WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear safety issues

  1. Nuclear reactors safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Francois; Seiler, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since the seventies, economic incentives have led the utilities to drive a permanent evolution of the light water reactor (LWR). The evolution deals with the reactor designs as well as the way to operate them in a more flexible manner. It is for instance related to the fuel technologies and management. On the one hand, the technologies are in continuous evolution, such as the fuel pellets (MOX, Gd fuel, or Cr doped fuels..) as well as advanced cladding materials (M5 TM , MDA or ZIRLO). On the other hand, the fuel management is also subject to continuous evolution in particular in terms of increasing the level of burn-up, the reactor (core) power, the enrichment, as well as the duration of reactor cycles. For instance, in a few years in France, the burn-up has raised beyond the value of 39 GWj/t, initially authorized up to 52 GWj/t for the UO 2 fuel. In the near future, utilities foreseen to reach fuel burn-up of 60 GWj/t for MOX fuel and 70 GWj/t for UO 2 fuel. Furthermore, the future reactor of fourth generation will use new fuels of advanced conception. Furthermore with the objective of improving the safety margins, methods and calculation tools used by the utilities in the elaboration of their safety demonstrations submitted to the Safety Authority, are in movement. The margin evaluation methodologies often consist of a calculation chain of best-estimate multi-field simulations (e.g. various codes being coupled to simulate in a realistic way the evolution of the thermohydraulic, neutronic and mechanic state of the reactor). The statistical methods are more and more sophisticated and the computer codes are integrating ever-complex physical models (e.g. three-dimensional at fine scale). Following this evolution, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), whose one of the roles is to examine the safety records and to rend a technical expertise, considers the necessity of reevaluating the safety issues for advanced

  2. Content analysis of controversy on nuclear safety issues in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kazuyasu

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power generation will play an important role in energy supplies in Japan. Full discussion on the safety aspect among various walks of society, leading to public acceptance of nuclear power generation, is essential for the nation. Contents of 20 monthly and weekly magazines (about 400 articles) and of 86 newspapers (about 80,000 news items) from 1972 to 1975 were analyzed concerning nuclear safety issues. The following matters are presented: arguments of the respective classes of people, logic structure of nuclear safety problem, safety-persuasive communication, etc., (Mori, K.)

  3. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, T.; Yamanaka, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses

  4. International conference on topical issues in nuclear safety. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the Conference was to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on the present status of these issues, priorities for future work, and needs for strengthening international cooperation, including the IAEA recommendations for future activities. This book contains concise contributed papers submitted on issues falling within the thematic scope of the Conference: risk informed decision making, influence of external factors on safety, safety of fuel cycle facilities, safety of research reactors, and safety performance indicators

  5. The Norwegian Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The Plan of Action underlies Norwegian activities in the field of international co-operation to enhance nuclear safety and prevent radioactive contamination from activities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Geographically the highest priority has been given to support for safety measures in north-west Russia. This information brochure outlines the main content of the Plan of Action for nuclear safety issues and lists a number of associated measures and projects

  6. Identification of licensing issues for SFR nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo Hoon; Choi, Yong Won; Shin, An Dong; Suh, Nam Duk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A conceptual design of sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) in Korea has been developed by KAERI. An application for the design approval of a prototype SFR is scheduled in 2017. In order to prepare the licensing of a prototype SFR, KINS is developing the regulatory technologies for SFR since 2010. Fast reactors such as SFRs have fundamental differences in nuclear characteristics compared to thermal reactors such as LWRs. As a result, there are significant differences in reactivity feedback mechanism to assure the inherent safety of reactors. Especially, positive coolant density coefficient and void worth are main concern in passive safety argument. However, the current safety guidelines for nuclear facilities in Korea specify to regulate nuclear facilities targeting on LWRs, and therefore the development of regulatory guidelines reflecting SFR nuclear features is required. In this paper, the licensing issues for SFR nuclear safety, especially reactivity coefficients, are identified to derive the licensing issues and develop the regulatory review guidelines. In order to identify the issues, (1) the SFR nuclear characteristics and the p reapplication safety evaluation report of PRISM are reviewed, and (2) the applicability of guideline for LWR nuclear safety to SFR is evaluated.

  7. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  8. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed

  9. Nuclear power systems: Their safety. Current issue review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1994-04-01

    Human beings utilize energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. A number of countries have chosen nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy system. At the end of 1992, there were 419 power reactors operating in 29 countries, accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, 13 countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with Lithuania leading at just over 78%, followed closely by France at 72%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 53 power reactors are under construction in 14 countries outside the former USSR. Within the ex-USSR countries, six new reactors are currently under construction. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether of not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986 in the then Soviet Union, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. Subsequent opening of the ex-Soviet nuclear power program to outside scrutiny has done little to calm people's concerns about the safety of nuclear power in that part of the world. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date, as well as more recent, less dramatic events touching on the safety issue. (author). 7 refs

  10. IAEA activities on communication of nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, P.

    2001-01-01

    The regulatory authorities in several countries have taken the initiative to overcome the renowned difficulties of communicating nuclear safety issues. They communicate with segments of the public specially in case of nuclear/radiological accidents, waste disposal, transport of radioactive material or food irradiation. This reflects the full recognition of the importance of the topic. However it is also recognized that there is hitherto a need of international assistance in order to develop a regulatory communication strategy that could be harmonized and at the same time customized to the different needs. Communications on nuclear, radiation, transport and radioactive waste safety are needed to: disseminate information on safety to the public in both routine and emergency situations ; be attentive to public concerns, and address them; maintain social trust and confidence by keeping society informed on the established safety standards and how they are enforced; facilitate the decision-making process on nuclear matters by promptly presenting factual information in a clear manner; integrate and maintain an information network at both the national and international levels; improve co-operation with other countries and international organizations; encourage the dissemination of factual information on nuclear issues in schools. A major factor in addressing all of these questions is understanding the audience(s). A two way communication process is needed to establish what particular audiences want to know and in what form they prefer to receive information. This will differ depending on the audience and circumstances. For example, the information on a routine day-to-day basis will be different from what might be needed at the time of an accident. Communication with the news media is a matter of particular importance, as they are both an audience in themselves and a channel for communicating with wider audiences. (author)

  11. Kazakhstan nuclear safety and non-proliferation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanova, N.

    2002-01-01

    '. Therefore, analysis of nuclear safety and non-proliferation issues are particularly pressing on a global level, as well as in Kazakhstan, where non-proliferation issues have their own specific and as yet unstudied facets

  12. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 12, September 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Security Report 2009; G8 Nuclear Safety and Security Group (NSSG); Uranium Production Site Appraisal Team (UPSAT); New Entrant Nuclear Power Programmes Safety Guide on the Establishment of the Safety Infrastructure (DS424)

  13. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 11, June 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008; Feedback from IRS Topical Studies and Events Applied to Safety Standards; Education and Training Programmes at the IAEA Department of Nuclear Safety and Security; Peer Review of Operational Safety Performance (PROSPER)

  14. Draft report on compilation of generic safety issues for light water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    A generally accepted approach to characterizing the safety concerns in nuclear power plants is to express them as safety issues which need to be resolved. When such safety issues are applicable to a generation of plants of a particular design or to a family of plants of similar design, they are termed generic safety issues. Examples of generic safety issues are those related to reactor vessel embrittlement, control rod insertion reliability or strainer clogging. The safety issues compiled in this document are based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element in the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. Refs

  15. Nuclear versus fossil weighing up the safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, Dzh.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power plant safety are discussed as compared with those for the plants based on fossil fuel utilization. The conclusion is made that merits of nuclear power are much greater than its disadvantages as far as the environmental impacts are concerned

  16. The accession to the European Union. The nuclear safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, S.; Tomic, B.; Goldemund, M.; Van der Mheen, W.; Johanson, G.

    2000-01-01

    Since mid 1999, a project based on an initiative by the European Commission has been conducted with the primary objective to develop a comprehensive, consistent, and wellbalanced methodology for the evaluation of the status of nuclear safety in countries with operating nuclear power plants, and to perform a preliminary assessment for Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. In addition to the safety status of nuclear power plants, emphasis is placed on nuclear regulation, both on organisational and legislative aspects, and on the practice of performing safety assessment. A brief overview will also be given on the nuclear safety situation in the Newly Independent States (NIS). During the course of the project, a Performance Evaluation Guide was developed with the objective to establish a sound methodology for evaluating safety of nuclear reactors in different countries in a consistent manner. The project is performed by a Consortium led by ENCONET Consulting (Austria), with participation of NNC (United Kingdom), NRG (Netherlands), and ES-konsult (Sweden). (author)

  17. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 10, March 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The current issue contains information about the following meetings: Application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors (the 'Code'). Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II); Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention). The document also gives an overview on International Nuclear Security Advisory Service (INSServ)

  18. Conclusions and Recommendations of the IAEA International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety: Ensuring Safety for Sustainable Nuclear Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanawany, Mamdouh

    2011-01-01

    programmes. National safety authorities could take the initiative of organizing international workshops on how OEF has been used and implemented. Moreover, lessons learned from new construction should be provided and shared between all countries embarking and considering new build. 5. It is vital in today's environment that the synergies between safety and security are maximized, and that culture be developed that integrates safety and security requirements. Safety and security have the same purpose: protecting people, society, environment and both could be based on similar principles even if there are some differences in implementation such as openness and transparency. There are important advantages from integrating the regulation of safety and security as much as possible. 6. The quality of the supply chain is an emerging issue. Harmonization of safety requirements, design codes and quality standards within the supply chain is acknowledged as requiring further collaboration among Member States, international organizations and supplier companies. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is an important first step towards this goal. 7. Transparency, collaboration, information sharing and openness is responsibility of all Member States to assure not only safety but to foster confidence and trust among all stakeholders. 8. Despite NPPs high level of safety, emergency preparedness and response is an important issue in the context of developing nuclear energy. Through international cooperation, emergency and response plans need to be developed and well coordinated within all relevant entities. 9. In the context of developing nuclear energy the generation gap in education and training as well as the necessity to build technical capacity to properly address safety issues has been acknowledged by the Conference. Therefore, adequate education and training programmes should be developed and implemented.

  19. Main Conclusions and Recommendations of International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety: Ensuring Safety for Sustainable Nuclear Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanawany, Mamdouh

    2011-01-01

    programmes. National safety authorities could take the initiative of organizing international workshops on how OEF has been used and implemented. Moreover, lessons learned from new construction should be provided and shared between all countries embarking and considering new build. 5. It is vital in today's environment that the synergies between safety and security are maximized, and that culture be developed that integrates safety and security requirements. Safety and security have the same purpose: protecting people, society, environment and both could be based on similar principles even if there are some differences in implementation such as openness and transparency. There are important advantages from integrating the regulation of safety and security as much as possible. 6. The quality of the supply chain is an emerging issue. Harmonization of safety requirements, design codes and quality standards within the supply chain is acknowledged as requiring further collaboration among Member States, international organizations and supplier companies. Multinational Design Evaluation Programme (MDEP) is an important first step towards this goal. 7. Transparency, collaboration, information sharing and openness is responsibility of all Member States to assure not only safety but to foster confidence and trust among all stakeholders. 8. Despite NPPs high level of safety, emergency preparedness and response is an important issue in the context of developing nuclear energy. Through international cooperation, emergency and response plans need to be developed and well coordinated within all relevant entities. 9. In the context of developing nuclear energy the generation gap in education and training as well as the necessity to build technical capacity to properly address safety issues has been acknowledged by the Conference. Therefore, adequate education and training programmes should be developed and implemented.

  20. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 6, March 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Conference on Illicit Nuclear Trafficking which took place in November 2007 in Edinburgh. The principal aim of the conference was to examine the threat and context of illicit nuclear trafficking of radioactive material, specifically, what is being done to combat such trafficking and where more needs to be done. The conference was also to consider how the obligations and commitments of the legally binding and non-binding international instruments could be and are being implemented by various States. 2) INSAG Message on Nuclear Safety Infrastructure in which the INSAG Chairman Richard Meserve addressed nuclear safety in the current context and various issues that warrant special attention. 3) approved for publication the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities. 4) The Asian Nuclear Safety Network (ANSN)

  1. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul

    2004-02-01

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation

  2. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation.

  3. Factor Analysis and Framework Development for Incorporating Public Trust on Nuclear Safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongkyung; Lee, Gyebong; Lee, Gihyung; Lee, Gyehwi; Jeong, Jina

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), a regulatory expert organization in charge of nuclear safety in Korea, realized that a more fundamental and systematic analysis of activities is needed to actively meet the greater variety of concerns people have and increase the reliability of the results of regulation. Nuclear safety, a highly specialized field, has previously been discussed primarily from the viewpoint of the engineers who deal with the technology, but now 'public trust in nuclear safety' has to be viewed from the standpoint of the general public and from the socio-cultural perspective. Specific measures must be taken to examine which factors affect public trust and how we can secure and reproduce those factors to gain it. Also, an efficient system for incorporating public trust in nuclear safety must be established. In this study, various case studies were examined to identify the factors that affect public trust in nuclear safety. First, nuclear safety laws and information disclosure systems of major countries were examined by investigating data and conducting in-depth interviews. To explore a public framework concerning nuclear safety, big data of social media were analyzed. Also, Q methodology was used to analyze the risk schemata of the opinion leaders living in areas near nuclear power plants. Several surveys were conducted to analyze the amount of trust the public had in nuclear safety as well as their awareness of nuclear safety issues. Based on these analyses, factors affecting public trust in nuclear safety were extracted, and measures to build systems incorporating public trust in nuclear safety were proposed. This study addresses the public trust in nuclear safety on condition that the safety is ensured technically and mechanically

  4. An outline of the scaling issue in nuclear reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reventós, F.; Martínez-Quiroga, V.; D’Auria, F.

    2015-07-01

    Addressing the scaling issue is a key activity in licensing. The issue became more important when the Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) approach was pursued in meeting the requirements of Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) of USNRC for individual NPP. Scaling is the process of demonstrating how and to what extent the numerical simulation tool validated on one or several reduced scale experiments (or at different values of some flow parameters such as pressure and fluid properties) can be applied with sufficient confidence to a real process such as an accidental scenario in a NPP. Under the lead organization and coordination of the University of Pisa, a working group has been established with the endorsement of OECD/CSNI. The group, having started its activity in December 2013, is by now finalizing the main report. A State-of-Art-Report summarizing the technical knowledge suitable for addressing the scaling issue has been prepared. The report is intended to be useful for regulators, technical safety organizations, code developers, designers and operators involved in the application of best estimate computer codes. (Author)

  5. Nuclear energy in Lithuania: Its role, efficiency and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskinis, V.; Galinis, A.; Streimikiene, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of the Lithuanian economy and the power sector as well as problems related to further operation of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP) which plays a crucial role in the Lithuanian energy sector. Recent studies have validated that it is economical to keep the Ignalina NPP in operation as long as it is possible and the necessary licenses can be obtained. However, its safe operation remains a very important issue determining its lifetime. Development of an infrastructure and activities necessary for safe and reliable operation of the plant are also very important. (author)

  6. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  7. Application of a methodology to determine priorities for nuclear power plant safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daling, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring a research program to determine priorities of nuclear power plant safety issues. A methodology has been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in the development of risk and cost estimates for implementing resolutions to the safety issues. The information development methods are intended to provide the NRC with a consistent level of information for use in ranking the issues. The NRC uses this information, along with judgmental factors, to rank the issues for further consideration by the NRC staff. The primary purpose of the priority rankings are to assist in the allocation of resources to issues that have high potential for reducing public risk as well as to remove issues from further consideration that have little safety significance

  8. Nuclear choice: are health and safety issues pre-empted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, G.B. II.

    1980-01-01

    This article examines the scope of the NRC's regulatory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act in order to determine its proper effect on state siting laws. At the outset, a brief history of federal regulation of commercial nuclear power plants is set forth, and the cases that have dealt with the pre-emption issue in this area are reviewed. Next, an examination of the doctrine of federal pre-emption is conducted, focussing on the legal principles as they have been developed by the Supreme Court. Since the application of the pre-emption doctrine turns largely on the intent of Congress, the Atomic Energy Act and other pertinent federal legislation are examined to discern how far Congress has sought to extend its power over regulation of nuclear power. Some policy questions are also explored to determine whether it is appropriate to imply an intent on the part of Congress to pre-empt the field. Finally, a conclusion having been reached, the practical problems of what types of evidence may be admitted into the state siting agency's hearing are discussed and some solutions offered

  9. Topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The IAEA International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear, Radiation and Radioactive Waste Safety was held in Vienna, Austria, 30 August - 4 September 1998 with the objective to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on: the present status of these issues; priorities for future work; and needs for strengthening international co-operation, including recommendations for the IAEA's future activities. The document includes 43 papers presented at the Conference dealing with the following topical issues: Safety Management; Backfitting, Upgrading and Modernization of NPPs; Regulatory Strategies; Occupational Radiation Protection: Trends and Developments; Situations of Chronic Exposure to Residual Radioactive Materials: Decommissioning and Rehabilitation and Reclamation of Land; Radiation Safety in the Far Future: The Issue of Long Term Waste Disposal. A separate abstract and indexing were provided for each paper

  10. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems

  11. Non-technical issues in safety assessments for nuclear disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Brohmann, Bettina

    2010-09-01

    The paper highlights that a comprehensive approach to safety affords the consideration of technology, organisation, personnel and social environment. In several safety relevant contexts of nuclear waste disposal these fields are closely interrelated. The approach for the consideration of socio-scientific aspects which is sketched in this paper supports the systematic treatment of safety relevant non-technical issues in the safety case or in safety assessments for a disposal project. Furthermore it may foster the dialogue among specialists from the technical, the natural- and the socio-scientific field on questions of disposal safety. In this way it may contribute to a better understanding among the affected scientific disciplines in nuclear waste disposal.

  12. The human side of the nuclear safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, scientists have been primarily concerned with the technical integrity of their own speciality within the rest of the technical community. No one saw a need to establish dialogue with the general public, special interest groups or women's groups about decisions governed by their own professions. Public support, confidence and respect came automatically. As society became more complex, this mode of operation by scientists became even more intense while institutions became more and more unwieldy. At the same time they failed to note a rather dramatic change slowly taking place - the public began making their decisions for them -decisions based many times on propaganda not fact. Left unchallenged, our sons and daughters will grow up believing that nuclear power is the most visible and potent symbol of a technological society gone amok, and it must be destroyed. Fortunately, the scientific community now recognizes that public support, confidence and respect no longer comes automatically; they must be cultivated and earned. (author)

  13. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This book reviews the accomplishments, operations, and problems faced by the defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. Specifically, it discusses the recommendations that the Safety Board made to improve safety and health conditions at the Department of Energy's defense nuclear facilities, problems the Safety Board has encountered in hiring technical staff, and management problems that could affect the Safety Board's independence and credibility

  14. EDF ageing management program of nuclear components: a safety and economical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faidy, C.

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management of Nuclear Power Plants is an essential issue for utilities, in term of safety and availability and corresponding economical consequences. Practically all nuclear countries have developed a systematic program to deal with ageing of components on their plants. This paper presents the ageing management program developed by EDF and that are compared with different other approaches in other countries (IAEA guidelines and GALL report). The paper presents a general overview of the programs, the major results, recommendations and conclusions. (author)

  15. Ranking of safety issues for WWER-440 model 230 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    In response to requests from Member States operating Soviet designed WWER-440/230 nuclear power plants (NPPs) for assistance through the IAEA's nuclear safety services, a major international project was established to evaluate these first generation reactors as a complement to relevant ongoing national, bilateral and multilateral activities. The objective is to assist countries operating WWER-440/230 NPPs in performing comprehensive safety reviews aimed at identifying design and operational weaknesses. The scope of the project includes a review of the conceptual design of WWER-440/230 NPPs, safety review missions to each one of the operating reactors to review design and operational aspects and studies to resolve issues of generic safety concern. This report was prepared by a group of international experts and the IAEA staff and discussed by the Project Steering Committee, December 9-13, 1991 in Vienna. An overview of the safety issues identified is presented indicating their effect on the performance of the basic safety functions. Conceptual recommendations related to design issues are given as a technical basis for the safety modifications required

  16. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarride, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  17. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  18. Topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the conference was to foster the exchange of information on topical issues in nuclear, radiation and radioactive waste safety, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on the current status of these issues, priorities for future work and the need for strengthening international co-operation, including recommendations for the IAEA's future activities. The topical issues were grouped under the following six major headings: safety management; occupational radiation protection - trends and developments; backfitting, upgrading and modernization of nuclear power plants; situations of chronic exposure to residual radioactive materials - decommissioning and rehabilitation and reclamation of land; radiation safety in the distant future - the issue of long tern waste disposal; regulatory strategies. This volume contains the topical issue papers, the keynote presentations, the current issue presentations, the conclusions of the six technical sessions, and the conference chairperson's summary of findings and conclusions. Each of these papers has been provided with an abstract and indexed separately. Individual contributions to this conference have been published separately in the IAEA-TECDOC-1031. A CD-ROM containing contributed papers is attached to this book

  19. Stakeholder involvement in nuclear issues. INSAG-20. A report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    enterprise. We believe that full and open engagement among the various stakeholders will serve to improve decision making, as well as advance the common interest in assuring the safety of nuclear installations

  20. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 8, September 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Workshops on Denial of Shipments raise awareness of suppliers, recipients, regulators, carriers/consignors and international organizations of the problems relating to denials of radioactive shipments to determine effective measures to prevent or reduce the instances of shipment denials and delays. 2) Communication and knowledge Management in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security (NS). 3) Nuclear Security at the Beijing Olympics - an excellent example of the IAEA's work in protecting large scale public events. 4) The Incident and Emergency Centre's Participation in the ConvEx 3 Exercise, 9-10 July 2008, which took place at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant in Mexico. During the 43 hour long exercise, the Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) was fully activated. Staff members participating in the exercise represented different departments within the IAEA and the diversity of their knowledge and experience ensured an effective response

  1. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  2. Generic safety issues for nuclear power plants with light water reactors and measures taken for their resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA Conference on 'The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future' in 1991 was a milestone in nuclear safety. Two of the important items addressed by this conference were ensuring and enhancing safety of operating plants and treatment of nuclear power plants built to earlier safety standards. A number of publications related to these two items issued subsequent to this conference were: A Common Basis for Judging the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards, INSAG-9 (1995), the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O12, periodic Safety Review of Operational Nuclear Power Plants (1994) and an IAEA publication on the Safety Evaluation of Operating Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards - A Common Basis for Judgement (1997). Some of the findings of the 1991 Conference have not yet been fully addressed. An IAEA Symposium on reviewing the Safety of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in 1996 showed that there is an urgent need for operating organizations and national authorities to review operating nuclear power plants which do not meet the high safety levels of the vast majority of plants and to undertake improvements with assistance from the international community if required. Safety reviews of operating nuclear power plants take on added importance in the context of the Convention on Nuclear safety and its implementation. The purpose of this TECDOC compilation based on broad international experience, is to assist the Member States in the reassessment of operating plants by providing a list of generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants together with measures taken to resolve these issues. These safety issues are generic in nature with regard to light water reactors and the measures for their resolution are for use as a reference for the safety reassessment of operating plants. The TECDOC covers issues thought to be significant to Member States based on consensus process. It provides an introduction to the use of generic safety issues for

  3. The critical issue of nuclear power plant safety in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1977-01-01

    A little more than a decade from now, large commercial nuclear power facilities will be in operation in almost 40 countries, of which approximately one-half are presently considered industrially less developed. Ambitious nuclear programmes coupled with minimal and frequently under-staffed regulatory and utility organizations are only one aspect of the difficulties related to the safety of nuclear plants that face these developing countries. Inherent problems of meeting current safety standards and requirements for the significantly non-standard nuclear power plant exports can be compounded by financial considerations that may lead to purchases of reactors of various types, from more than one supplier country and with different safety standards and requirements. An examination of these issues points to the necessity and opportunity for effective action which could include provision for adequate funding for safety considerations in the purchase contract, and for sufficient regulatory assistance and training from the developed countries. The article will introduce the topic, discuss specific examples, and offer some suggestions. (author)

  4. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  5. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 15, February 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Supporting radiation protection in medicine. Wano's pre-startup support. One stop for incident and emergency communications. Emergency preparedness in IAEA Member States. Sophisticated On-Site Nuclide Identification (RanidSONNI). Over land, sea and air: safe and secure transport of radioactive material. INES at 20: Success from simplicity. IAEA and Ibero-American Forum - strengthening ties. Highlights of the 54th IAEA General Conference, 20-24 September 2010. Highlights of the International conference on Challenges faced by TSOs. Department of Nuclear Safety programme highlights

  6. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  7. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This document brings together a series of articles illustrating the way nuclear safety is conceived organised and applied in France. It also deals with foreign experts contributions related to the safety of future nuclear power plants and the impact of probabilistic studies. The opinion of a french Deputy, pleading for nuclear transparency, is sustained by the final conclusions analysing the lessons learned from the past and the current priorities [fr

  8. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 9, December 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) IRRS Lessons Learned Workshop held on 3-5 November 2008, Seville. The main purpose of the workshop was to provide information to interested Member States regarding the IRRS, to discuss their experiences and lessons learned from the regulatory review conducted at the CSN and to explore further improvements in the planning and implementation of the IRRS, including the establishment of a network of experts from regulatory authorities. 2) Highlights of the 52 General Conference. 3) The 2008 IAEA General Conference welcomed the endorsement of the new International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) User's Manual. 4) Safety and Security Infrastructure for Countries Embarking on Nuclear Power Programmes

  9. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B.; Weakley, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''

  10. France - Convention on Nuclear Safety. Fourth National Report Issued for the 2008 Peer Review Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety, hereinafter referred to as 'the Convention', is one of the results of international discussions initiated in 1992 with the aim of proposing binding international obligations regarding nuclear safety. France signed the Convention on 20 September 1994, the date on which it was opened for signature during the IAEA's General Conference, and approved it on 13 September 1995. The Convention entered into force on 24 October 1996. For many years France has been participating actively in international initiatives to enhance nuclear safety, and it considers the Convention on Nuclear Safety to be an important instrument for achieving this aim. The areas covered by the Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. This report, the fourth of its kind, is issued in compliance with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and presents the measures taken by France to fulfil each of the obligations of the Convention. As such, the Convention on Nuclear Safety applies to nuclear power reactors, and so most of this report deals with measures taken to ensure their safety. However, in this fourth report, as in the third, France has decided to include the measures taken concerning all research reactors, with a graded approach tailored to their size where appropriate. First of all, research reactors are subject to the same general regulations as nuclear power reactors with regard to nuclear safety and radiation protection. Furthermore, the most powerful research reactor also generates electricity. Secondly, in the reports under the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, to which France is a party, the measures taken for research reactors in these areas have been described. Finally, in March 2004 the IAEA Board of Governors, on which France has a seat, approved the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors, which incorporates most of the

  11. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 7, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: 1) International Conference on Radioecology and Environmental Radioactivity 15-20 June 2008, Bergen organized by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) in cooperation with IAEA, WHO, OECD/NEA, the International Union of Radioecology (IUR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the Journal of environmental Radioactivity (JER). This conference has evolved from the merging of the series of conferences by ECORAD and of the International Conferences on Radioactivity in the Environment. The primary objective of the conference was to review all scientific themes related to the study of environmental radioactivity and to identify new societal needs and requirements for regulatory bodies and industry. All sources of radiation, from industrial discharges in planned exposure situations through to sources in existing and emergency exposure situations, were included in the scope of the conference. 2) The Ibero American Forum of Nuclear and Radiation Safety and Security Regulatory Agencies (the FORO); 3) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant in the earthquake on 16 July 2007 - plant's response and effects and lessons learned

  12. Generic safety issues for nuclear power plants with pressurized heavy water reactors and measures for their resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The IAEA Conference on The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future in 1991 was a milestone in nuclear safety. The objective of this conference was to review nuclear power safety issues for which achieving international consensus would be desirable, to address concerns on nuclear safety and to formulate recommendations for future actions by national and international authorities to advance nuclear safety to the highest level. Two of the important items addressed by this conference were ensuring and enhancing safety of operating plants and treatment of nuclear power plants built to earlier safety standards. Publications related to these two items, that have been issued subsequent to this conference, include: A Common Basis for Judging the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards, INSAG-8 (1995), the IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-O12, Periodic Safety Review of Operational Nuclear Power Plants (1994) and an IAEA publication on the Safety Evaluation of Operating Nuclear Power Plants Built to Earlier Standards - A Common Basis for Judgement (1997). Some of the findings of the 1991 conference have not yet been fully addressed. An IAEA Symposium on Reviewing the Safety of Existing Nuclear Power Plants in 1996 showed that there is an urgent need for operating organizations and national authorities to review operating nuclear power plants which do not meet the high safety levels of the vast majority of plants and to undertake improvements, with assistance from the international community if required. Safety reviews of operating nuclear power plants take on added importance in the context of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and its implementation. To perform safety reviews and to reassess the safety of operating nuclear power plants in a uniform manner, it is imperative to have an internationally accepted reference. Existing guidance needs to be complemented by a list of safety issues which have been encountered and resolved in other plants and which can

  13. Common issues found in operating safety peer review of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meijing; Zhang Fengping

    2004-01-01

    The 3rd stage of the safety culture promotion in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is characterized by establishing learning organization and continuous self-improvement. Peer Review was used as an effective tool by a lot of NPPs to improve the overall management and performance. This Paper provided the WANO Peer Review Methodology, the common issues found, the recommendation or suggestions to correct the area for improvement. It may be beneficial to other NPP which planning to have Peer Review or Self Evaluation. (authors)

  14. Safety culture and organisational issues specific to the transitional phase from operation to decommissioning of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    2005-01-01

    The PHARE project Support to State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate for safety culture and organisational issues specific to the pre-shutdown phase of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant was aimed at providing assistance to VATESI in their task to oversee that the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's management and staff are able to provide an acceptable level of reactor safety taking into account possible safety culture related problems that may occur due to the decision of an early closure of both units. Safety culture is used as a concept to characterise the attitudes, behaviour and perceptions of people that are important in ensuring the safety of nuclear power facility. Since the Chernobyl accident, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in creating guidance for ensuring that an adequate safety culture can be created and maintained. The transition from operation to decommissioning introduces uncertainty for both the organisation and individuals. This creates new challenges that need to be dealt with. Although safety culture and organisational issues have to be addressed during the entire life cycle of a nuclear power plant, owing to these special challenges, it should be especially highlighted during the transitional period from operation to decommissioning. Nuclear safety experts from Sweden, Finland, Italy, the UK and Germany, as well as Lithuanian specialists, participated in the project, and it proved to be a most effective way to share experience. The aim of this brochure is to provide information about: the importance of safety culture issues during the transitional phase from operation to decommissioning of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant; the purpose, activities and results of this PHARE project; recommendations that are provided by western experts concerning the management of safety culture issues specific to the pre-decommissioning phase of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  15. Advanced CFD simulation for the assessment of nuclear safety issues at EDF. Some examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vare, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    EDF R and D has computer power that puts it amongst the top industrial research centers in the world. Its supercomputers and in-house codes as well as its experts represent important capabilities to support EDF activities (safety analyses, support to the design of new reactors, analysis of accidental situations non reproducible by experiments, better understanding of physics or complex system response, effects of uncertainties and identification of prominent parameters, qualification and optimization of processes and materials...). Advanced numerical simulation is a powerful tool allowing EDF to increase its competitiveness, improve its performance and the safety of its plants. On this issue, EDF made the choice to develop its own in-house codes, instead of using commercial software, in order to be able to capitalize its expertise and methodologies. This choice allowed as well easier technological transfer to the concerned business units or engineering divisions, fast adaptation of our simulation tools to emerging needs and the development of specific physics or functionalities not addressed by the commercial offer. During the last ten years, EDF has decided to open its in-house codes, through the Open Source way. This is the case for Code – Aster (structure analysis), Code – Saturne (computational fluid dynamics, CFD), TELEMAC (flow calculations in aquatic environment), SALOME (generic platform for Pre and Post-Processing) and SYRTHES (heat transfer in complex geometries), among others. The 3 open source software: Code – Aster, Code – Saturne and TELEMAC, are certified by the French Nuclear Regulatory Authority for many «Important to Safety» studies. Advanced simulation, which treats complex, multi-field and multi-physics problems, is of great importance for the assessment of nuclear safety issues. This paper will present 2 examples of advanced simulation using Code – Saturne for safety issues of nuclear power plants in the fields of R and D and

  16. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul

    2003-02-01

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea

  17. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  18. Safety issues to be taken into account in designing future nuclear fusion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrault, Didier, E-mail: didier.perrault@irsn.fr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Assess if decay heat removal is a safety function. • Re-study accidents considered for ITER and identify those specific to DEMO. • Limit tritium inventory and optimize main gaseous tritium release routes. • Take into account constraints related to requirements of waste disposal routes. - Abstract: For several years now, the French “Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire” has been carrying out expertise of ITER fusion facility safety files at the request of the French “Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire”. As part of the lengthy process which should lead to mastering nuclear fusion, different fusion facility projects are currently under study throughout the world to be ready to continue building on the work which will take place in the ITER facility. On the basis of the experience acquired during the ITER safety expertise, the IRSN has carried out a preliminary study of the safety issues which seem necessary to take into account right from the earliest design phase of these DEMO facilities. The issues studied have included the decay heat removal, exposure to ionizing radiation, potential accidents, and effluent releases and waste. The study shows that it will be important to give priority to the following actions, given that their results would have a major influence on the design: assess if decay heat removal is a safety function, re-study the accidents considered in the context of the ITER project and identify those specific to DEMO, and optimize each of the main routes for gaseous tritium releases.

  19. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Konzek, G.J.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Fecht, B.A.; Allen, C.H.; Allen, R.D.; Bickford, W.E., Carbaugh, E.H.; Lewis, J.R.

    1983-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 31 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of summer 1983, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.

  20. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Konzek, G.J.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Fecht, B.A.; Allen, C.H.; Allen, R.D.; Bickford, W.E.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Lewis, J.R.

    1983-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 31 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of summer 1983, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues

  1. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, A.S.; Fecht, B.A.; Powers, T.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Bian, S.H.; Daling, P.M.; Eschbach, E.J.; Allen, C.H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fifth in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 23 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of winter 1986, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.''

  2. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  3. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the ECRIN INB - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents the Malvesi establishment, the ECRIN basic nuclear installation (INB), the COMURHEX II project, and the policy for a sustainable development and continuous progress of this establishment. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: nuclear safety, safety guarantee for personnel and installations, management of emergency situations, preservation of staff health and protection, inspections, actions undertaken regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection. It reports nuclear events which occurred, describes the management of effluents and the control of the environment (environmental policy, management of effluents from the Malvesi establishment, management of effluents from the ECRIN INB, reduction of consumptions). It addresses the waste management (industrial and radioactive wastes) and the management of other impacts of the ECRIN INB. It gives an overview of actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  4. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the ECRIN INB - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents the Malvesi establishment, the ECRIN basic nuclear installation (INB), the COMURHEX II project, and the policy for a sustainable development and continuous progress of this establishment. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: nuclear safety, safety guarantee for personnel and installations, management of emergency situations, preservation of staff health and protection, inspections, actions undertaken regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection. It reports nuclear events which occurred, describes the management of effluents and the control of the environment (environmental policy, management of effluents from the Malvesi establishment, management of effluents from the ECRIN INB, reduction of consumptions). It addresses the waste management (industrial and radioactive wastes) and the management of other impacts of the ECRIN INB. It gives an overview of actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  5. Nuclear Safety Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Prah, M.

    2008-01-01

    Beside new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment ('Official Gazette' No. 15/08), from 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted Ordinance on performing nuclear activities ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety ('Official Gazette' No. 74/06), based on Nuclear Safety Act ('Official Gazette' No. 173/03). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a licence to perform a nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the forms for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear activities. According to the Nuclear Safety Act, nuclear activities are the production, processing, use, storage, disposal, transport, import, export, possession or other handling of nuclear material or specified equipment. The Ordinance on special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned conditions, whereas compliance is established by a decision passed by the SONS. Special requirements which expert organizations must fulfil in order to perform certain activities in the field of nuclear safety are organizational, technical, technological conditions and established system of quality assurance. In 2007, State Office for Nuclear Safety finalized the text of new Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the siting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is

  6. Seismic issues related to nuclear reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The threat of earthquakes to nuclear power plants is described, as are the special safety requirements not imposed in conventional practice. The difficulties associated with characterizing design earthquakes are discussed, and US licensing problems that have resulted from uncertainties in seismic input definition are outlined. The two-earthquake design approach in the US is treated, and the role of seismology and geology is delineated. Engineering methods for estimating soil-structure interaction, structural response and subsystem behavior are described. The issue of excessive seismic conservatism and its impact on balanced design is considered. The importance of seismic qualification of electrical and mechanical equipment is indicated, and the need for experimental validation of analysis procedures is shown. Finally, the potential use of probabilistic risk assessment in leading the way to more realistic seismic design requirements is addressed

  7. Identification of unresolved safety issues relating to nuclear power plants. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report describes the review undertaken over the last year that resulted in identifying 17 issues as Unresolved Safety Issues. In addition, the report provides specific discussions of why certain issues were not included. The report also provides a brief background discussion describing Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act and the NRC program for the resolution of generic issues described in NUREG-0410

  8. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 14, March 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    The current issue presents information about the following topics: Highlights of the 2nd International Conference on Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems, Cape Town, 14 December 2009. Denial of Shipment of Radioactive Material. Emergency Preparedness Review (EPREV)

  9. Nuclear Safety Review 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2013 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2012. The Executive Overview provides crosscutting and worldwide nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major sections covered in this report. Sections A-E of this report cover improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the IAEA Safety Standards. The world nuclear community has made noteworthy progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2012, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as ''the Action Plan''). For example, an overwhelming majority of Member States with operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) have undertaken and essentially completed comprehensive safety reassessments ('stress tests') with the aim of evaluating the design and safety aspects of plant robustness to protect against extreme events, including: defence in depth, safety margins, cliff edge effects, multiple failures, and the prolonged loss of support systems. As a result, many have introduced additional safety measures including mitigation of station blackout. Moreover, the IAEA's peer review services and safety standards have been reviewed and strengthened where needed. Capacity building programmes have been built or improved, and EPR programmes have also been reviewed and improved. Furthermore, in 2012, the IAEA continued to share lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident with the nuclear community including through three international experts' meetings (IEMs) on reactor and spent fuel safety, communication in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, and protection against extreme earthquakes and tsunamis

  10. Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is caring about people and Safety is caring that no physical harm comes to people.Therefore Safety is a type of Ethical Behavior. Culture: is The Way We Do Things Here.Safety Culture is mixture of organization traditions, values, attitudes and behaviors modeled by Its leaders and internalized by its members that serve to make nuclear safety the overriding priority. Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in Organisations and individuals which established that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance

  11. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This is the sixth in a series of reports to document the development and use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose, and cost impacts of implementing potential resolutions to reactor safety issues (see NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews, et al., 1983). This report contains the results of issue-specific analyses for 34 generic issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information at the time the issues were examined and approximately 2 staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced as one consideration in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (Emrit, et al., 1983).

