WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear risks stakes

  1. Energy stake and nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugnion, F.

    1980-01-01

    The political bias against nuclear power stations is countered by quotations from different sources concerning dangers due to other sources of power, including coal and oil. The comparison indicates the relatively low rate of mortalities associated with nuclear power generation. To this is added the advantage of using isotopes in medical treatment while scarcity of oil is going to rise together with the price. The constraints of Western opinion with respect to nuclear power programming is contrasted with Communist-block unrestrained and huge building of power stations. (I.G.)

  2. Perceptions of industrial and nuclear risks. Stakes, negotiations and social development of levels of risk acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, S.Ch.

    2007-11-01

    In this thesis we will question the perceptions of industrial risks in the occidental world at the beginning of the 21. century. For this purpose we will try to understand how concepts such as sustainable development, precautionary principle, liability, or even zero-risk bias have progressively developed around a thought model based on the scientific rationality. This model is now undermined by its incapacity to fully address the issues it raises and completely avoid the potential risks. However, despite consistent weaknesses, it remains a reference value moulded by past accidents which have led to the making of laws aiming mainly at defining liability and protecting those who are held liable. Thus, public information becomes a requirement for democracy and the protection of this thought model. In this context, the protagonists at stake are security-conscious, economical and political lobbies that constantly redefine the limits of risk acceptance. We come to the realization that our lifestyle and value system remain unchallenged even though undergoing a crisis. The specificity of this research lies into the importance we give to the local approach, dealing with registered Seveso sites and nuclear plants located in Indre et Loire. We have polled five categories of respondents through interviews or questionnaires in order to understand their opinion regarding situations involving technological risks. The result of this survey helps us understand and set the levels of risk acceptance that they define with regard to the industrial risks and show the complexity of a situation involving political stakes, environmental pressures, a profit-driven economy and security constraints, in a vague and complex context. This work gives us a contrasted picture of today's perceptions of risks. (author)

  3. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Ross, Don

    2017-01-01

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in statements of this calibration puzzle is that small-stakes risk aversion is observed over all levels of wealth...

  4. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  5. Small Stakes Risk Aversion in the Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Ross, Don

    Evidence of risk aversion in laboratory settings over small stakes leads to a priori implausible levels of risk aversion over large stakes under certain assumptions. One core assumption in standard statements of this calibration puzzle is that individuals define utility over terminal wealth......, and that terminal wealth is defined as the sum of extra-lab wealth and any wealth accumulated in the lab. This assumption is often used in Expected Utility Theory, as well as popular alternatives such as RankDependent Utility theory. Another core assumption is that the small-stakes risk aversion is observed over...... all levels of wealth, or over a “sufficiently large” range of wealth. Although this second assumption if often viewed as self-evident from the vast experimental literature showing risk aversion over laboratory stakes, it actually requires that lab wealth be varied for a given subject as one takes...

  6. Perceptions of industrial and nuclear risks. Stakes, negotiations and social development of levels of risk acceptance; Perceptions des risques industriels et nucleaires: enjeux, negociations et construction sociale des seuils d'acception des risques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, S.Ch

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis we will question the perceptions of industrial risks in the occidental world at the beginning of the 21. century. For this purpose we will try to understand how concepts such as sustainable development, precautionary principle, liability, or even zero-risk bias have progressively developed around a thought model based on the scientific rationality. This model is now undermined by its incapacity to fully address the issues it raises and completely avoid the potential risks. However, despite consistent weaknesses, it remains a reference value moulded by past accidents which have led to the making of laws aiming mainly at defining liability and protecting those who are held liable. Thus, public information becomes a requirement for democracy and the protection of this thought model. In this context, the protagonists at stake are security-conscious, economical and political lobbies that constantly redefine the limits of risk acceptance. We come to the realization that our lifestyle and value system remain unchallenged even though undergoing a crisis. The specificity of this research lies into the importance we give to the local approach, dealing with registered Seveso sites and nuclear plants located in Indre et Loire. We have polled five categories of respondents through interviews or questionnaires in order to understand their opinion regarding situations involving technological risks. The result of this survey helps us understand and set the levels of risk acceptance that they define with regard to the industrial risks and show the complexity of a situation involving political stakes, environmental pressures, a profit-driven economy and security constraints, in a vague and complex context. This work gives us a contrasted picture of today's perceptions of risks. (author)

