear physics. The off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is a topic which was at first received with some embarrassment, abuse, and neglect, but it has recently gained proper attention in many nuclear problems. Interest was first focused on it in nuclear many-body theory, but it threatened nuclear physicists'comf...

  14. Progress report - physics and health sciences - physics section 1990 January 01 - June 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    This is the ninth semi-annual report on the Physics section of Physics and Health Sciences. Major areas of discussion include: nuclear physics, accelerator physics, general physics, neutron's solid state physics, theoretical physics and fusion

  15. Radioactive ion beams and techniques for solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we review the most recent and new applications of solid state characterization techniques using radioactive ion beams. For such type ofresearch, high yields of chemically clean ion beams of radioactive isotopesare needed which are provided by the on-line coupling of high resolution isotope separators to particle accelerators, such as the isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility at CERN. These new experiments are performed by an increasing number of solid state groups. They combine nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Moessbauer, perturbed angular correlations (PAC) and emission channeling with the traditional non-radioactive techniques liked deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. Recently isotopes of elements, not available before, were successfully used in new PAC experiments, and the first photoluminescence (PL) measurements, where the element transmutation plays the essential role on the PL peak identification, have been performed. The scope of applications of radioactive ion beams for research in solid state physics will be enlarged in the near future, with the installation at ISOLDE of a post-accelerator device providing radioactive beams with energies ranging from a few keV up to a few MeV. (orig.)

  16. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the report of the Panel on Nuclear Physics of the Physics Survey Committee, established by the National Research Council in 1983. The report presents many of the major advances in nuclear physics during the past decade, sketches the impacts of nuclear physics on other sciences and on society, and describes the current frontiers of the field. It concludes with a chapter on the recommended priorities for this discipline

  17. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  18. Application of electrostatic accelerators for nuclear physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'minov, B.D.; Romanov, V.A.; Usachev, L.N.

    1983-01-01

    The data are reviewed on dynamics of the development of single- and two-stage electrostatic accelerators (ESA) used as a tool or nuclear physics studies in the range of low and medium energies. The ESA wide possibilities are shown on examples of the most specific studies in the field of nuclear physics, work on measurement of nuclear constants to safisfy the nuclear power needs and applied studies on nuclear microanalysis. It is concluded that the contribution of studies performed using ESA to the development of nowadays concepts on nuclear structure and nuclear reaction kinetics is immeasurably higher than of any other nuclear-physics tool. ESA turned out to be also exceptionally useful for solving applied problems and investigations in different fields of knowledge. Carrying over the technique of investigations using ESA and nuclear physics concepts to atomic and molecular problems has found its application in optical spectroscopy in Lamb shift investigations in strongly ionized heavy ions, in various experiments on atom-atom and atom-molecular scattering, in stUdies of collisions and charge exchange. ESA contributed to the progress in such scientific fields as astraphysics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics, material science and biophysics

  19. Panel report: nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartouni, Edward P [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that

  20. Physical bases of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isabelle, D.B.; Ducassou, D.

    1975-01-01

    The physical bases of nuclear medicine are outlined in several chapters devoted successively to: atomic and nuclear structures; nuclear reactions; radioactiity laws; a study of different types of disintegration; the interactions of radiations with matter [fr

  1. Nuclear medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    This three-volume set covers the physical basis of nuclear medicine, and is intended as a source of data for practicing scientists and physicians as well as those beginning their careers or simply studying nuclear medical physics. It leads the reader from quantum theory to the production and attenuation of ionizing radiation; considers dosimetry and the most recent assessment of biological effects of such particles; describes in detail detector materials, signal analysis, and gamma cameras; includes extensive discussions of bone mineral measurement as well as magnetic resonance imaging; covers limited angle, rotating camera, and positron tomography; presents quality assurance and statistical theory with an eye toward enhanced departmental operations; and features descriptions of functional imaging and the psychophysical basis of diagnosis

  2. Solid State Studies Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-12-31

    Research is summarized on fuel, fertile, and cladding materials. Results of studies in the field of solid state sciences are also reported. It was found during the studies on the thermal diffusion release of /sup 133/Xe from irradiated thoria--urania powders that during prolonged annealing at high temperatures, there were several sudden burst releases of /sup 133/Xe as a function of time. These sudden bursts appear to be related to the particle size of the powders. Studies on the phase composition of U/sub 3/O/sub 8//su established that the phase obtained at room temperature after heating at 850 deg K is always oxygen deficient. Results of studies on the different modifications of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ indicated that the so-called delta-phase has a crystal structure almost identical with the beta-phase, yet there were differences in the heats of transition of each of these phases to the alpha-U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ phase at 130 deg C. Studies on fast neutron damage in stainless steel were initiated and results related to damage by void formation were obtained even when the fluencies were only moderately high. Studies on the phase transformations in solids brought out the unusual phase transition behavior of KNO/sub 3/. It was established that the phase transformation attributed to the orthorhombic (II) to the trigonal (I) transition at 129 deg C is essentially a 2-step transition. Results of differential scanning colorimeter (DSC) studies also revealed a peculiar feature which is as yet not understood, namely that on cooling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed a III to II phase transition; this is not seen in the DSC. The capabilities of the DSC technique to delineate temperatures of magnetic transitions were demonstrated by studying the transitions in a number of standard substances (metals, alloys, and compounds). In studies on KMnF/sub 3/, it was further demonstrated that the DSC technique is superior in measuring and detecting the heats of crystallographic and

  3. Particle and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, H.; Chong-shi, W.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the September symposium. There are two parts to this book divided according to particle physics and nuclear physics. Some of the titles of the papers are as follows: Bifurcation and Dynamical Symmetry Breaking, Negative Binomial Distribution for the Multiplicity Distributions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ Annihilation, Variational Study of Lattice QCD, Rescaling for Kaon Structure Function, SDG Boson Model and its Application, The Pair-Aligned Intrinsic Wave Function in Single-j Configuration, and The Short Range Effective Interaction and the Spectra of Calcium Isotopes in (f-p) Space

  4. Nuclear power reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, Robert

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to explain the physical working conditions of nuclear reactors for the benefit of non-specialized engineers and engineering students. One of the leading ideas of this course is to distinguish between two fundamentally different concepts: - a science which could be called neutrodynamics (as distinct from neutron physics which covers the knowledge of the neutron considered as an elementary particle and the study of its interactions with nuclei); the aim of this science is to study the interaction of the neutron gas with real material media; the introduction will however be restricted to its simplified expression, the theory and equation of diffusion; - a special application: reactor physics, which is introduced when the diffusing and absorbing material medium is also multiplying. For this reason the chapter on fission is used to introduce this section. In practice the section on reactor physics is much longer than that devoted to neutrodynamics and it is developed in what seemed to be the most relevant direction: nuclear power reactors. Every effort was made to meet the following three requirements: to define the physical bases of neutron interaction with different materials, to give a correct mathematical treatment within the limit of necessary simplifying hypotheses clearly explained; to propose, whenever possible, numerical applications in order to fix orders of magnitude [fr

  5. Nuclear Physics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  6. Solid state protein monolayers: Morphological, conformational, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, P. P.; Biasco, A.; Frascerra, V.; Calabi, F.; Cingolani, R.; Rinaldi, R.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; de Waal, E.; Canters, G. W.

    2004-12-01

    We have studied the morphological, conformational, and electron-transfer (ET) function of the metalloprotein azurin in the solid state, by a combination of physical investigation methods, namely atomic force microscopy, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. We demonstrate that a "solid state protein film" maintains its nativelike conformation and ET function, even after removal of the aqueous solvent.