  12. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants

  13. Handling of safety issues in the senior management group at the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    2001-02-01

    The report describes the results from a series of interviews, which were made in the preparation of an application for a reserach project to the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of EU. The project application 'Learning organisations for nuclear safety - LearnSafe' collected a consortium of 5 partners and 9 associated partneres and has been assigned the reference number FIS5-2001-00066 by the European Commission. (au)

  14. Legal issues, authoritative licenses and tasks in relation with nuclear safety in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerdoegh, J.; Voeroess, L.

    1998-01-01

    After a brief historical overview of nuclear authorities in Hungary, the role and functions of the National Atomic Energy Office are presented. It is the primary authority in this country on nuclear safety, with tasks and functions of licensing, inspection and enforcing safety measures. The organizational structure of NAEO and its position as a Governmental body is shown. Other tasks include the promotion of R and D coordination and international cooperation. (R.P.)

  15. Application of Solar Chimney Concept to Solve Potential Safety Issues of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasawneh, Khalid; PARK, Youn Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper two main events and their causes have been investigated and a potential alternative supporting system will be provided. The first event to be addressed is the Station Blackout (SBO) caused by the inherent unreliability of the Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) and Alternative AC (AAC) power sources. Different parameters affect The EDG unreliability; for instance, mechanical, operational, maintenance and surveillance. Those parameters will be analyzed and linked to plant safety and Core Damage Frequency (CDF). Also the AACs, the SBO diesel generators, will be studied and their operational requirements similarity with the EDGs will be discussed. The second event to be addressed is the Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LUHS) caused by the degradation of heat exchange effectiveness, that is, the poor heat transfer to the Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). Different causes to such case were observed; intake lines blockages due to ice and foreign biological matters formation and oil spill near the heat sink causing the oil leakage to the heat exchangers tubes. The later cause, oil spill, has been given a special attention here due its potential effects for different nuclear power plants (NPPs) around the world; for example, Finland and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the Finnish case, the Finnish nuclear regulator (STUK) took already countermeasures for such scenario by introducing alternative heat sink, cooling towers, for the primary used heat sink, sea water, for one of its nuclear power plants. The abundance of the solar irradiation in the UAE region provides a perfect condition for the implementation of solar power applications. Utilizing this unique characteristic of that region may provide promising alternative and diverse options for solving potential safety related issues of their NPPs. The Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP) could be employed to serve as a supporting system to provide emergency power, in the case of SBO, and emergency cooling, in the case of

  16. Nuclear safety endeavour in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang-hoon lee

    1987-01-01

    Korea's nuclear power plant program is growing. As it grows, nuclear safety becomes an important issue. This article traces the development of Korean nuclear power program, the structure of the nuclear industries, the Nuclear Safety Center and its roles in the regulation and licensing of nuclear power plant, and also identifies some of the activities carried out to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  18. For improvements of issues behind food safety regulations implemented following the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Nobuyuki; Ogino, Haruyuki

    2011-01-01

    The great quake and a subsequent tsunami seriously damaged the Fukushima nuclear power plants on 11 March 2011, followed by radionuclide releases outside the crippled reactors. Regulatory limits stipulated as 'provisional regulation values' were set to minimize internal exposure via ingestion of contaminated food and drink. Tap water, raw milk, vegetables, seafood and tea exceeded the limit, and distribution and/or consumption of these stuffs were temporality restricted. It took 7 and 11 days to set the provisional regulation values and to order the first restriction after the declaration of nuclear emergency situations, respectively. All restrictions began within 25 days after the first excess in each item, but the commencement of restrictions was concomitant with the social dislocations. All restrictions for tap water were withdrawn within 51 days, but restrictions for food have yet to be lifted. Among all items, maximum levels were detected in leafy vegetables (54,100 Bq/kg of 131 I, 82,000 Bq/kg of 134 Cs and 137 Cs). Most provisional regulation values were adopted from the preexisting 'index values'. Index values were logically designed and practically convenient. However, food and radionuclides were not comprehensively covered, and the same value was given to emergency and existing exposure situations. Also, different provisional regulation values were set for infants and others. In this respect, we here propose the concept of the 'graded triphasic reference level system' to optimize food safety regulations in early, intermediate and late phases following the accident, where each example phase-specific reference level value is provided. This paper focuses on the logic and issues behind such food safety regulations. The food monitoring data of 24,685 samples and the enforced restrictions shall also be outlined predicated on the information available as of 12 June 2011. (author)

  19. Facts about Nuclear Waste Safety - How the issue is being treated in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The fear of radioactive discharges and releases particularly from severe nuclear accidents and radioactive waste is central to public concern about nuclear activities. This fear was witnessed when Ghana began to suffer shortage in electricity supply from the hydroelectric power station at Akosombo and debates began on Ghana's energy mix and alternate options. As in every country, dependable and continuous supply of electricity is a prerequisite for ensuring sustainable development. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission was confronted at that time more than ever with the problem of public education on nuclear power safety to enhance public acceptance. This paper presents what the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission is doing to communicate facts and education about nuclear waste safety to the Ghanaian public and to facilitate the comparison of risk from nuclear reactors and disposal facilities with risks from other forms of technology. The paper also tells of the usefulness of and difficulties in using Jos Draiger and John Lakey's manual on Radiation and Radiation Protection to educate pupils in the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission Preparatory School. The difficulties in communication of facts about nuclear, radiation and waste safety in Ghana, because of the different languages and dialects used by Ghanaians in the rural areas of Ghana. As a large number of factors influence decision making in the energy sector. To assist energy planners, the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission carried out assessments of alternative energy sources, covering a broad range of technical, economic and environmental factors. Cost-benefit and risk-benefit analyses place the nuclear power option on a scale comparable to the other electricity generating technologies. How come then that nuclear power option has so much negative publicity? The conclusion is drawn that literacy in nuclear radiation and waste safety is needed at all levels of the Ghanaian society. As inadequate perception of radiation risk

  20. Uncertainty representation and combination: new results with application to nuclear safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destercke, S.

    2008-10-01

    It often happens that the value of some parameters or variables of a system are imperfectly known, either because of the variability of the modelled phenomena, or because the available information is imprecise or incomplete. Classical probability theory is usually used to treat these uncertainties. However, recent years have witnessed the appearance of arguments pointing to the conclusion that classical probabilities are inadequate to handle imprecise or incomplete information. Other frameworks have thus been proposed to address this problem: the three main are probability sets, random sets and possibility theory. There are many open questions concerning uncertainty treatment within these frameworks. More precisely, it is necessary to build bridges between these three frameworks to advance toward a unified handling of uncertainty. Also, there is a need of practical methods to treat information, as using these frameworks can be computationally costly. In this work, we propose some answers to these two needs for a set of commonly encountered problems. In particular, we focus on the problems of: 1) Uncertainty representation 2) Fusion and evaluation of multiple source information 3) Independence modelling, the aim being to give tools (both of theoretical and practical nature) to treat uncertainty. Some tools are then applied to some problems related to nuclear safety issues. (author)

  1. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of MELOX - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the MELOX plant which produces MOX fuel: location and environment, history of basic nuclear installation or INB 151, presentation of the nuclear operator and of the industrial operator, assets of MOX fuel, MOX customers, regulatory framework of the MELOX plant, policy for sustainable development and continuous progress. It addresses the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: general overview of nuclear safety in France, presentation of the Areva's nuclear safety Charter, measures adopted in MELOX, review for 2012 and perspectives for 2013. The next part addresses nuclear events: presentation of the INES scale and of the event declaration procedure, review of events declared in 2012 and regarding MELOX. The report gives an overview of activities and measures regarding protection and control of the environment: environmental management, consumption of natural resources, control of effluent releases, measurement of the impact on the environment, waste management, and perspectives for 2013. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  2. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of MELOX - Issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the MELOX plant which produces MOX fuel: location and environment, history of basic nuclear installation or INB 151, presentation of the nuclear operator and of the industrial operator, assets of MOX fuel, MOX customers, regulatory framework of the MELOX plant, policy for sustainable development and continuous progress. It addresses the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: general overview of nuclear safety in France, presentation of the Areva's nuclear safety Charter, measures adopted in MELOX, review for 2013 and perspectives for 2014. The next part addresses nuclear events: presentation of the INES scale and of the event declaration procedure, review of events declared in 2013 and regarding MELOX. The report gives an overview of activities and measures regarding protection and control of the environment: environmental management, consumption of natural resources, control of effluent releases, measurement of the impact on the environment, waste management, and perspectives for 2014. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  3. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of MELOX - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the MELOX plant which produces MOX fuel: location and environment, history of basic nuclear installation or INB 151, presentation of the nuclear operator and of the industrial operator, assets of MOX fuel, MOX customers, regulatory framework of the MELOX plant, policy for sustainable development and continuous progress. It addresses the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: general overview of nuclear safety in France, presentation of the Areva's nuclear safety Charter, measures adopted in MELOX, review for 2014 and perspectives for 2015. The next part addresses nuclear events: presentation of the INES scale and of the event declaration procedure, review of events declared in 2014 and regarding MELOX. The report gives an overview of activities and measures regarding protection and control of the environment: environmental management, consumption of natural resources, control of effluent releases, measurement of the impact on the environment, waste management, and perspectives for 2015. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  4. President's closing comments [International conference on topical issues in nuclear installation safety: Continuous improvement of nuclear safety in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meserve, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    My first broad theme is the need to harmonize regulatory approaches: There is a need to build on the IAEA safety standards to provide vendors, operators and regulatory authorities with internationally accepted standards for designing, licensing, operating and regulating nuclear installations; - The variant opinions on design certification; - The question of how to harmonize the transition point between safety standards and industrial standards; - Role of the IRRT to act as a vehicle to promote regulatory consistency. Emphasis on the new IRRT process that addresses self-assessment. Recognition of the generic call for all Member States with nuclear installations to consider availing themselves of this valuable peer review service; - The need to establish the right balance in using, in a complementary manner, both deterministic and probabilistic approaches during design, operations and regulatory activities; - Globalization and the provision of reactors to Member States with no vendor knowledge (or allowing for the new business concepts where new corporate owners or individual site managers are 'business-oriented and experienced' as opposed to being 'operationally experienced') calls into questions who 'owns' the design (design conscience), who is responsible for providing the necessary focus (decision making and resources) on safety (safety conscience) and security (security conscience). My second broad theme relates to the concept of operating experience and the need to foster an environment conducive to becoming 'learning organizations': - Maintaining a transparent environment is essential, with other owner-operators, with the regulatory authorities and with the public; - Recurrent events are taking place! How do we ensure that the lessons learned in the past are not forgotten during the present and lost in the future? - The process for identifying low level and near miss events must be stimulated and serve as a repository of lessons learned for all members of the

  5. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Romans site - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    In compliance with the French Code of the Environment, this annual document describes the arrangements regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports incidents and accidents of nuclear safety and radiation protection which must be declared according to this Code and which occurred within the installation, as well as the actions undertaken to limit their development and the consequences for people health for the environment, describes the nature and results of measurements of radioactive and not radioactive releases by the installation in the environment, describes the nature and quantities of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the installation site as well as measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably in soils and waters. After a presentation of the AREVA plant located in Romans-sur-Isere which comprises two basic nuclear installations (INB) and where fuel assemblies are manufactured, the different parts of this report address the measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, nuclear events according to the INES scale, the management of releases by the different installations of this site and the control of the environment, the management of radioactive wastes, and the actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are also reported

  6. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Romans site - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    In compliance with the French Code of the Environment, this annual document describes the arrangements regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports incidents and accidents of nuclear safety and radiation protection which must be declared according to this Code and which occurred within the installation, as well as the actions undertaken to limit their development and the consequences for people health for the environment, describes the nature and results of measurements of radioactive and not radioactive releases by the installation in the environment, describes the nature and quantities of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the installation site as well as measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably in soils and waters. After a presentation of the AREVA plant located in Romans-sur-Isere which comprises two basic nuclear installations (INB) and where fuel assemblies are manufactured, the different parts of this report address the measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, nuclear events according to the INES scale, the management of releases by the different installations of this site and the control of the environment, the management of radioactive wastes, and the actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are also reported

  7. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Romans site - Issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    In compliance with the French Code of the Environment, this annual document describes the arrangements regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports incidents and accidents of nuclear safety and radiation protection which must be declared according to this Code and which occurred within the installation, as well as the actions undertaken to limit their development and the consequences for people health for the environment, describes the nature and results of measurements of radioactive and not radioactive releases by the installation in the environment, describes the nature and quantities of radioactive wastes which are warehoused on the installation site as well as measures to limit their volume and their impact on health and on the environment, notably in soils and waters. After a presentation of the AREVA plant located in Romans-sur-Isere which comprises two basic nuclear installations (INB) and where fuel assemblies are manufactured, the different parts of this report address the measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, nuclear events according to the INES scale, the management of releases by the different installations of this site and the control of the environment, the management of radioactive wastes, and the actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are also reported

  8. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the SOMANU site - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the SOMANU plant which is dedicated to the maintenance of materials and equipment from nuclear installations: location and environment, history, description of activities, regulatory framework. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: general principles of nuclear safety, organization, presentation of the Areva's nuclear safety Charter, inspections and controls, measures regarding radiation protection. The next part addresses nuclear events which occurred on this site and had to be declared. The report gives an overview of activities and measures regarding the management of releases and the control of the environment. The next part addresses waste management: generalities on radioactive waste management in France, description and classification of radioactive wastes present in the INB, management of conventional wastes. The management of other impacts is also reported. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  9. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the SOMANU site - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the SOMANU plant which is dedicated to the maintenance of materials and equipment from nuclear installations: location and environment, history, description of activities, regulatory framework. It describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection: general principles of nuclear safety, organization, presentation of the Areva's nuclear safety Charter, inspections and controls, measures regarding radiation protection. The next part addresses nuclear events which occurred on this site and had to be declared. The report gives an overview of activities and measures regarding the management of releases and the control of the environment. The next part addresses waste management: general considerations on radioactive waste management in France, description and classification of radioactive wastes present in the INB, management of conventional wastes. The management of other impacts is also reported. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  10. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the La Hague AREVA site- Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents the Areva's La Hague site which comprises several basis nuclear installations (INB), is dedicated to several activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle, is submitted to a constraining legal and regulatory framework, and implements a policy for a sustainable development and continuous progress. The document describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports nuclear events which are classified according to the INES scale and occurred and had to be declared in 2012, describes the management of effluents by the different installations present on this site and the control of the environment. It addresses the waste management and the management of other impacts. It gives an overview of actions undertaken regarding information and transparency. Recommendations of the CHSCT are reported

  11. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 5, September 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-09-01

    This newsletter reports on the denial of shipments of radioactive materials, the IAEA,s illicit trafficking database, the knowledge management conference and the IAEA Response Assistance network (RANET). Radioactive material needs to be transported for use in public health and industry. Transport of radioactive material is governed by national and international regulations which are based on the IAEA's Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. These Regulations, developed by experts around the world, ensure high standards of safety. However, even when complying with the Regulations, there continue to be instances where shipments have been denied or delayed. Denying or delaying a shipment of radioactive material for medical use can result in hardships to patients. In addition, radioactive materials for other activities such as sterilization or power generation are also affected. In 2006, to increase transparency, seek effective solutions and permit participation of interested parties, the IAEA Director General created a senior level International Steering Committee on Denials of Shipments of Radioactive Material, which includes representatives from IAEA Member States, international governmental and nongovernmental organizations and industry. The Committee's mandate is to coordinate international efforts at determining solution of issues related to the denial of shipments and facilitate the coordination of a comprehensive international work plan of activities. In the early 1990s a number of trafficking cases in the Czech Republic, Germany and the Russian Federation involved highly enriched uranium (HEU) and Plutonium, some in kilogram quantities. These cases raised serious concerns over the threat posed by nuclear materials which were apparently available for sale on the black market. In response, States asked the IAEA to establish a data base on illicit trafficking incidents. First established in the mid-1990s, this work was greatly accelerated and

  12. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  13. Evaluation of safety issues on newly regulated nuclear power plant by tsunami-level 1 PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Miwa, Shuichiro; Mori, Michitsugu

    2014-01-01

    The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered severe accidents involving the units 1 to 4 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). In order to re-operate existing nuclear power plants it should be necessary to reduce the core damage frequency on risk by tsunami. In this work, effects of the off-site power supply installation on resuming operation of nuclear power plants were investigated by utilizing the Tsunami-Level 1 Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). Unit 2 of the Onagawa nuclear power station, which resembled units 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, was selected for PRA. First, event-tree was created for the units of the Onagawa nuclear power station with the safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), investigating the plant situation at the time of the earthquake and tsunami occurrences. It was assumed that the magnitude of the tsunami was equivalent to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The accident-analytical progression-time was 36 hours, determined from the core-damage occurrence of the unit 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Failure probabilities were calculated by the fault tree, which was created from the elements listed in the event tree. For the calculation, failure rates reported by the NUCIA (NUClear Information Archives) were primarily utilized. Then, obtained failure probabilities were embedded to the event tree. Core damage probabilities were evaluated by calculating success and failure rates for each accidental progression and scenarios. Restoration of the failed equipment and machineries was not considered in the analysis. Installation of the power supply vehicles at the nuclear power plant site reduced the core damage probability from 2.58×10 -6 to 8.56×10 -7 . However, continued addition of the power supply vehicles could not lower the core damage probability further more. In the case of Unit 2 of Onagawa nuclear power station, there could be a limit to lower the core damage

  14. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Tricastin AREVA site - Issue 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the Areva's Tricastin site which comprises five basic nuclear installations or INBs, and seven ICPE (installation classified for the protection of the environment). The activities are dedicated to uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, uranium chemistry, industrial services, and fuel manufacturing. The report presents this important industrial site, describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports nuclear events which occurred on this site and had to be declared, reports the management of releases by this site and the control of the environment. The next part addresses the management of the various wastes produced by the different installations present on this site. The management of other impacts is also reported. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information

  15. Databases on safety issues for WWER and RBMK reactors. Users' manual. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    At the beginning of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the safety of WWER reactors a great number of findings and recommendations (safety items) were collected as a result of design review and safety review missions of the WWER-440/230 type reactors. On the basis of these findings a technical database containing more than 1300 records was established to support the consolidation of the information obtained and to help in identification of safety issues. After the scope of the WWER extrabudgetary programme was extended similar data sets were prepared for the WWER-440/213, WWER-1000 and RBMK nuclear power plants. This publication describes the structure of the databases on safety issues of WWER and RBMK NPPs, the information sources used in the databases and interrogation capabilities for users to obtain the necessary information. 14 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  16. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 2, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This newsletter reports on the training of cardiologists in radiation protection, IAEA's safety review services and the operational safety assessment review team (OSART), the international conference on management of spent fuel and the recent INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Group) publications. The IAEA has begun a major international initiative to train interventional cardiologists in radiation protection. Starting with the first course in May 2004, so far 6 regional and 3 national training courses have been conducted with the participation of over 400 health professionals putting the IAEA in a leading role in this area. A programme of two days' training has been developed, covering possible and observed radiation effects among patients and staff, international standards, dose management techniques, examples of good and bad practice and examples indicating prevention of possible injuries as a result of good practice in radiation protection. The training material is freely available on CD and will be placed on the Radiological Protection of Patients website at http://rpop.iaea.org/

  17. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security. Issue no. 3, April 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This newsletter reports on the manual for first responders to a radiological emergency, the IAEA's testing laboratory for radiation measurement, monitoring and protection, which is the first UN laboratory accredited to the international standard ISO17025, and the International Conference on Lessons Learned fro the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities and the Safe Termination of Nuclear Activities. The IAEA, in recognition of this critical need, has developed a Manual for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency with the objective to provide practical guidance for those responding within the first few hours of a radiological emergency. This guidance document is co-sponsored by the Comite technique international de prevention et d'extinction du feu (CTIF), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The Manual for First Responders provides guidance in the form of action guides, instructions, and supporting data that can be easily applied by a State to build a basic capability to respond to a radiological emergency. The guidance also contains practical procedures and tools on the response to a radiological emergency again easily and quickly adaptable by Member States to prepare first responders to respond adequately to a radiological emergency. The Manual can be used for training purposes at the preparedness stage as well as during the response. The Policy and Programme Support Section (PPSS) within the Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Security (NSRW) has been operating, for many years, a laboratory (the Testing Laboratory) for radiation safety monitoring of individuals and workplaces. The establishment of a quality management system, as required in the International Basic Safety Standards (the BSS), started in 2000 to cover all measurement methods of the laboratory. This system is based on the international standard ISO17025 (General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories). PPSS

  18. A digest of the Nuclear Safety Division report on the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident seminar (4). Issues identified by the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kumiaki; Abe, Kiyoharu

    2013-01-01

    AESJ Nuclear Safety Division published 'Report on the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident Seminar - what was wrong and what should been down in future-' which would be published as five special articles of the AESJ journal. The Fukushima Dai-ichi accident identified issues of several activities directly related with nuclear safety in the areas of safety design, severe accident management and safety regulations. PRA, operational experiences and safety research could not always contribute safety assurance of nuclear power plant so much. This article (4) summarized technical issues based on related facts of the accident as much as possible and discussed' what was wrong and what should be down in future'. Important issues were identified from defense-in-depth philosophy and lessons learned on safety design were obtained from accident progression analysis. Activities against external events and continuous improvements of safety standards based on latest knowledge were most indispensable. Strong cooperation among experts in different areas was also needed. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Technical support for the Ukrainian State Committee for Nuclear Radiation Safety on specific waste issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The government of Ukraine, a now-independent former member of the Soviet Union, has asked the United States to assist its State Committee for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SCNRS) in improving its regulatory control in technical fields for which it has responsibility. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is providing this assistance in several areas, including management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. Radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear power plant operation, maintenance, and decommissioning must be stored and ultimately disposed of appropriately. In addition, radioactive residue from radioisotopes used in various industrial and medical applications must be managed. The objective of this program is to provide the Ukrainian SCNRS with the information it needs to establish regulatory control over uranium mining and milling activities in the Zheltye Vody (Yellow Waters) area and radioactive waste disposal in the Pripyat (Chernobyl) area among others. The author of this report, head of the Environmental Technology Section, Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, accompanied NRC staff to Ukraine to meet with SCNRS staff and visit sites in question. The report highlights problems at the sites visited and recommends license conditions that SCNRS can require to enhance safety of handling mining and milling wastes. The author's responsibility was specifically for the visit to Zheltye Vody and the mining and milling waste sites associated with that facility. An itinerary for the Zheltye Vody portion of the trip is included as Appendix A

  20. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B.

    2010-05-01

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  1. Critical Issues for Long-Term Nuclear Waste Canister Safety: How 'Good' is 'Good Enough?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    The long-term performance of KBS-3 canisters for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel will depend upon a number of critical issues. This summary provides an overview of these critical issues, which include near-field environmental conditions, metallurgical composition, fabrication history, long-term performance, and the acceptable margin or 'factor of safety' for this performance. The impact of these factors on the mechanical integrity of KBS-3 canisters is also addressed. The KBS-3 canister design was developed to withstand the environmental conditions predicted to occur following the emplacement of the canisters in Bentonite-filled boreholes (or drifts) in a saturated granite repository horizon. This emplacement scenario was conceived to utilize the advantageous effect of Bentonite swelling, which occurs as the repository re-saturates following final closure. Critical issues that will impact the mechanical integrity of the KBS-3 canisters include potential variation in the water composition (fresh vs. saline), the uniformity of the re-saturation of the Bentonite (and the subsequent strains that will be induced on the canisters), the plastic deformation and creep deformation of the copper, outer barrier under 'normal' conditions, and the potential, significant mechanical deformations that may result from seismically induced canister shear. Another set of parameters that has the potential to significantly impact the mechanical integrity of KBS-3 canisters is the metallurgical composition of the copper, outer barrier and the composition and microstructure of this barrier at the final closure seal. Current KBS-3 design plans call for the use of high-purity copper that is seal with either an electron beam weld or a friction stir weld. The methods of fabrication and inspection for both the base metal of the canister and the closure seal will provide the opportunity for undetected 'flaws' that have the potential to compromise the mechanical integrity of the canister

  2. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of safety of nuclear power with special reference to Indian nuclear power programme are discussed. India must develop technology to protect herself from the adverse economic impact arising out of the restrictive regime which is being created through globalization of safety and environmental issues. Though the studies done and experience gained so far have shown that the PHWR system adopted by India has a number of superior safety features, research work is needed in the field of operation and maintenance of reactors and also in the field of reactor life extension through delaying of ageing effects. Public relations work must be pursued to convince the public at large of the safety of nuclear power programme. The new reactor designs in the second stage of evolution are based on either further improvement of existing well-proven designs or adoptions of more innovative ideas based on physical principles to ensure a higher level of safety. The development of Indian nuclear power programme is characterised by a balanced approach in the matter of assuring safety. Safety enforcement is not just looked upon as a pure administrative matter, but experts with independent minds are also involved in safety related matters. (M.G.B.)

  3. Issues and relationships among software standards for nuclear safety applications. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.; Preckshot, G.G.; Lawrence, J.D.; Johnson, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with the development of draft regulatory guides for selected software engineering standards. This report describes the results of the initial task in this work. The selected software standards and a set of related software engineering standards were reviewed, and the resulting preliminary elements of the regulatory positions are identified in this report. The importance of a thorough understanding of the relationships among standards useful for developing safety-related software is emphasized. The relationship of this work to the update of the Standard Review Plan is also discussed

  4. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Sasajima, Hideo; Nishiyama, Yutaka (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-10-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy or the Safety Research Annual Plan issued by the Japanese government. The safety research at JAERI concerns the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 1999 through March 2001. (author)

  5. WNA's worldwide overview on front-end nuclear fuel cycle growth and health, safety and environmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Pierre, Sylvain; Kidd, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the WNA's worldwide nuclear industry overview on the anticipated growth of the front-end nuclear fuel cycle from uranium mining to conversion and enrichment, and on the related key health, safety, and environmental (HSE) issues and challenges. It also puts an emphasis on uranium mining in new producing countries with insufficiently developed regulatory regimes that pose greater HSE concerns. It introduces the new WNA policy on uranium mining: Sustaining Global Best Practices in Uranium Mining and Processing-Principles for Managing Radiation, Health and Safety and the Environment, which is an outgrowth of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) cooperation project that closely involved industry and governmental experts in uranium mining from around the world. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  6. Nuclear Safety. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs

  7. Nuclear safety management at the Wolsong NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bong-Seob

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear safety management at the Wolsong nuclear power plant is described, including the following issues: site selection; plant history; operational goals; operational guidelines; reactor safety; safety training; plant maintenance; management of plant equipment lifetime; future tasks

  8. International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety: Defence in Depth — Advances and Challenges for Nuclear Installation Safety. Proceedings of an International Conference held in Vienna, Austria, 21-24 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The fifth International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Installation Safety was dedicated to the defence in depth (DID) concept which is fundamental to the safety of nuclear installations. The main focus of the conference was to foster the exchange of information on the implementation of DID and the associated challenges. This CD-ROM contains the papers presented at the conference as well as the summary and conclusions, including recommendations for further actions to strengthen DID and its implementation

  9. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1981-01-01

    Dr Arnott, scientific consultant to PANDORA, emphasises our lack of knowledge of the behaviour of highly active radioactive wastes, particularly effluents, and their characteristics. He proposes that they should be stored, preferably in a solidified state, until our knowledge allows their safe disposal. Political aspects and government policies are discussed and human fallibility is stressed. The nuclear establishment and nuclear power programme are severely criticised. (U.K.)

  10. Nuclear safety. Improvement programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this brochure the improvement programme of nuclear safety of the Mochovce NPP is presented in detail. In 1996, a 'Mochovce NPP Nuclear Safety Improvement Programme' was developed in the frame of unit 1 and 2 completion project. The programme has been compiled as a continuous one, with the aim to reach the highest possible safety level at the time of commissioning and to establish good preconditions for permanent safety improvement in future. Such an approach is in compliance with the world's trends of safety improvement, life-time extension, modernisation and nuclear station power increase. The basic document for development of the 'Programme' is the one titled 'Safety Issues and their Ranking for WWER 440/213 NPP' developed by a group of IAEA experts. The following organisations were selected for solution of the safety measures: EUCOM (Consortium of FRAMATOME, France, and SIEMENS, Germany); SKODA Prague, a.s.; ENERGOPROJEKT Prague, a.s. (EGP); Russian organisations associated in ATOMENERGOEXPORT; VUJE Trnava, a.s

  11. Nuclear Safety Review for 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2014 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2013. The Executive Overview provides general nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major issues covered in this report: strengthening safety in nuclear installations; improving radiation, transport and waste safety; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); improving regulatory infrastructure and effectiveness; and strengthening civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards, and activities relevant to the Agency’s safety standards. The global nuclear community has made steady and continuous progress in strengthening nuclear safety in 2013, as promoted by the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as “the Action Plan”) and reported in Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2013/8-GC(57)/INF/5), and the Supplementary Information to that report and Progress in the Implementation of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (document GOV/INF/2014/2). • Significant progress continues to be made in several key areas, such as assessments of safety vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs), strengthening of the Agency’s peer review services, improvements in EPR capabilities, strengthening and maintaining capacity building, and protecting people and the environment from ionizing radiation. The progress that has been made in these and other areas has contributed to the enhancement of the global nuclear safety framework. • Significant progress has also been made in reviewing the Agency’s safety standards, which continue to be widely applied by regulators, operators and the nuclear industry in general, with increased attention and focus on vitally important areas such as design and operation of NPPs, protection of NPPs against severe accidents, and EPR. • The Agency continued to

  12. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators

  13. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  14. Managing nuclear safety at Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paciga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Managing nuclear safety at Point Lepreau nuclear power plant is described, including technical issues (station aging, definition of the safe operating envelope, design configuration management, code validation, safety analysis and engineering standards); regulatory issues (action items, probabilistic safety assessment, event investigation, periodic safety review, prioritization of regulatory issues, cost benefit assessment); human performance issues (goals and measures, expectations and accountability, supervisory training, safety culture, configuration management, quality of operations and maintenance)

  15. Safety related issues of spent nuclear fuel storage : summary of a NATO advanced research workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Maksimkin, O.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A NATO Advanced Research Workshop was held in Almaty, Kazakhstan, in September 2005. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the IAEA and was concerned with the safety issues associated with spent fuel and waste from three types of reactor: research reactors with Al alloy-clad dispersion fuels, fast reactors with stainless steel-clad UO 2 , and commercial light-water reactors with Zr alloy-clad UO 2 . Fifteen presentations dealt with research reactors, five with the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan-shut down and in decommissioning, and two with commercial reactors in the U.S. and Ukraine. With 657 research reactors built and 274 still operational, corrosion of Al-clad research reactor spent fuel during wet storage was a major subject for discussion. Programs at the IAEA, in the U.S., and elsewhere, have actively studied corrosion of Al-clad fuel since the 1980s and the major mechanisms for aqueous corrosion of both spent fuel and of spent-fuel-pool structural components appear to be now well understood, as are the procedures required to limit corrosion. Nonetheless, avoiding corrosion requires vigilance in monitoring and controlling water quality. Measures to ensure water quality are now being taken at operating research reactors, but are difficult to impose at reactors that are shutdown, where there is less funding (or staff) for the task. It was noted there are about 62,000 spent research reactor fuel assemblies-most of them in wet storage-at many reactor sites around the world, three-quarters in industrialized nations, the remainder in developing countries. Dry storage of research reactor fuel is also being used or actively considered in France, Poland, Russia and the U.S. A variant of simple dry storage-the 'melt-and-dilute' option-casts the spent research reactor fuel with natural U into steel canisters to produce a corrosion-resistant low-enrichment fuel configuration which is suitable for safe long-term storage. The main safety issue of spent fast

  16. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  17. NS [Nuclear Safety] update. Current safety and security activities and developments taking place in the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, Issue no. 13, December 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The current issue presents information about the following activities: Highlights of the 53rd IAEA General Conference, 14-18 September 2009. Current status of the Building, Testing and Using the Response Assistance Network (RANET). 10th Meeting of the ANSN Steering Committee. The document also gives an overview on International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS)

  18. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1979-12-01

    The main areas of nuclear safety are considered in this paper, recalling the laws and resolutions in force and also the appropriate authority in each case. The following topics are reviewed: radiological protection, protection of workers, measures to be taken in case of an accident, radioactive effluents, impact on the environment of non-nuclear pollution, nuclear plant safety, protection against malicious acts, control and safeguard of nuclear materials, radioisotopes, transport of radioactive substances, naval propulsion, waste management, nuclear plant decommissioning and export of nuclear equipment and materials. Finally, the author describes the role of the general Secretariat of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nuclear Safety

  19. International Aspects of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Even though not all the world's nations have developed a nuclear power industry, nuclear safety is unquestionably an international issue. Perhaps the most compelling proof is the 1986 accident at Chornobyl nuclear power plant in what is now Ukraine. The U.S. Department of Energy conducts a comprehensive, cooperative effort to reduce risks at Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. In the host countries : Armenia, Ukraine, Russia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovakia, and Kazakhstan joint projects are correcting major safety deficiencies and establishing nuclear safety infrastructures that will be self-sustaining.The U.S. effort has six primary goals: 1. Operational Safety - Implement the basic elements of operational safety consistent with internationally accepted practices. 2. Training - Improve operator training to internationally accepted standards. 3. Safety Maintenance - Help establish technically effective maintenance programs that can ensure the reliability of safety-related equipment. 4. Safety Systems - Implement safety system improvements consistent with remaining plant lifetimes. 5. Safety Evaluations - Transfer the capability to conduct in-depth plant safety evaluations using internationally accepted methods. 6. Legal and Regulatory Capabilities - Facilitate host-country implementation of necessary laws and regulatory policies consistent with their international treaty obligations governing the safe use of nuclear power

  20. Safety culture issues and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren Persson, K.

    1999-01-01

    Strong economic performance in the nuclear business must be driven by excellence in nuclear operation and uncompromising safety. If this balance is not maintained then the ability of the utility to manage this technology safely will justifiably be challenged by the public and the nuclear safety regulator. Experience has shown that once nuclear installation performance has deteriorated to a level at which there are serious regulatory concerns about the adequacy of nuclear safety, then the magnitude and difficulty of the effort required to recover performance are such that continued viability of the organisation comes into question. Thus from both the perspective of individual utilities and the nuclear industry as a whole, it is extremely important to be able to detect shortcomings and deterioration in safety management performance before it becomes a serious concern, and to put effective corrective actions in place to restore and maintain performance at high levels. Following this theme and stimulated by the Canadian Government, senior representatives of utilities and regulators from Canada, United States, Sweden and Agency staff discussed common factors from recent cases involving safety management problems and subsequent recovery processes with a view to determining the need for further work to help prevent such difficulties in the future. From the working group discussion it was concluded that in most cases considered, the utility senior executives from, in some cases the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer, to senior nuclear site executives, did not have the nuclear business acumen or provide the leadership necessary for the management of a successful nuclear programme. Nuclear business acumen is the insight, knowledge and ability to manage the unique interaction between the technology, economics, human factors and safety in a changing nuclear generation environment. Senior utility management failed to recognize, within their suite of performance

  1. Assessment of basic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1996-01-01

    Work on the French-German common safety approach for future nuclear power plants continued in 1994 to allow for more detailed discussion of some major issues, taking into account the options provided by the industry for the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project, as described in the document entitled 'Conceptual Safety Features Review File'. Seven meetings of a GPR/RSK advisory experts subgroup, six GPR/RSK plenary sessions and six meetings of the safety authorities (DFD) dealt with the following topics: design of the systems and use of probabilistic approaches, application of a 'break preclusion' approach to the main primary pipings, protection against external hazards (aircraft crashes, explosions, earthquakes), provisions with respect to accidents involving core melt and to containment design, radiological consequences of reference accidents and accidents involving core melt at low pressure. The important aspects of the joint policy are recalled in the presentation. The whole set of GPR/RSK recommendations were agreed by the French and German safety authorities during the DFD meetings of 1994 and early 1995. The utilities decided to begin the basic design phase in February, 1995. Work is now continuing to develop the common French-German approach for future nuclear power plants, in the same way as before. In 1995, this mainly covers the design of the containment and of the systems, but also new issues such as the protection against secondary side overpressurization, radiological protection of workers and radioactive wastes. (J.S.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seong Ki; Shin, Hee Seong; Park, Seong Won; Shin, Young Joon.