  7. The French civilian nuclear: connections and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs

  8. Risk preferences over small stakes: Evidence from deductible choice

    OpenAIRE

    Janko Gorter; Paul Schilp

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on risk preferences over small stakes. Using unique population and survey data on deductible choice in Dutch universal health insurance, we find that risk preferences are a dominant factor in decision aking. In fact, our results indicate that risk preferences are both statistically and quantitatively more significant in explaining deductible choice behavior than risk type. This finding contrasts with classical expected utility theory, as it implies risk ...

  9. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marteau, D.

    2006-01-01

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  10. The cyber security of French nuclear installations: stakes and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Notably due to the development of the number of connected objects, nuclear installations, their supply chain and all the actors of the chain value are exposed to cyber risks, even if a recent study noticed that successful cyber attacks involving nuclear plants are rare, but real. Thus, the threat is actual and growing, and the IAEA is already working with Interpol on this issue. The author then describes how French actors (EDF, Areva, CEA) have introduced cyber-resilience to better anticipate and identify actual threats and critical vulnerabilities in order to protect infrastructures. He comments some strengthened regulatory measures introduced for the French nuclear sector, and continuous improvements brought in the field of cyber security. He shows that handling these risks is also an opportunity to develop crisis management tools through the development of a specific know-how which also has an industrial value

  11. Small- and large-stakes risk aversion: implications of concavity calabration for decision theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, J.C.; Sadiraj, V.

    2006-01-01

    A growing literature reports the conclusions that: (a) expected utility theory does not provide a plausible theory of risk aversion for both small-stakes and large-stakes gambles; and (b) this decision theory should be replaced with an alternative theory characterized by loss aversion. This paper

  12. Implications of Fuzziness for the Practical Management of High-Stakes Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jablonowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available High-stakes (dangerous, catastrophic risks take on a wider profile as progress unfolds. What are the impacts of technological and social change on the risk landscape? Due to the complexities and dynamics involved, we can only answer these questions approximately. By using the concept of fuzziness, we can formalize our imprecision about high-stakes risk, and therefore place their management on a stronger footing. We review here the impacts of fuzziness, i.e., knowledge imperfection, on high-stakes risk management, including its implementation via computationally intelligent decision aids.

  13. Cyber-security of nuclear facilities: stakes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, T.

    2016-01-01

    Major players in the French nuclear industry have implemented the concept of cyber-resilience that aims at anticipating and identifying real threats and detecting the weaknesses of the critical installations in order to protect them more efficiently. French law imposes for some categories of installations including nuclear power plants the implementation of advanced protection solutions to reach a high standard of cyber security. Sentryo, a start-up has developed a system that allows the detection of intruders in a digital network by analysing the interactions between the nodes of the network. The intruder is detected when the interaction mapping appears to be different from a configuration considered as normal. The feedback experience shows that any function in an enterprise must be made aware of the cyber risk. (A.C.)

  14. The nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and strategic context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvergeon, A.

    2003-01-01

    This document mentions the intervention of Anne Lauvergeon, at the colloquium Adapes, ''the nuclear: energy and environmental stakes and political and geo-strategic context''. Anne Lauvergeon is president of the Areva board. This speech takes stock on the energy resources and demand facing the economic development in a context of an environmental quality and especially the part of the nuclear energy in the future. (A.L.B.)

  15. The stake of the French electro-nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteux, Marcel

    1975-01-01

    At the end of the century, neither classic resources nor so-called ''new'' energies will be able to satisfy France's energetical needs. According to this statement -and taking into account the progressive reduction of the world petroleum resources -it is estimated that industrialized countries have no other choice than developping nuclear energy. What could be then the consequences for France of such an important option. Strengthening of its energetical independence, saving in foreign currencies and a lowering of its financial load, for the ''nuclear'' KWh is about twice cheaper than the ''classic'' one. Beyond arguments often justified but sometimes also unreasoned feeding the discussion about nuclear option validity it is considered that the real choice to which France is confronted is either to have ressort to nuclear energy - with all the unavoidable problems it raises but having nothing to do with the dismaying descriptions having been made - or to endanger seriously its economic and social development [fr