  7. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  8. Strangeness nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kenichi

    1999-01-01

    A simple review of strangeness nuclear physics is stated in the order of introduction, generation, structure and decay of hyper-nucleus and S=-2 nuclear physics. Strangeness nuclear physics investigate the structure and nuclear force of new created nucleus by introducing strangeness to the nuclear matter. The fundamental problems are hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interaction. There are many methods to generate hyper nucleus. The stopped K - reaction is the best one. Λ and S hyper and S=-2 nucleus were generated by (K - , π) and (π + , K + ) reaction, (K - , π) reaction and (K - , K + ) reaction, respectively. The elementary decay process in the nucleus is Λ - > pπ (Q=38 MeV), nπ 0 and Λp - > np (Q=176 MeV), Λn- > nn. In emulsion, mass of light nucleus less than 160 were determined. Two measurement units are stated. One of them is a double focusing type K beam line in BNL to investigate H dibaryon by (K - , K + ) reaction. The other is KEK-SKS, which is superconducting kaon spectrometer to study hyper nucleus by (π + , K + ) reaction. The various kinds of binding energy of Λ single-particle states are displayed as a function of A -2/3 . These experimental data fit well with DWIA calculation using Woods-Saxon type one-body potential. A spectrum of 12C (π + , K + ) reaction showed small peak without main two peaks, which was a hyperfine structure between the exited state of 11 C core and couple of s 1/2 Λ. Although γ-ray was detected by three nucleuses such as 4 HΛ, 7 Li Λ and 9 Be Λ , γ-ray spectrometry of hyper nucleus remains unexplored. E hyper nucleus is detected by 4He(K-, t) and not by 4 He (K - , π + ). The binding energy of 4He Σ is 4.4 + 1 MeV and the width 7.0 + 0.7 MeV. Λ hyper nucleus decay is occurred by weak interaction. The elementary processes are a mesonic decay of Λ - > pπ - and Λ - > nπ 0 and a nonmesonic decay of Λn - > nn and Λp- > np. The lifetime of hyper nucleus is shorter than free Λ. Subject of S=-2 nuclear

  9. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  10. Nuclear physics for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingzhong; Liu Bin; Wei Qingming; Ren Xianzhe

    2004-01-01

    The D-T fusion cross-section is calculated using quantum mechanics with the model of square nuclear potential well and Coulomb potential barrier. The agreement between ENDF data and the theoretically calculated results is well in the range of 0.2-280 keV. It shows that the application of Breit-Wigner formula is not suitable for the case of the light nuclei fusion reaction. When this model is applied to the nuclear reaction between the charged particles confined in a lattice, it explains the 'abnormal phenomena'. It implies a prospect of nuclear fusion energy without strong nuclear radiations

  11. Nuclear and Particle Physics Simulations: The Consortium of Upper-Level Physics Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Roberta; Moloney, Michael J.; Philpott, John; Rothberg, Joseph

    1995-06-01

    The Consortium for Upper Level Physics Software (CUPS) has developed a comprehensive series of Nine Book/Software packages that Wiley will publish in FY `95 and `96. CUPS is an international group of 27 physicists, all with extensive backgrounds in the research, teaching, and development of instructional software. The project is being supported by the National Science Foundation (PHY-9014548), and it has received other support from the IBM Corp., Apple Computer Corp., and George Mason University. The Simulations being developed are: Astrophysics, Classical Mechanics, Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics, Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Solid State, Thermal and Statistical, and Wave and Optics.

  12. Nuclear Physics in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wroblewski, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This will be a short presentation of low and high energy nuclear physics in Poland, its history, essential results, and the present status. Nuclear physics in Poland has a tradition of hundred years. Research started just after the discovery of radium and polonium by Polish-born Maria Sklodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie. Maria Sklodowska-Curie employed numerous Polish assistants in her Paris laboratory and supported radioactivity studies in Warsaw, her birth place, then under the occupation of tsarist Russia. In the first decades of the XXth century Poland was one of the leading countries in radioactivity studies. In the late 1930-ies a cyclotron was constructed in Warsaw and an ambitious 'Star of Poland' project was launched to study the cosmic rays. Unfortunately, the Second World War stopped all scientific activity in Poland. A large fraction of Polish physicists perished in the period 1939-1945. After the World War nuclear physics of low and high energy was rebuilt in Warsaw and Krakow. Already in 1952 Marian Danysz and Jerzy Pniewski discovered the first hypernucleus. This important discovery was essential to understand the properties of numerous new particles found in cosmic rays. Polish physicists entered intensive collaboration with both CERN and Dubna and took part also in research at other centers in Europe (DESY, GSI, GANIL, Julich, SACLAY) and the United States (Fermilab). At present the research is concentrated in Warsaw and Krakow (the two largest centers), and smaller teams, mostly theorists, are also in Bialystok, Katowice, Kielce, Lublin, Lodz and Wroclaw. Several years ago a heavy ion cyclotron was built in Warsaw. Among the important discoveries made by Polish nuclear physicists one may mention the theoretical works on superheavy elements and the recent discovery of the two-proton radioactivity

  13. Nuclear Physics division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, E.W.; Longworth, G.; Scofield, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Work undertaken by the Nuclear Physics Division of AERE, Harwell during 1980 is presented under the headings: (1) Nuclear Data and Technology for Nuclear Power. (2) Nuclear Studies. (3) Applications of Nuclear and Associated Techniques. (4) Accelerator Operation, Maintenance and Development. Reports, publications and conference papers presented during the period are given and members of staff listed. (U.K.)

  14. Nuclear Physics Division progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.; Cookson, J.A.; Findlay, D.J.S.

    1984-06-01

    The 1983 progress report of the Nuclear Physics Division, UKAEA Harwell, is divided into four main topics. These are a) nuclear data and technology for nuclear power; b) nuclear studies; c) applications of nuclear and associated techniques, including ion beam techniques and moessbauer spectroscopy; and d) accelerator operation, maintenance and development. (U.K.)

  15. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1993-06-01

    The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis

  17. Yukawa Tomonaga and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Yukawa and Tomonaga made epoch-making contributions to the development of elementary particle physics; Yukawa proposed the meson theory of the nuclear force and Tomonaga developed renormalization theory in QED. The nuclear force is, of course, the basis of all nuclear physics. In this sense, Yukawa's work set the foundations for nuclear physics. Tomonaga worked in his late years on problems of collective motion appearing in many many-particle-systems, nuclear systems being one of the examples. Yukawa and Tomonaga were also deeply involved in founding the Institute of Fundamental Physics and Institute for Nuclear Study, through which they made invaluable contributions to the development of the field of nuclear physics. It is almost impossible to report in this short article on all of what they have achieved and thus I would like to discuss here their contributions to nuclear physics only in a limited scope, based on my personal reminiscence of them. (author)

  18. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of the 2 critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. This paper reviews the standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He--C and He--N and He--O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as 2 D plus 3 He are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N ν , is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of τ n = 890 ± 4s (τ 1/2 = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N ν = 2.6 ± 0.3 (1σ) providing a reasonable fit (1.3σ) to 3 families but making a fourth light (m ν approx-lt 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedingly unlikely (approx-gt 4.7σ) (barring significant systematic errors either in D + 3 He, and Li and/or 4 He and/or τ n ). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-hadron phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions. 21 refs., 3 figs

  19. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  20. Manchester nuclear physics report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the experimental research of the Manchester University Nuclear Physics Group for the period August 1987 - December 1988. The experiments have been performed at the Daresbury Nuclear Structure Facility, mostly using the gamma-ray arrays and the Recoil Separator. However, experiments using the Daresbury Isotope Separator, the Oxford Folded Tandem and the new charged particle detector array are also reported. Studies of gamma decaying states in 21 Ne and 23 Na are reported. The spectroscopy of medium mass nuclei includes the investigation of the Gamow-Tellar decay of 98 Cd. Fourteen studies of the spectroscopy of nuclei with A ≥ 100 are reported. Fission studies and instrumentation and computer developments are also included. (U.K.)