    1997-06-01

    Nuclear criticality safety guide was described for handling, transportation and storage of nuclear fissile materials in this report. The major part of the report was excerpted frp, TID-7016(revision 2) and nuclear criticality safety written by Knief. (author). 16 tabs., 44 figs., 5 refs

  3. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  4. Review report: safety and reliability issues on digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants and United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's dispositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Suzudo, Tomoaki

    1998-09-01

    Recently, digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems have been applied to nuclear power plants (NPPs) in various countries. Introduction of digital I and C systems, however, raises special issues on design, implementation, safety and licensing. Since FY 1997, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been carrying out a project, Study on Reliability of Digital I and C Systems, which includes extensive reviews of design approaches, technical standards, regulatory processes, especially, in the United States. This report summarizes the results from the study of National Research Council (NRC) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (USNRC's) responses to the recommendations made by the NRC's study. That study identified six technical key issues (system aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, human factors and man-machine interface, dedication of commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software) and two strategic key issues (case-by-case licensing process, adequacy of technical infrastructure) that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and then, made recommendations to the USNRC for coping with digital I and C applications. The USNRC responded to each recommendation and showed their own dispositions in which the USNRC agreed with most of the recommendations. In Japan, it is expected that introduction of digital I and C technology is inevitable in NPPs because the vendors are gradually discontinuing support and stocking of analog components. To cope with such situations, there is a need to develop and update the standards and guidelines applicable to digital I and C technology. The key issues and the USNRC's dispositions provided in this report is believed to be useful for developing and updating them. (J.P.N.)

  5. Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development (NG-T-3.2). Basis for Evaluation - Legal, safety, security, safeguards issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yllera, Javier

    2010-01-01

    A framework for achieving high levels of nuclear safety and security worldwide Builds upon: Legal Instruments; Use of IAEA SSs and security guidance; Harmonization of national regulations; Exchange of knowledge, experiences & regulatory practices and Multinational cooperation and safety reviews. The IAEA is the depository of many key international conventions and legal agreements. All countries with operating nuclear power plants are now parties to the Convention. The main objective of Convention on Nuclear Safety is to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation including, where appropriate, safety related technical co-operation. All practical efforts must be made to prevent and mitigate nuclear or radiation accidents. The primary means of preventing and mitigating the consequences of accidents is “defence in depth”. Safety assessments are to be carried out and documented by the organization responsible for operating the facility, are to be independently verified and are to be submitted to the regulatory body as part of the licensing or authorization process. Licensing process must be well-defined, clear, transparent and traceable. The public should be given an opportunity to provide their views during certain steps of the licensing process

  6. Nuclear Safety Review 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A survey of IAEA activities in the field of nuclear safety with particular emphasis on the international cooperation in safety assessment of research reactors, early WWER type reactors is given. 12 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  8. Safety and licensing issues for Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.R.; Das, M.

    1997-01-01

    India has achieved competency in design, construction, commissioning and operation of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor based Nuclear Power Plants and has completed more than 120 reactor operating years with an extremely satisfactory safety record. In this paper, the safety management in NPCIL and operational safety aspects are discussed, licensing and regulatory approach is described and some of the main safety issues for Indian PHWRs are brought out. (author)

  9. Nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the organization concerned with worldwide nuclear safety has produced two international conventions to provide (1) prompt notification of nuclear accidents and (2) procedures to facilitate mutual assistance during an emergency. IAEA has also expanded operational safety review team missions, enhanced information exchange on operational safety events at nuclear power plants, and planned a review of its nuclear safety standards to ensure that they include the lessons learned from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. However, there appears to be a nearly unanimous belief among IAEA members that may attempt to impose international safety standards verified by an international inspection program would infringe on national sovereignty. Although several Western European countries have proposed establishing binding safety standards and inspections, no specific plant have been made; IAEA's member states are unlikely to adopt such standards and an inspection program

  10. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  11. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  12. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  13. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1984-02-01

    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  14. Status of Nuclear Safety evaluation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiashu

    1999-01-01

    Chinese nuclear safety management and control follows international practice, the regulations are mainly from IAEA with the Chinese condition. The regulatory body is National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA). The nuclear safety management, surveillance, safety review and evaluation are guided by NNSA with technical support by several units. Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety is one of these units, which was founded in 1987 within Beijing Institute of nuclear Engineering (BINE), co-directed by NNSA and BINE, it is the first technical support team to NNSA. Most of the safety reviews and evaluations of Chinese nuclear installations has been finished by this unit. It is described briefly in this paper that the NNSA's main function and organization, regulations on the nuclear safety, procedure of application and issuing of license, the main activities performed by Beijing Review Center of Nuclear Safety, the situation of severe accident analyses in China, etc. (author)

  15. Teaching nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is based on the assumption that the nuclear debate, both globally and within Britain, is one of critical importance in the late twentieth century and that it should therefore, at some juncture, be explored as part of the school curriculum. An essential part of 'good education' in a democratic society is to teach young people how to think about such an issue, but not what to think about it. This paper attempts to set out some of the key issues and dilemmas in relation to what we may call 'nuclear education'. It perhaps asks more questions than it gives answers, but they are all essential questions which teachers must ask themselves if they are to teach sensitively about these matters. Some of these questions are given as examples. (author)

  16. Nuclear Safety in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of nuclear safety in Western and Eastern Europe is described, focusing on the French and German approaches. The paper starts with an overview of the historical development and proceeds with recent trends in monitoring and improving the safety status of current plants, the approach to accident management, and the objectives of the development of future reactor concepts. Furthermore, important problems of nuclear safety in Central and Eastern Europe are discussed. 1 fig

  17. Nuclear safety in perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, K.; Sjöberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub......-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other...

  18. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  19. Evaluation on safety issues of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Seol, K. W.; Yoon, Y. K.; Lee, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Safety issues on the SMART were evaluated in the light of the compliance with the Ministerial Ordinance of Technical Requirements applying to Nuclear Installations, which was recently revised. Evaluation concludes that regulatory requirements associated with following items have to be developed as the licensing criteria for the SMART: (1) proving the safety of design or materials different form existing reactors; (2) coping with beyond design basis accidents; (3) rulemaking on the safety of reactor safeguard vessel ; (4) ensuring integrity of steam generator tubes; and (5) classifying equipment based on their safety significance. Appropriate actions including implementation of new requirements under development should be taken for safety issues such as diversity of reactivity control and in-service inspection of steam generator tubes that are not complied with the current Technical Requirements. Safety level of the SMART design will be evaluated further by the more detailed assessment according to the Technical Requirements, and additional safety issues will be identified and resolved, if it necessary

  20. Report of the review of WWER-1000 safety issues resolution at Temelin nuclear power plant, Temelin, Czech Republic 11 to 15 March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, C.; Hoehn, J.; Seiberling, R.; Chambon, J.L.; Fil, N.S.; Munoz, A.; Roennberg, G.; Wenk, W.

    1996-01-01

    At the request of the Government of the Czech Republic, the IAEA conducted, in the period of 11-15 March 1996, a mission to review the resolution of WWER-1000 safety issues at Temelin NPP. These safety issues have been identified for WWER-1000 model 320 reactors and ranked according to their importance to safety in the frameworks of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on Safety of WWER and RBMK Nuclear Power Plants. The Temelin NPP is a WWER-1000 and was originally designed according to standards of the former Soviet Union. After a series of reviews in the 1980s, a decision was taken by the Temelin NPP management to upgrade the design of Temelin, including the supply of fuel and instrumentation and control by a western company. The objective of the mission was to review the response of Temelin to the safety issues identified by the IAEA. The mission assessed the current Temelin design, including proposed modifications and plans for operation at Temelin, in the light of the IAEA recommendations for each relevant issue. The present report contains the mission's general conclusions and recommendations and an overview of the review performed in each topical area. The attachment contains a brief summary of the discussions on each individual safety issue and associated conclusions and recommendations. 3 refs

  1. Nuclear power and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.; Tasker, A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power currently provides about a fifth of both Britain's and the world's electricity. It is the largest single source of electricity in Western Europe; in France three quarters of electricity is generated by nuclear power stations. This booklet is about the safety of those plants. It approaches the subject by outlining the basic principles and approaches behind nuclear safety, describing the protective barriers and safety systems that are designed to prevent the escape of radioactive material, and summarising the regulations that govern the construction and operation of nuclear power stations. The aim is to provide a general understanding of the subject by explaining the general principles of the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor and setting out the UKAEA strategy for nuclear safety, the objective being always to minimize risk. (author)

  2. Introduction into the nuclear safety technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.M.; Pavlenko, A.A.; Pis'mennyj, E.N.; Shirokov, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    The theoretical and practical issues of the power and research nuclear reactor safety existing on the territory of Ukraine, the radwaste and nuclear material management objects, as well as the 'Shelter' object, the aspects of the nuclear and radiation safety regulation are considered

  3. The internationalization of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear safety is interlinked in many ways with the themes of this conference. In searching for co-operative activities that touch on global energy and environmental problems and on initiatives that relieve international tensions, the ongoing developments in nuclear power safety offer a number of successful examples. Commercial nuclear power has been with us for more than 30 years, and with 26 countries operating plants in addition to 6 more constructing their first, there has been an ongoing global co-operation, coinciding of Chernobyl with Glasnost, along with the increasing awareness of the benefits of common solutions to safety issues, have brought about an internationalization of nuclear safety. Although the main responsibility for safety rests with each operator and its government, a primary driving force expanding international co-operation is the transboundary aspects of nuclear energy, as vividly demonstrated by Chernobyl accident. In this presentation we focus on the mechanisms already in place that foster cooperation in the nuclear safety area

  4. Nuclear regulation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear regulation and safety are discussed from the standpoint of a hypothetical country that is in the process of introducing a nuclear power industry and setting up a regulatory system. The national policy is assumed to be in favor of nuclear power. The regulators will have responsibility for economic, reliable electric production as well as for safety. Reactor safety is divided into three parts: shut it down, keep it covered, take out the afterheat. Emergency plans also have to be provided. Ways of keeping the core covered with water are discussed

  5. National nuclear safety report 1998. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine Republic subscribed the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna, Austria, in June 17th, 1994. According to the provisions in Section 5th of the Convention, each Contracting Party shall submit for its examination a National Nuclear Safety Report about the measures adopted to comply with the corresponding obligations. This Report describes the actions that the Argentine Republic is carrying on since the beginning of its nuclear activities, showing that it complies with the obligations derived from the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of its Article 4. The analysis of the compliance with such obligations is based on the legislation in force, the applicable regulatory standards and procedures, the issued licenses, and other regulatory decisions. The corresponding information is described in the analysis of each of the Convention Articles constituting this Report. The present National Report has been performed in order to comply with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and has been prepared as much as possible following the Guidelines Regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved in the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in Vienna in April 1997. This means that the Report has been ordered according to the Articles of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the contents indicated in the guidelines. The information contained in the articles, which are part of the Report shows the compliance of the Argentine Republic, as a contracting party of such Convention, with the obligations assumed

  6. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Tricastin AREVA site - Issue 2014. Figures and information about nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Tricastin AREVA site - Issue 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the Areva's Tricastin site which comprises five basic nuclear installations or INBs, and seven ICPE (installation classified for environment protection). The activities are dedicated to uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, uranium chemistry, industrial services, and fuel manufacturing. The report presents this important industrial site, describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports nuclear events which occurred on this site and had to be declared, reports the management of releases by this site and the control of the environment. The next part addresses the management of the various wastes produced by the different installations present on this site. The management of other impacts is also reported. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information

  7. Information report on nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Tricastin AREVA site - Issue 2013. Figures and information about nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Tricastin AREVA site - Issue 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    Published in compliance with the French code of the environment, this report first presents different aspects of the Areva's Tricastin site which comprises five basic nuclear installations or INBs, and seven ICPE (installation classified for the protection of the environment). The activities are dedicated to uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, uranium chemistry, industrial services, and fuel manufacturing. The report presents this important industrial site, describes the various measures regarding nuclear safety and radiation protection, reports nuclear events which occurred on this site and had to be declared, reports the management of releases by this site and the control of the environment. The next part addresses the management of the various wastes produced by the different installations present on this site. The management of other impacts is also reported. The last chapter reviews the actions undertaken in the field of transparency and information

  8. Comments on nuclear reactor safety in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The Chalk River Technicians and Technologists Union representing 500 technical employees at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of AECL submit comments on nuclear reactor safety to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review. Issues identified by the Review Commissioner are addressed from the perspective of both a labour organization and experience in the nuclear R and D field. In general, Local 1568 believes Ontario's CANDU nuclear reactors are not only safe but also essential to the continued economic prosperity of the province

  9. History of nuclear power plants safety in France (1945-2000) - Engineer techniques, expert evaluation, topical issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foasso, Cyrille

    2003-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation relates the history of the mastery of risks in civil nuclear plants in France. Since 1960, it's known as the 'surete nucleaire'. Over a fifty-year period separating the discovery or the atomic fission and its industrial application on a large scale this PhD shows which technical means were used over the years by engineers to handle this risk which is said to be huge. It also studies the various processes in expert evaluation and in decision making elaborated to evaluate if the risk was acceptable or not. Beyond the conflicts between nuclear advocates and opponents, this thesis shows how ever among nuclear engineer the growing distinction between roles (promoters, experts and controlling authorities) and the various jobs (designers, builders and plant operators) triggered different estimations as far as the methods to obtain a satisfactory safety. Thanks to the progress of knowledge through research programs, thanks to the lessons drawn from the functioning or dysfunction of nuclear plants, thanks to the reinforcement of regulations (which more or less reflects the public's opinion concerning this industry) the safety has progressively improved. Thus, this historical study is multiple: a technical history of technology, a history of scientific, industrial and administrative organization, a social history and finally an international and comparative history since the nuclear energy history quickly developed beyond national boundaries. (author) [fr

  10. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  11. Safety of nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety is the major public issue to be resolved or accommodated if nuclear power is to have a future. Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of accidental releases of low-level radiation, the spread and activity of radiation in populated areas, and the impacts on public health from exposure evolved from the earlier Rasmussen Reactor Safety Study. Applications of the PRA technique have identified design peculiarities in specific reactors, thus increasing reactor safety and establishing a quide for evaluating reactor regulations. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and reactor vendors must share with utilities the responsibility for reactor safety in the US and for providing reasonable assurance to the public. This entails persuasive public education and information that with safety a top priority, changes now being made in light water reactor hardware and operations will be adequate. 17 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  12. Evaluation of water hammer occurrence in nuclear power plants: technical findings relevant to unresolved safety issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report, which includes responses to public comments, summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. This report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  13. Evaluation of water-hammer experience in nuclear power plants. Technical findings relevant to Unresolved Safety Issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. It should also be noted that this report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  14. Unresolved safety issues summary: aqua book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    The unresolved safety issues summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a quarterly overview of the progress and plans for completion of generic tasks addressing unresolved safety issues reported to Congress pursuant to Section 210 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 as amended. This summary utilizes data collected from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and the National Laboratories and is prepared by the Office of Resource Management. The schedules in this book include a milestone at the end of each action plan which represents the initiation of the implementation process both with respect to incorporation of the technical resolution in the NRC official guidance or requirements and also the application of changes to individual operating plants. The progress and status for implementation of unresolved safety issues for which a technical resolution has been completed are reported specifically in a separate table provided in this summary

  15. Nuclear safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-11-01

    The 17th semi-annual report 1980/1 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the first six months of 1980 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics - work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. (orig.) [de

  16. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  17. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI action plan requirements, unresolved safety issues, generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program was established whereby an annual NUREG report would be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was compiled and reported in three NUREG volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). This annual NUREG report combines these volumes into a single report and provides updated information as of September 30, 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. This report is to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan Requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, and GSIs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. An additional purpose of this NUREG report is to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees

  18. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Amagai, Masaki; Tobita, Tohru

    2004-03-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Annual Plan for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI are the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI has taken a responsible role by providing technical experts and investigation for assistance to the government or local public body. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2001 through March 2003 and utilized facilities. This report also summarizes the examination of the ruptured pipe performed for assistance to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) for investigation of the accident at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 on November, 2001, and the integrity evaluation of cracked core shroud of BWRs of the Tokyo Electric Power Company performed for assistance to the Nuclear Safety Commission in reviewing the evaluation reports by the licensees. (author)

  19. Nuclear safety review for the year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear, radiation and transport safety and the safety of radioactive waste management. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was prepared in the light of the discussion by the Board of Governors in March 2002. This report presents an overview of the current issues and trends in nuclear, radiation, transport and radioactive waste safety at the end of 2002. This overview is supported by a more detailed factual account of safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. National authorities and the international community continued to reflect and act upon the implications of the events of II September 2001 for nuclear, radiation, transport and waste safety. In the light of this, the Agency has decided to transfer the organizational unit on nuclear security from the Department of Safeguards to the Department of Nuclear Safety (which thereby becomes the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security). By better exploiting the synergies between safety and security and promoting further cross-fertilization of approaches, the Agency is trying to help build up mutually reinforcing global regimes of safety and security. However, the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 addresses only those areas already in the safety programme. This short analytical overview is supported by a second part (corresponding to Part I of the Nuclear Safety Reviews of previous years), which describes significant safety-related events and issues worldwide during 2002. A Draft Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2002 was submitted to the March 2003 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2003/6

  20. Elements of nuclear safety

    CERN Document Server

    Libmann, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    This basically educational book is intended for all involved in nuclear facility safety. It dissects the principles and experiences conducive to the adoption of attitudes compliant with what is now known as "safety culture". This book is accessible to a wide range of readers.

  1. Identification of new unresolved safety issues relating to nuclear power plants - special report to Congress. Congressional report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    As a result of NRC staff review and extended collegial consultations and investigations within the NRC, the Commission has designated four new Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs). This report describes the process used to evaluate the large number of concerns and recommendations which resulted from the major investigations of the Three Mile Island-2 accident as well as other events and investigations of the past year, and the report identifies the four new USIs selected as follows: (1) Shutdown decay heat removal requirements (Task A-45); (2) Seismic qualification of equipment in operating plants (Task A-46); (3) Safety implications of control systems (Task A-47); and (4) Hydrogen control measures and effects of hydrogen burns on safety equipment (Task A-48). Appendix A of the report presents an expanded discussion of each new USI including issue definition, a preliminary discussion of the action plan and a basis for continued plant operations and licensing. Appendix B of the report provides a brief discussion of each of the candidate safety issues not designated as an USI

  2. Approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This article examines the factors which affect the safe operation of a nuclear power plant. Some of these are an organizational and individual dedication to safety and excellence in every aspect of plant functions, international cooperation, and advanced reactor design. These are in addition to excellence in management of nuclear plants and the training of key operations personnel. The author feels all of these are necessary to restore public confidence in nuclear power

  3. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  4. Safety issues and their ranking for WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a consolidated list of generic safety concerns, called safety issues, ranked according to their safety significance and the corrective measures to improve safety. It is intended for use as a reference to facilitate the development of plant specific safety improvement programmes and to serve as a basis for reviewing their implementation. Section 2 provides and overview of the impact of all relevant issues on the main safety functions and other aspects important to overall plant safety. Section 3 presents safety issues identified in design according to the structure described below. Section 4 presents the safety issues in the area of operation, according to the same structure except that no ranking is given. At the end of Section 2, Tables 1 and 2 present a summary of all safety issues in a tabular form. 138 refs, tabs

  5. Pantex Plant final safety analysis report, Zone 4 magazines. Staging or interim storage for nuclear weapons and components: Issue D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains a detailed description and evaluation of the significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) issues associated with the operations of the Pantex Plant modified-Richmond and steel arch construction (SAC) magazines in Zone 4. It provides (1) an overall description of the magazines, the Pantex Plant, and its surroundings; (2) a systematic evaluations of the hazards that could occur as a result of the operations performed in these magazines; (3) descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards; and (4) analyses of potential accidents and their associated risks.

  6. Nuclear safety chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.C.; Eames, G.F.; Mayell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    An original scheme has been developed for expressing the complex interrelationships associated with the engineered safeguards provided for a nuclear power station. This management tool, based upon network diagrams called Nuclear Safety Chains, looks at the function required of a particular item of safety plant, defines all of the vital supplies and support features necessary for successful operation, and expresses them in visual form, to facilitate analysis and optimisation for operations and maintenance staff. The safety chains are confined to manual schemes at present, although they are designed to be compatible with modern computer techniques. Their usefulness with any routine maintenance planning application on high technology plant is already being appreciated. (author)

  7. Nuclear safety in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.; Sjoeberg, B.M.D.; Lauridsen, K.; Wahlstroem, B.

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicating on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, was supported by limited research in three sub-projects: 1) Risk assessment, 2) Safety analysis, and 3) Strategies for safety management. The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems for regulatory oversight are described in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall processes within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in the nuclear safety area are very useful, but also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project. (au)

  8. NRC - regulator of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was formed in 1975 to regulate the various commercial and institutional uses of nuclear energy, including nuclear power plants. The agency succeeded the Atomic Energy Commission, which previously had responsibility for both developing and regulating nuclear activities. Federal research and development work for all energy sources, as well as nuclear weapons production, is now conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy. Under its responsibility to protect public health and safety, the NRC has three principal regulatory functions: (1) establish standards and regulations, (2) issue licenses for nuclear facilities and users of nuclear materials, and (3) inspect facilities and users of nuclear materials to ensure compliance with the requirements. These regulatory functions relate to both nuclear power plants and to other uses of nuclear materials - like nuclear medicine programs at hospitals, academic activities at educational institutions, research work, and such industrial applications as gauges and testing equipment. The NRC places a high priority on keeping the public informed of its work. The agency recognizes the interest of citizens in what it does through such activities as maintaining public document rooms across the country and holding public hearings, public meetings in local areas, and discussions with individuals and organizations

  9. Progress of nuclear safety research. 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Kudo, Tamotsu; Tobita, Tohru (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2002-11-01

    JAERI is conducting nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Annual Plan for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI are the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI has conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI has taken a responsible role by providing technical experts and investigation for assistance to the government or local public body. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2000 through April 2002 and utilized facilities. This report also summarizes the examination of the ruptured pipe performed for assistance to the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) for investigation of the accident at the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 on November, 2001. (author)

  10. Nuclear Safety Charter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The AREVA 'Values Charter' reaffirmed the priority that must be given to the requirement for a very high level of safety, which applies in particular to the nuclear field. The purpose of this Nuclear Safety Charter is to set forth the group's commitments in the field of nuclear safety and radiation protection so as to ensure that this requirement is met throughout the life cycle of the facilities. It should enable each of us, in carrying out our duties, to commit to this requirement personally, for the company, and for all stakeholders. These commitments are anchored in organizational and action principles and in complete transparency. They build on a safety culture shared by all personnel and maintained by periodic refresher training. They are implemented through Safety, Health, and Environmental management systems. The purpose of these commitments, beyond strict compliance with the laws and regulations in force in countries in which we operate as a group, is to foster a continuous improvement initiative aimed at continually enhancing our overall performance as a group. Content: 1 - Organization: responsibility of the group's executive management and subsidiaries, prime responsibility of the operator, a system of clearly defined responsibilities that draws on skilled support and on independent control of operating personnel, the general inspectorate: a shared expertise and an independent control of the operating organization, an organization that can be adapted for emergency management. 2 - Action principles: nuclear safety applies to every stage in the plant life cycle, lessons learned are analyzed and capitalized through the continuous improvement initiative, analyzing risks in advance is the basis of Areva's safety culture, employees are empowered to improve nuclear Safety, the group is committed to a voluntary radiation protection initiative And a sustained effort in reducing waste and effluent from facility Operations, employees and subcontractors are treated

  11. Current safety issues of CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.; Natalizio, A.

    1994-01-01

    As requested by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), the status of five generic licensing issues has been examined and their potential impact on a new plant that would be constructed in Canada has been evaluated. The results and conclusions of this evaluation are summarized as follows: steam explosion in calandria, hydrogen explosion in containment, use of PSA in reactor licensing, human factors, safety critical software

  12. Nuclear safety philosophy in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Development of the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear safety philosophy is described in the context of the UK nuclear power program since 1959 and of its legislative framework. Basic to the philosophy is that the licensee is wholly responsible for nuclear safety. The licensing process and safety assessment principles used by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate are discussed, and examples from the assessment of the proposed UK pressurized-water reactor are used to illustrate how the approach works in practice. The UK siting policy and regulatory developments since 1979 are also discussed. Recent, current, and future issues of interest to the regulatory authority are described against the development nuclear scene in the UK

  13. Progress of nuclear safety research - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anoda, Yoshinari; Amaya, Masaki; Saito, Junichi; Sato, Atsushi; Sono, Hiroki; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Nemoto, Yoshiyuki; Motoki, Yasuo; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Araya, Fumimasa

    2006-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), one of the predecessors of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), had conducted nuclear safety research primarily at the Nuclear Safety Research Center in close cooperation with the related departments in accordance with the Long Term Plan for Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy and Five-Years Program for Safety Research issued by the Japanese government. The fields of conducting safety research at JAERI were the engineering safety of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and radioactive waste management as well as advanced technology for safety improvement or assessment. Also, JAERI had conducted international collaboration to share the information on common global issues of nuclear safety and to supplement own research. Moreover, when accidents occurred at nuclear facilities, JAERI had taken a responsible role by providing experts in assistance to conducting accident investigations or emergency responses by the government or local government. These nuclear safety research and technical assistance to the government have been taken over as an important role by JAEA. This report summarizes the nuclear safety research activities of JAERI from April 2003 through September 2005 and utilized facilities. (author)

  14. Concerning safety issue associated with approval of modification of plan for reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (reply to inquiry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Sept. 16, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made an adequate study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Oct. 20. the relevant modifications include the installation of combustion facilities comprising two furnaces to replace the existing facilities, and the addition of uranyl nitrate solution receiving equipment to the existing facilities for plutonium conversion technology development. The study addressed the effect of the modifications on the safety of the facilities and the environment. The combustion facilities, equipment and underground seepage water tank are designed in accordance with the applicable anti-earthquake standards. The facilities will be constructed of incombustible of flame-retardant materials. Equipment in the facilities will be used under negative pressure to prevent counterflow. Adequate measures will be taken for shielding, exposure control, waste disposal, etc. It is concluded that the modifications will not affect the safety of the reprocessing facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  15. Concerning safety issue associated with approval of modification of plan for reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (reply to inquiry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Sept. 16, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made an adequate study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Oct. 20. the relevant modifications include the installation of combustion facilities comprising two furnaces to replace the existing facilities, and the addition of uranyl nitrate solution receiving equipment to the existing facilities for plutonium conversion technology development. The study addressed the effect of the modifications on the safety of the facilities and the environment. The combustion facilities, equipment and underground seepage water tank are designed in accordance with the applicable anti-earthquake standards. The facilities will be constructed of incombustible of flame-retardant materials. Equipment in the facilities will be used under negative pressure to prevent counterflow. Adequate measures will be taken for shielding, exposure control, waste disposal, etc. It is concluded that the modifications will not affect the safety of the reprocessing facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  16. The nuclear controversy and nuclear safety techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarson, P.

    1979-09-01

    Survey interviews with 125 Swedish nuclear safety engineers are summarized and commented upon. A short historical background is given, claiming that the major safety issues of nuclear energy have been debated continously during the 50's and 60's in a way that could well have been watched and interpreted by a political, democratic system involving political parties, government departments, etc. With a few exceptions, these 125 engineers represent 10 - 20 years experience in nuclear research and development. By definition they belong to a professional group of about 800 in Sweden (1978). The main aim of the study is to find out if (how and why) a public debate can bring about changes in an industrially established technology by influencing the attitudes and technical judgements of the individuals and/or organizations involved. Examples are given in which the nuclear specialists themselves admit or claim that direct or indirect impacts from the public debate have been important. A common experience is that the scientists and engineers have been forced to broaden their professional scope through a time-consuming but - on the whole - 'positive' process. A year after the interviews started, a serious reactor accident occured near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The group has been used for a survey of the immediate reactions in order to see if it could cause sudden changes of attitudes among the experts. A minority demonstrated clear changes towards a more cautious attitude regarding nuclear risks. (author)

  17. Safety issues and their ranking for WWER-1000 model 320 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this report is to present a consolidated list of safety deficiencies, called safety issues, ranked according to their safety significance and the corrective measures to improve overall safety. It is intended for use as a reference to facilitate the development of plant specific safety improvement programmes and to serve as a basis for reviewing their implementation. To the extent that information was made available to the IAEA, the country/plant specific status with respect to each safety issue is described. Section 2 provides an overview of the impact of the relevant issues on the main safety functions in different operational conditions and other aspects important to overall plant safety. A summary of the safety issues and their respective ranking is given in Tables 1 and 2 at the end of Section 2. Section 3 deals with individual safety issues identified in the design which are presented according to the structure below. Section 4 presents the safety issues related to operational safety according to a similar structure but without the ranking. 73 refs, 3 tabs

  18. Safety issues and their ranking for WWER-1000 model 320 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a consolidated list of safety deficiencies, called safety issues, ranked according to their safety significance and the corrective measures to improve overall safety. It is intended for use as a reference to facilitate the development of plant specific safety improvement programmes and to serve as a basis for reviewing their implementation. To the extent that information was made available to the IAEA, the country/plant specific status with respect to each safety issue is described. Section 2 provides an overview of the impact of the relevant issues on the main safety functions in different operational conditions and other aspects important to overall plant safety. A summary of the safety issues and their respective ranking is given in Tables 1 and 2 at the end of Section 2. Section 3 deals with individual safety issues identified in the design which are presented according to the structure below. Section 4 presents the safety issues related to operational safety according to a similar structure but without the ranking

  19. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverie, M.

    1981-02-01

    The principles and rules governing the safety of nuclear installations are defined as from three fundamental principles and three practical rules as follows: First principle: the operator is responsible and of the highest order. Second principle: the public authorities exercise their control responsibility with respect to the design, construction and running of the installations. Third principle: nuclear safety, this is to accept that man and his technique are not infallible and that one must be prepared to control the unpredictable. First rule: the installations must include several 'lines of defence' in succession and to the extent where this is possible these must be independent of each other. Second rule: procedures are required and supervised by the Government Departments. Third rule: nuclear safety requires that any incident or anomaly must undergo an analysis in depth and is also based on a standing 'clinical' examination of the installations. The definition is given as to how the public authorities exercise their intervention: terms and conditions of the intervention by the safety authorities, authorization procedures, surveillance of the installations, general technical regulations. Two specific subjects are presented in the addendum, (a) the choice of nuclear power station sites in France and (b) the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  20. Standards: An international framework for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versteeg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The IAEA, uniquely among international organizations concerned with the use of radiation, radioactive materials and nuclear energy, has statutory functions to establish safety standards and to provide for their application in Member States. The IAEA also contributes towards another major element of the 'global safety culture', namely the establishment of legally binding international agreements on safety related issues. (author)

  1. 3. French national report on implementation of the obligations of the Convention on nuclear safety - Issued for the 2005 Peer review meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety, hereinafter referred to as 'the Convention', is one of the results of international discussions initiated in 1992 with the aim of proposing binding international obligations regarding nuclear safety. France signed the Convention on 20 September 1994, on the first day it was opened for signature on the occasion of the General Conference of the IAEA. France approved the Convention on 13 September 1995 and it entered into force on 24 October 1996. For many years, France has been participating in international initiatives to enhance nuclear safety and considers the Convention on Nuclear Safety to be an important step in this direction. The areas covered by the Convention have long been part of the French approach to nuclear safety. This report, the third one of its kind, is issued in compliance with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and presents the measures taken by France to meet each of the obligations of the Convention. As such, the Convention on Nuclear Safety applies to nuclear power reactors and so most of this report deals with measures taken to ensure their safety. However, for this third report, a number of considerations led France also to present the measures taken concerning all research reactors, with a 'graded approach' tailored to their size where appropriate. First of all, research reactors are subject to the same general regulations as power reactors with regard to nuclear safety and radiation protection. Furthermore, the most powerful research reactor, which is also intended for producing power, was already included in the previous French report. Secondly, within the first report under the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management, to which France is a party, the measures taken for research reactors in these areas were already presented. Finally the IAEA Board of Governors, on which France has a seat, in March 2004 approved the Code of

  2. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations; to be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; and to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  3. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  4. Safety of nuclear power plants: Operation. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The safety of a nuclear power plant is ensured by means of its proper siting, design, construction and commissioning, followed by the proper management and operation of the plant. In a later phase, proper decommissioning is required. This Safety Requirements publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which was issued in 1988 as Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1). The purpose of this revision was: to restructure Safety Series No. 50-C-O (Rev. 1) in the light of the basic objectives, concepts and principles in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. To be consistent with the requirements of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources. And to reflect current practice and new concepts and technical developments. Guidance on fulfillment of these Safety Requirements may be found in the appropriate Safety Guides relating to plant operation. The objective of this publication is to establish the requirements which, in the light of experience and the present state of technology, must be satisfied to ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants. These requirements are governed by the basic objectives, concepts and principles that are presented in the Safety Fundamentals publication The Safety of Nuclear Installations. This publication deals with matters specific to the safe operation of land based stationary thermal neutron nuclear power plants, and also covers their commissioning and subsequent decommissioning

  5. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 contains an analytical overview of the dominant trends, issues and challenges worldwide in 2011 and the Agency's efforts to strengthen the global nuclear safety framework. This year's report also highlights issues and activities related to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The analytical overview is supported by the Appendix at the end of this document, entitled: The IAEA Safety Standards: Activities during 2011. A draft version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was submitted to the March 2012 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2012/6. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2012 was prepared in light of the discussions held during the Board of Governors and also of the comments received.

  6. Nuclear and radiological safety, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Safety, issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives an abstract of these publications along with contents and prices in Austrian Schillings

  7. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  8. Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingquan

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the Regulatory Network are: - to contribute to the effectiveness of nuclear regulatory systems; - to contribute to continuous enhancements, and - to achieve and promote radiation and nuclear safety and security by: • Enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of international cooperation in the regulation of nuclear and radiation safety of facilities and activities; • Enabling adequate access by regulators to relevant safety and security information; • Promoting dissemination of information on safety and security issues as well as information of good practices for addressing and resolving these issues; • Enabling synergies among different web based networks with a view to strengthening and enhancing the global nuclear safety framework and serving the specific needs of regulators and international organizations; • Providing additional information to the public on international regulatory cooperation in safety and security matters

  9. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors - the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. This report examines the safety objective established by the Department of Energy for the production reactors and the process the Department of its contractors use to implement the objective; focuses on a variety of uncertainties concerning the production reactors, particularly those related to potential vulnerabilities to severe accidents; and identifies ways in which the DOE approach to management of the safety of the production reactors can be improved

  10. Nuclear Safety Review for 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review 2015 focuses on the dominant nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges in 2014. The Executive Overview provides general nuclear safety information along with a summary of the major issues covered in this report: improving radiation, transport and waste safety; strengthening safety in nuclear installations; enhancing emergency preparedness and response (EPR); and strengthening civil liability for nuclear damage. The Appendix provides details on the activities of the Commission on Safety Standards (CSS), and activities relevant to the Agency’s safety standards. The global nuclear community continued to make steady progress in improving nuclear safety throughout the world in 2014; and, the Agency and its Member States continued to implement the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter referred to as “the Action Plan”), which was endorsed by the General Conference in 2011 after the Fukushima Daiichi accident in March 2011. • Significant progress has been made in reviewing and revising various Agency’s safety standards in areas such as management of radioactive waste, design basis hazard levels, protection of nuclear power plants (NPPs) against severe accidents, design margins to avoid cliff edge effects, multiple facilities at one site, and strengthening the prevention of unacceptable radiological consequences to the public and the environment, communications and EPR. In addition, the Guidelines for Drafting IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series Publications was issued in July 2014.• The Agency continued to analyse the relevant technical aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi accident and to share and disseminate lessons learned to the wider nuclear community. In 2014, the Agency organized two international experts’ meetings (IEMs), one on radiation protection and one on severe accident management. Reports from previous IEMs were also published in 2014: IAEA Report on Human and Organizational Factors in Nuclear

  11. Investigation of nuclear power safety objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    It is a report of ground and concept of nuclear safety objects and future issues in Japan, which has investigated by the Committee of Experts on Investigation of Nuclear Safety Objects in the Nuclear Safety Research Association. The report consisted of member of committee, main conclusions and five chapters. The first chapter contains construction of safety objects and range of object, the second chapter qualitative safety objects, the third chapter quantitative safety objects, the forth subsiding objects and the fifth other items under consideration. The qualitative safety objects on individual and society, the quantitative one on effects on health and social cost, aspect of safety objects, relation between radiation protection and safety objects, practical objective values and earthquake are stated. (S.Y.)

  12. Understanding the nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooradian, A.J.

    1976-06-01

    Nuclear power is presented as a necessary power source for the transition from fossil fuels to a no-growth society of the future. It is already economic and on-stream all over the world. Radiation is a very tractable hazard. New fuel cycles would provide extraordinary increases in our nuclear fuel reserves. (E.C.B.)

  13. Strengthening of nuclear power plant construction safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the warning of the Fukushima nuclear accident, and analyzes the major nuclear safety issues in nuclear power development in China, problems in nuclear power plants under construction, and how to strengthen supervision and management in nuclear power construction. It also points out that the development of nuclear power must attach great importance to the safety, and nuclear power plant construction should strictly implement the principle of 'safety first and quality first'. (author)

  14. Safety of nuclear installations: Future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Workshop presentations were divided into sessions devoted to the following topics: Environmental impact of fossil fuel energy technologies (5 papers), Future needs for nuclear power (7 papers), Safety objectives (10 papers), Safety aspects of the next generation of current-type nuclear power plants (8 papers), Safety aspects of new designs and concepts for nuclear power plants (6 papers), Special safety issues: Safety aspects of new designs and concepts for nuclear power plants (5 papers), Safety aspects of new designs and processes for the nuclear fuel cycle (5 papers), Closing panel (3 papers), 12 poster presentations and a Summary of the Workshop. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety was adopted on 17 June 1994 by Diplomatic Conference convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency at its Headquarters from 14 to 17 June 1994. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depository (the Agency's Director General) of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of seventeen States, having each at leas one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core. The text of the Convention as adopted is reproduced in the Annex hereto for the information of all Member States

  16. Nuclear Reactor Safety; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    This publication announces on an monthly basis the current worldwide information available on all safety-related aspects of reactors, including: accident analysis, safety systems, radiation protection, decommissioning and dismantling, and security measures. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements.