  16. Canadian Public and Stake holder Engagement Approach to a Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kim, Youn Ok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    After Canada has struggled with a radioactive waste problem over for 20 years, the Canadian government finally found out that its approach by far has been lack of social acceptance, and needed a program such as public and stake holder engagement (PSE) which involves the public in decision-making process. Therefore, the government made a special law, called Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA), to search for an appropriate nuclear waste management approach. NFWA laid out three possible approaches which were already prepared in advance by a nuclear expert group, and required Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to be established to report a recommendation as to which of the proposed approaches should be adopted. However, NFWA allowed NWMO to consider additional management approach if the other three were not acceptable enough. Thus, NWMO studied and created a fourth management approach after it had undertaken an comparison of the benefits, risks and costs of each management approach: Adaptive Phased Management. This approach was intended to enable the implementers to accept any technological advancement or changes even in the middle of the implementation of the plan. The Canadian PSE case well shows that technological R and D are deeply connected with social acceptance. Even though the developments and technological advancement are carried out by the scientists and experts, but it is important to collect the public opinion by involving them to the decision-making process in order to achieve objective validity on the R and D programs. Moreover, in an effort to ensure the principles such as fairness, public health and safety, security, and adoptability, NWMO tried to make those abstract ideas more specific and help the public understand the meaning of each concept more in detail. Also, they utilized a variety of communication methods from face-to-face meeting to e-dialogue to encourage people to participate in the program as much as possible. Given the fact that Korea

  17. Canadian Public and Stake holder Engagement Approach to a Spent Nuclear Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kim, Youn Ok; Whang, Joo Ho

    2008-01-01

    After Canada has struggled with a radioactive waste problem over for 20 years, the Canadian government finally found out that its approach by far has been lack of social acceptance, and needed a program such as public and stake holder engagement (PSE) which involves the public in decision-making process. Therefore, the government made a special law, called Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NFWA), to search for an appropriate nuclear waste management approach. NFWA laid out three possible approaches which were already prepared in advance by a nuclear expert group, and required Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) to be established to report a recommendation as to which of the proposed approaches should be adopted. However, NFWA allowed NWMO to consider additional management approach if the other three were not acceptable enough. Thus, NWMO studied and created a fourth management approach after it had undertaken an comparison of the benefits, risks and costs of each management approach: Adaptive Phased Management. This approach was intended to enable the implementers to accept any technological advancement or changes even in the middle of the implementation of the plan. The Canadian PSE case well shows that technological R and D are deeply connected with social acceptance. Even though the developments and technological advancement are carried out by the scientists and experts, but it is important to collect the public opinion by involving them to the decision-making process in order to achieve objective validity on the R and D programs. Moreover, in an effort to ensure the principles such as fairness, public health and safety, security, and adoptability, NWMO tried to make those abstract ideas more specific and help the public understand the meaning of each concept more in detail. Also, they utilized a variety of communication methods from face-to-face meeting to e-dialogue to encourage people to participate in the program as much as possible. Given the fact that Korea

  18. A Study on consensus development through stake holder engagement for the use of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiko; Sawada, Tetsuo; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    In order to alleviate the distrust surrounding the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities, as well as to foster trust and find better ways to live in harmony with society, it is essential for the state and electric power utilities not to provide one-sided information, but to formulate adequate bilateral communication and dialogue with stake holders. In this study, we conducted a case study focused on four stake holder meetings with a view to ensuring safety in the use of nuclear energy and operation of nuclear facilities in Japan; the 'Community Meeting for Securing the Transparency of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (Chiiki-no-kai)'; the 'Monitoring and Evaluation Conference on Environmental Radiation', established by communities where nuclear facilities are installed; the 'Round-Table Conference on Nuclear Power Policy' and the 'Conference for Public Participation and Decision Making for Nuclear Energy Policy' organized by Japan Atomic Energy Commission. As a consequence, it has been observed that in each case varying opinions were summarized through stake holder meetings, but the fact that no system exists to reflect these opinions in design of the nuclear energy policy has emerged as a controversial point. This study suggests future efforts in regard to the requirements in Japan for stake holder meetings that are necessary for fostering trust and mutual understanding among stake holders including the state and local government, electric power utilities and local residents. (author)