  1. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The introductory section describes the goals, main thrusts, and interrelationships between the various activities in the program and principal achievements of the Stony Brook Nuclear Theory Group during 1992--93. Details and specific accomplishments are related in abstract form. Current research is taking place in the following areas: strong interaction physics (the physics of hadrons, QCD and the nucleus, QCD at finite temperature and high density), relativistic heavy-ion physics, nuclear structure and nuclear many- body theory, and nuclear astrophysics

  2. Nuclear physics mathematical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Gervois, A.; Giannoni, M.J.; Levesque, D.; Maille, M.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear physics mathematical methods, applied to the collective motion theory, to the reduction of the degrees of freedom and to the order and disorder phenomena; are investigated. In the scope of the study, the following aspects are discussed: the entropy of an ensemble of collective variables; the interpretation of the dissipation, applying the information theory; the chaos and the universality; the Monte-Carlo method applied to the classical statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics; the finite elements method, and the classical ergodicity [fr

  3. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  4. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  5. High energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the High Energy Nuclear Physics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory research program is focused on the fundamental physics of interactions, on the new techniques for the acceleration of charged particles and on the nuclei double beta decay. The experiments are performed on the following topics: the measurement of the π 0 inclusive production and the photons production in very high energy nuclei-nuclei interactions and the nucleon stability. Concerning the experiments under construction, a new detector for LEP, the study and simulation of the hadronic showers in a calorimeter and the H1 experiment (HERA), are described. The future research programs and the published papers are listed [fr

  6. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  7. Nuclear physics research report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the 1988 Nuclear Physics Research Report for the University of Surrey, United Kingdom. The report includes both experimental nuclear structure physics and theoretical nuclear physics research work. The experimental work has been carried out predominantly with the Nuclear Structure Facility at the SERC Daresbury Laboratory, and has concerned nuclear shapes, shape coexistence, shape oscillations, single-particle structures and neutron-proton interaction. The theoretical work has involved nuclear reactions with a variety of projectiles below 1 GeV per nucleon incident energy, and aspects of hadronic interactions at intermediate energies. (U.K.)

  8. Panorama of the nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the topics covered by the nuclear physics, as disciplinary basis of the nuclear engineering, is presented, including from the fundamentals of modern physics used in nuclear physics, to the methods and more important applications, with the nucleus structure as central topic of the nuclear physics. In addition to a survey of the essential historical development in the different areas, this survey summarizes the basic concepts, postulates, laws and processes, which are the starting points, as in every scientific discipline for the understanding, interpretation and prediction of the variety of nuclear phenomena observed by methods increasingly improved and more complex, although such experimental methods are not discussed. (author) [es

  9. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This report discusses the following areas of investigation of the Stony Brook Nuclear Theory Group: the physics of hadrons; QCD and the nucleus; QCD at finite temperature and high density; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure and many-body theory; and heavy ion physics

  10. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    We shall organize the description of our many activities under following broad headings: Strong Interaction Physics: the physics of hadrons; QCD and the nucleus; and QCD at finite temperature and high density. Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics. Nuclear Structure and Many-body Theory. Nuclear Astrophysics. While these are the main areas of activity of the Stony Brood group, they do not cover all activities

  11. Reactors physics. Bases of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diop, Ch.M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of nuclear reactor physics is to quantify the relevant macroscopic data for the characterization of the neutronic state of a reactor core and to evaluate the effects of radiations (neutrons and gamma radiations) on organic matter and on inorganic materials. This first article presents the bases of nuclear physics in the context of nuclear reactors: 1 - reactor physics and nuclear physics; 2 - atomic nucleus - basic definitions: nucleus constituents, dimensions and mass of the atomic nucleus, mass defect, binding energy and stability of the nucleus, strong interaction, nuclear momentums of nucleons and nucleus; 3 - nucleus stability and radioactivity: equation of evolution with time - radioactive decay law; alpha decay, stability limit of spontaneous fission, beta decay, electronic capture, gamma emission, internal conversion, radioactivity, two-body problem and notion of radioactive equilibrium. (J.S.)

  12. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, T.

    1991-10-01

    The work done during the past year covers three separate areas, low energy nuclear reactions intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. This manuscript summarizes our achievements made in these three areas

  13. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  14. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  15. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  16. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  17. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelley, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The book is aimed at undergraduates in their final year, to give the student a thorough understanding of the principal features of nuclei, nuclear decays and nuclear reactions. Several models are described and used to explain nuclear properties with many illustrative examples. Sections follow on α-, β- and γ-decay, fission, thermonuclear fusion, reactions, nuclear forces and nuclear collective motion. (author)

  18. Cross-relaxation solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipenko, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross-relaxation functional diagrams provide a high quantum efficiency for pumping bands of solid state laser media and a low waste heat. A large number of the cross-relaxation mechanisms for decay rare earth excited states in crystals have been investigated. These investigations have been a starting-point for development of the cross-relaxation solid state lasers. For example, the cross-relaxation interactions, have been used for the laser action development of LiYF 4 :Gd-Tb. These interactions are important elements of the functional diagrams of the 2 μm Ho-doped media sensitized with Er and Tm and the 3 μm Er-doped media. Recently, new efficient 2 μm laser media with cross-relaxation pumping diagrams have been developed. Physical aspects of these media are the subject of this paper. A new concept of the Er-doped medium, sensitized with Yb, is illustrated

  19. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing

  20. Nuclear physics and astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.

    1992-09-01

    We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.

  1. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  2. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  3. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  4. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Division [for the] period ending December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaper, C.L.; Ajtanand, N.N.; Kerekatte, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, during the calendar year 1977 are reported. The Division is organised into three research sections, namely, solid state physics section, fission physics section and Van de Graaff Laboratory. Techniques of neutron scattering, light scattering, compton scattering and Moessbauer spectroscopy are used in the studies of solid state physics Solid State Physics section. In the Fission Physics Section, experimental studies are concentrated on fission phenomena accompanied by light charged particle emission and theoretical investigations deal with various aspects of fission process, heavy ion reactions and other related areas of nuclear reactions. Research activities of the Van de Graaff Laboratory include: (1) experimental studies of (p,n), (α,n) and (α,α) nuclear reactions; (2) theoretical studies of nuclear structure, pion reactions, (p,2p) and other knock-out phenomena, ion-ion potentials and heavy ion collisions and (3) use of ion beam techniques for production of surface alloys and blistering by helium ion bombardment. Progress in the fabrication of DUMAS mass separator and tandem accelerator is reported. A 100 keV ion implantation facility has been set up and commissioned. (M.G.B.)

  5. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of Fri...

  6. Radiation sensitive solid state devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.M.; Ralph, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    A solid state radiation sensitive device is described employing JFETs as the sensitive elements. Two terminal construction is achieved by using a common conductor to capacitively couple to the JFET gate and to one of the source and drain connections. (auth)

  7. Nuclear and particle physics 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, I.J.D.; Doyle, A.T.

    1993-01-01

    This item documents the International Conference on Nuclear and Particle Physics held at the University of Glasgow, UK, from 30th March to 1st April 1993. It was organised by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Glasgow University on behalf of the Nuclear and Particle Physics Division of the Institute of Physics. The scientific programme covered many areas of current interest in nuclear and particle physics. Particle physics topics included up to the minute reports on the physics currently coming from CERN'S Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), Hadron-Elektron-Ring Analage (HERA) and Large Electron-Positron Storage Rings (LEP), and reviews of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) lattice gauge theory. Looking to the future the programme covered the search for the Higgs boson and a review of physics experiments planned for the new generation of accelerators at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and Superconducting Supercollider (SSC). The conference coincided with the final closure of the world class Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury and marked the transition of United Kingdom (UK) nuclear physics research into a new era of international collaboration. Several talks described new international collaborative research programmes in nuclear physics initiated by UK scientists. The conference also heard of new areas of nuclear physics which will in future be opened up by high energy continuous beam electron accelerators and by radioactive ion beam accelerators. (author)

  8. Nuclear physics, neutron physics and nuclear energy. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejtscheff, W.; Elenkov, D.