  17. Status of nuclear safety research - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobajima, Makoto; Sasajima, Hideo; Umemoto, Michitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Tadao; Togashi, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Masahito [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-11-01

    The nuclear safety research at JAERI is performed in accordance with the long term plan on nuclear research, development and use and the safety research yearly plan determined by the government and under close relationship to the related departments in and around the Nuclear Safety Research Center. The criticality accident having occurred in Tokai-mura in 1999 has been the highest level nuclear accident in Japan and ensuring safety in whole nuclear cycle is severely questioned. The causes of such an accident have to be clarified not only technical points but also organizational points, and it is extremely important to make efforts in preventing recurrence, to fulfill emergency plan and to improve the safety of whole nuclear fuel cycle for restoring the reliability by the people to nuclear energy system. The fields of conducting safety research are engineering safety research on reactor facilities and nuclear fuel cycle facilities including research on radioactive waste processing and disposal and research and development on future technology for safety improvement. Also, multinational cooperation and bilateral cooperation are promoted in international research organizations in the center to internationally share the recognition of world-common issues of nuclear safety and to attain efficient promotion of research and effective utilization of research resources. (author)

  18. Practicing industrial safety - issues involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekaran, P.

    2016-01-01

    Industrial safety is all about measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss to persons, property or the environment in any industrial facility. The issue of industrial safety evolved concurrently with industrial development as a shift from compensation to prevention as well. Today, industrial safety is widely regarded as one of the most important factors that any business, large or small, must consider in its operations, as prevention of loss is also a part of profit. Factories Act of Central government and Rules made under it by the state deals with the provisions on industrial safety legislation. There are many other acts related to safety of personnel, property and environment. Occupational health and safety is also of primary concern. The aim is to regulate health and safety conditions for all employers. It includes safety standards and health standards. These acts encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to implement new or improve existing safety and health standards; and develop innovative ways to achieve them. Maintain a reporting and record keeping system to monitor job-related injuries and illnesses; establish training programs to increase the number and competence of occupational safety and health personnel

  19. Promotion of nuclear safety culture in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Youngsoo

    1996-01-01

    The term 'nuclear safety culture' was first introduced by the IAEA after the Chernobyl accident in the former USSR and subsequently defined in the IAEA's Safety Series No. 75-IMSAG-4 'Safety Culture' as follows : 'Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establish that establish that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.' INSAG-4 deals with the concept of 'Safety Culture' as it relates to organizations and individuals engaged in nuclear power activities, and is intended for use by governmental authorities and by the nuclear industry and its supporting organizations. The IAEA's Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) developed ASCOT Guidelines that can be used in the assessment of the safety culture level of the organizations and their individual workers concerned, with a view to the tangible manifestations of safety culture that has intangible characteristics in nature. The IAEA provides the nuclear safety culture assessment service on the request of the Member States. Safety culture can not be achieved by the effort of the nuclear industry and its involved individuals alone. Rather, it requires a well concerted effort among various organizations engaged in nuclear activities including regulatory organizations

  20. An international nuclear safety regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1995-01-01

    For all the parties involved with safe use of nuclear energy, the opening for signature of the 'Convention on Nuclear Safety' (signed by 60 countries) and the ongoing work to prepare a 'Convention on Radioactive Waste Safety' are particularly important milestones. 'Convention on Nuclear Safety' is the first legal instrument that directly addresses the safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. The two conventions are only one facet of international cooperation to enhance safety. A review of some cooperative efforts of the past decades, and some key provisions of the new safety conventions, presented in this paper, show how international cooperation is increasing nuclear safety worldwide. The safety philosophy and practices involved with legal framework for the safe use of nuclear power will foster a collective international involvement and commitment. It will be a positive step towards increasing public confidence in nuclear power

  1. Nordic nuclear safety research program 1994-1997. Project coordination incl. SAM-4 general information issues. Report 1996. Plans for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research) is a cooperative body in nuclear safety, radiation protection and emergency preparedness. Its purpose is to carry out cost-effective Nordic projects, thus producing research results, exercises, information, recommendations, manuals etc., to be used by decision makers and other concerned staff members at authorities and within the nuclear industry. This is the annual report for 1996, the third year of the fifth four-year NKS program (1994-1997). The report also contains plans for the rest of the program period, including budget proposals. The following major fields of research have been identified: reactor safety; radioactive waste; radioecology; emergency preparedness; and information issues. A total of nine projects are now under way within that framework. One project (RAK-1) is dedicated to reactor safety strategies: how to avoid serious accidents. A parallel project (RAK-2) deals with minimizing releases in case of an accident. When can an overheated reactor core still be water-cooled? What might be the consequences of the cooling? All Nordic countries have long-lived low and medium level radioactive waste that requires final disposal. One project (AFA-1) addresses that issue. Environmental impact of radioactive releases is studied in two radioecology projects. The project on marine radioecology, including sediment research (EKO-1), encompasses sampling, analysis and modeling. These are also key issues in the project on long ecological half-lives in semi-natural systems (EKO-2). The transfer of radioactive cesium and strontium in the chains soil - vegetation - sheep and mushroom - roe deer is studied, along with freshwater systems. Long-term doses to main is the ultimate output from the obtained models. Another aspect of environmental impact is emergency preparedness. A recently started project, EKO-5, addresses the issue of early planning for cleanup operations following a fallout. 'Early' in this context means within the

  2. Safety assessment and verification for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    verification' are used differently in different countries. The way that these terms have been used in this Safety Guide is explained in Section 2. The term 'design' as used here includes the specifications for the safe operation and management of the plant. This Safety Guide identifies the key recommendations for carrying out the safety assessment and the independent verification. It provides detailed guidance in support of IAEA, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, Safety Standards Series No. NS-R-1 (2000), particularly in the area of safety analysis. However, this does not include all the technical details which are available and reference is made to other IAEA publications on specific design issues and safety analysis methods. Specific deterministic or probabilistic safety targets or radiological limits can vary in different countries and are the responsibility of the regulatory body. This Safety Guide provides some references to targets and limits established by international organizations. Operators, and sometimes designers, may also set their own safety targets which may be more stringent than those set by the regulator or may address different aspects of safety. In some countries operators are expected to do this as part of their 'ownership' of the entire safety case. This Safety Guide does not include specific recommendations for the safety assessment of those plant systems for which dedicated Safety Guides exist. Section 2 defines the terms 'safety assessment', 'safety analysis' and 'independent verification' and outlines their relationship. Section 3 gives the key recommendations for the safety assessment of the principal and plant design requirements. Section 4 gives the key recommendations for safety analysis. It describes the identification of postulated initiating events (PIEs), which are used throughout the safety assessment including the safety analysis, the deterministic transient analysis and severe accident analysis, and the probabilistic safety analysis

  3. Alternate approaches to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    For the US nuclear power industry to expand, a greatly increased portion of the public must come to share the industry's confidence in reactor safety. Major obstacles to establishing this confidence are frequent incidents with potential safety implications and a lack of incontrovertible proof that the risk of a major accident is very low. The most important step toward overcoming these obstacles would be for each utility to operate, maintain, and evaluate its reactors according to far higher standards. With improvements in reliability and safety margins, existing plants would be a stimulus for building new ones rather than an impediment. If changes to the operation of existing plants and improvements to the design of future ones were inadequate, the only hope for a revival of the nuclear industry would be an alternative reactor so obviously safe that risk would no longer be an issue. Three possible concepts are the modular high-temperature gas reactor, the process inherent ultimate safety reactor, and the liquid-metal fast reactor. All three have inherent safety features that should make a meltdown essentially impossible. They cannot know just how great the advantage of these alternate reactors would be, but the benefits of developing one or more of the concepts appear great

  4. Economic Issues on Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinolfi, Felice; Di Pasquale, Jorgelina; Capitanio, Fabian

    2016-01-18

    A globalised food trade, with a huge increase of the exchanged volume, extensive production and complex supply chains are contributing towards an increased number of microbiological food safety outbreaks. All of these factors are putting pressure on the stakeholders, either public or private, in terms of rule and control. In fact, this scenario could force manufacturers to be lenient towards food safety control intentionally, or unintentionally, and result in a major foodborne outbreak that causes health problems and economic loss. As a response to emerging calls for the adoption of a systemic approach to food safety, we try to identify and discuss the several related economics issue in this field. Based on an extensive analysis of academic and policy literatures on the economic effects of global environmental change at different stages of the food system, we highlight the main issues involving economists in the field of food safety. In the first part, we assessed the several approaches and problems related to the evaluation of food safety improvements, followed by an overview of drivers of food safety demand in the second part. The third section is devoted to discussing changes occurred at the institutional level in building and managing food safety policies. The last section summarises the main considerations aroused from the work.

  5. Refinement of nuclear safety education reinforcing technical succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobori, Seiichi

    2008-01-01

    In April 2008, Musashi Institute of Technology established another faculty, the Faculty of Nuclear Safety Engineering, to educate students for nuclear engineering to meet the demands of personnel for nuclear business. At this new faculty, students mainly obtain professional knowledge and skills related to nuclear safety issues. This article described refinement of nuclear safety education by reinforcing technical succession topics, such as Rankine cycle, fission, two-phase flow, defense in depth in safety. LOCA/ECCS, seismic effects, reactor maintenance. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Nuclear liability, nuclear safety, and economic efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    This dissertation applies the methods of economic analysis to nuclear liability and Price-Anderson. First the legislative history is reviewed; in that history the economic role of liability in affecting safety and allocating risk was virtually ignored. Succeeding chapters reformulate issues from the policy debate and subject them to economic analysis. A persistent issue is whether nuclear utilities respond to their limited liability by allowing a higher probability of serious accident. Comparative-static analysis shows that limited liability does lead to a higher chance of accidents, though the effect may be small. The analysis also shows that safety is achieved in a more capital-intensive manner than is cost-minimizing and that limited liability causes reactor owners to favor more heavily populated sites for plants. Therefore, the siting decision makes potential loss greater even if there is no change in the probability of an accident. Citizens' preferences on nuclear liability are examined next, starting with the nature of coverage that would be just in the sense of contraction theories such as John Rawls' Theory of Justice. Citizens behind Rawls' veil of ignorance, forced to be fair because of their ignorance of whether they will be harmed, unanimously choose a high level of coverage. The just level of coverage is greater than the existing $560 million. Second, the nature of economically efficient liability coverage is determined and contrasted with coverage that would emerge from a democratic system of public choice. Population and expected damage profiles indicate that majorities could easily be formed among groups of citizens expecting to suffer little of the damage of a nuclear accident. Thus, majority voting on liability arrangements is likely to produce an inefficiently low level of coverage

  7. Safety of nuclear power plants: Design. Safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The present publication supersedes the Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design (Safety Series No. 50-C-D (Rev. 1), issued in 1988). It takes account of developments relating to the safety of nuclear power plants since the Code on Design was last revised. These developments include the issuing of the Safety Fundamentals publication, The Safety of Nuclear Installations, and the present revision of various safety standards and other publications relating to safety. Requirements for nuclear safety are intended to ensure adequate protection of site personnel, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation arising from nuclear power plants. It is recognized that technology and scientific knowledge advance, and nuclear safety and what is considered adequate protection are not static entities. Safety requirements change with these developments and this publication reflects the present consensus. This Safety Requirements publication takes account of the developments in safety requirements by, for example, including the consideration of severe accidents in the design process. Other topics that have been given more detailed attention include management of safety, design management, plant ageing and wearing out effects, computer based safety systems, external and internal hazards, human factors, feedback of operational experience, and safety assessment and verification. This publication establishes safety requirements that define the elements necessary to ensure nuclear safety. These requirements are applicable to safety functions and the associated structures, systems and components, as well as to procedures important to safety in nuclear power plants. It is expected that this publication will be used primarily for land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors designed for electricity generation or for other heat production applications (such as district heating or desalination). It is recognized that in the case of

  8. The international dimensions of nuclear safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper reviews the activities of the major international organisations in the field of nuclear safety standards; the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the Commission of the European Communities. Each organisation encourages the concept of international nuclear safety standards. After Chernobyl, there were calls for some form of binding international nuclear safety standards. Many Member States of IAEA accepted these Codes as a suitable basis for formulating their national safety standards, but the prevailing view was that voluntary compliance with the Codes was the preferred path. With few reactor vendors in a limited international market, the time may be approaching when an internationally licensable nuclear reactor is needed. Commonly accepted safety standards would be a prerequisite. The paper discusses the issues involved and the complexities of standards making in the international arena. (author)

  9. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear, radiation and transport safety and the safety of radioactive waste management. In line with the suggestions made by the Board of Governors in March 2002, the first part is more analytical and less descriptive. This short analytical overview is supported by a second part, which describes significant safety related events and issues worldwide during 2003. A Draft Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 was submitted to the March 2004 session of the Board of Governors in document GOV/2004/3. The final version of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2003 was prepared in the light of the discussion by the Board.

  10. Nuclear safety review for the year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear and radiation safety, including radioactive waste safety. It is in three parts. Part 1 describes those events in 2001 that have, or may have, significance for nuclear, radiation and waste safety worldwide. It includes developments such as new initiatives in international cooperation, events of safety significance and events that may be indicative of trends in safety. Part 2 describes some of the IAEA's efforts to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety during 2001. It covers legally binding international agreements, non-binding safety standards, and provisions for the application of safety standards. This is done in a very brief manner, because these issues are addressed in more detail in the Agency's Annual Report for 2001. Part 3 presents a brief look ahead to some issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). The topics covered were selected by the IAEA Secretariat on the basis of trends observed in recent years, account being taken of planned or expected future developments. A draft of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2001 was presented to the March 2002 session of IAEA's Board of Governors. This final version has been prepared taking account of the discussion in the Board. In some places, information has been added to describe developments early in 2002 that were considered pertinent to the discussion of events during 2001

  11. Corrosion issues in nuclear industry today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattant, F.; Crusset, D.; Feron, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the context of global warming, nuclear energy is a carbon-free source of power and so is a meaningful option for energy production without CO 2 emissions. Currently, there are more than 440 commercial nuclear reactors, accounting for about 15% of electric power generation in the world, and there has not been a major accident in over 20 years. The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30 or 40 years, it is quite feasible that many nuclear power plants will be able to operate for longer than this. The re-emergence of nuclear power today is founded on the present generation of nuclear reactors meeting the demands of extended service life, ensuring the cost competitiveness of nuclear power and matching enhanced safety requirements. Nuclear power plant engineers should be able to demonstrate such integrity and reliability of their system materials and components as to enable nuclear power plants to operate beyond their initial design life. Effective waste management is another challenge for sustainable nuclear energy today; more precisely, a solution is needed for the management of high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste over the very long term. Most nuclear countries are currently gathering the data needed to assess the feasibility of a deep geological waste repository, including the prediction of the behaviour of materials over several thousands of years. The extended service life of nuclear power plants and the need for permanent disposal for nuclear waste are today's key issues in the nuclear industry. We focus here on the major role that corrosion plays in these two factors, and on the French approaches to these two issues. (authors)

  12. Progress of nuclear safety research, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Since the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was founded as a nonprofit, general research and development organization for the peaceful use of nuclear energy, it has actively pursued the research and development of nuclear energy. Nuclear energy is the primary source of energy in Japan where energy resources are scarce. The safety research is recognized at JAERI as one of the important issues to be clarified, and the safety research on nuclear power generation, nuclear fuel cycle, waste management and environmental safety has been conducted systematically since 1973. As of the end of 1989, 38 reactors were in operation in Japan, and the nuclear electric power generated in 1988 reached 29 % of the total electric power generated. 50 years have passed since nuclear fission was discovered in 1939. The objective of the safety research at JAERI is to earn public support and trust for the use of nuclear energy. The overview of the safety research at JAERI, fuel behavior, reliability of reactor structures and components, reactor thermal-hydraulics during LOCA, safety assessment of nuclear power plants and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, radioactive waste management and environmental radioactivity are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Nuclear reactor safety device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Ernest

    1986-01-01

    A safety device is disclosed for use in a nuclear reactor for axially repositioning a control rod with respect to the reactor core in the event of an upward thermal excursion. Such safety device comprises a laminated helical ribbon configured as a tube-like helical coil having contiguous helical turns with slidably abutting edges. The helical coil is disclosed as a portion of a drive member connected axially to the control rod. The laminated ribbon is formed of outer and inner laminae. The material of the outer lamina has a greater thermal coefficient of expansion than the material of the inner lamina. In the event of an upward thermal excursion, the laminated helical coil curls inwardly to a smaller diameter. Such inward curling causes the total length of the helical coil to increase by a substantial increment, so that the control rod is axially repositioned by a corresponding amount to reduce the power output of the reactor.

  14. Nuclear and radiation safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T; Strycek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne (SE) is a producer of electricity and heat, including from nuclear fuel source. The board of SE is ultimately responsible for nuclear and radiation safety matters. In this leaflet main principles of maintaining nuclear and radiation safety of the Company SE are explained

  15. Nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A safety system for shutting down a nuclear reactor under overload conditions is described. The system includes a series of parallel-connected computer memory type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular reactor parameter and in each of which a precalculated functional value for that parameter is stored indicative of the percentage of maximum reactor load that the parameter contributes. The various functional values corresponding to the actual measured parameters are added together to provide a control signal used to shut down the reactor under overload conditions. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear reactor safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, R.M.; Roberts, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    The invention provides a safety system for a nuclear reactor which uses a parallel combination of computer type look-up tables each of which receives data on a particular parameter (from transducers located in the reactor system) and each of which produces the functional counterpart of that particular parameter. The various functional counterparts are then added together to form a control signal for shutting down the reactor. The functional counterparts are developed by analysis of experimental thermal and hydraulic data, which are used to form expressions that define safe conditions

  17. No nuclear safety without security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2016-01-01

    ead of Health and Safety - Nuclear Safety and Corporate Security at ENGIE Benelux, Pierre Doumont has the delicate job of defining and implementing measures, including cybersecurity, to prevent the risk of malevolent acts against tangible and intangible assets. He gives some hints on the contribution of nuclear security to safety.

  18. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  19. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  20. Progress in Nuclear Safety Reform of TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, A.

    2016-01-01

    On March 29, 2014, TEPCO issued the Nuclear Safety Reform Plan describing the background cause of our Fukushima Nuclear Accident and our plan to challenge organizational and cultural change to avoid recurrence of such a tragic accident and to pursue the excellence in safety. This report will reflect that background cause with some specific examples and introduce how we are currently implementing this reform plan.

  1. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  2. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  3. White paper on nuclear safety in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    It deals with a general introduction of nuclear safety like general safety, safety regulation and system law and standard. It indicates of nuclear energy facility safety about general safety, safety regulation of operating nuclear power plant safety regulation under constructing nuclear power plant. It deals with radiation facility safety, monitoring of environmental radiation, radiation protection, radiation control, international cooperating on nuclear energy safety and establishment of safety regulation.

  4. Nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Dr. Buhl feels that nuclear-energy issues are too complex to be understood as single topics, and can only be understood in relationship to broader issues. In fact, goals and risks associated with all energy options must be seen as interrelated with other broad issues, and it should be understood that there are presently no clearcut criteria to ensure that the best decisions are made. The technical community is responsible for helping the public to understand the basic incompatibility of hard and soft technologies and that there is no risk-free energy source. Four principles are outlined for assessing the risks of various energy technologies: (1) take a holistic view; (2) compare the risk with the unit energy output; (3) compare the risk with those of everyday activities; and (4) identify unusual risks associated with a particular option. Dr. Buhl refers to the study conducted by Dr. Inhaber of Canada who used this approach and concluded that nuclear power and natural gas have the lowest overall risk

  5. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report

  6. Nuclear safety in EU candidate countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    Nuclear safety in the candidate countries to the European Union is a major issue that needs to be addressed in the framework of the enlargement process. Therefore WENRA members considered it was their duty to offer their technical assistance to their Governments and the European Union Institutions. They decided to express their collective opinion on nuclear safety in those candidate countries having at least one nuclear power plant: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The report is structured as follows: A foreword including background information, structure of the report and the methodology used, General conclusions of WENRA members reflecting their collective opinion, For each candidate country, an executive summary, a chapter on the status of the regulatory regime and regulatory body, and a chapter on the nuclear power plant safety status. Two annexes are added to address the generic safety characteristics and safety issues for RBMK and VVER plants. The report does not cover radiation protection and decommissioning issues, while safety aspects of spent fuel and radioactive waste management are only covered as regards on-site provisions. In order to produce this report, WENRA used different means: For the chapters on the regulatory regimes and regulatory bodies, experts from WENRA did the work. For the chapters on nuclear power plant safety status, experts from WENRA and from French and German technical support organisations did the work. Taking into account the contents of these chapters, WENRA has formulated its general conclusions in this report.

  7. Researches in nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souchet, Y.

    2009-01-01

    This article comprises three parts: 1 - some general considerations aiming at explaining the main motivations of safety researches, and at briefly presenting the important role of some organisations in the international conciliation, and the most common approach used in safety researches (analytical experiments, calculation codes, global experiments); 2 - an overview of some of the main safety problems that are the object of worldwide research programs (natural disasters, industrial disasters, criticality, human and organisational factors, fuel behaviour in accidental situation, serious accidents: core meltdown, corium spreading, failure of the confinement building, radioactive releases). Considering the huge number of research topics, this part cannot be exhaustive and many topics are not approached; 3 - the presentation of two research programs addressing very different problems: the evaluation of accidental releases in the case of a serious accident (behaviour of iodine and B 4 C, air infiltration, fission products release) and the propagation of a fire in a facility (PRISME program). These two programs belong to an international framework involving several partners from countries involved in nuclear energy usage. (J.S.)

  8. Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Nuclear safety is one of the critical issues with respect to the enlargement of the European Union towards the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. In the context of the enlargement process, the European Commission overall strategy on nuclear safety matters has been to bring the general standard of nuclear safety in the pre-accession countries up to a level that would be comparable to the safety levels in the countries of the European Union. In this context, the primary objective of the project was to develop a common format and general guidance for the evaluation of the current nuclear safety status in countries that operate commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, one of the project team first undertakings was to develop an approach that would allow for a consistent and comprehensive overview of the nuclear safety status in the CEEC, enabling an equal treatment of the countries to be evaluated. Such an approach, which did not exist, should also ensure identification of the most important safety issues of the individual nuclear power plants. The efforts resulted in the development of the ''Performance Evaluation Guide'', which focuses on important nuclear safety issues such as plant design and operation, the practice of performing safety assessments, and nuclear legislation and regulation, in particular the role of the national regulatory body. Another important aspect of the project was the validation of the Performance Evaluation Guide (PEG) by performing a preliminary evaluation of nuclear safety in the CEEC, namely in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. The nuclear safety evaluation of each country was performed as a desktop exercise, using solely available documents that had been prepared by various Western institutions and the countries themselves. Therefore, the evaluation is only of a preliminary nature. The project did not intend to re-assess nuclear safety, but to focus on a comprehensive summary

  9. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, Ulrich; Cherie, Jean-Bernard; Boeck, Benoit De

    2005-01-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  10. EUROSAFE Forum for nuclear safety. Towards Convergence of Technical Nuclear Safety Practices in Europe. Safety Improvements - Reasons, Strategies, Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erven, Ulrich (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Koeln (Germany); Cherie, Jean-Bernard (ed.) [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Boeck, Benoit De (ed.) [Association Vincotte Nuclear, AVN, Rue Walcourt 148, 1070 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The EUROSAFE Forum for Nuclear Safety is part of the EUROSAFE approach, which consists of two further elements: the EUROSAFE Tribune and the EUROSAFE Web site. The general aim of EUROSAFE is to contribute to fostering the convergence of technical nuclear safety practices in a broad European context. This is done by providing technical safety and research organisations, safety authorities, power utilities, the rest of the industry and non-governmental organisations mainly from the European Union and East-European countries, and international organisations with a platform for the presentation of recent analyses and R and D in the field of nuclear safety. The goal is to share experiences, to exchange technical and scientific opinions, and to conduct debates on key issues in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. The EUROSAFE Forum on 2005 focused on Safety Improvements, Reasons - Strategies - Implementation, from the point of view of the authorities, TSOs and industry. Latest work in nuclear installation safety and research, waste management, radiation safety as well as nuclear material and nuclear facilities security carried out by GRS, IRSN, AVN and their partners in the European Union, Switzerland and Eastern Europe are presented. A high level of nuclear safety is a priority for the countries of Europe. The technical safety organisations play an important role in contributing to that objective through appropriate approaches to major safety issues as part of their assessments and research activities. The challenges to nuclear safety are international. Changes in underlying technologies such as instrumentation and control, the impact of electricity market deregulation, demands for improved safety and safety management, the ageing of nuclear facilities, waste management, maintaining and improving scientific and technical knowledge, and the need for greater transparency - these are all issues where the value of an international approach is gaining

  11. Perspectives on managing nuclear safety at Cernavoda NPP past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, M.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation considers the following issues: background of Romanian nuclear programme; 1990 management issues involved in Cernavoda project, nuclear safety perspectives; Cernavoda U1 operating organization today (safety related issues); good practices at Cernavoda NPP

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications - Workshop Proceedings, CFD4NRS-3 - Experimental Validation and Application of CFD and CMFD Codes to Nuclear Reactor Safety Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    related to nuclear reactor safety issues. The conference consisted of 14 technical sessions. Among the topics included were containment, advanced reactors, multiphase flows, flow in a rod bundle, fire analysis, flows in dry casks, thermal analysis, mixing flows and pressurized thermal shock (PTS). About 1/3 of the papers were concerned with two-phase flow issues and the rest were devoted to single-phase CFD validation. South Korea is a candidate to host a follow-up meeting scheduled in 2012, organized by KAERI. KAERI also volunteered to sponsor and organize the second OECD/NEA CFD benchmark exercise. In the closure meeting after the panel session discussion, the representative from the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) proposed to host a future workshop scheduled for 2014, and to organize and sponsor the third OECD/NEA benchmark exercise based on a stratification experiment in the PANDA facility at PSI. The great majority of participants were interested in attending a follow-up workshop within two years. Comments were made during the panel session on the content of CFD4NRS-3. Two of the comments are that experiments can provide insight into the physics, and that CFD is now an accepted analysis tool, though it is very important to follow BPGs. There was a consensus on the need to maintain the high quality of the papers. The promotion of international benchmarking exercises for CFD was strongly encouraged. Another comment suggested that such workshops should be a forum to discuss novel approaches, but that one must also keep in mind that the end users are people from the nuclear safety community. The CFD4NRS, XCFD4NRS and CFD4NRS-3 workshops have proved to be very valuable means to assess the status of CFD code capabilities and validation, to exchange experiences in CFD code applications, and to monitor future progress

  13. Safety issues at the defense production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United States produces plutonium and tritium for use in nuclear weapons at the defense production reactors endash the N Reactor in Washington and the Savannah River reactors in South Carolina. This report reaches general conclusions about the management of those reactors and highlights a number of safety and technical issues that should be resolved. The report provides an assessment of the safety management, safety review, and safety methodology employed by the Department of Energy and the private contractors who operate the reactors for the federal government. The report is necessarily based on a limited review of the defense production reactors. It does not address whether any of the reactors are ''safe,'' because such an analysis would involve a determination of acceptable risk endash a matter of obvious importance, but one that was beyond the purview of the committee. It also does not address whether the safety of the production reactors is comparable to that of commercial nuclear power stations, because even this narrower question extended beyond the charge to the committee and would have involved detailed analyses that the committee could not undertake

  14. Regulatory issues for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckover, R.S.

    1994-01-01

    Five issues are identified as needing clarification within the health and safety regulatory framework of the nuclear industry in the United Kingdom. The question of how to ensure there are enough but not too many regulations aimed at accident avoidance is posed. A need is previewed to convince all concerned, including the public, that a well-focused compact safety case will deliver higher standards than a verbose one. To enable the safety advantages of contractorization to outweigh the disadvantages, appropriate forms of relationship need to be worked out between licenses, management agents, implementation contractors and subcontractors. The processes of delicensing nuclear sites should be arranged by regulatory bodies to be both publicly acceptable and efficient. Finally, a single agreed concept to supersede such terms as ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) and BPM (best practicable means) is desirable. (UK)

  15. Reperes, the information magazine of the Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, No. 12 - January 2012, Special issue Fukushima - First lessons from the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    A first set of articles addresses the nuclear crisis in Japan (description of the accident, information mission sent by France, and support actions undertaken by France in Japan in the fields of education, civilian security, culture, sailing, media, dosimeters, robotics). A second set discusses lessons learned in terms of nuclear safety (complementary safety assessments, stress test in Gravelines), radiological consequences (impact on Japanese population, the Symbiose software, the Teleray network), crisis management, and research

  16. Effectiveness of the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) has been established after the Chernobyl accident with the primary objective of achieving and maintaining a high level of nuclear safety worldwide, through the enhancement of national measures and international cooperation. The CNS is an incentive convention. It defines the basic safety standard which shall be met by the Contracting Parties. The verification of compliance is based on a self-assessment by the Countries and a Peer Review by the other Contracting Parties. As of July 2015, there are 78 Contracting Parties. Among the Contracting Parties of the Convention are all countries operating nuclear power plants except the Islamic Republic of Iran and Taiwan, all countries constructing nuclear power plants, all countries having nuclear power plants in long term shutdown and all countries having signed contracts for the construction of nuclear power plants. The National Reports under the CNS therefore cover almost all nuclear power plants of the world. The peer review of reports, questions and answers that are exchanged in connection with the Review Meetings provided a unique overview of nuclear safety provisions and issues in countries planning or operating nuclear power plants. This is especially important for neighbouring countries to those operating nuclear power plants.

  17. Nuclear safety review for 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This publication is based on the fourth Nuclear Safety Review prepared by the IAEA Secretariat for presentation to the Board of Governors. It discusses relevant international activities in 1984 and the current status of nuclear safety and radiation protection, and looks ahead to anticipated developments

  18. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    The global nuclear community is experiencing a period of dynamic change. The introduction of new nuclear power plants, the rapid expansion of existing nuclear power programmes and the wider use of radioactive sources and ionizing radiation in general highlight the need for continued and improved international cooperation to address the associated challenges. The increasingly multinational nature of today's nuclear business and activities underscores this need. In this context, it is particularly important to note that the establishment of adequate safety infrastructure and capacity cannot be left to fall behind. The safety performance of the nuclear industry has remained at a high level. Various safety performance indicators, such as those related to unplanned reactor shutdowns, safety equipment availability, radiation exposures to workers, radioactive waste management and radioactive releases to the environment have shown steady improvement over the past two decades, with some levelling off in recent years. Nevertheless, it is necessary to avoid complacency and to continuously improve and strengthen the existing global nuclear safety and security regime so that nuclear technologies can be introduced or their use expanded in a safe and secure manner to meet the world's needs for human well-being and socio-economic development. The Agency continues to support and promote increased participation in the global nuclear safety and security regime as a framework for achieving high levels of safety in nuclear activities worldwide. Through consideration of the global trends, issues and challenges observed in 2009, four key themes in global nuclear safety were identified: 1) continuing international cooperation and emerging coordination for new and expanding nuclear power programmes; 2) improving the long term management of radioactive and nuclear materials; 3) capacity building for sustainable nuclear safety; and 4) strengthening global and regional networking activities

  19. Nuclear safety review for the year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The Nuclear Safety Review attempts to summarize the global nuclear safety scene during 1997. It starts with discussion of significant safety related events worldwide: International cooperation; reactor facilities; radioactive waste management; medical uses of radiation sources; events at other facilities and transport of radioactive material. This is followed by a description of principal IAEA activities that contributed to global nuclear safety, namely: legally binding international agreements; non-binding safety standards and their application. The third part highlights developments in Member States as they reported them. The review closes with a description of issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). A draft version was submitted to the March 1998 session of the IAEA Board of Governors, and this final version has been prepared in light of the discussion in the Board and was submitted for information to the 42nd session of the IAEA General Conference

  20. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  1. Nuclear Experts Discuss IAEA Operational Safety Reviews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    their effectiveness. This week's meeting provided several recommendations to the IAEA on how to modify the scope and methodology of the OSART missions to reflect the lessons learned from this year's accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The most important recommendation was to introduce Severe Accident Management as a separate review area in the standard OSART scope. The meeting endorsed the integration of the different types of operational safety services under the umbrella of OSART, to improve the effectiveness of using available resources and harmonising the methodology of these services. In addition, several ideas on how to improve the efficiency of OSART missions in identifying safety significant issues were endorsed by the meeting. The meeting considered that the IAEA operational safety review services, and in particular the OSART programme, were effective in supporting the enhancement of the safety of nuclear power plants during both commissioning and operation. The recommendations and improvements endorsed by the meeting in light of the Fukushima accident and a review of the services are intended to support further enhancement of the safety of nuclear power plants worldwide. 1/ The IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan defines a programme of work to strengthen the nuclear safety framework worldwide in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The plan was unanimously endorsed by IAEA Member States during the Agency's 55th General Conference in September 2011. The Action Plan recommended: ''Each Member State with nuclear power plants to voluntarily host at least one IAEA Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) mission during the coming three years, with the initial focus on older nuclear power plants. Thereafter, OSART missions to be voluntarily hosted on a regular basis.'' (IAEA)

  2. ISSUES OF FETUS DRUG SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Ostrovskaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the issue of fetus drug safety. Development of a child’s health depends both on hereditary information and environment factors. The reason for deviation from the process of normal prenatal development could be any xenobiotics, physical factors and some medications having a pathogenic effect during pregnancy on the embryo and fetus. Due to that, the physician’s preventive work based on the knowledge of embryogenesis processes and critical development periods. Key words: teratogenic action, medications, prenatal development, congenital malformation, newborns, children.(Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:25-28

  3. Japan reforms its nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident deeply questioned the bases of nuclear safety and nuclear safety regulation in Japan. It also resulted in a considerable loss of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power across the world. Although the accident was caused by natural phenomena, institutional and human factors also largely contributed to its devastating consequences, as shown by the Japanese Diet's and Government's investigation reports. 'Both regulators and licensees were held responsible and decided to fully reconsider the existing approaches to nuclear safety. Consequently, the regulatory system underwent extensive reform based on the lessons learned from the accident,' Yoshihiro Nakagome, the President of Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation, an ETSON member TSO, explains. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear Safety through International Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flory, Denis

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was the worst at a nuclear facility since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. It caused deep public anxiety and damaged confidence in nuclear power. Following this accident, strengthening nuclear safety standards and emergency response has become an imperative at the global level. The IAEA is leading in developing a global approach, and the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety is providing a comprehensive framework and acting as a significant driving force to identify lessons learned and to implement safety improvements. Strengthening nuclear safety is addressed through a number of measures proposed in the Action Plan including 12 main actions focusing on safety assessments in the light of the accident. Significant progress has been made in assessing safety vulnerabilities of nuclear power plants, strengthening the IAEA's peer review services, improvements in emergency preparedness and response capabilities, strengthening and maintaining capacity building, as well as widening the scope and enhancing communication and information sharing with Member States, international organizations and the public. Progress has also been made in reviewing the IAEA's safety standards, which continue to be widely applied by regulators, operators and the nuclear industry in general, with increased attention and focus on accident prevention, in particular severe accidents, and emergency preparedness and response.