  19. Is it possible to recycle nuclear wastes? Costs, risks and stakes of the plutonium industry; Peut-on recycler les dechets nucleaires? Couts, risques et enjeux de l'industrie du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document, published by the French association 'Sortir du nucleaire' (Get out of nuclear), gives some information on the chain reaction from uranium to plutonium, the difference between reprocessing (which does not reduce waste volumes but multiply waste types) and recycling, the high risks associated with plutonium transport, La Hague as the most dangerous nuclear site in France, reprocessing as the alibi for the French nuclear industry, Areva as an expert in propaganda, reprocessing as an absurd world strategy, plutonium as a fuel for proliferation, the myth of unlimited energy with the breeder reactors, and so on

  20. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  1. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    The title of our session, Nuclear Risk Versus Other Power Options, is provocative. It is also a title with different meanings to different people. To the utility chief executive officer, nuclear power is a high-risk financial undertaking because of political and economic barriers to cost recovery. To the utility dispatcher, it is a high-risk future power source since plant completion and start-up dates can be delayed for very long times due to uncertain legal and political issues. To the environmentalist, concerned about global effects such as greenhouse and acid rain, nuclear power is a relatively low risk energy source. To the financial people, nuclear power is a cash cow turned sour because of uncertainties as to what new plants will cost and whether they will even be allowed to operate. The statistics on risk are known and the results of probability risk assessment calculations of risks are known. The challenge is not to make nuclear power safer, it is already one of the safest, if not the safest, source of power currently available. The challenge is to find a way to communicate this to the public

  2. Nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkers, G.

    1988-01-01

    This file includes data on risks insured by the nuclear insurance pool in Belgium and on the Chernobyl accident covering injury, economic damage and compensation for the latter. Also included are the texts of the IAEA Conventions on Early Notification and on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident as well as that of a Convention on long-distance transfrontier atmospheric pollution signed in Geneva [fr

  3. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  4. The energy stakes - After Fukushima. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacona, Estelle; Taine, Jean; Tamain, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    The energy question today is worldwide and depends on major geopolitical stakes (demography, development, water, health, environment, research, risks). The energy must be universally produced and distributed together with minimizing pollutions, nuclear risks and CO 2 emissions. This new edition of 'the energy stakes' is fully updated and approaches some of the main questions that any responsible citizen should ask. It comprises 3 parts dealing with: a comprehensive review of the energy question in most of countries in the world, the constraints and challenges to take up to manage energy in an optimum way, and a prospective study about the control of energy consumption and about the existing technical solutions. (J.S)

  5. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMerchant, C. [Nuclear Insurance Association of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  6. Insurer risk control and nuclear liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMerchant, C.

    2015-01-01

    We specialize in high quality insurance risk management, underwriting and inspections for Canadian nuclear exposures. We provide true risk transfer, secure insurance capacity and collaborate with the world's nuclear experts to create innovative domestic solutions for our clients and members. The benefit of our experience works for all stake holders: insured clients, members, multi-level government agencies and all Canadians. NIAC has a 55-year history of partnering with insurers around the globe to create reliable risk management for the nuclear industry. We offer Canadian risk solutions, thought leadership and expertise that provides security and confidence to our customers and members. NIAC leads in the areas of nuclear insurance law, good governance and claims administration to create a true Centre of Excellence.

  7. Nuclear benefits and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P

    1987-03-01

    The paper reviews the broader issues that affect nuclear power in a world energy context. The importance of nuclear power as an energy source is described, as well as the environmental effects of different energy sources. The risks associated with the nuclear industry are discussed with respect to: risks due to radiation exposure, risks to workers in the nuclear industry, and risks to the public due to discharges from nuclear installations. (U.K.).