    1994-01-01

    The book contains of proceedings of XI International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Nuclear Energy organized traditionally every two years by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and the Physics Department of Sofia University held near the city of Varna. It provides a good insight to the large range of theoretical and experimental results, prospects, problems, difficulties and challenges which are at the core of nuclear physics today. The efforts and achievements of scientists to search for new phenomena in nuclei at extreme circumstances as superdeformation and band crossing in nuclear structure understanding are widely covered. From this point of view the achievements and future in the field of high-precision γ-spectroscopy are included. Nuclear structure models and methods, models for strong interaction, particle production and properties, resonance theory and its application in reactor physics are comprised also. (V.T.)

  9. New perspectives from nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-11-15

    Connections between nuclear physics and neighbouring disciplines of elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology were emphasized at the International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei held in Heidelberg this summer in conjunction with the 600th anniversary of the University of Heidelberg. The meeting reflected the new trend in nuclear physics towards fundamental physics questions. Important subjects included the roles of the neutrino and of proton decay and their deep implications.

  10. New perspectives from nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Connections between nuclear physics and neighbouring disciplines of elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology were emphasized at the International Symposium on Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions in Nuclei held in Heidelberg this summer in conjunction with the 600th anniversary of the University of Heidelberg. The meeting reflected the new trend in nuclear physics towards fundamental physics questions. Important subjects included the roles of the neutrino and of proton decay and their deep implications

  11. Novel scintillators and silicon photomultipliers for nuclear physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, David

    2015-01-01

    Until comparatively recently, scintillator detectors were seen as an old-fashioned tool of nuclear physics with more attention being given to areas such as gamma-ray tracking using high-purity germanium detectors. Next-generation scintillator detectors, such as lanthanum bromide, which were developed for the demands of space science and gamma- ray telescopes, are found to have strong applicability to low energy nuclear physics. Their excellent timing resolution makes them very suitable for fast timing measurements and their much improved energy resolution compared to conventional scintillators promises to open up new avenues in nuclear physics research which were presently hard to access. Such 'medium-resolution' spectroscopy has broad interest across several areas of contemporary interest such as the study of nuclear giant resonances. In addition to the connections to space science, it is striking that the demands of contemporary medical imaging have strong overlap with those of experimental nuclear physics. An example is the interest in PET-MRI combined imaging which requires putting scintillator detectors in a high magnetic field environment. This has led to strong advances in the area of silicon photomultipliers, a solid-state replacement for photomultiplier tubes, which are insensitive to magnetic fields. Broad application to nuclear physics of this technology may be foreseen. (paper)

  12. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors. A compact introduction to history, development, and theory of solid-state physics. 2. ed.; Leiter, Halbleiter, Supraleiter. Eine kompakte Einfuehrung in Geschichte, Entwicklung und Theorie der Festkoerperphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, Rudolf [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik

    2017-05-01

    The present book is a strongly revised and supplemented edition of the title: ''Kristalle: Spiefeld der Elektronen'', published scarcely ten years ago by the same author. Especially the physical contents are explained by the mathematically formulated foundations. The book appeals to students of natural sciences and especially of physics as well as to engineers as introduction to the wide field of solid-state physics, so to speak as motivating prestage to the established and very extensive textbooks. Beside the physical contents the book treats the important role of numerous important and often still very young scientists. By corresponding supplements in this book it is tried to present the fundamental developments in their wide environment.

  13. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  14. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  15. Progress report, Physics Division, October 1 to December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Interim research results are described in nuclear physics (operation of the MP tandem accelerator, nuclear structure and decay), accelerator and applied physics, solid state physics, detectors, and mathematical computation. (E.C.B.)

  16. The α-helical C-terminal domain of full-length recombinant PrP converts to an in-register parallel β-sheet structure in PrP fibrils: evidence from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Savtchenko, Regina; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2010-11-09

    We report the results of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on amyloid fibrils formed by the full-length prion protein PrP (residues 23−231, Syrian hamster sequence). Measurements of intermolecular 13C−13C dipole−dipole couplings in selectively carbonyl-labeled samples indicate that β-sheets in these fibrils have an in-register parallel structure, as previously observed in amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes and in yeast prion fibrils. Two-dimensional 13C−13C and 15N−13C solid state NMR spectra of a uniformly 15N- and 13C-labeled sample indicate that a relatively small fraction of the full sequence, localized to the C-terminal end, forms the structurally ordered, immobilized core. Although unique site-specific assignments of the solid state NMR signals cannot be obtained from these spectra, analysis with a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm suggests that the core is comprised primarily of residues in the 173−224 range. These results are consistent with earlier electron paramagnetic resonance studies of fibrils formed by residues 90−231 of the human PrP sequence, formed under somewhat different conditions [Cobb, N. J., Sonnichsen, F. D., McHaourab, H., and Surewicz, W. K. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18946−18951], suggesting that an in-register parallel β-sheet structure formed by the C-terminal end may be a general feature of PrP fibrils prepared in vitro.

  17. The Relevance of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, V.F.

    1969-01-01

    I am asked what nuclear physics is about, that is, nuclear physics as distinct from particle physics and other parts of physics. I see three trends in this science. One is the discovery of new phenomena, phenomena of nature which we have not seen or observed, of which we did not know anything before. The second trend, I would say, is towards the solution of fundamental problems, the answers to certain basic questions in physics; I shall give some details later on. The third is the construction of new concepts in physics necessary to deal with the problems not only in nuclear physics but also in the rest of physics. The order of these three items is unimportant. This meeting should be concerned not only with the factual questions of science, but also with the, let me say, philosophic and practical questions of nuclear physics. Why do we do nuclear physics, what is the sense of it, what is the meaning of it and, most importantly, how can we defend the support of nuclear physics, how can we convince the governments to spend money on such a thing, which to a certain extent is our pleasure? And so we will have to be quite clear among ourselves that this is a very important matter

  18. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, T.A.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1985-04-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: nuclear physics relevant to astrophysics and cosmology; nuclear structure of 14 N; the Cabibbo angle in Fermi matrix elements of high j states; giant resonances; heavy ion reactions; 0 + - 0 - isoscalar parity mixing in 14 N; parity mixing in hydrogen and deuterium; medium energy physics; and accelerator mass spectrometry. Accelerators and ion sources, nuclear instrumentation, and computer systems at the university are discussed, including the booster linac project

  19. The development of the nuclear physics in Latvia III. The research nuclear reactor IRT begins to work in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanis, U.