  5. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear technologies are increasingly seen as important solutions for meeting a number of challenges. Enabling the peaceful use of nuclear technology to support global energy demands and other human needs must be accompanied by deliberate, internationally-coordinated actions to minimize the potential for nuclear accidents and terrorism. While in recent years, the safety performance of the nuclear industry has been good, it is important to avoid any complacency. The Agency continues to support and promote the global nuclear safety and security regime as a framework for worldwide achievement of high levels of safety and security in nuclear activities. In 2008, three general themes can be observed from the global trends, issues and challenges in nuclear safety: the continuous improvements in strengthening safety worldwide through international cooperation; an expected increase of new entrant nuclear power programmes and the expansion of existing programmes; and safety and security synergy. Regarding continuous improvements to strengthen safety worldwide, the focus was on operating experience feedback and knowledge networking; and self-assessment and peer review. In the areas of new entrant nuclear programmes and expansion of existing nuclear programmes, activities centred on national safety infrastructures; human resources and capacity building; regulatory independence; nuclear incident and emergency preparedness and response; spent fuel and radioactive waste management; and multinational aspects of nuclear activities. In the area of safety and security synergy, in 2008 there was increasing awareness that processes need to be in place to ensure that safety activities do not compromise security and vice versa. As outlined in Safety Fundamentals No. SF-1, the prime responsibility for safety must rest with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. An effective legal and governmental framework for safety

  6. Special issue: the nuclear industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    This special issue contains papers on the following topics: French nuclear policy; nuclear energy development in Europe; nuclear diversification; Alsthom-Atlantique in the nuclear field; 1981 nuclear electricity generation; EDF siting policy; the N4 model of the 1300 MW series; Creys-Malville; the nuclear industry in Europe; pumps in the nuclear industry [fr

  7. The role of nuclear law in nuclear safety after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Diva E. Puig

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains the following topics: nuclear law, origin and evolution, role of the legal instruments on nuclear safety, nuclear safety the impact of major nuclear accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima. The response of the nuclear law post Fukushima. Safety and security. International framework for nuclear safety: nuclear convention joint convention on safety on spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. The Fukushima World Conference on Nuclear Safety. Convention on Prompt Notification and Assistance in case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency. Plan of Action for Nuclear Safety. IAEA recommendations for the safety transport of radioactive material. International framework for nuclear security. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. International Convention for the Suppression of Acts Against Nuclear Terrorism. Resolution No. 1540 of the Security Council of United Nations (2004). Measures to strengthen international safety. Code of conduct on the safety research reactor

  8. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal: Volume 35, No.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1994-09-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and de commissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  9. Supercomputing and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livolant, M.; Durin, M.; Micaelli, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Safety is essential for nuclear installations: it is necessary to avoid the release of radioactive materials outside them. So, they are designed, built and operated in a way which allows to prevent accidents, to keep the system in a safe situation even if the largest accident taken for the design happens, and to protect the population from harm in case of an out of design accident. Limiting the analysis to the light water reactors, we can consider the interest of supercomputing in the following domains: - Primary circuit loss of coolant accident; - Computational Fluid Dynamics safety studies; - Treatment of uncertainties; - Simulators; - Severe accidents. The first topic, primary circuit loss of coolant accident, has contributed since many years to the development of high level codes to compute the behaviour of water-stream mixtures in a high pressure ruptured circuit, the objective being to maintain the cooling of the core in spite of the continued heat source of the fission products. Well known codes like RELAP and CATHARE are largely in use. Research is in progress to improve the physical and numerical models and to extend the scope of calculations. The second topic is in progress, and a large variety of applications are largely in use or foreseen at least for research or exploratory studies. Direct use of those techniques for proving the safety of systems will require a large work of validation, including comparison with experiments, and significant improvements in easiness of use and speed of calculation. Typically, complex safety calculations are made with the best models and the best values of parameters, but there are uncertainties in the models and the parameters, and a safety analysis has to consider the worst conditions. There are not fully satisfactory methods to take care of the uncertainties, specially in the models, and, whichever they are, they multiply the calculation time by a factor between ten and hundred. Operational simulators exist, at least

  10. Safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mervat, S.A.; Hammad, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    This work establishes the basic principles of a safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt. A number of deterministic requirements stemming the multiple barriers and the defense-in-depth concept are emphasised. other requirements in the areas of siting, operational safety, safety analysis, special issues, and experience feedback are also identified. The role of international cooperation in nuclear safety technology-transfer and nuclear emergencies is highlighted. In addition probabilistic ally based guidelines are set for acceptable risk and dose limits

  11. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety

  12. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  13. Nuclear safety review for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    The nuclear safety review for the year 2000 reports on worldwide efforts to strengthen nuclear and radiation safety, including radioactive waste safety. It is in three parts: Part 1 describes those events in 2000 that have, or may have, significance for nuclear, radiation and waste safety worldwide. It includes developments such as new initiatives in international cooperation, events of safety significance and events that may be indicative of trends in safety; Part 2 describes some of the IAEA efforts to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear, radiation and waste safety during 2000. It covers legally binding international agreements, non-binding safety standards, and provisions for the application of safety standards. This is done in a very brief manner, because these issues are addressed in more detail in the Agency's Annual Report for 2000; Part 3 presents a brief look ahead to some issues that are likely to be prominent in the coming year(s). The topics covered were selected by the IAEA Secretariat on the basis of trends observed in recent years, account being taken of planned or expected future developments. A draft of the Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2000 was presented to the March 2001 session of the IAEA Board of Governors. This final version has been prepared taking account of the discussion in the Board. In some places, information has been added to describe developments early in 2001 that were considered pertinent to the discussion of events during 2000. In such cases, a note containing the more recent information has been provided in the form of a footnote

  14. Operational safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational safety of nuclear power plants has become an important safety issue since the Chernobyl accident. A description is given of the various aspects of operational safety, including the importance of human factors, responsibility, the role and training of the operator, the operator-machine interface, commissioning and operating procedures, experience feedback, and maintenance. The lessons to be learnt from Chernobyl are considered with respect to operator errors and the management of severe accidents. Training of personnel, operating experience feedback, actions to be taken in case of severe accidents, and international cooperation in the field of operational safety, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Radiological protection and nuclear safety postgraduate course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segado, R.C.; Menossi, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The first Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Postgraduate Course was held in 1977, when the former Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission decided implement that course for the qualification of its professionals. After then, in 1980, by agreement between the CNEA, the National University of Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare got its present academic qualification as a Post-Graduate Course. Since then, it was sponsored by the IAEA. This Organization annually grants fellowships to fifteen students from different countries. Up to now, twenty consecutive courses have been delivered and more than five hundredth graduated, more than half of them coming from abroad. The aim of the course is the qualification and training in Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of those professionals involved in the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of Nuclear and Radioactive Installation and their related regulatory issues. (author) [es

  16. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program has been established whereby an annual NUREG report will be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirement areas. This report, the third volume of a three-volume series, addresses the status of generic safety issues (GSIs) at licensed plants. Volume 1 addressed the status of Three Mile Island Action Plan requirements and was published in March 1991. Volume 2 addressed the status of implementation and verification of unresolved safety issues and was published in May 1991. The annual NUREG report will combine these three areas in a single volume to be published in late 1991. The data contained in these NUREG reports are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System (SIMS) database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by NRC regional personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive description of the status of implementation and verification of the 34 GSIs and sub-issues that have been resolved by the NRC and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This NUREG report also serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until a request for action by licensees is issued by NRC. 3 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Women and the nuclear issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, David

    1989-01-01

    From the opinion surveys it was concluded that women do have different attitudes towards nuclear power compared to men. Women are more likely to be suspicious of nuclear power, mention the problem areas and less likely to mention benefits. The reasons for this are not difficult to understand, with, for example, the media highlighting the dangers of nuclear power, in particular the hazards of radiation as it affects people, especially children. The majority of women associate nuclear power with weapons and radiation, though specific fears about cancer including leukaemia are not as strong as might be expected. The major issue is still the disposal of waste, though for a time after Chernobyl the major nuclear accident superseded this. Women tend to be more confused by the wide range of issues presented to them and the contradictory attitudes. In our experience about twice as many women as men admit to being a d on't know . Women are more concerned with people and the environment than men. Men are more inclined to be brought up from an early age to be machine minded and they tend as a result to be more sympathetic towards the use of technology in society. It is not necessarily true that women are more 'anti-nuclear' although this does come out in many opinion polls. I think that women react to the leading question as to whether they are 'in favour' or 'not' of nuclear power by responding negatively because of their confusion. We have asked similar questions in our own opinion surveys but have given the opportunity for the respondent to declare a positive attitude towards nuclear power 'with reservations'. If they are allowed to express their reservations they often come to the conclusion in an intuitive way that nuclear power will be needed in the next century to provide energy for their children when the oil and gas run out and the coal is used to substitute for the hydrocarbons. A 'necessary evil' as one person put it. In the main our recommendation is that although

  18. Strategies for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetto, A.M.; Taniguchi, T.

    2006-01-01

    Please Rarely in the history of the IAEA has radiation-based technology provided so much opportunity and presented such great risk. The harsh reality is that broader distribution of radioactive materials and sources makes more sources available to more people, thereby increasing the probability of incidents and accidents. As human beings derive greater benefit from ionizing radiation, they also stand a higher risk of being exposed to its harmful effects. Over the past ten years, the IAEA's technical cooperation programme undertook a massive effort to empower developing nations to realise social and economic goals through the application of radiation-based technologies. The Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) represented a significant shift in priorities in that the aim was not to deliver technology per se, but rather to ensure that Member States acquired the capacity to self-manage all related aspects of radiation protection. Without question, the project keeps achieving a great deal. Virtually all participating countries are making significant progress in establishing a basic safety infrastructure; many also are developing the human resources required to tackle the issues of exposure control and emergency preparedness. This strengthened capacity enables Member States to realise more benefits from radiation-based technology more quickly. Moreover, through the knowledge and experience gained, more countries are reaching a level of maturity where they recognize that they hold responsibility for the radioactive sources and materials found within their borders

  19. National nuclear safety report 2005. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the 3rd. Review meeting. In general the information contained in the report are: Highlights / Themes; Follow-up from 2nd. Review meeting; Challenges, achievements and good practices; Planned measures to improve safety; Updates to National report to 3rd. Review meeting; Questions from peer review of National Report; and Conclusions

  20. Issues on accepting nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobajima, Makoto

    1999-03-01

    Nuclear power has been promoted so far as a national project to be an energy source sharing a large weight in the future and is also expected recently to be a means to suppress the global warming affected by the use of fossil fuels. From a stand point opposing to or cautious of the promotion of its extensive use, various issues on its incompatibility to the society such as technical problems pointed out that radioactivity miss-control may cause hazards, energy problems, political problems, cultural life problems, etc. are raised. Also in site areas, pros and cons on the evaluation of its contribution are spreading. However, the area of the issues is wide-spread and sometime too difficult to understand because of its specialty or barriers such as conviction and fixed distrust and so it is often seen that the controversies are lead to be governed by irritation or abandonment that ones argument is not understood by the party. In the social situation in which common interests for various stand points are hard to find, it looks only way for finding the direction of any decision in a political issue to mutually know the arguments through discussion as much as possible, correct erroneous understandings and expand the area of agreement. Hear, various issues on accepting nuclear power from a variety of stand points and view angles are summarized so as to be referred by various engineers and non-engineers to let the uselessly continuing deadlock proceed toward meaningful agreement. (author)

  1. Optimization of nuclear safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents an approach for selecting the level of ambition of nuclear safety by a process of optimization based on cost-benefit considerations. Optimization has been incorporated as a requirement for radiation protection, to keep doses ''as low as reasonably achievable''. In radiation protection, optimization takes account of the costs of protection and the costs of the detriment, minimizing the sum of both. Optimization of a nuclear safety system could conceptually treat similarly the cost of potential damages from nuclear accidents and the cost associated with achieving a given level of safety. Within the above framework a method of optimizing the design of nuclear safety systems is presented, and a simple case of redundancy by output voting techniques is given. (author)

  2. Nuclear safety research master plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output

  3. Nuclear safety research master plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jae Joo; Yang, J. U.; Jun, Y. S. and others

    2001-06-01

    The SRMP (Safety Research Master Plan) is established to cope with the changes of nuclear industry environments. The tech. tree is developed according to the accident progress of the nuclear reactor. The 11 research fields are derived to cover the necessary technologies to ensure the safety of nuclear reactors. Based on the developed tech. tree, the following four main research fields are derived as the main safety research areas: 1. Integrated nuclear safety enhancement, 2. Thermal hydraulic experiment and assessment, 3. Severe accident management and experiment, and 4. The integrity of equipment and structure. The research frame and strategies are also recommended to enhance the efficiency of research activity, and to extend the applicability of research output.

  4. Developing safety culture in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevlin, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The new issue (no. 11) of the IAEA publications series Safety Reports, devoted to the safety culture in nuclear engineering Safety culture development in the nuclear activities. Practical recommendations to achieve success, is analyzed. A number of recommendations of international experts is presented and basic general indicators of satisfactory and insufficient safety culture in the nuclear engineering are indicated. It is shown that the safety culture has two foundations: human behavior and high quality of the control system. The necessity of creating the confidence by the management at all levels of the enterprise, development of individual initiative and responsibility of the workers, which make it possible to realize the structural hierarchic system, including technical, human and organizational constituents, is noted. Three stages are traced in the process of introducing the safety culture. At the first stage the require,emts of scientific-technical documentation and provisions of the governmental, regional and control organs are fulfilled. At the second stage the management of the organization accepts the safety as an important direction in its activities. At the third stage the organization accomplishes its work, proceeding from the position of constant safety improvement. The general model of the safety culture development is considered [ru

  5. Complementary safety assessments - Report by the French Nuclear Safety Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    As an immediate consequence of the Fukushima accident, the French Authority of Nuclear Safety (ASN) launched a campaign of on-site inspections and asked operators (mainly EDF, AREVA and CEA) to make complementary assessments of the safety of the nuclear facilities they manage. The approach defined by ASN for the complementary safety assessments (CSA) is to study the behaviour of nuclear facilities in severe accidents situations caused by an off-site natural hazard according to accident scenarios exceeding the current baseline safety requirements. This approach can be broken into 2 phases: first conformity to current design and secondly an approach to the beyond design-basis scenarios built around the principle of defence in depth. 38 inspections were performed on issues linked to the causes of the Fukushima crisis. It appears that some sites have to reinforce the robustness of the heat sink. The CSA confirmed that the processes put into place at EDF to detect non-conformities were satisfactory. The complementary safety assessments demonstrated that the current seismic margins on the EDF nuclear reactors are satisfactory. With regard to flooding, the complementary safety assessments show that the complete reassessment carried out following the flooding of the Le Blayais nuclear power plant in 1999 offers the installations a high level of protection against the risk of flooding. Concerning the loss of electrical power supplies and the loss of cooling systems, the analysis of EDF's CSA reports showed that certain heat sink and electrical power supply loss scenarios can, if nothing is done, lead to core melt in just a few hours in the most unfavourable circumstances. As for nuclear facilities that are not power or experimental reactors, some difficulties have appeared to implement the CSA approach that was initially devised for reactors. Generally speaking, ASN considers that the safety of nuclear facilities must be made more robust to improbable risks which are not

  6. Nuclear safety and probabilistic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    Having first recalled the principles of conventional methodology concerning nuclear safety, the probabilistic approach is defined, as it has been elaborated by Dr Farmer. The basic rules which determined the elaboration of the Rasmussen report as well as the main conclusions of this report are commented. Definition of the evolution prospects - possible and advisable - of the probabilistic method as concerns nuclear safety are defined [fr

  7. Nuclear Safety. 1997; Surete Nucleaire. 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-19

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs

  8. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    The Agency, as a leading organization for promoting international cooperation among its Member States, is in a unique position to observe global trends, issues and challenges in nuclear safety and security through a wide variety of activities related to the establishment of safety standards and security guidelines and their application. The contents of this Nuclear Safety Review reflect the emerging nuclear safety trends, issues and challenges for 2010, as well as recapitulate the Agency's activities intended to further strengthen the global nuclear safety and security framework in all areas of nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, caused by the extraordinary disasters of the earthquake and tsunamis that struck Japan on 11 March 2011, continues to be assessed. As this report focuses on developments in 2010, the accident and its implications are not addressed here, but will be addressed in future reports of the Agency. The international nuclear community maintained a high level of safety performance in 2010. Nuclear power plant safety performance remained high, and indicated an improved trend in the number of emergency shutdowns as well in the level of energy available during these shutdowns. In addition, more States explored or expanded their interests in nuclear power programmes, and more faced the challenge of establishing the required regulatory infrastructure, regulatory supervision and safety management over nuclear installations and the use of ionizing radiation. Issues surrounding radiation protection and radioecology continued as trends in 2010. For example, increased public awareness of exposure to and environmental impacts of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) as well as nuclear legacy sites has led to increased public concern. In addition, human resources in radiation protection and radioecology have been lost as a result of retirement and of the migration of experts to

  9. National nuclear safety report 2004. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The second National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the second review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This third National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the second review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex I and those belonging to the second review meeting are included as Annex II. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 2001 to April 30, 2004. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this third report. As a result of the detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention. The questions and answers originated at the Second Review Meeting are included as Annex III

  10. National Nuclear Safety Report 2001. Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The First National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the first review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This second National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the first review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex 1. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 1998 to March 31, 2001. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this second report with the objective of avoiding repetitions and in order to carry out a detailed analysis considering article by article. As a result of the above mentioned detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention

  11. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants'. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  12. Nuclear safety regulations in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Horvatic, M.; Ilijas, B.; Medakovic, S.

    2009-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (Official Gazette No. 173/03) in 2006 State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (Official Gazette No. 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (Official Gazette No. 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (Official Gazette No. 15/08) and Ordinance on conditions for nuclear safety and protection with regard to the sitting, design, construction, use and decommissioning of a facility in which a nuclear activity is to be performed (Official Gazette No. 71/08). The Ordinance on performing nuclear activities regulates the procedure of notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, submitting the application for the issue of a licence to perform nuclear activities, and the procedure for issuing decisions on granting a license to perform nuclear activity. The Ordinance also regulates the content of the form for notification of the intent to perform nuclear activities, as well as of the application for the issue of a licence to perform the nuclear activity and the method of keeping the register of nuclear conditions, whereas compliance is established by the decision passed by SONS. Ordinance on special conditions (requirements) for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety regulates these mentioned activities Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a licence to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance

  13. Evaluation of reliability assurance approaches to operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the results of research to evaluate existing and/or recommended safety/reliability assurance activities among nuclear and other high technology industries for potential nuclear industry implementation. Since the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, there has been increased interest in the use of reliability programs (RP) to assure the performance of nuclear safety systems throughout the plant's lifetime. Recently, several Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) task forces or safety issue review groups have recommended RPs for assuring the continuing safety of nuclear reactor plants. 18 references

  14. Nuclear safety - Culture or obsession?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Villar, Heldio

    2002-01-01

    Although nuclear activities are among the safest, having an enviable record in this respect, public perception is quite different. It is argued here that, regardless of the fact that environmental groups and the media in general look unfavourably towards the nuclear sector, the emphasis the sector places on safety matters is a liability rather than a asset. In short, public acceptance of a risky enterprise increases with the safety concerns shown by an entrepreneur up to a certain point. Beyond this threshold the enterprise is found too risky to be accepted, and it looks like the nuclear establishment has already crossed it. Ideas for further relationship with the public are then shown. (author)

  15. Maintenance as a safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Because safety is related to electrical power systems maintenance, it seems reasonable to assume there could be legal issues if maintenance is not performed. OSHA has not yet taken the stand that not performing maintenance as required by the manufacturer, NFPA 70B, or ANSI/NETA MTS-07 constitutes a willful violation. OSHA defines a willful citation as one where: "the employer knowingly commits with plain indifference to the law. The employer either knows that what he or she is doing constitutes a violation, or is aware that a hazardous condition existed and made no reasonable effort to eliminate it". However, NFPA 70E 2009 requires this maintenance, and OSHA has stated on its Web site that NFPA 70E is "a guide for meeting the requirements of the OSHA electrical regulations". In addition, federal courts have found that NFPA 70E is "standard industry practice." Once a company receives and accepts a willful citation, especially if received as the result of an accident investigation, its worker's compensation protection no longer shields it. One definition given by a trial attorney for a willful citation was that it is equal to negligent behavior. Be smart: Maintain that equipment and save yourself major problems, including unscheduled shutdowns and possible litigation.

  16. The safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This Safety Fundamental publication sets out basic objectives, concepts and principles for ensuring safety that can be used both by the IAEA in its international assistance operations and by Member States in their national nuclear programmes. These Safety Fundamentals apply primarily to those nuclear installations in which the stored energy developed in certain situations could potentially results in the release of radioactive material from its designated location with the consequent risk of radiation exposure of people. These principles are applicable to a broad range of nuclear installations, but their detailed application will depend on the particular technology and the risks posed by it. In addition to nuclear power plants, such installations may include: research reactors and facilities, fuel enrichment, manufacturing and reprocessing plants; and certain facilities for radioactive waste treatment and storage

  17. High-heat tank safety issue resolution program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to provide a guide for selecting corrective actions that will mitigate and/or remediate the high-heat waste tank safety issue for single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-106. This program plan also outlines the logic for selecting approaches and tasks to mitigate and resolve the high-heat safety issue. The identified safety issue for high-heat tank 241-C-106 involves the potential release of nuclear waste to the environment as the result of heat-induced structural damage to the tank's concrete, if forced cooling is interrupted for extended periods. Currently, forced ventilation with added water to promote thermal conductivity and evaporation cooling is used to cool the waste. At this time, the only viable solution identified to resolve this safety issue is the removal of heat generating waste in the tank. This solution is being aggressively pursued as the permanent solution to this safety issue and also to support the present waste retrieval plan. Tank 241-C-106 has been selected as the first SST for retrieval. The program plan has three parts. The first part establishes program objectives and defines safety issues, drivers, and resolution criteria and strategy. The second part evaluates the high-heat safety issue and its mitigation and remediation methods and alternatives according to resolution logic. The third part identifies major tasks and alternatives for mitigation and resolution of the safety issue. Selected tasks and best-estimate schedules are also summarized in the program plan

  18. Effective Nuclear Regulatory Systems Facing Safety and Security Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbabi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear regulators should not actively take part in issues concerning nuclear energy policy. Their essential function is to contribute as effectively as possible to nuclear safety. The principal focus will be on the application of this concept since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. By using a comparative approach, this paper will address the measures taken by various countries to ensure the independence of their respective nuclear regulator, especially in light of the recent nuclear accident. (author)

  19. Safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    The safety philosophy of a PWR type reactor distinguishing three levels of safety, is presented. At the first level, the concept of reactivity defining coefficients which measure the reactivity variation is introduced. At the second level, the reactor protection system establishing the design criteria to assure the high reliability, is defined. At the third level, the protection barriers to contain the consequences of accident evolution, are defined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  20. Nuclear safety and public debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this article are evoked the question of nuclear safety and the public opinion, from the beginning of nuclear power plants in 1954 where a peaceful use of nuclear energy is developed in minds. If the aim was to avoid any important accident, the Three Miles Island accident and more recently the Chernobyl accident provoked a shock in public opinion and marked a peak of nuclear controversy. From this point, the policy of transparence and a best information of the public taken as a partner are necessary to maintain the dialogue. (N.C.)

  1. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  2. Stress Tests Worldwide - IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA nuclear safety action plan relies on 11 important issues. 1) Safety assessments in light of the Fukushima accident: the IAEA secretariat will develop a methodology for stress tests against specific extreme natural hazards and will provide assistance for their implementation; 2) Strengthen existing IAEA peer reviews; 3) Emergency preparedness and response; 4) National Regulatory bodies in terms of independence and adequacy of human and financial resources; 5) The development of safety culture and scientific and technical capacity in Operating Organizations; 6) The upgrading of IAEA safety standards in a more efficient way; 7) A better implementation of relevant conventions concerning nuclear safety and nuclear accidents; 8) To provide a broad assistance on safety standard for countries embarking on a nuclear power program; 9) To facilitate the use of available information, expertise and techniques concerning radiation protection; 10) To enhance the transparency of nuclear industry; and 11) To promote the cooperation between member states in nuclear safety. (A.C.)

  3. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  4. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-04-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described. (auth)

  6. Nuclear criticality safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shultz, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The approach taken to nuclear criticality safety in Canada has been influenced by the historical development of participants. The roles played by governmental agencies and private industry since the Atomic Energy Control Act was passed into Canadian Law in 1946 are outlined to set the scene for the current situation and directions that may be taken in the future. Nuclear criticality safety puts emphasis on the control of materials called special fissionable material in Canada. A brief account is given of the historical development and philosophy underlying the existing regulations governing special fissionable material. Subsequent events have led to a change in emphasis in the regulatory process that has not yet been fully integrated into Canadian legislation and regulations. Current efforts towards further development of regulations governing the practice of nuclear criticality safety are described

  7. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  8. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  9. Nuclear materials facility safety initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Nelson, P.; Roundhill, M.; Jardine, L.J.; Lazarev, L.; Moshkov, M.; Khromov, V.V.; Kruchkov, E.; Bolyatko, V.; Kazanskij, Yu.; Vorobeva, I.; Lash, T.R.; Newton, D.; Harris, B.

    2000-01-01

    Safety in any facility in the nuclear fuel cycle is a fundamental goal. However, it is recognized that, for example, should an accident occur in either the U.S. or Russia, the results could seriously delay joint activities to store and disposition weapons fissile materials in both countries. To address this, plans are underway jointly to develop a nuclear materials facility safety initiative. The focus of the initiative would be to share expertise which would lead in improvements in safety and safe practices in the nuclear fuel cycle.The program has two components. The first is a lab-to-lab initiative. The second involves university-to-university collaboration.The lab-to-lab and university-to-university programs will contribute to increased safety in facilities dealing with nuclear materials and related processes. These programs will support important bilateral initiatives, develop the next generation of scientists and engineers which will deal with these challenges, and foster the development of a safety culture

  10. Realism in nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power plant operation and regulation have made remarkable progress since the Three Mile Island Accident. This is attributed largely to a heavy dose of introspection and self-regulation by the industry and to a significant infusion of risk-informed and performance-based regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This truly represents reality in action both by the plant operators and the regulators. On the other hand, the implementation of nuclear criticality safety in ex-reactor operations involving significant quantities of fissile material has not progressed, but, tragically, it has regressed. Not only is the practice of the discipline in excess of a factor of ten more expensive than decades ago; the trend continues. This unfortunate reality is attributed to a lack of coordination within the industry (as contrasted to what occurred in the reactor operations sector), and to a lack of implementation of risk-informed and performance-based regulation by the NRC While the criticality safety discipline is orders of magnitude smaller than the reactor safety discipline, both operators and regulators must learn from the progress made in reactor safety and apply it to the former to reduce the waste, inefficiency and potentially increased accident risks associated with current practices. Only when these changes are made will there be progress made toward putting realism back into nuclear criticality safety. (authors)

  11. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-07-01

    As the Agency begins its 50th year of service to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, there are clear signs of renewed interest in the nuclear power option. Around the world there are plans for both new and reinvigorated nuclear power development and other uses of nuclear technology. It is essential that future planning for applications of nuclear energy and related efforts are complemented with equally ambitious plans for the establishment and enhancement of sustainable safety infrastructures. Plans must be made to transfer knowledge effectively from experienced staff that will soon retire from vendors, regulatory bodies and operating organizations. Equally important are plans for the education and training of the next generation of individuals with the knowledge and expertise to support nuclear and radiation safety. In 2006, the International Nuclear Safety Group (INSAG) issued a report on the global nuclear safety regime which concludes that the regime is functioning at an effective level today, but its impact on improving safety could be enhanced by pursuing measured change. In 2006, the Board of Governors approved the Safety Fundamentals upon which the IAEA Safety Standards are based. The Safety Fundamentals establish that the prime responsibility for safety rests with the person or organization responsible for facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks. The Safety Fundamentals also state that an effective legal and governmental framework for safety must be established and sustained. The challenge now is to ensure that the IAEA Safety Standards are applied in an appropriate manner by the entire nuclear community. Both in anticipation of expanding uses of nuclear energy and to conform to current international standards, legislative and regulatory reform is underway in a number of Member States. Most Member States now recognize that stakeholders need to be involved in decisions involving nuclear technology. The challenge remains on how to engage

  12. Teaching Nuclear Issues. Occasional Paper No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, David W.

    The nuclear debate is one of critical importance and should be explored as part of the school curriculum. The psychology of denying the issue of nuclear arms and the psychological effects of the arms race on children is examined in this paper. A number of topics that might be included in discussion of nuclear issues are the arms race, politics,…

  13. White paper on nuclear safety in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    The white paper consists of four parts. The first part described the outline of international discussions on safety culture and activities promoted by utilities and regulatory bodies in Japan. The second part explained the main activities of the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan and nuclear regulatory authorities on nuclear safety regulation. The third part introduced various activities for ensuring overall nuclear safety in Japan, such as safety regulation systems for nuclear facilities, disaster measures at nuclear facilities, progress in nuclear research, nuclear safety regulation by risk-informed utilization, environmental radiation surveys, international cooperation on nuclear safety. The forth part contained various materials and data related to the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan. (J.P.N.)

  14. Tutorial on nuclear thermal propulsion safety for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1992-01-01

    Safety is the prime design requirement for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP). It must be built in at the initiation of the design process. An understanding of safety concerns is fundamental to the development of nuclear rockets for manned missions to Mars and many other applications that will be enabled or greatly enhanced by the use of nuclear propulsion. To provide an understanding of the basic issues, a tutorial has been prepared. This tutorial covers a range of topics including safety requirements and approaches to meet these requirements, risk and safety analysis methodology, NERVA reliability and safety approach, and life cycle risk assessments

  15. Nuclear power infrastructure - issues, strategy and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Today humanity faces daunting challenges: the pressing need for development in many parts of the world and the desire for a more effective system of international security. At the outset of the 21st century, the Millennium Development Goals and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation have both set global objectives for sustainable development (SD) that give high priority to the eradication of poverty and hunger, environmental sustainability, universal access to plentiful fresh water and energy. In this context there are many expectations about Nuclear Renascence supported by many national and international studies, by discussions in the mass media and international forums, etc. The Agency has taken an integrated approach outlining all considerations that have to be taken into account for the introduction of a nuclear power programme, providing guiding documents, forums for sharing information, consultancies and technical meetings and sending multidisciplinary teams to countries requesting assistance with nuclear power infrastructure. The process also includes specific assistance and review services in the areas of infrastructure readiness, feasibility studies, draft nuclear law, regulatory frameworks and organization, siting issues, human resource development and planning, bid evaluation and technology assessment, owner/operator competence, and safety and security. It is important to support the decision making processes of States introducing nuclear power to ensure they can make informed choices on the role of nuclear power in their energy mixes. The IAEA helps countries prepare for the introduction or expansion of nuclear power by 1) helping them ensure that nuclear energy is used safely, securely and with minimal proliferation risk, and 2) meeting the need of developing countries to build capacity in terms of human resources, energy analysis, regulatory capabilities and other infrastructure necessary for nuclear power. The process also includes

  16. Safety culture in nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Zhengyu; Su Luming

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) introduced the concept of safety culture when analyzing the Chernobyl accident. Safety culture has now been widely accepted and practiced by nuclear enterprise in the world. As an important safeguard for nuclear safety, safety culture has become the core of nuclear power enterprise and entitled as the soul of nuclear enterprise. This paper analyzes the three levels of safety culture and describes its three developing phases. (authors)

  17. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  18. 25 years of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curien, H.; Duclos, D.; Saint Raymond, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    This philosophical dossier is devoted to the last 25 years of nuclear safety. It is organized around three main subjects: the control, the communication with the public and the international relations. The control affected the builder and the operator, but also an independent authority. This duality is essential. The public relations became a main point in the risks management. The transparency leads to a better public information. The last part is devoted to the international relations. It affects the international regulations but also the opinion exchange. The nuclear industries (and even non nuclear industries) should take inspiration from the foreign management and experiences. (A.L.B.)

  19. Nuclear data for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    A brief overview is presented on emerging requirements for new criticality safety analyses arising from applications involving nuclear waste management, facility remediation, and the storage of nuclear weapons components. A derivation of criticality analyses from the specifications of national consensus standards is given. These analyses, both static and dynamic, define the needs for nuclear data. Integral data, used primarily for analytical validation, and differential data, used in performing the analyses, are listed, along with desirable margins of uncertainty. Examples are given of needs for additional data to address systems having intermediate neutron energy spectra and/or containing nuclides of intermediate mass number

  20. Nuclear safety in crisis regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Englert, Matthias

    2017-04-12

    The use of nuclear energy demands extensive institutional and material infrastructure upon a foundation of stable intrastate conditions and interstate relations. Conflicts can result in catastrophic accidents, either deliberately or unintentionally. If there are nuclear facilities located in a crisis region, the risk of a nuclear disaster is markedly heightened. This can be explained not only in terms of the strategic relevance of the energy supply in military conflicts, but also the increased accident risks and hazards arising from collateral damage, as well as the erosion of the safety culture and institutional control in crisis regions with a nuclear infrastructure. Even just the escalation of a political dispute or the persistence of low intensity conflicts can make it generally more difficult and complex to maintain nuclear safety, if intrastate safety mechanisms come under strain or even fail as a result. So far no instance of military escalation, past or present, has led to an accident in a civil nuclear facility. Nevertheless, questions are clearly raised about the vulnerability of nuclear facilities in crisis regions and the risks associated with this vulnerability. Despite the potentially far-reaching consequences, too little attention is currently being paid to the linkage between intra- and interstate conflicts and the safety of nuclear facilities in crisis regions. The aim of the research presented here was to explore this theme and, after laying the groundwork in this manner, to raise awareness among policy-makers and the wider public. In this context the escalation of conflicts in the Ukraine is a particular focus. The first part of the report begins with a systematic look at the link between crisis regions and/or conflicts and nuclear safety. The various impact pathways relating to nuclear facility safety and the associated risks are described in relation to potential hazards induced by crises and wars. A nuclear facility can itself become a theatre

  1. Nuclear safety in crisis regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Englert, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy demands extensive institutional and material infrastructure upon a foundation of stable intrastate conditions and interstate relations. Conflicts can result in catastrophic accidents, either deliberately or unintentionally. If there are nuclear facilities located in a crisis region, the risk of a nuclear disaster is markedly heightened. This can be explained not only in terms of the strategic relevance of the energy supply in military conflicts, but also the increased accident risks and hazards arising from collateral damage, as well as the erosion of the safety culture and institutional control in crisis regions with a nuclear infrastructure. Even just the escalation of a political dispute or the persistence of low intensity conflicts can make it generally more difficult and complex to maintain nuclear safety, if intrastate safety mechanisms come under strain or even fail as a result. So far no instance of military escalation, past or present, has led to an accident in a civil nuclear facility. Nevertheless, questions are clearly raised about the vulnerability of nuclear facilities in crisis regions and the risks associated with this vulnerability. Despite the potentially far-reaching consequences, too little attention is currently being paid to the linkage between intra- and interstate conflicts and the safety of nuclear facilities in crisis regions. The aim of the research presented here was to explore this theme and, after laying the groundwork in this manner, to raise awareness among policy-makers and the wider public. In this context the escalation of conflicts in the Ukraine is a particular focus. The first part of the report begins with a systematic look at the link between crisis regions and/or conflicts and nuclear safety. The various impact pathways relating to nuclear facility safety and the associated risks are described in relation to potential hazards induced by crises and wars. A nuclear facility can itself become a theatre

  2. Regional cooperation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, W.Y.; Chen, J.H.; Kim, D.H.; Simmons, R.B.V.; Surguri, S.

    1985-01-01

    A review has been conducted of a number of multi-national and bilateral arrangements between governments and between utility-sponsored organizations which provide the framework for international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety. These arrangements include the routine exchange operational data, experiences, technical reports and regulatory data, provision of special assistance when requested, collaboration in safety research, and the holding of international conferences and seminars. Areas which may be better suited for cooperation on a regional basis are identified. These areas include: exchange of operational data and experience, sharing of emergency planning information, and collaboration in safety research. Mechanisms to initiate regional cooperation in these areas are suggested

  3. Nuclear safety guide. TID-7016, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J T [ed.

    1978-05-01

    The Nuclear Safety Guide was first issued in 1956 as classified AEC report LA-2063 and was reprinted the next year, unclassified, as TID-7016. Revision 1, published in 1961, extended the scope and refined the guiding information. The present revision of the Guide differs significantly from its predecessor in that the latter was intentionally conservative in its recommendations. Firmly based on experimental evidence of criticality, the original Guide and the first revision were considered to be of most value to organizations whose activities with fissionable materials were not extensive and, secondarily, that it would serve as a point of departure for members of established nuclear safety teams, experienced in the field. The reader will find a significant change in the character of information presented in this version. Nuclear Criticality Safety has matured in the past twelve years. The advance of calculational capability has permitted validated calculations to extend and substitute for experimental data. The broadened data base has enabled better interpolation, extension, and understanding of available information, especially in areas previously addressed by undefined but adequate factors of safety. The content has been thereby enriched in qualitative guidance. The information inherently contains, and the user can recapture, the quantitative guidance characteristic of the formerGuides by employing appropriate safety factors. In fact, it becomes incumbent on the Criticality Safety Specialist to necessarily impose safety factors consistent with the possible normal and abnormal credible contingencies of an operation as revealed by his evaluation. In its present form the Guide easily becomes a suitable module in any compendium or handbook tailored for internal use by organizations. It is hoped the Guide will continue to serve immediate needs and will encourage continuing and more comprehensive efforts toward organizing nuclear criticality safety information.

  4. Nuclear and radiological safety nuclear power nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management and issued during the period of 1995-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English

  5. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    In the nuclear area, challenges continue to emerge from the globalization of issues related to safety, technology, business, information, communication and security. Scientific advances and operational experience in nuclear, radiation, waste and transport technology are providing new opportunities to continuously improve safety and security by utilizing synergies between safety and security. The prime responsibility for nuclear, radiation, waste and transport safety rests with users and national governments. The Agency continues to support a Global Nuclear Safety Regime based on strong national safety infrastructures and widespread subscription to international legal instruments to maintain high levels of safety worldwide. Central to the Agency's role are the establishment of international safety standards and the provision for applying these standards, as well as the promotion of sharing information through managing the knowledge base. Nuclear power plant operational safety performance remains high throughout the world. Challenges facing the nuclear power industry include avoiding complacency, maintaining the necessary infrastructure, nuclear power plant ageing and long-term operation, as well as new reactor designs and construction. The research reactor community has a long history of safe operation. However nearly two-thirds of the world's operating research reactors are now over 30 years old and face safety and security challenges. In 2004, the Board of Governors approved the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors to help address these challenges. In 2004, there was international consensus on radionuclide activity concentrations in materials below which regulatory controls need not apply. Key occupational radiation protection performance indicators continued to improve in 2004. Challenges include new medical practices where workers can receive high exposures, industrial radiography and worker exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material. New

  6. Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Bogorad, V.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

  7. Effect of generic issues program on improving safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard, M. R.; Kauffman, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) identifies (by its assessment of plant operation) certain issues involving public health and safety, the common defense and security, or the environment that could affect multiple entities under NRC jurisdiction. The Generic Issues Program (GIP) addresses the resolution of these Generic Issues (GIs). The resolution of these issues may involve new or revised rules, new or revised guidance, or revised interpretation of rules or guidance that affect nuclear power plant licensees, nuclear material certificate holders, or holders of other regulatory approvals. U.S. NRC provides information related to the past and ongoing GIP activities to the general public by the use of three main resources, namely NUREG-0933, 'Resolution of Generic Safety Issues, ' Generic Issues Management Control System (GIMCS), and GIP public web page. GIP information resources provide information such as historical information on resolved GIs, current status of the open GIs, policy documents, program procedures, GIP annual and quarterly reports and the process to contact GIP and propose a GI This paper provides an overview of the GIP and several examples of safety improvements resulting from the resolution of GIs. In addition, the paper provides a brief discussion of a few recent GIs to illustrate how the program functions to improve safety. (authors)

  8. Nuclear power: levels of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidsky, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the nuclear establishment itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired

  9. Nordic projects concerning nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1988-11-01

    The report describes the nature of the work done in the first half of 1988 within the field of nuclear safety (1985-89) under the Nordic program for 1985-89. Five programmes and their documentation, are described and complete lists of addresses and of persons involved is given. (AB)

  10. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    the nuclear industry and regulators as never before. A key challenge now is to properly assess and address the safety implications of these changes. With the globalization of the nuclear business and the consequent implications for supply, ownership and operational management of nuclear power plants, there is greater need for international consistency of standards and their application and for strong leadership and clear responsibility for safety. International experience on plant life management and long term operation has reinforced the need for a comprehensive life cycle approach and the Agency has been urged to establish safety standards for safe long term operation, periodic safety reviews and ageing management. Much progress has been made regarding emergency preparedness in recent years. Even so, most Member States still need to attain and sustain a satisfactory level of nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness, including adequate preparations for first responders. Seismic safety is not a new issue, but the recent earthquake in the vicinity of the Kashiwazaki nuclear power plant in Japan highlighted the need to consider the potential consequences of earthquakes in siting, new designs and ageing management of operating nuclear power plants. The Agency sent an expert mission to Japan and is establishing a knowledge centre for seismic safety, tsunami hazard assessment and disaster mitigation management to develop and share state-of-the-art knowledge and to facilitate its application to enhance nuclear safety. New multi-purpose research reactors have been commissioned or are being designed for utilization as regional and international centres. Safety assessments will need to cover the broad range of experiments and irradiations to be conducted in these facilities. In anticipation of the expansion of nuclear power and the use of new technologies, many Member States will need to enlarge their occupational radiological dose assessment capacity to take account of

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2009; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thorlaksen, B. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2010-05-15

    The report is the seventh report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2009 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, conflicts and the European safety directive. (LN)

  12. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  13. The nuclear controversy-what are the issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1976-01-01

    The various issues raised by anti-nuclear groups are outlined and rebutted. Issues are grouped under four headingss - Economic; Technical; Social/Ethical/Moral; Political. Issues debated under economic aspects include conservation, unemployment resulting from energy use, use of alternative enrgy sources, high capital cost of nuclear power, high energy consumption in construction of plants, performance unreliability, depletion of uranium and excessive cost of decommissioning. Technically related issues, reactor safety, possibility of nuclear power plant explosion, waste managment, toxicity of plutonium, emission of radioactive material, thermal pollution and environmental effect of heavy water production are also discussed. Social/ethical/moral issues rebutted include radiation effects on health and genetic effects, deaths among uranium miners, morality of long-term waste storage, lack of faith in technical solutions and technical people, opposition to current life style, secrecy of information, nuclear proliferation and unsuitability of nuclear technology to the needs of developing countries. Political issues discussed are sabotage/terrorism possibilites, police state tactics in protection of nuclear facilities, misuse of technolgy by society, high energy society is capitalist and low energy society is Marxist, centralization of power, need for a great nuclear debate and the question of who pays for safety. Scientists and technical people are called upon to debate in their areas of specialty and are cautioned to be aware of tactics involved in meeting challengers head-on. (J.T.A.)