  8. The socio-technical setting of economic stakes of global environment risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    For policy-making for fighting acid rain, protecting the ozone layer and initiating action to prevent global climate change related to the growth of the greenhouse effect, the economic approach requires more precise consideration of how the economic stakes attached to these threats have been built up by their social actors. Global environmental risks (GER) are not directly perceivable nor can they be easily related to any activity or phenomena at local level (in time or space). There are scientific controversies about the reality of damage and establishing credible responsibility links. Moreover, these controversies are brought to media and social debate before any scientific clarification is possible. The media representations of GER emphasize the fact they could have catastrophic and irreversible consequences. So, the social demand for public action becomes very heavy when delay, possibly of several years between the causes and consequences of global environmental change, prevents any rapid clarification in the controversies. These difficulties have led to the evolution of a decision process in several steps: firstly, an international convention is prepared in which signatory countries commit themselves to cooperate and to take action; secondly, one or several agreements are signed with clear technical objectives and a timetable for implementations. 23 refs

  9. Stakes and modalities of the climatic risk covering; Enjeu et modalites de la couverture du risque climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marteau, D

    2006-07-01

    Several econometric works show that climatic volatility is at the first rank of the risk factors in several economic sectors like energy, textile, agriculture and food, tourism, leisure, building industries etc. However, climate remains an underestimated economic factor for several reasons: lack of awareness about the comparative stakes of climate risks management and market risks management, difficulties in the measurement of climate risk exposure, weak knowledge of covering techniques for private contract and organized markets, and unsolved question of risk sharing between shareholders and managers. This document analyzes the sensitivity of companies with respect to climate risk and describes the 5 steps of implementation of a climate covering policy: risk exposure measurement, risk bearing or transfer decision, definition of the optimum covering profile, choice of markets and covering instruments, efficiency measurement. A practical example is shown with its related questions. (J.S.)

  10. On accounting difficulties: Risks related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    An extreme risk has a very slight probability but potentially heavy consequences. Despite the existence of three accountancy methods for dealing with them (provisions, contingent liabilities and insurance), the transposition of such risks into financial statements is based on a sequential analysis of both the probability of the risk happening and the ability to estimate the effects. This method keeps us from taking into account risks with a highly uncertain probability of occurrence, such as accidents at nuclear power plants - independently of the 'amount' at stake. As management reports from firms concerned by nuclear risks show, the diffusion of qualitative information does not offset this gap in bookkeeping

  11. On accounting difficulties: risks related to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot, E.; Vidal, O.

    2014-01-01

    An extreme risk has a very slight probability but potentially heavy consequences. Despite the existence of 3 accountancy methods for dealing with them (provisions, contingent liabilities and insurance), the transposition of such risks into financial statements is based on a sequential analysis of both the probability of the risk happening and the ability to estimate the effects. This method keeps us from taking into account risks with a highly uncertain probability of occurrence, such as accidents at nuclear power plants - independently of the 'amount' at stake. As management reports from firms concerned by nuclear risks show, the diffusion of qualitative information does not offset this gap in bookkeeping. (authors)

  12. Insurance of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.

    1976-01-01

    Insurance for large nuclear installations covers mainly four types of risk: third party liability which in accordance with the nuclear conventions, is borne by a nuclear operator following an incident occurring in his installation or during transport of nuclear substances; material damage to the installation itself, which precisely is not covered by third party liability insurance; machinery breakdown, i.e. accidental damage or interruption of operation. Only the first category must be insured. In view of the magnitude of the risk, nuclear insurance resorts to co-insurance and reinsurance techniques which results in a special organisation of the nuclear insurance market, based on national nuclear insurance pools and on the Standing Committee on Atomic Risk of the European Insurance Committee. Conferences of the chairmen of nuclear insurance pools are convened regularly at a worldwide level. (NEA) [fr

  13. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  14. Canadian nuclear risk experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Risk assessment in the Canadian nuclear fuel cycle is a very important and complex subject. Many levels of government are involved in deciding the acceptable limits for the risks, taking into account the benefits for society [fr

  15. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  16. The opening of electricity markets: the stakes for the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, M.