    2005-01-01

    This article is associated with the study of reactors technical parameters with specific interest on the effect the distribution of neutron and gamma radiation through the reactor's cooling systems has on the environment. Scientist began by implementing monitoring system to assist in the research of nuclear spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, neutron diffraction, solid-state radiation physics, chemistry and radiobiology. The first sets of results are summarized with in the article. (author)

  20. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  1. Study of solid chemical evolution in torrefaction of different biomasses through solid-state "1"3C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Alonso, Elvira; Dupont, Capucine; Heux, Laurent; Da Silva Perez, Denilson; Commandre, Jean-Michel; Gourdon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase, versus time, during dynamic torrefaction of different types of biomass. For this purpose, two experiments, ThermoGravimetric Analysis and solid-state "1"3C Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, were run on four representative biomasses. Overall mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase were followed, respectively, as a function of temperature and time. Thanks to this coupled information, it was shown that the knowledge of both solid mass loss and chemical evolution is necessary to characterize torrefaction severity. Moreover, biomasses containing higher proportions of xylan lost mass faster than those containing lower proportions. Lignin showed a protecting role towards cellulose, which would lead to a faster degradation of non-woody biomasses in comparison with woody biomasses. Three parameters would have an influence on solid chemical evolution during torrefaction: xylan content in hemicellulose, lignin content in biomass, and cellulose crystallinity. - Highlights: • Torrefaction of four biomasses was studied with TGA and solid-state NMR. • Both solid mass loss and chemical evolution characterize torrefaction severity. • Biomasses containing a higher proportion of xylan lose mass faster. • Lignin shows a stronger protecting role in degradation of woody biomasses. • Xylan, lignin and crystalline cellulose values influence solid chemical evolution.

  2. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  3. Theoretical nuclear and subnuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walecka, John Dirk

    1995-01-01

    This comprehensive text expertly details the numerous theoretical techniques central to the discipline of nuclear physics. It is based on lecture notes from a three-lecture series given at CEBAF (the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility), where John Dirk Walecka at the time was Scientific Director: "Graduate Quantum Mechanics", "Advanced Quantum Mechanics and Field Theory" and "Special Topics in Nuclear Physics". The primary goal of this text is pedagogical; providing a clear, logical, in-depth, and unifying treatment of many diverse aspects of modern nuclear theory ranging from the non-relativistic many-body problem to the standard model of the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. Four key topics are emphasised in this text: basic nuclear structure, the relativistic nuclear many-body problem, strong-coupling QCD, and electroweak interactions with nuclei. The text is designed to provide graduate students with a basic level of understanding of modern nuclear physics so that they in turn can...

  4. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Tanihata, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides. One goal, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell modelclose quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. 25 refs., 7 figs

  5. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell model close quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs

  6. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  7. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions ℎ → 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses

  8. Growth points in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgson, Peter Edward

    1980-01-01

    Growth Points in Nuclear Physics, Volume 2 covers the progress in the fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. This book is composed of three chapters. The first chapter is devoted to nuclear forces and potentials, in particular the optical model potential that enables the elastic scattering of many particles by nuclei to be calculated in a very simple manner. This chapter also deals with the three-body forces and the spin dependence of the nuclear potential. The second chapter describes higher order processes involving two or more stages, specifically their intrinsic interest and th

  9. The influence of the soil and plant natures and pollution on the radon and thoron alpha-activities inside various herbal infusions by using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misdaq, M.A.; Nouh, F.A.; Bourzik, W.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium and thorium contents were determined in samples of various plants in the soils in which the plants were grown, and in herbal infusions made by boiling the plants in potable water, using CR-39 and LR-115 solid state nuclear track detectors. In addition, radon and thoron alpha-activities per unit volume inside the plants, soils and herbal infusions were measured. These measurements were completed by an investigation of the radon transfer between soils and plants and that between plants and herbal infusions, and also by the investigation of the influence of pollution due to different material dusts on the radon and thoron alpha activities inside the plants and their infusions. (author)

  10. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  11. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included

  12. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvieux, J. [Laboratoire National Saturne, Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-31

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Theoretical studies in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: Imaginary Optical Potential; Isospin Effects; Scattering and Charge Exchange Reactions; Pairing Effects; bar K Interactions; Momentum Space Proton Scattering; Computational Nuclear Physics; Pion-Nucleus Interactions; and Antiproton Interactions

  14. Nuclear physics in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear physics is the study of the heavy but tiny nucleus that lies at the centre of all atoms and makes up 99.9 per cent by weight of everything we see. There are many applications of nuclear physics including direct contributions to medicine and industry, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as diagnostic tracers, or of beams of nuclei for tailoring the properties of semiconductors. More indirectly, ideas and concepts of nuclear physics have influence in many corners of modern science and technology. Physicists in the UK have a long tradition in nuclear physics, and have developed a world-wide reputation for the excellence of their work. This booklet explains more about this rich field of study, its applications, its role in training, and its future directions. (author)

  15. Computers in Nuclear Physics Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalczyk, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Srebrny, J.

    1997-01-01

    Improving of the computer equipment in Nuclear Physics Division is described. It include: new computer equipment and hardware upgrading, software developing, new programs for computer booting and modernization of data acquisition systems

  16. Lepton probes in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieux, J.

    1994-01-01

    Facilities are overviewed which use the lepton probe to learn about nuclear physics. The lepton accelerating methods out some existing facilities are considered. The ELFE project is discussed in detail. (K.A.). 43 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs

  17. [Experimental nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This report contains brief discussion on the following tapes: giant resonances; nucleus-nucleus reactions; nuclear astrophysics; polarization; fundamental symmetries and interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; instrumentation; accelerators and in sources; and computer systems

  18. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1983. Commissioning of the EN-tandem electrostatic accelerator continued, with the first proton beam produced in June. Many improvements were made to the vacuum pumping and control systems. Applications of the nuclear microprobe on the 3MV accelerator continued at a good pace, with applications in archaeometry, dental research, studies of glass and metallurgy

  19. Multimedia on nuclear reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dies, Javier; Puig, Francesc

    2010-01-01

    The paper present an example of measures that have been found to be effective in the development of innovative educational and training technology. A multimedia course on nuclear reactor physics is presented. This material has been used for courses at master level at the universities; training for engineers at nuclear power plant as modular 2 weeks course; and training operators of nuclear power plant. The multimedia has about 785 slides and the text is in English, Spanish and French. (authors)

  20. Nuclear physics with electroweak probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhar, Omar

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the italian theoretical Nuclear Physics community has played a leading role in the development of a unified approach, allowing for a consistent and fully quantitative description of the nuclear response to electromagnetic and weak probes. In this paper I review the main achievements in both fields, point out some of the open problems, and outline the most promising prospects

  1. Nuclear physics on the lattice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to try to adapt lattice gauge theory to build in some biases in order for being applicable to nuclear physics. In so doing the calculations are made more precise, and the author can address questions like the size of the nucleon, the nucleon-nucleon potential, the modifications of the nucleon in the nuclear medium, etc. (Auth.)

  2. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, Takeshi.

    1990-10-01

    The work done during the past year or so may be divided into three separate areas, low energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics and nuclear structure studies. In this paper, we shall separately summarize our achievements made in these three areas

  3. Quarklei: nuclear physics from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1985-01-01

    The difficulties posed for nuclear physics by either recognizing or ignoring QCD, are discussed. A QCD model for nuclei is described. A crude approximation is shown to qualitatively reproduce saturation of nuclear binding energies and the EMC effect. The model is applied seriously to small nuclei, and to hypernuclei