  14. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction

  15. The role of the nuclear safety regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, I.

    2007-01-01

    The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), or Nuclear Safety Council, is the only Spanish institution qualified in nuclear safety and radiological protection. Created in 1980, the CSN is independent of the Central State Administration, and possesses its own legal standing, estate and resources acquired directly from tax revenues. The CSN proposes regulations and advises the government on subjects within its competence, including the criteria for siting nuclear facilities once the autonomous regions have been informed. The CSN is responsible for issuing mandatory and binding reports to the Ministry of Industry. Tourism and Commerce, and for inspections and evaluation of the facilities included within its realm of competence throughout their phases (construction, start-up, operating and decommissioning). It is also responsible for the radiological control and surveillance of workers, the general public and the environment, as described below. In 1999, a new responsibility was assigned to the CSN to perform studies, assessment and inspections in relation to all phases of radioactive waste and spent fuel management. The CSN reports to the Spanish Parliament and is not subject to the hierarchy or auspices of the Government or the organisations in charge of promoting nuclear energy. The Council itself is an Associative Body comprised of 5 members, appointed by Parliament for a 6 year term (these members cannot be removed). Under this Council is situated an extensive technical body. A General Secretary is seconded by Technical Directors in the area of Nuclear Safety and Radiological Protection. As well there are a R and D Office, an Inspection Office, and a Technical Standards Office. The CSN counts 446 workers, of which 191 are university graduate specialists in nuclear safety or radiological protection. The average age is 45 years. Ongoing training is provided in technical specialties and management. (author)

  16. Unresolved safety issues summary. Volume 3, Number 3. Aqua book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The 'Unresolved Safety Issues' summary is designed to provide the management of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with a quarterly overview of the progress and plans for completion of generic tasks addressing Unresolved Safety Issues reported to Congress pursuant to section 210 of The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 as amended. This summary utilizes data collected from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and the National Laboratories and is prepared by the office of Management and Program Analysis. The definition of what constitutes completion of an unresolved safety issue (USI) has recently been expanded to include the implementation of the technical resolution. This is in acknowledgement of the fact that real safety benefits occur only after the implementation has taken place. The schedules in this book include a milestone at the end of each action plan which represents the initiation of the implementation process both with respect to incorporation of the technical resolution in the NRC official guidance or requirements and also the application of changes to individual operating plants. The schedule for implementation will not normally be included in the task action plan(s) for the resolution of a USI since the nature and extent of the activities necessary to accomplish the implementation cannot normally be reasonably determined prior to the determination of a technical resolution. The progress and status for implementation of unresolved safety issues for which a technical resolution has been completed are reported specifically in a separate table provided in this summary

  17. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2006; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L. (eds.); Kampmann, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2007-04-15

    The report is the fourth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2006 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  18. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2005; Kernekraft of nuklear sikkerhed 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Oelgaard, P.L.; Kampman, D.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Nystrup, P.E.

    2006-03-15

    The report is the third report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe National Laboratory and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2005 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development and development of emergency management systems, safety related events of nuclear power and international relations and conflicts. (ln)

  19. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2008; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2009-06-15

    The report is the fifth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2008 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events of nuclear power, and international relations and conflicts. (LN)

  20. International conference on strengthening of nuclear safety in Eastern Europe. Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersesyan, V.

    1999-01-01

    The status of the Armenian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ANRA) are described in detail with its main task and responsibilities concerning regulations and surveillance of nuclear and radiation safety. The following issues are presented: nuclear legislation; inspection activities; licensing of significant safety related modifications and modernization of NPPs; incidents at NPPs; personnel training; emergency planning; surveillance of nuclear materials; radioactive waste management; and plan of the ANRA perspective development

  1. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  2. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Kyne

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  3. Safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukavsky, J.

    1987-01-01

    Safety protection is discussed of nuclear facilities and of nuclear materials, which is a specific element of guaranteeing nuclear safety. Its task is to maximally restrict the risk of misuse of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials for endangering human lives and health and the environment. Concrete requirements for the barriers and technical means and for security of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials are based on this approach. In the CSSR, a legal norm is being prepared that will enact the said requirements for safety protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials. (Z.M.)

  4. Nuclear health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    On January 3, 1991, a report on the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to clean up the solar evaporation ponds at its Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado was issued. DOE's cleanup activities, which began in 1985, involve excavating ponds used for storing and evaporating low-level radioactive and hazardous waste and solidifying the material in a waste form known as pondcrete. This report is a follow up on DOE's solar pond cleanup activities. Specifically, this report provides updated information on the estimated costs of the project, the status of the detailed plans for conducting and monitoring the program, the status of cleanup activities, and the specific milestones the DOE has met or missed in conducting pondcrete activities

  5. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  6. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  7. Nuclear standards: current issues and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landis, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of the important issues that currently face the nuclear standards field is presented and a discussion of how each of these issues is being resolved is given. The economic benefits that properly developed standards produce are listed

  8. Nuclear health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that GAO discussed the Department of Energy's (DOE) efforts to clean up the solar evaporation ponds at its Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado. DOE is trying to excavate the ponds used for storing and evaporating low-level radioactive and hazardous waste and stabilize the material by mixing it with concrete. DOE issue a press release in March 1991 stating that it has imposed strict cost control measures in managing the project. Yet DOE's most recent cost data show that total cleanup costs have soared to an estimated $169 million through completion in 2009-$50 million more than the amount GAO reported nine months ago. Delays have plagued the completion and approval of the managing plans for conducting and monitoring the program. Cleanup activities that DOE expected to resume by December 1990 have not yet begun. DOE will not meet the first major milestone of the solar ponds program-cleaning up the ponds and moving all the pondcrete off site by October 1991. Further, unless DOE provides enough project funding or resolves concerns over pondcrete disposal in Nevada, it will not finish pondcrete processing before Rocky Flats' interim status permit for pondcrete operations expires in November 1992

  9. Commercial truck parking and other safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Commercial truck parking is a safety issue, since trucks are involved in approximately 10% of all fatal accidents on interstates and : parkways in Kentucky. Drivers experience schedule demands and long hours on the road, yet they cannot easily determ...

  10. Nuclear industry and radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V. G.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of XXI century is marked with increasing public concern over impact of man-made activity, including nuclear technologies, on the environment. Currently, the anthropocentric principle is applied in the course of the radioecological safety guaranteeing for the environment, which postulates that human protectability serves as guarantee of the environmental one. However, this principle correctness is called in question recently. The ecocentric principle is proposed as an alternative doctrine, defining balance between human importance and that of any other elements of biota. The system recommended isn't intended for the regulatory standards development yet, because of substantial gaps in scientific knowledge. Nevertheless, renunciation of the anthropocentric principle can result in unwarranted tightened regulatory basis, decreasing of nuclear industry evolution rates, and, consequently, breaching of societal and economical priorities. It is obvious that for the safety guaranteeing, nuclear industry shouldn't stand out against a background of other fields of human activity involved hazard factors. Therefore, new conceptions applying within the regulatory system is to be weighted and exclude formal using of discussion theses. More than semi-centennial experience of the anthropocentric approach applying serves as an evidence of safe protection of ecosystems against radiation exposure that ensures safe ecological development of nuclear power industry and other fields of nuclear technologies application. (author)

  11. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, a program has been established whereby an annual NUREG series report will be published on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirement areas. The data contained in this report are a product of the NRC's Safety Issues Management System database, which is maintained by the Project Management Staff in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation and by personnel in the NRC regions. This report has been prepared in order to provide a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of all the TMI Action Plan requirements at licensed reactors, and to make this information available to other interested parties, including the public. A corollary purpose of this report is for it to serve as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Safety Issues,'' which tracks safety issues up until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed facilities

  12. Leadership Actions to Improve Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewett, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge many leaders face is how to effectively implement and then utilise the results of Safety Culture surveys. Bruce Power has recently successfully implemented changes to the Safety Culture survey process including how corrective actions were identified and implemented. The actions taken in response to the latest survey have proven effective with step change performance noted. Nuclear Safety is a core value for Bruce Power. Nuclear Safety at Bruce Power is based on the following four pillars: reactor safety, industrial safety, radiological safety and environmental safety. Processes and practices are in place to achieve a healthy Nuclear Safety Culture within Bruce Power such that nuclear safety is the overriding priority. This governance is based on industry leading practices which monitor, asses and take action to drive continual improvements in the Nuclear Safety Culture within Bruce Power.

  13. Development of safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, D.; Modarres, M.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the historical development of safety goals for nuclear power plants, including the July 30, 1986, safety goal policy. In the course of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of safety goals, several issues have emerged. In particular, the benefit-cost guideline and the core-melt design objective have been subjects of continuing scrutiny and debate. These and other issues remaining to be resolved for completing the development of a final policy are discussed. Finally, the current status of the safety goals policy is discussed

  14. Consequences of electricity deregulation on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podjavorsek, M.

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of deregulation of electricity market started a couple of years ago and has not been finished yet. Deregulation causes increased pressure to reduce the costs of electricity generation. This presents a new challenge to regulatory bodies. They have to assess the impact of these changes on the safety of nuclear power plants. Accordingly, it is important to identify the risks to the nuclear power industry resulting from the deregulation. Today's trend is that the number of electricity generating power companies will be reduced in Europe and also in Slovenia due to tough competition in the electricity market. The electricity price has decreased after the introduction of the deregulated market in most countries. This has been also the main reason for less investment to new generating capacities since the price has been lower than the generation costs. Investment problems are also present for the existing units, because of danger of inappropriate maintenance and reduction of the number of staff and their qualifications below the desired level that leads to loss of institutional memory. It is expected that only the biggest companies can stand the consequences of competition in electricity prices and consequential pressure to reduce the cost. In order to review the impact of deregulation of the electricity market some relevant points are discussed in this paper such as the need to cut costs of companies by reducing the number of their activities and increasing the efficiency in the remaining activities and /or outsourcing of activities, power station operating regime, safety culture, grid reliability, reliability and safety of operation, increased number of transients, ageing of components, outage duration, extended cycle and response of nuclear regulators. From a regulatory point of view the impact of deregulation on nuclear safety is an important issue. This paper also discusses analyses and evaluations of this impact and proposes some measures how to

  15. Nuclear Criticality Safety Data Book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D. F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this document is to support the revision of criticality safety process studies (CSPSs) for the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This design analysis and calculation (DAC) document contains development and justification for generic inputs typically used in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) DACs to model both normal and abnormal conditions of processes at UPF to support CSPSs. This will provide consistency between NCS DACs and efficiency in preparation and review of DACs, as frequently used data are provided in one reference source.

  16. Nuclear Criticality Safety Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbach, D. F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The objective of this document is to support the revision of criticality safety process studies (CSPSs) for the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This design analysis and calculation (DAC) document contains development and justification for generic inputs typically used in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) DACs to model both normal and abnormal conditions of processes at UPF to support CSPSs. This will provide consistency between NCS DACs and efficiency in preparation and review of DACs, as frequently used data are provided in one reference source.

  17. Proceedings of the first annual Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    This document represents the published proceedings of the first annual Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Project (NCSTP) Workshop, which took place May 12--14, 1992, in Gaithersburg, Md. The conference consisted of four sessions, each dealing with a specific aspect of nuclear criticality safety issues. The session titles were ''Criticality Code Development, Usage, and Validation,'' ''Experimental Needs, Facilities, and Measurements,'' ''Regulation, Compliance, and Their Effects on Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety,'' and ''The Nuclear Criticality Community Response to the USDOE Regulations and Compliance Directives.'' The conference also sponsored a Working Group session, a report of the NCSTP Working Group is also presented. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  18. Safety in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents that have occurred to date. Details are also provided of Ontario Hydro's problems with Unit 2 at Pickering

  19. User requirements for innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technologies in the area of economics, environment, safety, waste management, proliferation resistance and cross cutting issues, and methodology for innovative technologies assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupitz, Juergen; Depisch, Frank; Allan, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA General Conference in 2000 has invited ''all interested Member States to combine their efforts under the aegis of the Agency in considering the issues of the nuclear fuel cycle, in particular by examining innovative and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology''. In response to this invitation, the IAEA initiated an ''International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles'', INPRO. The overall objectives of INPRO is to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in fulfilling in a sustainable manner energy needs in the 21st century, and to bring together all interested Member States, both technology holders and technology users, to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles that use sound and economically competitive technology. Phase-I of INPRO was initiated in May 2001. During Phase-I, work was subdivided in two sub phase: Phase 1A (finished in June 2003) and Phase 1B (started in June 2003). Phase 1A dealt with the definition of Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria, and the development of a methodology for the evaluation of innovative nuclear technologies. In Phase 1A, task groups for several areas were established: (a) Prospects and Potentials of Nuclear Power, (b) Economics; (c) Sustainability and Environment, (d) Safety of Nuclear Installations, (e) Waste Management, (f) Proliferation Resistance, (g) Crosscutting issues and (h) for the Methodology for Assessment. In Phase-IB evaluations of innovative nuclear energy technologies will be performed by Member States against the INPRO Basic Principles, User Requirements and Criteria. This paper summarizes the results achieved in the Phase 1A of INPRO and is a cooperative effort of the INPRO team, consisting of all INPRO cost free experts and task managers. (author)

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  1. Overview of nuclear safety regulations in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovskii, L.

    1996-01-01

    The status of national legislation and regulation governing nuclear and radiation safety in Ukraine, the organizational structure of Nuclear Regulatory Administration which is included in the Ministry for Environmental Protection and Nuclear Safety (MEPNS), and the licensing procedures for nuclear facilities are briefly presented

  2. Tank waste remediation system nuclear criticality safety program management review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRADY RAAP, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the results of an internal management review of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) criticality safety program, performed in advance of the DOE/RL assessment for closure of the TWRS Nuclear Criticality Safety Issue, March 1994. Resolution of the safety issue was identified as Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-40-12, due September 1999

  3. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  4. Nuclear power indices and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennet, L.L.; Fizher, D.; Nechaev, A.

    1987-01-01

    Problems discussed at the IAEA International Conference on nuclear power indices and safety held in Vienna from 28 September to 2 October, 1987 are considered. Representatives from 40 countries and 12 international organizations participated in the conference. It is marked that by the end of this century nuclear power plant capacities in developing countries will increase by more than twice. In developed countries increase of installed capacity by 65 % is forecasted. It is stressed that competently constructed and operated NPPs will be successfully competing with coal-fueled power plants in the majority of the world regions. Much attention was paid to reports on measures taken after Chernobyl' accident and its radiation effects on people helth. It is shown that parallel with fundamental theoretical studies on NPP safety as a complex engineering system much attention is paid to some problems of designing and operation of such facilities. Fuel cycle problems, radioactive waste and spent fuel storage and disposal in particular, are considered

  5. Nuclear Data Newsletter. Issue No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This issue of the Nuclear Data Newsletter (March 1991) gives information on the following topics: Data indexes and bibliographies, new data libraries received, selected new publications on nuclear data, related to the activity of the Nuclear Data Section of the IAEA

  6. IRSN - Annual Report 2013. Financial Report 2013. Enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Matthieu; Marchal, Valerie; Albert, Marc-Gerard; Aurelle, Jacques; Bigot, Marie-Pierre; Bruna, Giovanni; Charron, Sylvie; Clavelle, Stephanie; Cousinou, Patrick; Deschamps, Patrice; Delattre, Aleth; Demeillers, Didier; Dumas, Agnes; Franquard, Dominique; Laloi, Patrick; Lorthioir, Stephane; Monti, Pascale; Rollinger, Francois; Rouyer, Veronique; Rutschkovsky, Nathalie; Scott De Martinville, Edouard; Tharaud, Christine; Verpeaux, Jean-Luc; Jaunet, Camille; Hedouin, Jean-Christophe; Pascal-Heuze, Charlotte

    2014-03-01

    IRSN, a public entity with industrial and commercial activities, is placed under the joint authority of the Ministries of Defense, Environment, Industry, Research, and Health. It is the nation's public service expert in nuclear and radiation risks, and its activities cover all the related scientific and technical issues. Its areas of specialization include the environment and radiological emergency response, human radiation protection in both a medical and professional capacity, and in both normal and post-accident situations, the prevention of major accidents, nuclear reactor safety, as well as safety in nuclear plants and laboratories, transport and waste treatment, and nuclear defense and security expertise. IRSN interacts with all parties concerned by these risks (public authorities, in particular nuclear safety and security authorities, local authorities, companies, research organizations, stakeholders' associations, etc.) to contribute to public policy issues relating to nuclear safety, human and environmental protection against ionizing radiation, and the protection of nuclear materials, facilities, and transport against the risk of malicious acts. This document is the 2013 issue of IRSN's activity report. Content: 1 - Organization, key figures; 2 - Strategy: Progress and main activities in 2013, Transparency and communications policy, Promoting a safety and radiation protection culture; 3 - Activities: Safety (Safety of existing facilities, Studies and researches, About defense, Conducting assessments of future facilities); Nuclear security and non-proliferation (Nuclear security activities, International non-proliferation controls); Radiation protection - environment and human health (Environmental and population exposure, Radiation protection in the workplace, Effects of chronic exposure, Protection in health care); Emergency and post-accident situations efficiency; 4 - Efficiency: Health, safety, environmental, protection and quality, Human resources

  7. White paper on nuclear safety in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    The white paper consists of four parts. The first part described the regulation of nuclear facility decommissioning and the clearance level at which the decommissioned waste materials are not necessarily treated as radioactive materials. The second part explained the main operations of the nuclear safety regulation of the Nuclear Safety Commission and the regulatory bodies in 2004 and Mihama unit 3 accident. The third part introduced various activities for the general preservation of nuclear safety in Japan, such as safety regulation systems for nuclear facilities, disaster preparedness of nuclear facilities, progress in nuclear research, environmental radiation surveys and international cooperation on nuclear safety. The forth part contained various materials and data related to the Nuclear Safety Commission. (J.P.N.)

  8. 48 CFR 923.7001 - Nuclear safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nuclear safety. 923.7001... ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Environmental, Energy and Water Efficiency, Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational Safety Programs 923.7001 Nuclear safety. The DOE...

  9. Nuclear safety regulatory review and research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queniart, D.

    1979-01-01

    The IPSN is thechnical body that supports the regulatory authorities for nuclear safety in France. This paper presents the connection between safety research and safety analysis, and the role of the IPSN in both fields. (author)

  10. Some safety aspects of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.; Marsicanin, B.; Milosevic, M.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper the Safety Analysis Report is considered as a source of information on the safety, availability and behaviour of similar nuclear plants. The human factor contribution to the safety system is pointed out (author)

  11. The Alsos library for nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Settle, F.A.; Whaley, T.; Blackmer, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This presentation will describe the content and features of the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues (http://alsos.wlu.edu). The library, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, provides a broad, balanced collection of indexed, annotated references for the study of nuclear issues ranging from nuclear reactors to Japanese poetry. All annotations have been reviewed by members of the library's prestigious National Advisory Board. The searchable collection includes books, articles, films, CD-ROMs, and websites. It currently contains approximately 1600 references and receives over 15000 visits per month. The mission of the library is to make the history and current status of nuclear issues more accessible and comprehensible to the general public as well as to students, educators, and other professionals in the many fields influenced by the forces of the nuclear age. References may be accessed by conventional keyword, creator, and title searches or by browsing topics under one of five categories; issues, warfare, science, people, and places. Of particular interest to conference participants are topics in the issues category that include nuclear power, terrorism, and nuclear waste. The library can also provide bibliographies for specific topics which can be embedded as hyperlinks on other websites which address of nuclear issues. Finally the Alsos Library is the bibliographical component of Nuclear Pathways (nuclearpathways.org), a composite site which is attempting to integrate websites dedicated to nuclear issues. The initial partner sites are: Atomic Archive (http://atomicarchive.com), Nuclear Chemistry in the Community (http://www.chemcases.com/2003version/nuclear/index2.htm), and Nuclear Files (http://nuclearfiles.org). (author)

  12. The safety issues of medical robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Baowei; Ng, W.S.; Chauhan, Sunita; Kwoh, Chee Keong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we put forward a systematic method to analyze, control and evaluate the safety issues of medical robotics. We created a safety model that consists of three axes to analyze safety factors. Software and hardware are the two material axes. The third axis is the policy that controls all phases of design, production, testing and application of the robot system. The policy was defined as hazard identification and safety insurance control (HISIC) that includes seven principles: definitions and requirements, hazard identification, safety insurance control, safety critical limits, monitoring and control, verification and validation, system log and documentation. HISIC was implemented in the development of a robot for urological applications that was known as URObot. The URObot is a universal robot with different modules adaptable for 3D ultrasound image-guided interstitial laser coagulation, radiation seed implantation, laser resection, and electrical resection of the prostate. Safety was always the key issue in the building of the robot. The HISIC strategies were adopted for safety enhancement in mechanical, electrical and software design. The initial test on URObot showed that HISIC had the potential ability to improve the safety of the system. Further safety experiments are being conducted in our laboratory

  13. Editorial safety science special issue road safety management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Hagezieker, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The articles presented in this Special Issue on Road Safety Management represent an illustration of the growing interest in policy-related research in the area of road safety. The complex nature of this type of research combined with the observation that scientific journals pay limited attention to

  14. International Symposium on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic and the Embassy of Japan in the Slovak Republic, under the auspices of the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign and European Affairs Mr Lajcak organized International Symposium on Nuclear Safety on 14 and 15 March 2013. The symposium took place almost exactly two years after the occurrence of accidents at the Japanese nuclear power plant Fukushima Daichi. The main mission of the symposium was an attempt to contribute to the improvement of nuclear safety by sharing information and lessons presented by Japanese experts with experts from the region, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission. The aim of the symposium, unlike many other events organized in connection with the events in Fukushima Daichi NPP, was a summary of the results of stress tests and measures update adopted by the international community, especially within Europe. Panel discussion was included to the program of the symposium for this aim was, mainly focused on the current state of implementation of the National Action Plan of the Slovak Republic, the Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine and Switzerland and the IAEA Action Plan.

  15. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  16. Holdup-related issues in safeguarding of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1988-03-01

    Residual inventories of special nuclear materials (SNM) remaining in processing facilities (holdup) are recognized as an insidious problem for both safety and safeguards. This paper identifies some of the issues that are of concern to the safeguards community at-large that are related to holdup of SNM in large-scale process equipment. These issues range from basic technologies of SNM production to changing regulatory requirements to meet the needs of safeguarding nuclear materials. Although there are no magic formulas to resolve these issues, there are several initiatives that could be taken in areas of facility design, plant operation, personnel training, SNM monitoring, and regulatory guidelines to minimize the problems of holdup and thereby improve both safety and safeguards at nuclear material processing plants. 8 refs

  17. Preserving skills and expertise for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: For many decades to come the international nuclear sector will require a wide range of highly trained, experienced and competent personnel. However, with the decline in the availability of nuclear expertise which is being felt in many countries, maintaining safety competence for both the industry and the regulator becomes a difficult challenge. Assessing the extent of the decline now and predicting what is the likely need for expertise in the future is an important task for all countries. Assessment should take account of likely scenarios for change in the nuclear industry and should aim to identify areas of expertise most likely to be at risk. International Agencies are playing a key role in raising awareness about regulatory concern and are starting to coordinate response and exchange good practice. Regulatory responsibility for preserving skills and expertise and International Agency leadership are essential for a successful outcome to the issue. (author)

  18. Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission's intern program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    The Intern Program was introduced at the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Canada's Nuclear Regulator in response to the current competitive market for engineers and scientists and the CNSC's aging workforce. It is an entry level staff development program designed to recruit and train new engineering and science graduates to eventually regulate Canada's nuclear industry. The program provides meaningful work experience and exposes the interns to the general work activities of the Commission. It also provides them with a broad awareness of the regulatory issues in which the CNSC is involved. The intern program is a two-year program focusing on the operational areas and, more specifically, on the generalist functions of project officers. (author)

  19. Business of Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, Nuclear Technology Test Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Masahiko

    1981-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Test Center established the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office to execute newly the works concerning nuclear safety analysis in addition to the works related to the proving tests of nuclear machinery and equipments. The regulations for the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office concerning its organization, business and others were specially decided, and it started the business formally in August, 1980. It is a most important subject to secure the safety of nuclear facilities in nuclear fuel cycle as the premise of developing atomic energy. In Japan, the strict regulation of safety is executed by the government at each stage of the installation, construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear facilities, based on the responsibility for the security of installers themselves. The Nuclear Safety Analysis Office was established as the special organ to help the safety examination related to the installation of nuclear power stations and others by the government. It improves and puts in order the safety analysis codes required for the cross checking in the safety examination, and carries out safety analysis calculation. It is operated by the cooperation of the Science and Technology Agency and the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. The purpose of establishment, the operation and the business of the Nuclear Safety Analysis Office, the plan of improving and putting in order of analysis codes, and the state of the similar organs in foreign countries are described. (Kako, I.)

  20. Nuclear fuel technology - Administrative criteria related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    An effective nuclear criticality-safety programme includes cooperation among management, supervision, and the nuclear criticality-safety staff and, for each employee, relies upon conformance with operating procedures. Although the extent and complexity of safety-related activities may vary greatly with the size and type of operation with fissile material, certain safety elements are common. This International Standard represents a codification of such elements related to nuclear criticality safety. General guidance for nuclear criticality safety may be found in ISO 1709. The responsibilities of management, supervision, and the nuclear criticality-safety staff are addressed. The Objectives and characteristics of operating and emergency procedures are included in this International Standard. ISO 14943 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear fuel technology

  1. Safety performance indicators. Topical issues paper no. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, K.; Lederman, L.; Szikszai, T.; Palomo, J.

    2001-01-01

    performance, they are just one of a larger set of tools including probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), regulatory inspection, quality assurance, external reviews and self-assessment needed to assess operational safety performance. The integration of information compiled from such evaluation tools yields the best results. Two areas of increasingly common interest are 'risk based' indicators, and 'safety culture' indicators. The key to managing the nuclear business today is to establish a high quality safety management system as well as developing a strong safety culture within the entire organization. 'The safety management system comprises those arrangements made by the organization for the management of safety in order to promote a strong safety culture and achieve good safety performance'. This definition, presented in INSAG-13, illustrates the close connection between 'safety management systems' and 'safety culture' and that they are in fact inseparable. To manage safety effectively you need a systematic approach and at the same time be aware of the effects of the approach on individual and collective human behaviour. This issue covers the following: development of safety performance indicators, indicator selection and use, recommended indicators, indicators collected from nuclear power plant initiatives, management of safety and safety culture, need and feasibility of an international system, plant management needs, regulatory use of safety performance indicators, public communication, and recommendations for priorities in future work

  2. Potential cooperative measures on nuclear issues in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    Cooperation on nuclear issues is receiving increased attention in Asia. In Northeast Asia, where the nuclear industry is well-developed, cooperation in the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle could help deal with issues such as disposition of spent fuel and long term storage options. In Southeast Asia, where countries are just beginning to introduce nuclear energy, cooperation would be useful in developing standards for the nuclear industry. Throughout Asia, nuclear research and power activities can raise concerns about safety, environmental pollution and proliferation. The sharing of relevant information, i.e. cooperative monitoring, will be essential to addressing these issues. In fact, a number of regional interactions on nuclear issues are already occurring. These range from training exchanges sponsored by the more advanced states to participation in environmental monitoring of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Several states are considering sharing information from their nuclear facilities; some exchanges of radiation data are already in place. The KEDO reactor project will involve close working relations between the nuclear experts of South Korea, North Korea, Japan, and the US. Areas for further regional cooperation are discussed

  3. Control of Nuclear Materials and Special Equipment (Nuclear Safety Regulations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizmek, A.; Prah, M.; Medakovic, S.; Ilijas, B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on Nuclear Safety Act (OG 173/03) the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) in 2008 adopted beside Ordinance on performing nuclear activities (OG 74/06) and Ordinance on special conditions for individual activities to be performed by expert organizations which perform activities in the area of nuclear safety (OG 74/06) the new Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment (OG 15/08). Ordinance on the control of nuclear material and special equipment lays down the list of nuclear materials and special equipment as well as of nuclear activities covered by the system of control of production of special equipment and non-nuclear material, the procedure for notifying the intention to and filing the application for a license to carry out nuclear activities, and the format and contents of the forms for doing so. This Ordinance also lays down the manner in which nuclear material records have to be kept, the procedure for notifying the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety by the nuclear material user, and the keeping of registers of nuclear activities, nuclear material and special equipment by the State administration organization (regulatory body) responsible for nuclear safety, as well as the form and content of official nuclear safety inspector identification card and badge.(author)

  4. Real issue with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The voter referendums on nuclear power planned in some states can affect the energy supply and economic health of the public at large more than it affects the industry that provides nuclear power, the author states. He makes the point that those responsible for energy supplies in the U. S.--the President and all relevant Federal agencies, the majority of Congress, the national utility industry, major laboratories, universities and consulting firms, and other energy industries--all favor nuclear power. The complex U.S. energy situation is reviewed, and the hope of alternative energy sources, practice of energy conservation, and benefits of nuclear power are summarized. Specifically, the California Initiative and its three conditions which it says should dictate the future of nuclear power are reviewed. The author does not believe that the reasons that are usually given in opposing nuclear power are the real reasons. He states that ''it seems clear that the principal philosophy behind the initiatives is one of halting economic growth by striking at the energy source that would make that growth possible.'' Attention is called to the morality of nuclear power by asking where is the morality: in leaving future generations an insufficient amount of energy, limiting their abilities to solve the economic and employment problems; in squandering our finite supply of fossil fuels while ignoring nuclear fuels; in forcing the nation into further dependence on unpredictable foreign nations for its energy supply; in expecting other states to provide California with the energy that it does not want to generate itself; and in allowing an arbitrary limit on growth to be set by groups of political activists

  5. Nuclear power: Issues and misunderstandings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2000-01-01

    A sizeable sector of the public remains hesitant or opposed to the use of nuclear power. With other groups claiming nuclear power has a legitimate role in energy programs, there is a need to openly and objectively discuss the concerns limiting its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, and the disposal of high level waste. This paper discusses these concerns using comparisons with other energy sources. (author)

  6. Look Before You Leap. INSAG Urges Nuclear Newcomers to Prioritize Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Each year, INSAG issues a letter to the IAEA Director General on current nuclear safety issues. INSAG includes high-level officials from 15 countries and organizations. The group is composed of experts with high professional competence in the field of safety working in regulatory organizations, research and academic institutions and the nuclear industry. It is convened under the auspices of the IAEA with the objective to provide authoritative advice and guidance on nuclear safety approaches, policies and principles for nuclear installations. In particular, INSAG provides recommendations and opinions on current and emerging nuclear safety issues to the IAEA, the nuclear community and the public

  7. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  8. Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations: report 1991-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Set up to advise on major issues affecting the safety of nuclear installations including design, siting, operation and maintenance, this reports the major issues considered by the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations in 1991-2. These included a concern about safety in the more commercial, cost conscious environment in which Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear operate and a concern that the United Kingdom nuclear research programme should be maintained. The Committee has also contributed to supplying information to the public about nuclear safety through publication of its study group reports and support for the HSE publications on risk and safety. (UK)

  9. Redefining interrelationship between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having “aggressors” as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests “SSN” which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called “SSST” in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards. (author)

  10. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2012; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; Nonboel, E. (eds.); Oelgaard, P.L. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark); Israelson, C.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    The report is the tenth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is prepared in collaboration between DTU Nutech and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2012 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the results of the EU stress test. (LN)

  11. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2010; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Nonboel, E. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-07-15

    The report is the eighth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2010 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations, and conflicts and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  12. Nuclear power and nuclear safety 2011; Kernekraft og nuklear sikkerhed 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B.; OElgaard, P.L. (eds.); Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nonboel, E. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K.; Kampmann, D.; Nystrup, P.E.; Thomsen, J. (Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2012-07-15

    The report is the ninth report in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power production, with special emphasis on safety issues and nuclear emergency preparedness. The report is written in collaboration between Risoe DTU and the Danish Emergency Management Agency. The report for 2011 covers the following topics: status of nuclear power production, regional trends, reactor development, safety related events, international relations and conflicts, and the Fukushima accident. (LN)

  13. Nuclear power debate: moral, economic, technical, and political issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, D. III.

    1977-01-01

    The pace at which nuclear power will develop is clouded with uncertainties. At the end of 1976 in the United States, 61 nuclear reactors were operating, representing slightly more than 9 percent of the country's total generating capacity. Another 168 reactors were either planned, under construction, or on order. Outside the United States, commitments to nuclear power grew by 17 percent in 1975 over 1974. Indonesia, Turkey, and Poland ordered nuclear plants, bringing to 41 the number of countries committed to nuclear energy. In 1976, 112 nuclear reactors were operating in 18 countries; an additional 342 plants were planned, on order, or under construction. The speed at which nuclear power will continue to grow is dependent on a number of factors: the rate at which demand for energy increases, the changing economics of alternative methods of energy production, the processes by which decisions affecting nuclear power development are made, and the degree to which they satisfy public concerns about the safety of nuclear energy. This book addresses itself to these factors as follows: Economic issues: At what rate will demand for energy increase, and how can that demand be met. (Chapter 2.) How cost-competitive are the major alternative methods of producing electricity that now exist--nuclear power and coal. (Chapter 3.) Decision making issues: Are the processes by which decisions to proceed with development of nuclear power, both in government and in industry, adequate to protect the interests of the public and of investors. (Chapters 4 and 5.) Safety issues: Are nuclear power plants themselves safe. (Chapters 6 and 7.) Can adequate safeguards be established to ensure protection against misuse of the products or by-products of those plants and to ensure the permanent safe storage of radioactive wastes

  14. Proceedings of the nuclear safety seminar, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin S Zarkasih; Dhandang P; Rohadi A; Djarwani; Santoso; Abdul Waris; Zaki Su'ud; Sihana; Heryudo Kusumo; Yusri Heni; Yus Rusdian; Judi Pramono; Amil Mardha

    2011-06-01

    The Proceedings of the nuclear safety seminar by Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency with the theme of strengthening in nuclear safety control, nuclear security and nuclear safeguard to Introduction of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Indonesia held on Jakarta 27-28 June 2011. The seminar is an annual routine activities which organized by Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN) as an exchange for information from scientists and researchers for using nuclear technology. The proceeding consist of 4 articles from keynotes’ speaker and 39 articles from BAPETEN, BATAN and outside participants. (PPIKSN)

  15. Nuclear security culture in comparison with nuclear safety culture. Resemblances and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Since the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on September 11th, 2001, Nuclear Security has been focused on and treated as a global issue in the international community and it has also been discussed as a real and serious threat to nuclear power plants in the world since 'The Great East Japan Earthquake' in March, 2011. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) issued a document including Nuclear Security Recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.5) (NSS 13) in the Nuclear Security Series and emphasized the necessity of fostering Nuclear Security Culture. Nuclear Security Culture has been frequently discussed at various kinds of seminars and events. Since the officials in charge of Nuclear Security are familiar with the area of Nuclear Safety, the relationships between Nuclear Safety Culture and Nuclear Security Culture have been the point in controversy. This paper clarifies relevance between Nuclear Safety and Security, considers resemblances and differences of their concepts and lessons learned for each culture from nuclear power plant accidents, and promotes deeper understanding of Nuclear Safety and Nuclear Security Culture. (author)

  16. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course

  17. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions

  18. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesser, J.A. [ed.] [comp.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  19. Nuclear safety in France in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This press dossier summarizes the highlights of nuclear safety in France in 2001: the point-of-view of A.C. Lacoste, director of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN), the new organisation of the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection, the ASN's policy of transparency, the evolutions of nuclear fuels and the consistency of the fuel cycle, the necessary evolutions of the nuclear crisis management, the harmonizing work of safety approaches carried out by the WENRA association. The following documents are attached in appendixes: the decrees relative to the reformation of the nuclear control in France, the missions of the ASN, the control of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France, the organization of ASN in March 2000, the incidents notified in 2001, the inspections performed in 2001, and the list of the main French nuclear sites. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear safety: what is the price to pay? Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lheureux, Yves; Leclerc, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    After having outlined that the ANCCLI's concern about French contradictions in the field of nuclear safety, this publication proposes an overview of the situation of nuclear safety in France in 2016 from the ANCCLI's point of view: big lessons and (too) small changes after Chernobyl and Fukushima, what has changed since Chernobyl and Fukushima. It outlines why emergency measures are not adapted according to the work of the joint ANCCLI-ACRO scientific committee. The following issues are thus commented: too many remaining questions, age and safety level of a nuclear plant, the specific intervention plans (PPI), sheltering, iodine distribution, population evacuation, evacuation time about nuclear sites, hosting sites in case of evacuation, refugees, safety and security. Recommendations are then given, based on European, Japanese, American, Canadian and Indian experiences. The project of a white paper on the post-accidental situation is presented. Several illustrations are proposed about some of the above issues

  1. Management and organization in nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, R.N.

    1983-08-01

    In the immediate aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored investigations of the relation between human issues and safety tended to focus on individual and, at most, group level phenomena. This initial bottom up view of organizational safety has continued to be investigated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, as evidence by the four previous papers. Recently, however, work has begun which adopts a top down management/organization approach to nuclear power plant safety. This paper reports on the research, to date, on this focus

  2. Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook (English translation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This is an English translation of 'Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook' compiled by Nuclear Materials Regulation Division in Nuclear Safety Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan and published by Nikkan Shobo in 1988, which was originally written in Japanese. (author)

  3. Towards a global nuclear safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the evolution of the global nuclear safety culture and the role in which the IAEA has played in encouraging its development. There is also a look ahead to what the future challenges of the world-wide nuclear industry might be and to the need for a continued and improved global nuclear safety culture to meet these changing needs. (Author)

  4. Radioactivity and Nuclear Issues in Science Fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this work are presented and reviewed science fiction narratives, films and comics that exploit radioactivity and nuclear issues. These topics to some science fiction authors serve as metaphor of evil and holocaust as well as nice instrument for elaborating various manipulations and conspiracy theories. In that context are of special interest science fiction works depicting apocalyptic post-nuclear worlds and societies, such works being closely connected with cyberpunk genre. However, other more technologically optimistic authors nuclear energy and research regarding nuclear technology and radioactivity consider as eligible and inevitable solution for world peace and prosperity Nowadays, public interest and global fears are shifted from radioactivity and nuclear issues to other catastrophic scenarios threatening future of the mankind, these for example being climate changes and global warming, asteroid impact, collapse of information infrastructure, nanotechnology, robotics and artificial intelligence etc. Consequently, these issues are as well increasingly reflected in contemporary science fiction stories.(author)

  5. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayoto.