    2002-01-01

    This article is a reprint of the opening talk of M. Maillard, general director of DGEMP (general direction of energy and raw materials, French ministry of economy, finances and industry), given at the 2002 annual meeting of the French society of nuclear energy (SFEN). In his talk, M. Maillard presents, first, the international context of the liberalization of electricity markets (the lessons learnt after the Californian crisis, the situation of the existing nuclear park, the questions relative to the nuclear revival, the conditions of a conservation of the nuclear option beyond the existing facilities). Then he analyzes the French situation and its specificities (pluri-annual planning of investments, mastered liberalization and competitiveness of the nuclear energy, preparation of future date-lines in agreement with the decommissioning of the oldest PWR reactors). (J.S.)

  17. Managing nuclear supplier risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that with the appearance of such third-tier suppliers as Argentina, Brazil, South Korea, Taiwan, China, and others capable of producing nuclear components and sensitive nuclear materials, assurance that importers are using nuclear energy benignly and safely may become more uncertain. It is therefore important to integrate emerging exporters and importers into a regime of norms designed to minimize nuclear risks. The experience of the London Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to arrive at a code of conduct is encouraging. Placed in the context of the larger evolving nuclear energy regime that seeks to address nuclear safety, proliferation, terrorism, and military attacks on reactors, the international community has made substantial progress. Still, there is much that remains to be done

  18. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  19. Clean energy stakes too important for nuclear to be blown off course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-15

    New figures indicating that offshore wind farms could be built for a record low price in the UK - and produce cheaper electricity than nuclear - sent an initial chill through the nuclear energy industry. Wind lobbyists were quick to trumpet the figures from the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (UK), which were unveiled following a 'contracts for difference' auction for subsidies. The spokesperson's comments were more astonishing than the data that emerged from the report. As the chief executive of the Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), Tom Greatrex, pointed out: ''Reports that the cost of future offshore wind projects may fall (if they are constructed) is good news, but as the UK renewable trade body, informed commentators and industry experts have made clear, one technology alone can't solve the UK's power challenge''.

  20. Perception of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    Many factors are involved in the perception of a risk by individuals. Some are individual related (psychology, knowledge, experience), others describe the social environment (culture, ideology), others at end precise the nature of the risk. The word risk has various meanings and is understood differently by the three main categories involved in risk management, that is engineers, administrators and lay public. Several models which describe the perception phenomenon are presented. The dimensions affecting perception are listed. Based on public opinion poll data, a risk taxonomy is proposed, perceived nuclear risks are compared with other risks, and results are given concerning trust in the information diffused and the credibility of those in charge of nuclear activities. (author)

  1. Nuclear risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the list of contributions to Eurosafe 2001 which was organised around two round tables on the first day and five seminars on the second day. The first round table dealt with the technical, organisational and societal aspects of risk management aimed at the prevention of accidents in nuclear power plants. The second round table focused on radiological risks from the normal operation of nuclear installations. Special consideration has been given to the involvement of stakeholders. The five seminars were held in order to provide opportunities for comparing experiences and learning about recent activities of IRSN, GRS and their partners in the European Union and Eastern Europe: - Safety assessment and analysis of nuclear installations; -Nuclear safety research; -Environment and radiation protection; - Waste management; - Nuclear material security. (author)

  2. Nuclear risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives the list of contributions to Eurosafe 2001 which was organised around two round tables on the first day and five seminars on the second day. The first round table dealt with the technical, organisational and societal aspects of risk management aimed at the prevention of accidents in nuclear power plants. The second round table focused on radiological risks from the normal operation of nuclear installations. Special consideration has been given to the involvement of stakeholders. The five seminars were held in order to provide opportunities for comparing experiences and learning about recent activities of IRSN, GRS and their partners in the European Union and Eastern Europe: - Safety assessment and analysis of nuclear installations; -Nuclear safety research; -Environment and radiation protection; - Waste management; - Nuclear material security. (author)

  3. Risks from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J.

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs

  4. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  5. Brexit: what is at stake for trade and nuclear partnership with Great-Britain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2017-01-01

    The exit of the United-Kingdom from the European Union rises a lot of issues but even if the divorce process has been launched, it is nearly impossible to bring clear responses to issues like the belonging to EURATOM. In any case the exit will weaken the political balance of power in favor of nuclear energy inside the European Union. Another consequence would be to have on the British side a legal void that would be harmful for trade and nuclear cooperation. The United-Kingdom will no longer benefit from European financing for upgrading the electricity grid and inter-connection networks that link the country to Europe, which may jeopardize the security of supply on both sides of the Channel. (A.C.)