  4. Fundamental aspects of nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    I am pleased to be able to attend this symposium in honor of D. Allan Bromley and to see the new accelerator of the Yale University Nuclear Structure Laboratory. My talk on symmetry tests seems appropriate for this occasion: so much of the progress in this field depends on detailed knowledge of nuclear structure. The nuclear ''tricks'' that are played to filter and amplify interactions are possible because the nuclear spectroscopists have cataloged nuclear levels and determined their properties. I will describe how such nuclear structure studies may help to provide a window on physics beyond the standard model. My talk is not a summary of this subfield of nuclear physics. There is simply too much happening today to make a summary talk feasible. Instead, I have chosen four topics that I hope are representative of the field as a whole: parity mixing of nuclear states, time-reversal-odd nuclear moments, the Mikheyev-Smirnov enhancement of solar neutrino oscillations, and a nuclear experiment to monitor the long-term rate of stellar collapse in the galaxy. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  5. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  6. Characterization of plastic nuclear track detectors on solid state, CR-39 and LR-115 and its possibilities application on thermal and fast neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallejo Delgado, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    This work is an study about the use feasibility of plastic nuclear track detectors, LR 115, II-B (of Eastmann Kodak Co) and CR-39 (of American Acrylics and Plastics), for thermal and fast neutron dosimetry, respectively. The LR-115 with converter (n, alpha) was exposed to thermal neutrons with energy of 0,046 e V, proceeding from nuclear reactor RECH-1 of Nuclear Energy Chilean Commission. The irradiated films were submited to a chemical etching with NaOH, plus a washing and brushing. The CR-39 with polyethylene irradiator, was exposed to fast neutrons proceeding of calibrated sources of Am-Se. The irradiated plates were submited to a chemical pre-etching with KOH and a electrochemical post-etching. (author)

  7. Nuclear power and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mi

    2006-01-01

    During the 30s and 40s of the last century atomic physicists discovered the fission of uranium nuclei bombarded by neutrons and realized the first self-sustaining controlled fission chain reaction, which ushered in the atomic age. After 50 years of electricity production, in 2003 nuclear power plants were generating 16% of the total electricity in the world. Of these, thermal neutron reactors make up over 99%. For the large scale production of nuclear power, say up to hundreds of GWe, it is very important to speed up the development and deployment of fast breeder reactors to avoid the future lack of uranium resources. (authors)

  8. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Bob [bmck@jlab.org

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  9. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  10. US nuclear physics funding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Because of restrictions in the federal budget, US science spending is coming under close scrutiny, with strong implications for the evolution of the nation's physics research. Recently the Witherell subpanel of the Department of Energy's High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) submitted recommendations on how the US research scene could evolve pending commissioning of the SSC Superconducting Supercollider

  11. Proceedings of the Latin American School of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main subjects covered by the Latin American School of Physics are nuclear physics and elementary particle physics. Some areas such as solid state physics, statistical mechanics and gravitation are also included. (M.C.K.)

  12. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  13. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: An Advisory Group met to consider the up-dating and extension of the Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, produced in 1972. Twenty-seven experts from 11 countries and EURATOM were present. Growing concern has been expressed in many countries that nuclear material may one day be used for acts of sabotage or terrorism. Serious attention is therefore being given to the need for States to develop national systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transport throughout the nuclear fuel cycle which should minimize risks of sabotage or theft. The revised Recommendations formulated by the Advisory Group include new definitions of the objectives of national systems of physical protection and proposals for minimizing possibilities of unauthorized removal and sabotage to nuclear facilities. The Recommendations also describe administrative or organizational steps to be taken for this purpose and the essential technical requirements of physical protection for various types and locations of nuclear material, e.g., the setting up of protected areas, the use of physical barriers and alarms, the need for security survey, and the need of advance arrangements between the States concerned in case of international transportation, among others. (author)

  14. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  15. Determination of oxygen potentials and O/M ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuels by means of an automated solid state galvanic cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toci, F.; Cambini, M.

    1987-01-01

    An automated version of the electromotive force (emf) cell for the determination of oxygen activities and oxygen to metal ratios of oxide nuclear reactor fuel, irradiated or not, is reported together with some measurements. 9 figs., 17 refs. In appendix a method is described for preparing suitable electrolyte crucibles

  16. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  17. Outline of scientific and research activities of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncar, G.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of scientific and research activities carried out in the departments of the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. The first section lists the principal results achieved in the course of the 6th Five-Year Plan in Physical Electronics, Solid State Engineering, Materials Structure and Properties, Nuclear Physics, Theory and Technology of Nuclear Reactors, Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Chemistry. The second part gives a summary of scientific and research work carried out in the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering in the 7th Five-Year Plan in all branches of science represented. The Faculty's achievements in international scientific cooperation are assessed. (author)

  18. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  19. Research in theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, T.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group in the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin, during the period of November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993. The work done covers three separate areas, low-energy nuclear reactions, intermediate energy physics, and nuclear structure studies. Although the subjects are thus spread among different areas, they are based on two techniques developed in previous years. These techniques are a powerful method for continuum-random-phase-approximation (CRPA) calculations of nuclear response and the breakup-fusion (BF) approach to incomplete fusion reactions, which calculation on a single footing of various incomplete fusion reaction cross sections within the framework of direct reaction theories. The approach was developed as a part of a more general program for establishing an approach to describing all different types of nuclear reactions, i.e., complete fusion, incomplete fusion and direct reactions, in a systematic way based on single theoretical framework

  20. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials)

  1. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  2. Current puzzles in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A meeting on ''Current puzzles in nuclear physics'' was held at Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, on June 27 - 28, 1984. The meeting put emphasis on several puzzles which have not been solved for a long time in nuclear physics, and also on the puzzles. This collective report is composed of following eleven papers presented at the meeting. Almost all the papers are witten in English : (1) M1, GT excitations and configuration mixing (in Japanese). (2) Hadronic excitation of pionic states. (3) Microscopic analyses of 28 Si(α,α') 28 Si scattering and single particle strength in A = 29 nuclei. (4) Few-body physics and its incentives to nuclear physics. (5) Is it necessary to introduce three body interactions ? (in Japanese). (6) Puzzles in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering. (7) Puzzles in NN, NΔ, πN and Nanti N interactions. (8) Problems in Hadron-Nucleus interaction. (9) Unified approach to the meson- and quark- theory of nuclear forces and currents. (10) Pion photoproduction in two Chiral bag models. (11) The dynamic bag model : The electromagnetic properties of nucleon. (Aoki, K.)

  3. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  4. Solid-state radar switchboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaud, P.; Cross, D. C.

    1980-07-01

    A new solid-state radar switchboard equipped with 16 input ports which will output data to 16 displays is presented. Each of the ports will handle a single two-dimensional radar input, or three ports will accommodate a three-dimensional radar input. A video switch card of the switchboard is used to switch all signals, with the exception of the IFF-mode-control lines. Each card accepts inputs from up to 16 sources and can pass a signal with bandwidth greater than 20 MHz to the display assigned to that card. The synchro amplifier of current systems has been eliminated and in the new design each PPI receives radar data via a single coaxial cable. This significant reduction in cabling is achieved by adding a serial-to-parallel interface and a digital-to-synchro converter located at the PPI.

  5. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  6. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  7. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  8. Extending solid state laser performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesak, Ed

    2017-02-01

    Coherent Diode-Pumped Solid-State Orlando (CDO), formerly known as Lee Laser, headquartered in Orlando Florida produces CW and pulsed solid state lasers. Primary wavelengths include 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. Other wavelengths produced include 1320 nm, 15xx nm, and 16xx nm. Pulse widths are in the range of singles to hundreds of nanoseconds. Average powers are in the range of a few watts to 1000 watts. Pulse repetition rates are typically in the range of 100 Hz to 100 KHz. Laser performance parameters are often modified according to customer requests. Laser parameters that can be adjusted include average power, pulse repetition rate, pulse length, beam quality, and wavelength. Laser parameters are typically cross-coupled such that adjusting one may change some or all of the others. Customers often request one or more parameters be changed without changing any of the remaining parameters. CDO has learned how to accomplish this successfully with rapid turn-around times and minimal cost impact. The experience gained by accommodating customer requests has produced a textbook of cause and effect combinations of laser components to accomplish almost any parameter change request. Understanding the relationships between component combinations provides valuable insight into lasing effects allowing designers to extend laser performance beyond what is currently available. This has led to several break through products, i.e. >150W average power 355 nm, >60W average power 6 ps 1064 nm, pulse lengths longer than 400 ns at 532 nm with average power >100W, >400W 532 nm with pulse lengths in the 100 ns range.