    1979-01-01

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  6. Nuclear safety. Beyond the technical details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.R.; Harvey, M.

    1987-09-01

    Nuclear safety standards must be set up with due regard for overall societal safety. Several factors contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor, particularly open, honest and accountable review at every level. Improved public information and education in nuclear matters will contribute to the welfare of society

  7. Nuclear Safety Review for the Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, the Agency and its Director General were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel Committee statement recognizes the Agency's 'efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way.' The global nature of safety is reflected in the relevant international legal instruments, both binding conventions and the non-binding codes of conduct currently in place. During the year, the third review meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on Nuclear Safety as well as the third meeting of the representatives of the competent authorities under the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or a Radiological Emergency took place. Improvements have been made in national legislation and regulatory infrastructure in many Member States in 2005. However, inadequate safety management and regulatory supervision of nuclear installations and use of ionizing radiation is a continuing issue in many Member States. A continuing challenge is to collect, analyse and disseminate safety experience and knowledge. Nuclear power plant (NPP) operational safety performance remained high throughout the world in 2005. Radiation doses to workers and members of the public due to NPP operation are well below regulatory limits. Personal injury accidents and incidents are among the lowest in industry. There were no accidents that resulted in the release of radiation that could adversely impact the environment. NPPs in many parts of the world have successfully coped with severe natural disaster conditions such as earthquakes, tsunamis, widespread river flooding and hurricanes. However, operational safety performance has been on a plateau for several years and concern has been expressed in many forums regarding the need to guard against complacency in the industry. Research reactors also maintained a good

  8. Annual report ''nuclear safety in France''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document is the 2001 annual report of the French authority of nuclear safety (ASN). It summarizes the highlights of the year 2000 and details the following aspects: the nuclear safety in France, the organization of the control of nuclear safety, the regulation relative to basic nuclear facilities, the control of facilities, the information of the public, the international relations, the organisation of emergencies, the radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials, the radioactive wastes, the PWR reactors, the experimental reactors and other laboratories and facilities, the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and the shutdown and dismantling of nuclear facilities. (J.S.)

  9. Nuclear Weapons: Concepts, Issues, and Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The schools must confront and deal with the issues of the nuclear weapons controversy on pain of ceasing to be relevant to the critical needs of the rising generation. Every aspect of the nuclear arms controversy needs to be discussed in secondary and university classrooms. (RM)

  10. IAEA activities in nuclear safety: future perspectives. Spanish Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid, 28 May 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document represents the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council in Madrid, on 28 May 1998, on Agency's activities in nuclear safety. The following aspects are emphasized: Agency's role in creating a legally binding nuclear safety regime, non-binding safety standards, services provided by the Agency to assist its Member States in the Application of safety standards, Agency's nuclear safety strategy, and future perspective concerning safety aspects related to radioactive wastes, residues of past nuclear activities, and security of radiological sources

  11. Nuclear safety and energy supply security: conflict or goal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Energy generation and safety problems at the nuclear power plant have been analysed. Nuclear power plants are operated on the commercial basis in many countries today. Safety and security in energy generation and distribution is a complex problem. Energy supply reliability, security energy price and other issues should be co-ordinated and solved at the same time. Decentralisation and deregulation means new challenges for regulatory bodies and assurance of security. International co-operation in this field is very important. Western European Nuclear Regulators' Association (WENRA) consolidates efforts of regulatory bodies of European countries in order to harmonize approaches of nuclear safety. Nuclear Safety, and security of energy supply is the task and goal at the same time. (author)

  12. Legal status of minister's notices and technology standards of 'Korea institute of nuclear safety'(KINS) to regulate nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. K.; Jung, M. M.; Kim, S. W.; Jang, K. H.; Oh, B. J.

    2003-01-01

    Concerning nuclear safety or technology standards, each of 'notices' issued by minister of science and technology(MOST) empowered by law of its regulation is obviously forceful as a law, if not all. But the standards made by the chief of Korea institute of nuclear safety(KINS) to meet the tasks entrusted to KINS by MOST is only conditionally forceful as a law, that is, on the condition that law or regulation empowered the chief of KINS to make nuclear safety and/or technology standards

  13. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  14. The operating organization for nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. The present publication is a revision of the IAEA Safety Guide on Management of Nuclear Power Plants for Safe Operation issued in 1984. It supplements Section 2 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Nuclear power technology is different from the customary technology of power generation from fossil fuel and by hydroelectric means. One major difference between the management of nuclear power plants and that of conventional generating plants is the emphasis that should be placed on nuclear safety, quality assurance, the management of radioactive waste and radiological protection, and the accompanying national regulatory requirements. This Safety Guide highlights the important elements of effective management in relation to these aspects of safety. The attention to be paid to safety requires that the management recognize that personnel involved in the nuclear power programme should understand, respond effectively to, and continuously search for ways to enhance safety in the light of any additional requirements socially and legally demanded of nuclear energy. This will help to ensure that safety policies that result in the safe operation of nuclear power plants are implemented and that margins of safety are always maintained. The structure of the organization, management standards and administrative controls should be such that there is a high degree of assurance that safety policies and decisions are implemented, safety is continuously enhanced and a strong safety culture is promoted and supported. The objective of this publication is to guide Member States in setting up an operating organization which facilitates the safe operation of nuclear power plants to a high level internationally. The second objective is to provide guidance on the most important organizational elements in order to contribute to a strong safety

  15. Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Research Review Committee has had a fundamental difficulty because of the atmosphere that has existed since it was created. It came into existence at a time of decreasing budgets. For any Committee the easiest thing is to tell the Director what additional to do. That does not really help him a lot in this atmosphere of reduced budgets which he reviewed for you on Monday. Concurrently the research arm of Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recognized that the scope of its activity needed to be increased rather than decreased. In the last two-and-a-half-year period, human factors work was reinstated, radiation and health effects investigations were reinvigorated, research in the waste area was given significant acceleration. Further, accident management came into being, and the NRC finally got back into the TMI-2 area. So with all of those activities being added to the program at the same time that the research budget was going down, the situation has become very strained. What that leads to regarding Committee membership is a need for technically competent generalists who will be able to sit as the Division Directors come in, as the contractors come in, and sort the wheat from the chaff. The Committee needs people who are interested in and have a broad perspective on what regulatory needs are and specifically how safety research activities can contribute to them. The author summarizes the history of the Committee, the current status, and plans for the future

  16. International conference on safety culture in nuclear installations. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisation and individuals which establishes that as an overriding priority nuclear plant safety issues receives the attention warranted by their significance. This definition of safety culture brings out two major components in its manifestation. The framework within which individuals within the organisation works.The attitude and response of individual towards the safety issues over productivity and economics in the organisational work practices. The industry literature provides a great deal of insight at the artefact and espoused value levels, although as yet it remains somewhat disorganized. There is, however, an overall lack of understanding of the assumption level of safety culture. The IAEA has organised the conference on safety culture for better understanding of the safety culture issues on the international level

  17. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  18. Nuclear Safety Culture & Leadership in Slovenske Elektrarne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janko, P.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation shows practically how nuclear safety culture is maintained and assessed in Slovenske elektrarne, supported by human performance program and leadership model. Safety is the highest priority and it must be driven by the Leaders in the field. Human Performance is key to safety and therefore key to our success. Safety Policy of our operating organization—licence holder, is in line with international best practices and nuclear technology is recognised as special and unique. All nuclear facilities adopt a clear safety policy and are operated with overriding priority to nuclear safety, the protection of nuclear workers, the general public and the environment from risk of harm. The focus is on nuclear safety, although the same principles apply to radiological safety, industrial safety and environmental safety. Safety culture is assessed regularly based (every two years) on eight principles for strong safety culture in nuclear utilities. Encourage excellence in all plant activities and to go beyond compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Adopt management approaches embodying the principles of Continuous Improvement and risk Management is never ending activity for us. (author)

  19. NPP Mochovce nuclear safety enhancement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, J.; Baumester, P.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power plant Mochovce is currently under construction and an extensive nuclear safety enhancement programme is under way. The upgrading and modifications are based on IAEA documents and on those of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic. Based on a contract concluded with Riskaudit from the CEC, safety examinations of the Mochovce design were performed. An extensive list of technical specifications of safety measures is given. (M.D.)

  20. Nuclear materials issues and concerns. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2001-01-01

    This volume of the book covers a wide range of vital issues and concerns related to nuclear materials such as nuclear research and development, disarmament and arms control, illegal nuclear traffic and its associated aspects, disposal of radioactive waste/fissile materials, decommissioning and management of surplus nuclear equipment and materials, etc. A special attention to Indian and Pakistan nuclear tests has also been given. The articles included in this book are selected from the (1) International Conference on Military Conversion and Science Utilisation/Disposal of the Excess Fissile Weapons Materials: Scientific, Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects, 18-20 March 1996; (2) International Forum on Illegal Nuclear Traffic: Risks, Safeguards and Countermeasures, 12-13 June 1997; (3) International Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats, 27-28 June 1997; and (4) Forum of the UNESCO International School of Science for Peace on Nuclear Disarmament, Safe Disposal of Nuclear Material for new weapons Developments ? Where are the National Laboratories Going ?, 2-4 July 1998 organised by the UNESCO Venice Office and others. The articles have been written by the experts in nuclear issues and concerns

  1. Nuclear materials issues and concerns. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Digumarti Bhaskara

    2001-01-01

    This second volume of the book also covers the wide range of vital issues and concerns related to nuclear materials such as nuclear research and development, disarmament and arms control, illegal nuclear traffic and its associated aspects, disposal of radio-active waste/fissile materials, decommissioning and management of surplus nuclear equipment and materials, etc. A special attention to Indian and Pakistan nuclear tests has also been given. The articles included in this book are selected from the (1) International Conference on Military Conversion and Science Utilisation/Disposal of the Excess Fissile Weapons Materials: Scientific, Technological and Socio-Economic Aspects, 18-20 March 1996; (2) International Forum on Illegal Nuclear Traffic: Risks, Safeguards and Countermeasures, 12-13 June 1997; (3) International Forum on Nuclear and Biological Decommissioning: Management of Global Security Threats, 27-28 June 1997; and (4) Forum of the UNESCO International School of Science for Peace on Nuclear Disarmament, Safe Disposal of Nuclear Material for new weapons Developments ? Where are the National Laboratories Going ?, 2-4 July 1998 organised by the UNESCO Venice Office and others. The articles have been written by the experts in nuclear issues and concerns

  2. The safety of nuclear power: Strategy for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The conference took place in Vienna from 2 to 6 September 1991. It was attended by approximately 350 participants from about fifty countries and 12 international organizations. The conference was directed to decision makers on nuclear safety and energy policy at the technical policy level. Its objective was to review the nuclear power safety issues on which international consensus would be desirable, to address the concerns on nuclear safety expressed by the WCED, and to formulate recommendations for future actions by national and international authorities to advance nuclear safety to the highest level, including proposals for the IAEA's future activities for consideration by its governing bodies. Background Papers were prepared in advance of the conference by Expert Groups on the following five issues: Fundamental principles for the safe use of nuclear power; Ensuring and enhancing safety of operating plants; Treatment of nuclear power plants built to earlier safety standards; The next generation of nuclear power plants; Final disposal of radioactive waste. On the basis of comments received on these papers from IAEA Member States, significant topics for discussion were identified. These topics and the papers formed the basis of the discussions from which the conference arrived at recommendations for future action by national and international authorities. A separate abstract was prepared for the opening speeches, background papers, major findings of the conference and the President's closing statement. 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: (sm b ullet) Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe (sm b ullet) Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts (sm b ullet) Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  4. Nuclear safety authority. Strategical planning 2005- 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear safety Authority (A.S.N.) provides, in the name of the state, the monitoring of nuclear safety and radiation protection to protect workers, patients, public and environment from the risks in relation with nuclear activities and more broadly with ionizing radiations, it contributes to citizens information in these areas. The ambition of A.S.N. is to carry out a successful, legitimate, credible nuclear monitoring, recognized by citizens and that constitutes an international reference. (N.C.)

  5. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-10-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period.

  6. Safety culture in the nuclear versus non-nuclear organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.; Shurberg, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of safety culture in the safe and reliable operation of nuclear organizations is not a new concept. The greatest barriers to this area of research are twofold: (1) the definition and criteria of safety culture for a nuclear organization and (2) the measurement of those attributes in an objective and systematic fashion. This paper will discuss a proposed resolution of those barriers as demonstrated by the collection of data across nuclear and non-nuclear facilities over a two year period

  7. HTGR Dust Safety Issues and Needs for Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Humrickhouse

    2011-06-01

    This report presents a summary of high temperature gas-cooled reactor dust safety issues. It draws upon a literature review and the proceedings of the Very High Temperature Reactor Dust Assessment Meeting held in Rockville, MD in March 2011 to identify and prioritize the phenomena and issues that characterize the effect of carbonaceous dust on high temperature reactor safety. It reflects the work and input of approximately 40 participants from the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Labs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, industry, academia, and international nuclear research organizations on the topics of dust generation and characterization, transport, fission product interactions, and chemical reactions. The meeting was organized by the Idaho National Laboratory under the auspices of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project, with support from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Information gleaned from the report and related meetings will be used to enhance the fuel, graphite, and methods technical program plans that guide research and development under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project. Based on meeting discussions and presentations, major research and development needs include: generating adsorption isotherms for fission products that display an affinity for dust, investigating the formation and properties of carbonaceous crust on the inside of high temperature reactor coolant pipes, and confirming the predominant source of dust as abrasion between fuel spheres and the fuel handling system.

  8. Draft pilot report - Approaches to the resolution of safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present in a concise form how some safety matters associated with currently operating light water reactors have been addressed. The issues discussed in this report are common to member countries with currently operating LWRs (PWR, BWR, VVER) and, as such, have wide interest in the nuclear safety community. Accordingly, this report can serve as a reference for researchers, regulations and others (e.g., industry) interested in understanding the approach and status of issues. This report should also be useful for knowledge transfer by documenting what has been done or is planned regarding selected safety matters and as a source for identifying reference material containing additional detail. The issues addressed in this report should not be viewed as questioning the safety of operating reactors, which have reached very high operational safety record, but rather as areas where uncertainty in knowledge exists, where safety assessment has been based on conservative assumptions, and where regulatory decisions need, or will need to be confirmed. Thus, the development of sound technical bases through continuing research will improve the current knowledge and allow for more realistic safety assessment. The safety issues discussed in this initial version of the report are: - design basis accident spectrum; - severe accident issues; - reactor pressure vessel integrity; - hydrogen control; - containment integrity; - accident management; - station blackout; - high burnup fuel; - power up-rates; - ECCS strainer clogging; - boron dilution. For each issue, the scope of the issue is defined, its status discussed and planned work or research described, including schedule. This pilot version of the report is limited to input from nine countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Korea, Sweden and the U.S.). An overview of this information for each issue by country is provided in the table. This document does not contain a

  9. Chernobyl and the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report assesses the possible bearing of the Chernobyl accident on the safety of nuclear reactors in OECD countries. It discusses analyses of the accident performed in several countries as well as improvements to the safety of RBMK reactors announced by the USSR. Several remaining questions are identified. The report compares RBMK safety features with those of commercial reactors in OECD countries and evaluates a number of issues raised by the Chernobyl accident

  10. The Competence Promoting by NNSA for Keeping High Level Nuclear Safety: The Corner Stone of the Nuclear Safety Regulation Edifice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.

    2016-01-01

    Facing the fast development of the nuclear power industry and the application of radioactive sources, The MEP(NNSA) is endeavoured to promoting its competency, including: complementing the law system, training and recruiting staff to keep a capable team, constructing the R&D base to keep the basic capability, promoting safety culture both for the industry and the regulator. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, the MEP(NNSA) planned to construct R&D base, in which the Platform Nuclear Safety Monitoring and Emergency Responding, the Platform of Safety Technology of PWR Testing, the Laboratory of Safety Management Technology of Nuclear Waste Verification, the Laboratory of Environmental Radiation Monitoring and the Center of International Cooperation are included. On the other hand, the MEP(NNSA) issued Chinese nuclear safety culture policy declaration in 2014, and carried out a large scale Specialized Action for Nuclear Safety Promotion to promote the nuclear safety culture both for the industry and herself. For the nuclear regulator, It is essential to conduct the competence promoting by both “hardware” and “software”, the former is the material foundation of regulation authority, which will be effectively functioning under the facilitating of the latter. (author)

  11. 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009. Abstracts. Part 1. Session: Safety of nuclear technology; Innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycle; Nuclear knowledge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The book includes abstracts of the 11-th International conference Nuclear power safety and nuclear education - 2009 (29 Sep - 2 Oct, 2009, Obninsk). Problems of safety of nuclear technology are discussed, innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles are treated. Abstracts on professional education for nuclear power and industry are presented. Nuclear knowledge management are discussed

  12. International issue: the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    In this special issue a serie of short articles of informations are presented on the following topics: the EEC's medium term policy regarding the reprocessing and storage of spent fuel, France's natural uranium supply, the Pechiney Group in the nuclear field, zircaloy cladding for nuclear fuel elements, USSI: a major French nuclear engineering firm, gaseous diffusion: the only commercial enrichment process, the transport of nuclear materials in the fuel cycle, Cogema and spent fuel reprocessing, SGN: a leader in the fuel cycle, quality control of mechanical, thermal and termodynamic design in nuclear engineering, Sulzer's new pump testing station in Mantes, the new look of the Ateliers et Chantiers de Bretagne, tubes and piping in nuclear power plants, piping in pressurized water reactor. All these articles are written in English and in French [fr

  13. Progress of nuclear safety research, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been extensively conducting nuclear safety research under the national policy of promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy. In 1973, the Department of Nuclear Safety Research was organized to perform effectively the safety research for light water reactors. Later, the Nuclear Safety Research Center was established to coordinate under its supervision various research activities related to the environmental safety as well as the safety of nuclear power plants and various nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Since the TMI-2 accident, the reactor safety research at JAERI has been reoriented to understand better a broader range of reactor accidents including a severe accident. At the same time, environmental safety research has been expanded to cover a wider range of topics. The accident at Chernobyl has revealed again the importance of nuclear safety. Described here are the activities related to nuclear safety research conducted at JAERI over the past two years. Also included are the international cooperative research programs in which JAERI is vigorously participating. (author)

  14. Public perception of nuclear waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine perceptions of nuclear waste management held by the general public. First, trends in general levels of public concern over issues surrounding nuclear waste storage and disposal will be discussed for the decade of the 1970s. Second, the extent to which beliefs concerning nuclear waste issues are associated with attitudes toward the continued development of nuclear power will be analyzed. The data presented are based on two comprehensive analyses of survey research dealing with public attitudes toward nuclear power and related energy issues (Melber, B.D., Nealey, S.M., Weiss, C.S., and Rankin, W.L. Nuclear Power and the Public: Update of Collected Survey Research, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, B-HARC-411-021, 1980; Melber, B.D., Nealey, S.M., Hammersla, J., and Rankin, W.L. Nuclear Power and the Public: Analysis of Collected Survey Research, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, PNL-2430, 1977). Over 150 national, state and special group surveys were included in those research reviews. 9 references

  15. Nuclear safety research in HGF 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromm, Walter

    2012-01-01

    After the events at the Japanese nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi, the German federal government decided that Germany will give up electricity generation from nuclear power within a decade. The last reactor will be disconnected from the power grid in 2022. Helping to make this opt-out as safe as possible is one of the duties of the Helmholtz Association with its Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area. Also the demolition of nuclear power plants and the repository problem will keep society, and thus also research, busy for a number of decades to come. Giving up electricity production from nuclear power thus must not mean giving up the required nuclear technology competences. In the fields of reactor safety, demolition, final storage, radiation protection, and crisis management, in critical support of international developments, and for competent evaluation of nuclear facilities around Germany, these competences will be in demand far beyond the German opt-out. This is the reason why the final report by the Ethics Committee on 'Safe Energy Supply' emphasizes the importance of nuclear technology research. Close cooperation on national, European and international levels is indispensable in this effort. Also nuclear safety research in the Helmholtz Association is aligned with the challenges posed by the opt-out of the use of nuclear power. It is important that the high competences in the areas of plant safety and demolition, handling of radioactive waste, and safe final storage as well as radiation protection be preserved. The Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area of the Helmholtz Association therefore will continue studying scientific and technical aspects of the safety of nuclear reactors and the safety of nuclear waste management. These research activities are provident research conducted for society and must be preserved for a long period of time. The work is closely harmonized with the activities of the

  16. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  17. Nuclear safety and human competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Petre

    2001-01-01

    Competence represents a very well defined ensemble of knowledge and skills, behavior modalities, standard procedures and judgement types that can be used in a given situation, without a priori learning. It is obvious that a person competence should fulfill the needs of the company he works for. For a Nuclear Power Plant operator competence is a constitutive part of his individuality. Competence includes: 1. Knowledge that can be classified in three main items: - procedural and declarative knowledge; - practical knowledge and skills; - fundamental knowledge. 2. 'Non cognitive' knowledge components, such as 'social information', team collective competence, safety education, risks perception and management. The last item presents a special interest for nuclear safety. On the other hand, competence level defines the quality of procedures applied in different operational situations. Competence - procedures relations are presented. Competence fundament results from operator activity analysis. The analyst has to take into consideration several phases of activity in which competence is highlighted like: - genesis, during formation; - transformation, during adaptation to a technical modification; - transfer, from expert to probationer. Competence is subject to a continuous transformation process due to technical and organizational evolutions and 'operator ageing'. Cognitive ageing of operators or the technical ageing of competence often appear to be superimposed. Technical progress acceleration increases the ageing effects of competence. Knowledge - skills dynamic relations are discussed. The changing of organizational form determines appearance of new competence gained from others domains or defined by multidisciplinary studies. Ergonomics can help the changing of organizational form through analysis of operators evolution activity which will generate new competence. Ergonomics can contribute to identify means of raising competence starting from learning process

  18. Defense-in-depth for common cause failure of nuclear power plant safety system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Lu

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the development of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant, and analyses the viewpoints of NRC and other nuclear safety authorities on Software Common Cause Failure (SWCCF). In view of the SWCCF issue introduced by the digitized platform adopted in nuclear power plant safety system, this paper illustrated a diversified defence strategy for computer software and hardware. A diversified defence-in-depth solution is provided for digital safety system of nuclear power plant. Meanwhile, analysis on problems may be faced during application of nuclear safety license are analyzed, and direction of future nuclear safety I and C system development are put forward. (author)

  19. Safety of research reactors. Topical issues paper no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.; Ferraz-Bastos, J.L.; Kim, S.C.; Voth, M.; Boeck, H.; Dimeglio, F.; Litai, D.

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) missions. The prime objective of these missions has been to conduct a comprehensive operational safety review of the research reactor facility and to verify compliance with the IAEA Safety Standards. The methods used during an INSARR mission have been collected and analysed. Some of the important issues identified are the following: general ageing of the facility; uncertain status of many research reactors (in extended shutdown); indefinite deferral of return to operation or decommissioning; inadequate regulatory supervision; insufficient systematic (periodic) reassessment of safety; lack of quality assurance (QA) programmes; lack of an international safety convention or arrangement; lack of financial support for safety measures (e.g. safety reassessment, safety upgrading, decommissioning) and utilization; lack of clear utilization programmes; inadequate emergency preparedness; inadequate safety documentation (e.g. safety analysis report, operating rules and procedures, emergency plan); inadequate funding of shutdown reactors; weak safety culture; loss of expertise and corporate memory; loss of information concerning radioactive materials contained in retired experimental devices stored in the facility indefinitely; obsolescence of equipment and lack of spare parts; inadequate training and qualifications of regulators and operators; safety implications of new fuel types. These issues have been addressed by the IAEA Secretariat and the chairman of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG). INSAG has identified three major safety issues that are: the increasing age of research reactors, the number of research reactors that are not operating anymore but have not been decommissioned, and the number of research reactors in countries that do not have appropriate regulatory authorities. This issue paper discusses the concerns generated by an analysis of the results of INSARR missions and those expressed by INSAG. The

  20. Development of a nuclear ship safety philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    A unique safety philosophy must be recognized and accepted as an integral part of the design and operation of a nuclear ship. For the nuclear powered ship, the ultimate safety of the reactor and therefore the crew and the environment lies with the safety of the ship itself. The basis for ship safety is its ability to navigate and survive the conditions or the environment in which it may find itself. The subject of traditional ship safety is examined along with its implication for reactor protection and safety. Concepts of reactor safety are also examined. These two philosophies are combined in a manner so as to provide a sound philosophy for the safety of nuclear ships, their crews, and the environment

  1. Safety culture in nuclear installations. Management of safety and safety culture in Indian NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Corporation Of India Ltd. (NPCIL) is a company owned by Government of India and is responsible for Design, Construction, Commissioning, Operation and Decommissioning of Nuclear Power plants in India. Presently, a total of 13 Nuclear power Stations are in operation with an installed capacity of 2620 MWe and 2 VVR type PWR Units of 1000 MWe capacity each, 2 PHWR type units of 500 MWe capacity each and 4 PHWR type 220 MWe capacity each are under construction. NPPs generation capacity has been increased from 70% to 85% in the span Of last 7 years with high level of safety standards. This could be achieved through Management commitment towards building a strong Safety Culture. Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organisation and individuals which establishes that as an overriding priority nuclear plant safety issues receives the attention warranted by their significance. This definition of safety culture brings out two major components in its manifestation. The framework within which individuals within the organisation works.The attitude and response of individual towards the safety issues over productivity and economics in the organisational work practices. The two attributes of safety culture are built in and upgraded in each individuals through special training at the time of entry in the organisation and later through in built procedures in the work practices, motivation and encouragement for free participation of each individuals. Individuals are encouraged to participate in Quality circle teams at the sectional level and review of safety proposal originated by individuals in Station operation Review Committee at Station level, in addition to this to continuously enhance the safety culture, refresher training courses are being organised at regular intervals. The safety related proposals are categorised in to two namely: Proposals from Operating Plants, and Proposals from projects and Design. The concept of safety

  2. Regulatory Safety Requirements for Operating Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubela, W.

    2017-01-01

    The National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) is established in terms of the National Nuclear Regulator Act (Act No 47 of 1999) and its mandate and authority are conferred through sections 5 and 7 of this Act, setting out the NNR's objectives and functions, which include exercising regulatory control over siting, design, construction etc of nuclear installations through the granting of nuclear authorisations. The NNR's responsibilities embrace all those actions aimed at providing the public with confidence and assurance that the risks arising from the production of nuclear energy remain within acceptable safety limits -> Therefore: Set fundamental safety standards, conducting pro-active safety assessments, determining licence conditions and obtaining assurance of compliance. The promotional aspects of nuclear activities in South Africa are legislated by the Nuclear Energy Act (Act No 46 of 1999). The NNR approach to regulations of nuclear safety and security take into consideration, amongst others, the potential hazards associated with the facility or activity, safety related programmes, the importance of the authorisation holder's safety related processes as well as the need to exercise regulatory control over the technical aspects such as of the design and operation of a nuclear facility in ensuring nuclear safety and security. South Africa does not have national nuclear industry codes and standards. The NNR is therefore non-prescriptive as it comes to the use of industry codes and standards. Regulatory framework (current) provide for the protection of persons, property, and environment against nuclear damage, through Licensing Process: Safety standards; Safety assessment; Authorisation and conditions of authorisation; Public participation process; Compliance assurance; Enforcement

  3. Problems of nuclear reactor safety. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shal'nov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the 9. Topical Meeting 'Problems of nuclear reactor safety' are presented. Papers include results of studies and developments associated with methods of calculation and complex computerized simulation for stationary and transient processes in nuclear power plants. Main problems of reactor safety are discussed as well as rector accidents on operating NPP's are analyzed

  4. The politics of nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses political aspects of decision making about the safety of nuclear power plants especially in Eastern Europe and in connection with the enlargement of the European Union. The problem of the Kozloduy NPP safety is also discussed. Recommendations on the policy and tasks for nuclear regulators are given

  5. Increase nuclear safety of WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.; Sabinov, S.

    2000-01-01

    A complete program for increasing nuclear safety has been made at NPP Kozloduy with the participation of German, French, Russian and American specialists. This effort cost greater than 100 mil $. This report includes the methods of increasing nuclear safety. The style of management in NPP Kozloduy has been changed for the last seven years. (authors)

  6. Institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, R.T.; Luna, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The institutional issues affecting transportation of nuclear materials in the United States represent significant barriers to meeting future needs in the transport of radioactive waste materials to their ultimate repository. While technological problems which must be overcome to perform such movements seem to be within the state-of-the-art, the timely resolution of these institutional issues seems less assured. However, the definition of these issues, as attempted in this paper, together with systematic analysis of cause and possible solutions are the essential elements of the Transportation Technology Center's Institutional Issues Program

  7. Report of the international workshop on safety measures to address the year 2000 issue at radioactive waste management and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. (Supplement to IAEA-TECDOC-1073 and IAEA-TECDOC-1087)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    In resolution GC(42)/RES/11 on 'Measures to address the Year 2000 (Y2K) issue', adopted on 25 September 1998, the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) - inter alia - urged Member States 'to share information with the Secretariat regarding diagnostic and corrective actions being planned or implemented by operating and regulatory organizations at ... fuel cycle facilities ... to make those facilities Year 2000 ready', encouraged the Secretariat, 'within existing resources, to act as a clearinghouse and central point of contact for Member States to exchange information regarding diagnostic and remediation actions being taken at ... fuel cycle facilities ... to make these facilities Year 2000 ready', urged the Secretariat 'to handle the information provided by Member States carefully' and requested the Director General to report to it at its next (1999) regular session on the implementation of that resolution. In response to resolution GC(42)/RES/11, the Secretariat convened: a group of consultants who met in Vienna from 20 to 22 January 1999 and produced a technical document (IAEA-TECDOC-1073) entitled Safety Measures to Address the Year 2000 Issue at Radioactive Waste Management Facilities; and a specialists meeting in Vienna from 24 to 26 March 1999, which produced a technical document (IAEA-TECDOC-1087) entitled Potential Vulnerabilities of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities to the Year 2000 (Y2K) Issue and Measures to Address Them. To foster information exchange and share existing experience the IAEA held an International Workshop on Safety Measures to Address the Year 2000 Issue at Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities in Vienna on 1-2 July 1999. Whereas the focus of TECDOC-1073 and TECDOC-1087 had been on identifying relevant safety issues in relation to Y2K computer problems and on proposing methods to address them, the focus of the International Workshop was on sharing experience, setting priorities

  8. A nuclear safety in 21 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper some topics of nuclear safety are discussed, namely current situation in the world energetics and a potential of nuclear energy for sustainable development of the world, Nuclear Safety Standards and modern trends in Safety Regulation, Radiation Protection Standards are rather conservative, are based on disputable approaches and have to be more pragmatic, necessity to overcome the syndromes of awful consequences of nuclear accidents at nuclear plants, residual risks of nuclear accidents have to be covered by clear compulsory insurance actions. It is shown, that now it is worthwhile to consider efficiency of existing methods of nuclear safety regulation. It is possible, that an idea of guaranteed safety [1] could become a new approach to nuclear safety. It is based on practically total elimination of severe accidents and insurance of residual risks of nuclear accidents. The realization of such idea necessitates the consideration of all spectrum of initiating events, human errors and man-made actions, more realistically predicting consequences of accidents and the probable economical detriments. It will be a benefit for gaining public support to nuclear power. (author)

  9. Managing for safety and safety culture within the UK nuclear industry. A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrer, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of the legal system for the regulation of health and safety at work within the United Kingdom (UK), and in particular, the regulation of the nuclear industry. The framework, formulated by the regulator, which has been published as a practical guide for directors, managers, health and safety professionals and employee representatives for the successful management of health and safety is explained. This guidance, however, concentrates, to a large extent, on management systems and only addresses in part the types of issues, such as behaviours, values, attitudes and beliefs which contribute to the safety culture of an organization. The regulator of the UK nuclear industry has considered research, and other work, carried out by several organizations in this area, notably the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and produced its own framework for managing for safety at nuclear installations. As a regulator, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and its inspectorate responsible for regulation of the nuclear industry, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (HMNII), are not the appropriate organization to assess the safety culture of an organization, but positively encourage organizations to both carry out this assessment themselves and to monitor their performance. To this end, HSE has developed, and made available, the Health and Safety Climate Tool which is aimed at providing organizations with information which can be used as part of a continuous improvement process. (author)

  10. Enhancing Safety Culture in Complex Nuclear Industry Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotcheva, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going research project “Management principles and safety culture in complex projects” (MAPS), supported by the Finnish Research Programme on Nuclear Power Plant Safety 2015-2018. The project aims at enhancing safety culture and nuclear safety by supporting high quality execution of complex projects in the nuclear industry. Safety-critical industries are facing new challenges, related to increased outsourcing and complexity in technology, work tasks and organizational structures (Milch and Laumann, 2016). In the nuclear industry, new build projects, as well as modernisation projects are temporary undertakings often carried out by networks of companies. Some companies may have little experience in the nuclear industry practices or consideration of specific national regulatory requirements. In large multinational subcontractor networks, the challenge for assuring nuclear safety arises partly from the need to ensure that safety and quality requirements are adequately understood and fulfilled by each partner. Deficient project management practices and unsatisfactory nuclear safety culture in project networks have been recognised as contributing factors to these challenges (INPO, 2010). Prior evidence indicated that many recent major projects have experienced schedule, quality and financial challenges both in the nuclear industry (STUK, 2011) and in the non-nuclear domain (Ahola et al., 2014; Brady and Davies, 2010). Since project delays and quality issues have been perceived mainly as economic problems, project management issues remain largely understudied in safety research. However, safety cannot be separated from other performance aspects if a systemic view is applied. Schedule and quality challenges may reflect deficiencies in coordination, knowledge and competence, distribution of roles and responsibilities or attitudes among the project participants. It is increasingly understood that the performance of the project network in all

  11. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1992-11-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: (1) be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; (2) be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; (3) be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; (4) be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used at Los Alamos; (5) be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; (6) have participated in conducting two critical experiments

  12. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  13. Progress of nuclear safety research, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroei; Nozawa, Masao

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in 1956 in conformity with the national policy to extensively conduct the research associated with nuclear energy. Since then, the research on nuclear energy safety has been conducted. In 1978, the Division of Reactor Safety was organized to conduct the large research programs with large scale test facilities. Thereafter, the Divisions of Reactor Safety Evaluation, Environmental Safety Research and Reactor Fuel Examination were organized successively in the Reactor Safety Research Center. The subjects of research have ranged from the safety of nuclear reactors to that in the recycling of nuclear fuel. In this pamphlet, the activities in JAERI associated with the safety research are reported, which have been carried out in the past two years. Also, the international cooperation research program in which JAERI participated is included. This pamphlet consists of two parts, and in this Part 1, the reactor safety research is described. The safety of nuclear fuel, the integrity and safety of pressure boundary components, the engineered safety in LOCA, fuel behavior in accident and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Collection of guides for safety examination by Nuclear Safety Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The examination on the safety for the application of permission to install nuclear facilities or to change the installation in the Nuclear Safety Commission is carried out on the basis of various guides instituted by the Nuclear Safety Commission or the old Atomic Energy Commission. Especially as for the problems common to various nuclear reactors, the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Reactor Safety performs the examination by determining the rules for them. These guides and others have been published in the monthly report of the Nuclear Safety Commission and others, but for the sake of convenient use, this collection of guides has been published. As for the guides, the letter of decision by the commission, the text of the guides and the explanation or the criteria for judgement are described, and in the case of rules, similar description is made. In this collection of guides, 20 guides and 11 rules are included. These are related to the location of nuclear power stations, the safety examination of nuclear power stations, radiation control, fire protection, and the performance of reactor systems. (Kako, I.)

  15. Knowledge management and networking for enhancing nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, T.; Lederman, L.

    2004-01-01

    receives feedback so that training services and material are improved and kept current. This approach adds a new dimension to transferring knowledge as compared with conventional training methods. Recognizing that nuclear safety and security are truly global and transboundary issues, the IAEA has put forward the vision of a global nuclear safety and security regime that provides for the protection of people and the environment from effects of ionizing radiation, the minimization of the likelihood of accidents that could endanger life and property, and effective mitigation of the effects of any such events. The IAEA will pursue knowledge management and networking as fundamental elements for achieving this vision. (author)

  16. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  17. The French Nuclear Safety Authority - ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority) was created by the act of 13 June 2006 concerning the transparency and safety of nuclear activities. The ASN is an independent administrative body that is in charge of controlling nuclear activities in France. The ASN has a workforce of 471 people and a budget of about 76 millions euros. This article details its missions and how it is organized to cover all the French territory. (A.C.)

  18. The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloso, Ph.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the statutes, the organization and the missions of the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) whose scope includes radiation protection since 2002. Globally ASN is in charge of: -) participating to the making of laws and regulations, -) delivering administrative authorizations, -) controlling the conformity of nuclear installations and activities with the laws and regulations, -) informing the public, and -) reporting on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection each year. (A.C.)

  19. Safety issues and updates under MR environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Kyung Ah, E-mail: bellenina@daum.net

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Unexpected biological effects can occur within stronger magnetic fields. • MR safety for MR conditional items is not guaranteed beyond the tested conditions. • Updated knowledge about MR-related safety is important for a safe MR environment. - Abstract: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a useful imaging tool with superior soft tissue contrast for diagnostic evaluation. The MR environments poses unique risks to patients and employees differently from ionizing radiation exposure originated from computed tomography and plain x-ray films. The technology associated with MR system has evolved continuously since its introduction in the late 1970s. MR systems have advanced with static magnetic fields, faster and stronger gradient magnetic fields and more powerful radiofrequency transmission coils. Higher field strengths of MR offers greater signal to noise capability and better spatial resolution, resulting in better visualization of anatomic detail, with a reduction in scan time. With the rapid evolution of technology associated with MR, we encounter new MR-related circumstances and unexpected dangerous conditions. A comprehensive update of our knowledge about MR safety is necessary to prevent MR-related accidents and to ensure safety for patients and staff associated with MR. This review presents an overview about MR-related safety issues and updates.

  20. Safety issues for superconducting fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Reich, M.; Powell, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Safety issues for future superconducting fusion magnet systems are examined. It is found that safety and failure experience with existing superconducting magnets is not very applicable to predictions as to the safety and reliability of fusion magnets. Such predictions will have to depend on analysis and judgement for many years to come, rather than on accumulated experience. A number of generic potential structural, thermal-hydraulic, and electrical safety problems are identified and analyzed. Prevention of quenches and non-uniform temperature distributions, if quenches should occur, is of great importance, since such events can trigger processes which lead to magnet damage or failure. Engineered safety features will be necessary for fusion magnets. Two of these, an energy dispersion system and external coil containment, appear capable of reducing the probability of coil disruption to very low levels. However, they do not prevent loss of function accidents which are of economic concern. Elaborate detector, temperature equalization, and energy removal systems will be required to minimize the chances of loss of function accidents

  1. Safety targets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herttrich, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    By taking as an example the safety targets of the American nuclear energy authority US-NRC, this paper explains what is meant by global, quantitative safety targets for nuclear power plants and what expectations are associated with the selecton of such safety targets. It is shown how probabilistic methods can be an appropriate completion of proven deterministic methods and what are the sectors where their application may become important in future. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Proceedings of the Digital Systems Reliability and Nuclear Safety Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, D. R.; Cuthill, B. B.; Ippolito, L. M. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Beltracchi, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States) ed.

    1994-03-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), in cooperation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology conducted the.Digital Systems Reliability and Nuclear Safety Workshop on September 13--14, 1993, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop provided a forum for the exchange of information among experts within the nuclear industry, experts from other industries, regulators and academia. The information presented at this workshop provided in-depth exposure of the NRC staff and the nuclear industry to digital systems design safety issues and also provided feedback to the NRC from outside experts regarding identified safety issues, proposed regulatory positions, and intended research associated with the use of digital systems in nuclear power plants. Technical presentations provided insights on areas where current software engineering practices may be inadequate for safety-critical systems, on potential solutions for development issues, and on methods for reducing risk in safety-critical systems. This report contains an analysis of results of the workshop, the papers presented panel presentations, and summaries of, discussions at this workshop. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Nuclear power as a feminist issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelkin, D.

    1981-01-01

    Women consistently show more opposition to nuclear power than men in public opinion polls, and they participate more in antinuclear organizations. Their concerns range from the health effects of radiation on women and on future generations to ideological and political matters. The diversity of their concern is reflected in the wide spectrum of women's organizations opposing nuclear power and how their positions are translated into political action. Women's publications and organizations which represent a national constituency have increased women's participation as informed educators and intervenors in hearings to raise health and safety questions, while the feminists groups use a shock approach in their moral crusade to establish a separate women's culture. The feminists have had an impact on the nuclear industry, which responded by promoting pro-nuclear women to public relations positions. (DCK)

  4. Nuclear power development, safety and environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasak, F.; Kadlec, J.

    1977-09-01

    The current state is described of power production by conventional power plants and the problems of burning fossil fuels are discussed. A survey is presented of the development of world nuclear power production and of the planned construction of nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia. The questions of the safety of nuclear installations and their environmental impacts in normal operation and in case of accident are outlined. In the analysis of these aspects of nuclear power production the probability data on the potential hazards of operating nuclear reactors as published in the Rasmussen Safety Report are discussed. (O.K.)

  5. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  6. A prioritization of generic safety issues. Supplement 21, Revision insertion instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1996-12-31

    The report presents the safety priority ranking for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP, and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolution of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative.

  7. A prioritization of generic safety issues. Supplement 21, Revision insertion instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The report presents the safety priority ranking for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP, and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolution of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative.

  8. Some power uprate issues in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Issues and themes concerned with nuclear power plant uprating are examined. Attention is brought to the fact that many candidate nuclear power plants for uprating have anyway been operated below their rated power for a significant part of their operating life. The key issues remain safety and reliability in operation at all times, irrespective of the nuclear power plant's chronological or design age or power rating. The effects of power uprates are discussed in terms of material aspects and expected demands on the systems, structures and components. The impact on operation and maintenance methods is indicated in terms of changes to the ageing surveillance programmes. Attention is brought to the necessity checking or revising operator actions after power up-rating has been implemented

  9. Safety and Regulatory Issues of the Thorium Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ade, Brian [ORNL; Worrall, Andrew [ORNL; Powers, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bowman, Steve [ORNL; Flanagan, George [ORNL; Gehin, Jess [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Thorium has been widely considered an alternative to uranium fuel because of its relatively large natural abundance and its ability to breed fissile fuel (233U) from natural thorium (232Th). Possible scenarios for using thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle include use in different nuclear reactor types (light water, high temperature gas cooled, fast spectrum sodium, molten salt, etc.), advanced accelerator-driven systems, or even fission-fusion hybrid systems. The most likely near-term application of thorium in the United States is in currently operating light water reactors (LWRs). This use is primarily based on concepts that mix thorium with uranium (UO2 + ThO2), add fertile thorium (ThO2) fuel pins to LWR fuel assemblies, or use mixed plutonium and thorium (PuO2 + ThO2) fuel assemblies. The addition of thorium to currently operating LWRs would result in a number of different phenomenological impacts on the nuclear fuel. Thorium and its irradiation products have nuclear characteristics that are different from those of uranium. In addition, ThO2, alone or mixed with UO2 fuel, leads to different chemical and physical properties of the fuel. These aspects are key to reactor safety-related issues. The primary objectives of this report are to summarize historical, current, and proposed uses of thorium in nuclear reactors; provide some important properties of thorium fuel; perform qualitative and quantitative evaluations of both in-reactor and out-of-reactor safety issues and requirements specific to a thorium-based fuel cycle for current LWR reactor designs; and identify key knowledge gaps and technical issues that need to be addressed for the licensing of thorium LWR fuel in the United States.

  10. Risk-communication issues in radiation safety: еvaluation of public awareness in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad region on the activities of the nuclear industry and public understanding of the hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Arkhangelskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, St. Petersburg Research Institute of Radiation Hygiene named after Professor P.V. Ramzaev developed a Program for the radiation risk communication management for the adequate perception risks associated with the use of various technologies in the nuclear industry by the public. Carrying out sociological research is one of the stages of this program. The aim of the analysis presented in the article is to study the population’s awareness of radiation safety issues and its attitude to further development of the nuclear industry. The data used in this analysis is a part of a large sociological survey conducted in St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region The sociological research was conducted by the method of a selective questionnaire survey among the adult population permanently residing in the territory of St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. The volume of the sample studied was 2369 respondents: 1006 in St. Petersburg and 1363 in the Leningrad Region, including Sosnovy Bor – 401. The analysis showed that the population of all the studied territories estimates the environmental situation as being mainly favorable. The residents consider the main environmental problems in all areas studied to be a collection, removal, storage, disposal of garbage, as well as air and water pollution. The population of the region is relatively poorly informed about the current projects in the nuclear industry. One-third of the inhabitants of the region perceives the Leningrad nuclear power plant as a source of danger. Respondents see the main danger in the possibility of an accident on it. There is a sharply negative attitude of the population towards the construction of radioactive waste disposal sites anywhere in the region. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that the population of the studied region is poorly informed about the existing radiation situation and the nuclear industry projects. It requires an optimization of the

  11. Software important to safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report provides guidance on current practices, documenting their strengths and weaknesses for dealing with the important issues of software engineering that nuclear power plant system designers, software producers and regulators are facing. The focus of the report is on safety critical applications of general purpose processors controlled by custom developed software; however, it should also have application in safety related applications and for other types of computers. In addition to system designers, software producers and regulators, the intended readership of this report includes users of software based systems, who should be aware of the relevant issues in specifying and obtaining software for systems important to safety. Refs, 1 fig., tabs

  12. Nuclear energy and nuclear safety in Slovenia in view of the accession to the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    2001-01-01

    The recent status in the preparation of the position of Slovenia in negotiations in to the EU in the field of nuclear energy, nuclear safety and radiation protection shows that Slovenia has still some tasks to be done, but there are no pending issues which might hinder the accession process. The effective communication has been established between EC and Slovenia. There are no issues which would need further clarification or even a transition period.(author)

  13. Redefining interrelationship between nuclear safety, nuclear security and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, the so-called 3Ss (Nuclear Safety, Nuclear Security and Safeguards) have become major regulatory areas for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The importance of the 3Ss is now emphasized to countries which are newly introducing nuclear power generation. However, as role models for those newcomers, existing nuclear power countries are also required to strengthen their regulatory infrastructure for the 3Ss. In order to rationalize the allocation of regulatory resources, interrelationship of the 3Ss should be investigated. From the viewpoint of the number of the parties concerned in regulation, nuclear security is peculiar with having 'aggressors' as the third party. From the viewpoint of final goal of regulation, nuclear security in general and safeguards share the goal of preventing non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy, though the goal of anti-sabotage within nuclear security is rather similar to nuclear safety. As often recognized, safeguards are representative of various policy tools for nuclear non-proliferation. Strictly speaking, it is not safeguards as a policy tool but nuclear non-proliferation as a policy purpose that should be parallel to other policy purposes (nuclear safety and nuclear security). That suggests 'SSN' which stands for Safety, Security and Non-proliferation is a better abbreviation rather than 3Ss. Safeguards as a policy tool should be enumerated along with nuclear safety regulation, nuclear security measures and trade controls on nuclear-related items. Trade controls have been playing an important role for nuclear non-proliferation. These policy tools can be called 'SSST' in which Trade controls are also emphasized along with Safety regulation, Security measures and Safeguards. Recently, it becomes quite difficult to clearly demarcate these policy tools. As nuclear security concept is expanding, the denotation of nuclear security measures is also expanding. Nuclear security measures are more and more

  14. NSPWG-recommended safety requirements and guidelines for SEI nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.C.; Lee, J.H.; McCulloch, W.H.; Sawyer, J.C. Jr.; Bari, R.A.; Brown, N.W.; Cullingford, H.S.; Hardy, A.C.; Remp, K.; Sholtis, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    An Interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top- level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety requirements were developed for reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, and safeguards. Guidelines were recommended for risk/reliability, operational safety, flight trajectory and mission abort, space debris and meteoroids, and ground test safety. In this paper the specific requirements and guidelines will be discussed

  15. Current safety issues related to research reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala-Ruiz, F.

    2000-01-01

    The Agency has included activities on research reactor safety in its Programme and Budget (P and B) since its inception in 1957. Since then, these activities have traditionally been oriented to fulfil the Agency's functions and obligations. At the end of the decade of the eighties, the Agency's Research Reactor Safety Programme (RRSP) consisted of a limited number of tasks related to the preparation of safety related publications and the conduct of safety missions to research reactor facilities. It was at the beginning of the nineties when the RRSP was upgraded and expanded as a subprogramme of the Agency's P and B. This subprogramme continued including activities related to the above subjects and started addressing an increasing number of issues related to the current situation of research reactors (in operation and shut down) around the world such as reactor ageing, modifications and decommissioning. The present paper discusses some of the above issues as recognised by various external review or advisory groups (e.g., Peer Review Groups under the Agency's Performance Programme Appraisal System (PPAS) or the standing International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG)) and the impact of their recommendations on the preparation and implementation of the part of the Agency's P and B relating to the above subject. (author)

  16. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, January--March 1994: Volume 35, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1994-01-01

    This is a journal that covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, and nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  17. Nuclear Safety. Technical progress journal, April--June 1996: Volume 37, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, M D [ed.

    1996-01-01

    This journal covers significant issues in the field of nuclear safety. Its primary scope is safety in the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power reactors worldwide and the research and analysis activities that promote this goal, but it also encompasses the safety aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing and handling, nuclear waste disposal, the handling of fissionable materials and radioisotopes, and the environmental effects of all these activities.

  18. Safety culture in the maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Safety culture is the complexity of beliefs, shared values and behaviour reflected in making decisions and performing work in a nuclear power plant or nuclear facility. The definition of safety culture and the related concepts presented in the IAEA literature are widely known to experts. Since the publication of Safety Culture, issued by the IAEA as INSAG-4 in 1991, the IAEA has produced a number of publications on strengthening the safety culture in organizations that operate nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities. However, until now the focus has been primarily on the area of operations. Apart from operations, maintenance in plants and nuclear facilities is an aspect that deserves special attention, as maintenance activities can have both a direct and an indirect effect on equipment reliability. Adverse safety effects can arise, depending upon the level of skill of the personnel involved, safety awareness and the complexity of the work process. Any delayed effects resulting from challenges to maintenance can cause interruptions in operation, and hence affect the safety of a plant or facility. Building upon earlier IAEA publications on this topic, this Safety Report reviews how challenges to the maintenance of nuclear power plants can affect safety culture. It also highlights indications of a weakening safety culture. The challenges described are in areas such as maintenance management; human resources management; plant condition assessment and the business environment. The steps that some Member States have taken to address safety culture aspects are detailed and singled out as good practices, with a view to disseminating and exchanging experiences and lessons learned. Although this report is primarily directed at plant maintenance organizations, the subject matter is applicable to a wider audience, including plant contracting organizations and regulatory authorities

  19. Public perception on nuclear safety and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays the benefits and advantages of the nuclear application are varied and so many, that it is difficult to imagine the development of medicine, industry and agriculture without using ionizing radiation. The communication of nuclear issues to the public is receiving more and more attention of the regulatory authorities. First, because it is a very interesting topic that the public wishes to learn more. Second, for safety reasons: the public needs to know the benefits and risks of nuclear energy and when and how they should protect themselves from the radiation. In all cases, the communication should be constant and not only during crisis, such as suspicion of or during accidents with radioactive material. The public worries and their questions should be clarified quickly. An information network should be used in order to communicate the benefits and uses of radiation to as many people as possible. Not only the media such as television and the press should be used, but all radiation professionals who have contacts with the public, such as radiologists, radiotherapists, physicists and teacher

  20. Nuclear safety training program (NSTP) for dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Mulier, Guido

    2014-01-01

    European Control Services (GDF Suez) has developed and is still developing specific training programs for the dismantling and decontamination of nuclear installations. The main topic in these programs is nuclear safety culture. We therefore do not focus on technical training but on developing the right human behavior to work in a 'safety culture' environment. The vision and techniques behind these programs have already been tested in different environments: for example the dismantling of the BN MOX Plant in Dessel (Belgium), Nuclear Safety Culture Training for Electrabel NPP Doel..., but also in the non-nuclear industry. The expertise to do so was found in combining the know-how of the Training and the Nuclear Department of ECS. In training, ECS is one of the main providers of education in risky tasks, like elevation and manipulation of charges, working in confined spaces... but it does also develop training on demand to improve safety in a certain topic. Radiation Protection is the core business in the Nuclear Department with a presence on most of the nuclear sites in Belgium. Combining these two domains in a nuclear safety training program, NSTP, is an important stage in a dismantling project due to specific contamination, technical and other risks. It increases the level of safety and leads to a harmonization of different working cultures. The modular training program makes it possible to evaluate constantly as well as in group or individually. (authors)

  1. Nuclear safety in light water reactors severe accident phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2011-01-01

    This vital reference is the only one-stop resource on how to assess, prevent, and manage severe nuclear accidents in the light water reactors (LWRs) that pose the most risk to the public. LWRs are the predominant nuclear reactor in use around the world today, and they will continue to be the most frequently utilized in the near future. Therefore, accurate determination of the safety issues associated with such reactors is central to a consideration of the risks and benefits of nuclear power. This book emphasizes the prevention and management of severe accidents to teach nuclear professionals

  2. International conference on the operational safety performance in nuclear installations. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety'. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) risk- informed decision-making; (2) influence of external factors on safety; (3) safety of fuel cycle facilities; (4) safety of research reactors; and (5) safety performance indicators. Senior nuclear safety decision makers reviewed the issues and formulated recommendations for future actions by national and international organizations. In 2004, the IAEA organized an 'International Conference on Topical Issues in Nuclear Safety' in Beijing China. The issues discussed during the conference were: (1) changing environment - coping with diversity and globalization; (2) operating experience - managing changes effectively; (3) regulatory management systems - adapting to changes in the environment; and (4) long term operations - maintaining safety margins while extending plant lifetimes. The results of this conference confirmed the importance of operators and regulators of nuclear facilities meeting periodically to share experience and opinion on emerging issues and future challenges of the nuclear industry. Substantial progress has been made, and continues to be made by Member States in enhancing the safety of nuclear installations worldwide. At the same time, more attention is being given to other areas of nuclear safety. The safety standards for research reactors are being updated and new standards are planned on the safety of other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Agency has taken a lead role in this effort and is receiving much support from its Member States to gain international consensus in these areas. The objective of the conference is to foster the exchange of information on operational safety performance and operating experience in nuclear installations, with the aim of consolidating an international consensus on: - the present status of these issues; - emerging issues with international implications

  3. FERC perspectives on nuclear fuel accounting issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDanal, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the presentation is to discuss the treatment of nuclear fuel and problems that have evolved in industry practices in accounting for fuel. For some time, revisions to the Uniform System of Accounts have been considered with regard to the nuclear fuel accounts. A number of controversial issues have been encountered on audits, including treatment of nuclear fuel enrichment charges, costs associated with delays in enrichment services, the treatment and recognition of fuel inventories in excess of current or projected needs, and investments in and advances to mining and milling companies for future deliveries of nuclear fuel materials. In an effort to remedy the problems and to adapt the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's accounting to more easily provide for or point out classifications for each problem area, staff is reevaluating the need for contemplated amendments to the Uniform System of Accounts

  4. Assessment of safety culture in the Iranian nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, H.F.; Davilu, H.; Sepanloo, K.

    2005-01-01

    The deficient safety culture (S.C) is the center of safety issues of nuclear industry. To benefit from the advantages of nuclear technology and considering the fact of potential hazards of accidents in nuclear installations it is essential to view safety as the highest priority. S.C is an amalgamation of values, standards, morals and norms of acceptable behavior. Organizations having effective S.C show constant commitment to safety as a top level priority. Furthermore, the personnel of a nuclear facility shall recognize the safety significance of their tasks. Many people even those who work in the field of safety do not have a correct understanding of what S.C looks like in practical sense. In this study, by conducting a survey according to IAEA-TECDOC-1329 in some nuclear facilities, the S.C within the Iranian nuclear facilities is assessed. The human and organizational factors in Tehran Research Reactor are evaluated using a questionnaire method with active participation of the reactor operators. The results sho w that the operators are pretty aware of the subject. Also it has been identified some areas of improvement. (authors)

  5. Contrast media. Safety issues and ESUR guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In 1994 the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) set up a committee to consider the safety of the contrast media used in radiology departments. Since then, the committee has questioned members, reviewed the literature, proposed guidelines, and discussed these proposals with participants at the annual symposia on urogenital radiology. This book represents the end result of this hard work. It contains all of the agreed guidelines, updated when necessary, and thereby comprehensively covers the many different safety issues relating to the diverse contrast media: barium contrast media, iodinated contrast media, MR contrast media (both gadolinium-based extracellular and organ-specific) and ultrasound contrast media. The prevention and treatment of both acute and delayed non-renal adverse reactions as well as the renal adverse reactions are covered in detail. The inclusion of all the ESUR guidelines within one book will offer an invaluable, unique and unparalleled resource. (orig.)

  6. The role of probabilistic safety assessment and probabilistic safety criteria in nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Report is to provide guidelines on the role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and a range of associated reference points, collectively referred to as probabilistic safety criteria (PSC), in nuclear safety. The application of this Safety Report and the supporting Safety Practice publication should help to ensure that PSA methodology is used appropriately to assess and enhance the safety of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are intended for use by nuclear power plant designers, operators and regulators. While these guidelines have been prepared with nuclear power plants in mind, the principles involved have wide application to other nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. In Section 2 of this Safety Report guidelines are established on the role PSA can play as part of an overall safety assurance programme. Section 3 summarizes guidelines for the conduct of PSAs, and in Section 4 a PSC framework is recommended and guidance is provided for the establishment of PSC values

  7. The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: OECD/NEA Nuclear Safety Response and Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Following the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, all NEA member countries took early action to ensure and confirm the continued safety of their nuclear power plants and the protection of the public. After these preliminary safety reviews, all countries with nuclear facilities carried out comprehensive safety reviews, often referred to as 'stress tests', which reassessed safety margins of nuclear facilities with a primary focus on challenges related to conditions experienced at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, for example extreme external events and the loss of safety functions, or capabilities to cope with severe accidents. As appropriate, improvements are being made to safety and emergency response systems to ensure that nuclear power plants are capable of withstanding events that lead to loss of electrical power and/or cooling capability. In the weeks following the accident, the NEA immediately began establishing expert groups in the nuclear safety and radiological protection areas, as well as contributing to information exchange with the Japanese authorities and other international organisations. It promptly provided a forum for high-level decision makers and regulators within the G8-G20 frameworks. The NEA actions taken at the international level in response to the accident have been carried out primarily by the three NEA standing technical committees concerned with nuclear and radiation safety issues - the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) - under the leadership of the CNRA. More than two years following the accident, the NEA continues to assist the Japanese authorities in dealing with their nuclear safety and recovery efforts as well as to facilitate international co-operation on nuclear safety and radiological protection matters. It is strongly supporting the establishment of

  8. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  9. The safety of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle covers the procurement and preparation of fuel for nuclear power reactors, its recovery and recycling after use and the safe storage of all wastes generated through these operations. The facilities associated with these activities have an extensive and well documented safety record accumulated over the past 40 years by technical experts and safety authorities. This report constitutes an up-to-date analysis of the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle, based on the available experience in OECD countries. It addresses the technical aspects of fuel cycle operations, provides information on operating practices and looks ahead to future activities

  10. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oughton, Deborah [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry and Biotechnology

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal.

  11. Ethical Issues in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear experts claim that the health risks from radioactive waste disposal are low compared to other environmental hazards, yet the general public is sceptical of the industry's ability to guarantee acceptable safety standards. Many allude to what might be deemed morally relevant factors, such as potential harms to future generations, possibly catastrophic consequences and environmental effects. Industry has often tended to respond with a claim that the public has an irrational perception of radiation risks, particularly those from man-made rather than natural sources. From a philosophical point of view it is interesting to consider exactly how nuclear risks might differ from other hazards, not least to evaluate which ethically relevant factors could be used to defend the stringent demands made by society for nuclear waste disposal

  12. White paper on nuclear safety in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    When the development and utilization of atomic energy are advanced, the ensuring of safety is an indispensable prerequisite. Therefore in Japan, the various measures for ensuring safety, such as strict safety examination, the perfection of the guidelines and standards used for the safety examination, the public hearings to hear the opinion of local inhabitants and the reflection of the learnings from accidents and failures to the safety countermeasures, have been positively carried out. The nuclear power generation in Japan has faced a number of problems during its 20 year history concerning the safety, but now it has reached the high safety level as seen in the rise of capacity ratio. In this annual report, the experience of accidents and failures in Japanese and foreign nuclear power stations and the results of safety research are shown, and the ways of reflecting those to safety measures are analyzed in the first part. In the second part, the present status of the measures for ensuring safety related to atomic energy facilities such as nuclear power stations and nuclear fuel facilities is described. The various related data are attached. (Kako, I.)

  13. Nuclear power performance and safety. V.3. Safety and international co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Power Performance and Safety, organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, was held at the Austria Centre Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 28 September to 2 October 1987. The objective of the Conference was to promote an exchange of worldwide information on the current trends in the performance and safety of nuclear power and its fuel cycle, and to take a forward look at the expectations and objectives for the 1990s. This objective was accomplished through presentation and discussion of about 200 papers at the Conference. Almost 500 participants and observers from 40 countries and 12 organizations discussed three major questions which were posed as the focus of this Conference: (1) What are the current trends and major issues with regard to performance and safety of nuclear power, the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management? (2) What steps are being taken or need to be taken to resolve outstanding issues in order to improve the performance of nuclear power with assured safety? (3) What performance objectives and achievements can be anticipated for the 1990s? All presentations of this Conference were divided into six volumes. This is Volume 3 which is devoted to the problems of safety and international cooperation. All presentations of Volume 3 were divided into four sessions as follows: the need for safety in nuclear power programmes (4 papers); international cooperation in nuclear safety (6 papers); technical aspects in plant safety (7 papers); approaches to safety (3 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. International organisations assure nuclear safety competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.

    2000-01-01

    Irrespective of current views on the future of nuclear power programmes, concerns are arising with respect to the long-term ability to preserve safety competence because student enrollments in nuclear engineering are decreasing rapidly and experienced staff are reaching retirement age. 'Assuring Nuclear Safety Competence into the 21. Century' was discussed in depth by workshop participants. The need for a long-term strategic view was emphasised, and policy recommendations were made. These proceedings will be of particular interest to those playing a policy role in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies and the education sector

  15. Safety management in nuclear technology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    At the symposium of TueV Sued AG (Munich, Federal Republic of Germany) held in Munich on 28 and 29 October 2008, the following lectures were held: (1) Fundamental requirements of the management system in nuclear technology - Experiences from the international developments at IAEA and WENRA (M. Herttrich); (2) Information from a comparison of requirements of safety management systems (B. Kallenbach-Herbert); (3) Requirements of a modern management system in German nuclear power plants from the view of nuclear safety (D. Majer); (4) Requirements on safety management in module 8 of the regulations project (M. Maqua); (5) Requirements on the management system in nuclear power plants according to GRS-229 and developments at the KTA 1402 ''Integrated management system for safe operation of nuclear power plants (in progress)'' (C. Verstegen); (6) Experiences from the development and implementation of safety management systems in connection with the works management of a nuclear power plant (K. Ramler); (7) Design of a safety management system of a nuclear power plant in consideration of existing management systems (U. Naumann); (8) Experiences in the utilization and evaluation of a safety management system (J. Ritter); (9) Aspects of leadership of safety management systems (S. Seitz); (10) Management of safety or safety management system? Prevailing or administration? (A. Frischknecht); (11) Change management - strategies for successful transfer of new projects: How can I motivate co-workers for a further development of the safety management system? (U. Schnabel); (12) Requirements concerning indicators in integrated management systems and safety management systems (J. Stiller); (13) Integration of proactive and reactive indicators in the safety management system (B. Fahlbruch); (14) What do indicators show? About the use of indicators by regulatory authorities (A. Kern); (15) Safety management and radiation protection in nuclear technology (K. Grantner); (16) Any more

  16. Radiation and ecological safety of nuclear fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbasheva, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste facilities safety issues are discussed; Chernobyl NPP personnel radiation doses for 1986 are indicated; radiation contamination of environment by Am-241 is investigated; data on radioactive contamination in southern part of Kiev Poles'e are considered

  17. Evaluation of Seismic Safety for Existing Nuclear Installations. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The IAEA's Statute authorizes the Agency to establish safety standards to protect health and minimize danger to life and property - standards which the IAEA must use in its own operations, and which a State can apply by means of its regulatory provisions for nuclear and radiation safety. A comprehensive body of safety standards under regular review, together with the IAEA's assistance in their application, has become a key element in a global safety regime. In the mid-1990s, a major overhaul of the IAEA's safety standards programme was initiated, with a revised oversight committee structure and a systematic approach to updating the entire corpus of standards. The new standards that have resulted are of a high calibre and reflect best practices in Member States. With the assistance of the Commission on Safety Standards, the IAEA is working to promote the global acceptance and use of its safety standards. Safety standards are only effective, however, if they are properly applied in practice. The IAEA's safety services - which range in scope from engineering safety, operational safety, and radiation, transport and waste safety to regulatory matters and safety culture in organizations - assist Member States in applying the standards and appraise their effectiveness. These safety services enable valuable insights to be shared and I continue to urge all Member States to make use of them. Regulating nuclear and radiation safety is a national responsibility, and many Member States have decided to adopt the IAEA's safety standards for use in their national regulations. For the contracting parties to the various international safety conventions, IAEA standards provide a consistent, reliable means of ensuring the effective fulfilment of obligations under the conventions. The standards are also applied by designers, manufacturers and operators around the world to enhance nuclear and radiation safety in power generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, research and education

  18. The European community and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhorst, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Since the inception of the EURATOM Treaty (1957) the use of nuclear power has made an enormous progress. The nuclear sector has become a very important component of the production of energy. Prisoner of its success further development of the use of nuclear energy is confronted with the challenge of ensuring its integration within the framework of modern environment protection concepts. The link between the radiation protection objective and the responsibilities of the State's Authorities in the control of the design and operation of nuclear industrial facilities has become evident. On the other hand, the evolution in the perception of the transfrontier character of the nuclear risk by the population and. the drive for the political integration of Europe have led the Community Member States to an increasing concentration between their nuclear policy-making organs and in particular between their Nuclear Safety Authorities It is quite natural that the Community institutions, the Council of Ministers and the Commission and more recently the European Parliament have become active hosts and catalysts of the concentration of the Member States on the nuclear safety objectives which are at the source of the protection of the population and of the environment. The joint efforts of the Member States and the Commission have led to a reinforcement of the process of harmonisation of safety requirements for nuclear installations at Community level. A parallel concentration effort has been done by Community Member States concerning the back-end of the fuel cycle, in particular radioactive waste management. The European Community meets the conditions to become a key driving force for nuclear safety progress beyond its region because of the advanced stage of nuclear safety in the Community which includes the flexibility and completeness of its fuel cycle and the long experience of Community institutions in the promotion of harmonisation of safety objectives, criteria and

  19. Assessing approaches. Safety issues in the disposal of solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, K.; Gera, F.

    2000-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive wastes from all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle is an important technical, economic and social issue. It is also important to deal with wastes arising from the use of nuclear materials in medicine, research and industry. In some countries issues around how such waste management is undertaken have been controversial and may affect the future use of these technologies. This article addresses the disposal of solid radioactive waste, with particular emphasis on the safety issues

  20. Nuclear safety research in HGF 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    After the events at the Japanese nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi, the German Federal government decided that Germany will give up electricity generation from nuclear power within a decade. The last reactor will be disconnected from the power grid in 2022. Helping to make this opt-out safe is one of the duties of the Helmholtz Association with its Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area. Also the demolition of nuclear power plants and the repository problem will keep society, and thus also research, busy for a number of decades to come. Giving up electricity production from nuclear power thus must not mean giving up the required nuclear technology competences. In the fields of reactor safety, demolition, final storage, radiation protection, and crisis management, in critical support of international developments, and for competent evaluation of nuclear facilities around Germany, these competences will be in demand far beyond the German opt-out. This is the reason why the final report by the Ethics Committee on 'Safe Energy Supply' emphasizes the importance of nuclear technology research. Close cooperation on national, European and international levels is indispensable in this effort. Also nuclear safety research in the Helmholtz Association is aligned with the challenges posed by the opt-out of the use of nuclear power. It is important that the high competences in the areas of plant safety and demolition, handling of radioactive waste, and safe final storage as well as radiation protection be preserved. The Nuclear Safety Research Program within the Energy Research Area of the Helmholtz Association therefore will continue studying scientific and technical aspects of the safety of nuclear reactors and the safety of nuclear waste management. These research activities are provident research conducted for society and must be preserved for a long period of time. The work is closely harmonized with the activities of the partners in the

  1. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O., E-mail: jsbrj@ime.usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  2. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  3. Nuclear Criticality Safety Department Qualification Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document defines the Qualification Program to address the NCSD technical and managerial qualification as required by the Y-1 2 Training Implementation Matrix (TIM). This Qualification Program is in compliance with DOE Order 5480.20A and applicable Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) and Y-1 2 Plant procedures. It is implemented through a combination of WES plant-wide training courses and professional nuclear criticality safety training provided within the department. This document supersedes Y/DD-694, Revision 2, 2/27/96, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document

  4. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document

  5. Computer security at ukrainian nuclear facilities: interface between nuclear safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, D.; Klevtsov, O.

    2015-01-01

    Active introduction of information technology, computer instrumentation and control systems (I and C systems) in the nuclear field leads to a greater efficiency and management of technological processes at nuclear facilities. However, this trend brings a number of challenges related to cyber-attacks on the above elements, which violates computer security as well as nuclear safety and security of a nuclear facility. This paper considers regulatory support to computer security at the nuclear facilities in Ukraine. The issue of computer and information security considered in the context of physical protection, because it is an integral component. The paper focuses on the computer security of I and C systems important to nuclear safety. These systems are potentially vulnerable to cyber threats and, in case of cyber-attacks, the potential negative impact on the normal operational processes can lead to a breach of the nuclear facility security. While ensuring nuclear security of I and C systems, it interacts with nuclear safety, therefore, the paper considers an example of an integrated approach to the requirements of nuclear safety and security

  6. 48 CFR 246.371 - Notification of potential safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safety issues. 246.371 Section 246.371 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Notification of potential safety issues. (a) Use the clause at 252.246-7003, Notification of Potential Safety Issues, in solicitations and contracts for the acquisition of— (1) Repairable or consumable parts...

  7. Progress of nuclear safety research, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Hiroei; Nozawa, Masao

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was established in 1956 in conformity with the national policy to extensively conduct the research associated with nuclear energy. Since then, the research on nuclear energy safety has been conducted. In 1978, the Division of Reactor Safety was organized to conduct the large research programs with large scale test facilities. Thereafter, the Divisions of Reactor Safety Evaluation, Environmental Safety Research and Reactor Fuel Examination were organized successevely in the Reactor Safety Research Center. The subjects of research have ranged from the safety of nuclear reactors to that in the recycling of nuclear fuel. In this pamphlet, the activities in JAERI associated with the safety research are reported, which have been carried out in the past two years. Also the international cooperation research program in which JAERI participated is included. This pamphlet consists of two parts and in this Part 2, the environmental safety research is described. The evaluation and analysis of environmental radioactivity, the study on radioactive waste management and the studies on various subjects related to environmental safety are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane and Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs

  9. Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-08-20

    The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

  10. Dust Combustion Safety Issues for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2003-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety research task to identify the safety issues and phenomenology of metallic dust fires and explosions that are postulated for fusion experiments. There are a variety of metal dusts that are created by plasma erosion and disruptions within the plasma chamber, as well as normal industrial dusts generated in the more conventional equipment in the balance of plant. For fusion, in-vessel dusts are generally mixtures of several elements; that is, the constituent elements in alloys and the variety of elements used for in-vessel materials. For example, in-vessel dust could be composed of beryllium from a first wall coating, tungsten from a divertor plate, copper from a plasma heating antenna or diagnostic, and perhaps some iron and chromium from the steel vessel wall or titanium and vanadium from the vessel wall. Each of these elements has its own unique combustion characteristics, and mixtures of elements must be evaluated for the mixture’s combustion properties. Issues of particle size, dust temperature, and presence of other combustible materials (i.e., deuterium and tritium) also affect combustion in air. Combustion in other gases has also been investigated to determine if there are safety concerns with “inert” atmospheres, such as nitrogen. Several coolants have also been reviewed to determine if coolant breach into the plasma chamber would enhance the combustion threat; for example, in-vessel steam from a water coolant breach will react with metal dust. The results of this review are presented here.

  11. Synergy in the areas of NPP nuclear safety and nuclear security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybach, A.M.; Kuzmyak, I.Ya.; Kukhotskij, A.V.

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the question of synergy between nuclear safety and nuclear security. Special attention is paid to identifying interface of the two areas of safety and definition of common principles for nuclear security and nuclear safety measures. The principles of defense in depth, safety culture and graded approach are analyzed in detail.Specific features characteristic of nuclear safety and security are outlined

  12. Safety of fuel cycle facilities. Topical issues paper no. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranguelova, V.; Niehaus, F.; Delattre, D.

    2001-01-01

    that the relative hazards vary from facility to facility depending upon the processes employed. However, all installations should be designed and operated so as to keep all sources of radiation exposure under strict technical and administrative control. The design management should ensure that the structures, systems and components important to safety have the appropriate characteristics, specifications and material composition to perform the required safety functions. Emphasis should be placed on the use of proven engineered safety features in the implementation of the defence in depth concept in the facility design and operation. The development of nuclear safety standards is one of the tasks given by the Statute of the IAEA. Over a number of years, the IAEA has developed a comprehensive set of publications which address, in a structured manner, the safety of nuclear installations. The Safety Fundamentals publication entitled 'The Safety of Nuclear Installations' presents an international consensus on the basic concepts underlying the principles for the regulation, design and operation of