  9. Nuclear physics with hyperons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povh, B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of hypernuclear spectroscopy and their interpretations are presented. The kinematical properties and, in particular, the distortion in strangeness exchange reactions are considered and experimental methods developed for hypernuclear spectroscopy discussed. The present understanding and knowledge of the Λ-nucleus interaction obtained from classical emulsion work on the ground state of light hypernuclei and the systematic study of the (K - , π - ) reaction on nuclei in more recent counter experiments are reviewed. The problem of the quasiparticle behaviour in nuclear matter is considered in the light of interactions. Finally recent results on the Σ-nucleus interactions are presented. (U.K.)

  10. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains small papers on the following topics: ground state correlations of nuclei in relativistic random phase approximation; instability of infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic hartree approximation; charge density differences for nuclei near 208 Pb in relativistic models; meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics; analysis of the O + → O - reaction at intermediate energies; contributions of reaction channels to the 6 Li(p,γ) 7 Be Reaction; deformed chiral nucleons; vacuum polarization in a finite system; second order processes in the (e,e'd) reaction; sea contributions in Dirac RPA for finite nuclei; and momentum cutoffs in the sea

  11. Progress report 1982-1983. Department of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Research and development activities of the Physics Department during the period 1982-1983 are described in the following fields: TANDAR (heavy ions accelerator, laboratories, nuclear facilities); nuclear physics (nuclear structure, nuclear reactions); solid state physics (vibrational spectroscopy, crystal structure and phase transformations, crystal growth, Mossbauer spectroscopy, theoretical solid state physics, geological applications); solar energy. Finally a list of publications and papers presented at meetings and conferences is included. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. Progress report 1982-1983. Department of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Research and development activities of the Physics Department during the period 1982-1983 are described in the following fields: TANDAR (heavy ions accelerator, laboratories, nuclear facilities); Nuclear Physics (nuclear structure, nuclear reactions); Solid State Physics (vibrational spectroscopy, crystal structure and phase transformations, crystal growth, Mossbauer spectroscopy, theoretical solid state physics, geological applications); Solar Energy. Finally a list of publications and papers presented at meetings and conferences is included. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Radiological and Nuclear Detection Material Science: Novel Rare-Earth Semiconductors for Solid-State Neutron Detectors and Thin High-k Dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-15-82 Radiological and Nuclear Detection Material Science : Novel...P.A. Dowben, “Surface Charging at the (100) Surface of Cu doped and undoped Li2B4O7”, Applied Surface Science 257 (2011) 3399-3403 27. S.R...V.T. Adamiv, Ya.V. Burak, P.A. Dowben, “The local structure of Mn doped Li2B4O7(001)”, in preparation for Materials Science and Engineering B 40. C

  14. National Nuclear Physics Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 National Nuclear Physics Summer School (NNPSS) will be held from Monday July 18 through Friday July 29, 2016, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The summer school is open to graduate students and postdocs within a few years of their PhD (on either side) with a strong interest in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. The program will include the following speakers: Accelerators and Detectors - Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Brookhaven National Laboratory Data Analysis - Michael Williams, MIT Double Beta Decay - Lindley Winslow, MIT Electron-Ion Collider - Abhay Deshpande, Stony Brook University Fundamental Symmetries - Vincenzo Cirigliano, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hadronic Spectroscopy - Matthew Shepherd, Indiana University Hadronic Structure - Jianwei Qiu, Brookhaven National Laboratory Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 1 - Jamie Nagle, Colorado University Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 2 - Wilke van der Schee, MIT Lattice QCD - Sinead Ryan, Trinity College Dublin Neutrino Theory - Cecil...

  15. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  16. Boron and Tin in Nuclear Medicine: The Development of Reactive Solid-State Reagents for use in PET and SPECT. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George W. Kabalka

    2006-01-01

    The research program was directed at the use of functionalized organometallic reagents that would rapidly react with radiolabeled agents generated by a medical cyclotron or reactor. The radioisotopes included fluorine-18, oxygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and iodine-123; all short lived nuclides of importance in nuclear medicine imaging studies utilizing emission tomography techniques. The early studies led to the development of extensive new isotope incorporation chemistry. These studies validated the feasibility of using reactive intermediates, such as the organoboranes, and acted as a catalyst for others to investigate organometallic agents based on mercury, tin, and silicon. A large number of radiolabeling techniques and radiopharmaceuticals were developed. These included agents for use in oncology, neurology, and metabolism. The research resulted in the generation of one hundred and one journal articles, eighty seven refereed published abstracts and forty one invited lectures. Thirteen postdoctoral students, fourteen graduate students, and twenty eight undergraduate students were trained in the scientific aspects of nuclear medicine imaging under the auspices of this grant

  17. Final Report for "Boron and Tin in Nuclear Medicien: The Development of Reactive Solid-State Reagents for PET and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George W. Kabalka

    2006-01-13

    The research program was directed at the use of functionalized organometallic reagents that would rapidly react with radiolabeled agents generated by a medical cyclotron or reactor. The radioisotopes included fluorine-18, oxgygen-15, nitrogen-13, carbon-11 and iodine-123; all short lived nuclides of importantce in nuclear medicine imaging studies utilizing emission tomography techniques. The early studies led to the development of extensive new isotope incorporation chemistry. These studies validated the feasibility of using reactive intermediates, such as the organoboranes, and acted as a catalyst for others to investigate organometallic agents based on mercury, tin, and silicon. A large number of radiolabeling techniques and radiopharmaceuticals were developed. These included agents for use in oncology, neurology, and metabolism. The research resulted in the generation of one hundred and one journal articles, eighty seven refereed published abstracts and forty one invited lectures. Thirteen postdoctoral students, fourteen graduate students, and twenty eight undergraduate students were trained in the scientific aspects of nuclear medicine imaging under the asupices of this grant.

  18. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Progress is described in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, nuclear structure and light ion reactions, giant resonances in radiative capture, heavy ion reations, nuclear tests of fundamental symmetries, parity violation in hydrogen, medium energy physics, accelerator mass spectrometry (C-14 and Be-10 radiochronology programs), accelerators and ion sources, magnetic spectrograph/momentum filter, instrumentation and experimental techniques, computers and computing, and the superconducting booster for the University of Washington tandem accelerator. Publications are listed

  19. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  20. Nuclear physics annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The paper is the annual report of Manchester University Nuclear Physics Group, 1985/6. The bulk of the work has been carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, often in collaboration with other groups. The research programme topics include: high spin states, nuclei far from stability, reactions and fission, spectroscopy and related subjects, and technical developments. The experiments associated with these topics are described, together with the results of the investigations. (UK)

  1. XXXIX Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, Luis; Bijker, Roelof

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “XXXIX Symposium on Nuclear Physics”, that was held from January 5-8, 2016 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 20 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, invited talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 39th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 29 invited talks and a poster session on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions to radioactive beams, nuclear astrophysics, hadronic physics, fundamental symmetries and relativistic heavy ions, as well as progress reports of large international projects like the HAWC Observatory in Puebla, Mexico, and the ATLAS and ALICE Collaborations of the LHC accelerator at CERN, Switzerland. In addition, there were several contributions highlighting interesting new results from foreign laboratories like Notre Dame, RIKEN, Jefferson Lab, Oak Ridge, INFN-Legnaro and INFN-LNS, as well as Mexican laboratories at ININ, LEMA and the Carlos Graef Laboratory at IF-UNAM. On the theoretical side there were talks on recent developments in nuclear structure, weakly bound nuclei, cluster models

  2. Theoretical nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the triangle-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to bar pp → bar Λ Λ reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field

  3. Theoretical nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains small papers on the following topics: ground state correlations of nuclei in relativistic random phase approximation; instability of infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic hartree approximation; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in relativistic models; meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics; analysis of the O{sup +} {yields} O{sup {minus}} reaction at intermediate energies; contributions of reaction channels to the {sup 6}Li(p,{gamma}){sup 7}Be Reaction; deformed chiral nucleons; vacuum polarization in a finite system; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; sea contributions in Dirac RPA for finite nuclei; and momentum cutoffs in the sea.

  4. Theoretical nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

  5. Nuclear physics in the cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics studies the physics of atomic nuclei, gravity, and thermodynamics in the early universe, stars and stellar explosions. Seventy years of nuclear science has allowed us to infer the origin of the chemical elements out of which our bodies and the Earth are made. We now believe that the lightest elements were created in nuclear reactions in the first three minutes after the big bang, and all the rest were made in nuclear reactions inside the stars and distributed throughout interstellar space via stellar winds and giant stellar explosions. I will show how a new generation of theoretical developments and experiments can shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. (author)

  6. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  7. Radiation-chemical aspects of solid state hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, T.; Collins, K.E.; Collins, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    The study of nuclear hot atom chemical (NHAC) processes occurring in solids is seriously limited by the lack of adequate methods for directly studying the chemical species containing hot atoms. In the present review the effects of ionizing radiation on parent and non-parent yields from solid state targets is surveyed and qualitative interpretations are given. After a few general remarks of the relationship of radiation chemistry to solid state NHAC, a detailed description of the radiation effects is given (radiation annealing, neutron activation, changes in separable yield). (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear Physics Group progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarises the work of the Nuclear Physics Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during the period January-December 1984. Commissioning of the EN-tandem accelerator was completed. The first applications included the production of 13 N from a water target and the measurement of hydrogen depth profiles with a 19 F beam. Further equipment was built for tandem accelerator mass spectrometry but the full facility will not be ready until 1985. The nuclear microprobe on the 3 MV accelerator was used for many studies in archaeometry, metallurgy, biology and materials analysis

  9. The solid-state signaling pathway from extracellular matrix to nuclear matrix: The critical role of three-dimensional architecture for functional differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, S.; Bissell, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Breast cells are useful experimental subjects for cell biologists because the mammary gland is one of the few tissues that undergoes dramatic changes in form and function after adulthood. Recently, the study in our laboratory of a human breast tumor progression series has allowed for the analysis of changes in cellular architecture (including nuclear architecture) when phenotypically normal cells become tumorigenic. This research aims to participate in the battle against breast cancer by helping to understand tumor progression and to identify new therapeutic markers for cancer treatment. This article explores the advantages and challenges of using high resolution X-ray computed microtomography for the study of 3-dimensional organization of breast tissue architecture.

  10. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  11. Nuclear physics group annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The experimental activities of the nuclear physics group at the University of Oslo have in 1983 as in the previous years mainly been centered around the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron. The cyclotron has been in extensive use during the year for low-energy nuclear physics experiments. In addition it has been used for production of radionuclides for nuclear medicine, for experiments in nuclear chemistry and for corrosion and wear studies. After four years of operation, the cyclotron is still the newest nuclear accelerator in Scandinavia. The available beam energies (protons and alpha-particles up to 35 MeV and *sp3*He-particles up to 48 MeV, makes it a good tool for studies of highly excited low-spin states. The well developed on-line computer system has added to its usefulness. Most of the nuclear experiments during the year have been connected with the study of nuclear structure at high temperature. Experimens with the *sp3*He beam have given very interesting results. Theoretical studies have continued in the same field, and there has been a fruitful cooperation between experimental and theoretical physicists. Most of the experiments are performd as joint projects where physicists from two or three Nordic universities take part. (RF)

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory. Annual report no.21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    The annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory covers the following subjects: 1) the accelerators; 2) work in experimental nuclear physics; 3) research in particle physics: experiments at TRIUMF and CERN; 4) work in applied nuclear physics; and 5) work in theoretical physics

  13. Nuclear Physics Laboratory. Annual report no.22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory covers the following subjects: 1) the accelerators; 2) work in experimental nuclear physics; 3) research in particle physics: experiments at TRIUMF and CERN; 4) work in applied nuclear physics; and 5) work in theoretical physics

  14. Current status and improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guopu; Guo Lanying

    1999-01-01

    The author reviews the current status of the nuclear physics experiment course for speciality of nuclear physics and nuclear technology in higher education and expresses author's views on the future improvement of the nuclear physics experiment course

  15. Study of radon exhalation rates using solid state nuclear track detectors in stone mining area of Aravali range in Pali region, district Faridabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Yadav, A.S.; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that indoor radon-thoron and daughters are the largest contributor to total radiation dose received by populations. They account for more than 50% of the total dose and the radiation exposure beyond permissible levels can lead to deleterious effects on health. This fact necessitates extensive studies of natural radioactivity levels in the stone mining area of Aravali range in Faridabad. The stone mining area of Aravali Range in Pali, District Faridabad bears significant geological features. Radon exhalation from ground plays an important role in enhanced indoor radon levels and can pose grave health hazards to the workers and the residents. Exhalation rates (mass and surface) from stone samples of the area have been studied using LR-115, Type II nuclear track detectors. The mass and surface exhalation rates from crushed stone samples, also called stone dust varied in the range 3.41-9.11 mBq kg -1 h - 1 and 75.9-202.7 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The study has revealed substantial presence of radionuclides in the samples collected from the mining area. (author)

  16. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  17. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  18. Analysis and modelling of the performance of a new solid-state detector in nuclear medicine: from Anger- to Semiconductor-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, L.

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Developed in the 1980's with rotating Anger gamma cameras, this technique could be dramatically enhanced by new imaging systems working with semiconductor detectors and which performances are clearly enhanced. Two semiconductor cameras, dedicated to nuclear cardiology and equipped with Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors, have been recently commercialized: the Discovery NM- 530c (General Electric) and the DSPECT (Spectrum Dynamics). The performances of these CZT cameras were compared: 1) by a comprehensive analysis of phantom and human SPECT images considered as normal and 2) with the parameters commonly recommended for SPECT recording and reconstruction. The results show the superiority of the CZT cameras in terms of detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and contrast-to-noise ratio, compared to conventional Anger cameras. These properties might lead to dramatically reduce acquisition times and/or the injected activities. However, the limits of these new CZT cameras, as well as the mechanism of certain artefacts, remain poorly known. This knowledge could be enhanced by a numerical modeling of the DSPECT camera, and this might also help to optimize acquisition and reconstruction parameters. We developed a simulator where the geometry of the detectors of the DSPECT camera and their energy response were modeled in the GATE platform. In order to validate this simulator, actually recorded data were compared with simulated data through three performance parameters: detection sensitivity, spatial resolution and energy resolution. Results were in agreement between simulated and actually recorded data. This observation validates the DSPECT simulator and opens the door to further studies planed to optimize the recorded and reconstruction processes, especially for complex protocols such as simultaneous dual-radionuclide acquisition

  19. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references

  20. Nuclear physics experiment at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Kenzo.

    1981-02-01

    Present activities at the Institute for Nuclear Study (INS) are presented. Selected topics are from recent experiments by use of the INS cyclotron, experiments at the Bevalac facility under the INS-LBL collaboration program, and preparatory works for the Numatron project, a new project for the high-energy heavy-ion physics. (author)