  6. The maintenance of nuclear medicine equipments: the stakes in the liberal sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauchet, M.; Chambon, T.; Tellier, P.

    1994-01-01

    Maintenance of nuclear medicine installations is an obligation in the private sector (preventive maintenance to be sure of the detectors quality and of the associated software and hardware, corrective maintenance to be sure of the results quality and of the installations profitability). They must be negotiated at the time of the installations choice and added to the total cost of the equipment. Gamma cameras are chosen for illustrating these maintenance problems. (A.B.). 5 refs., 7 figs

  7. Nuclear financial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; George, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    This study examines the economy-wide financial risk associated with reactor accidents as a result of various regulatory response options that might be imposed after a serious accident, including partial or complete nuclear moratoria. The authors find that such risks may be two to three times greater than the plant-specific financial risk estimates that have previously been calculated by others (ie 500 million (1985) dollars per reactor year versus 5 to 50 million dollars). (author)

  8. Risk of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienzl, K.

    1997-01-01

    Following the opening and words of welcome by Mr. Fritz Unterpertinger (unit director at the Austrian Federal Ministry for the Environment, Youth and Family; BMUJF) Mrs Helga Kromp-Kolb (professor at the Institute for Meteorology and Physics of the University of Natural Resources Science Vienna) illustrated the risks of nuclear damage in Europe by means of a nuclear risk map. She explained that even from a scientific or technical point of view the assessment of risks arising from nuclear power stations was fraught with great uncertainties. Estimates about in how far MCAs (maximum credible accident) could still be controlled by safety systems vary widely and so do assessments of the probability of a core melt. But there is wide agreement in all risk assessments conducted so far that MCAs might occur within a - from a human point of view - conceivable number of years. In this connection one has to bear in mind that the occurrence of such a major accident - whatever its probability may be - could entail immense damage and the question arises whether or not it is at all justifiable to expose the general public to such a risk. Klaus Rennings (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim, Germany) dealt with the economic aspects of nuclear risk assessment. He explained that there are already a number of studies available aiming to assess the risk of damage resulting from a core melt accident in economic terms. As to the probability of occurrence estimates vary widely between one incident in 3,333 and 250,000 year of reactor operation. It is assumed, however, that a nuclear accident involving a core melt in Germany would probably exceed the damage caused by the Chernobyl accident. The following speakers addressed the legal aspects of risks associated with nuclear installations. Mrs Monika Gimpel-Hinteregger (professor at the Institute for Civil Law in Graz) gave an overview on the applicable Austrian law concerning third party liability in the field of nuclear energy

  9. Transport of nuclear materials: a major stake for the reprocessing-conditioning-recycling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautrot, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    As the international reference in terms of fuel cycle services, the COGEMA Group has developed a wide range of industrialized products answering to its clients needs. But, as deregulation and competition are now expanding, utilities has to be perfectly aware of the cost level of their strategic choices, and to keep these costs down. This point is especially valid in the back-end of the fuel cycle. Several leading nuclear countries around the world have chosen the reprocessing-recycling option because it ensures a economically mastered vision. In that respect, transportation reliability is consequently a basic requirement. It ensures a balanced and continuous flows of materials. Transportation system must be reliable in terms of schedule, safety or industrial aspects (i.e. dedicated packaging for road, rail, sea or air transports, maintenance aspects...). Any serious flaw in one of these three points could lead to delays, thus lessening the economic advantage for utilities. But, one must not loose sight that transportation of nuclear materials is tied to extra-technical issues, such as environmental or regulatory factors, which are fundamental for a consistent understanding of this business. The COGEMA Group, through its subsidiary Transnucleaire, possesses a dedicated transport system, widely praised for its constant commitment in terms of safety, quality and operating. This papers presents the overall back-end transportation framework and details the transport organisations as well as the main achievements of Transnucleaire when it comes to sea, road or rail back-end transports. (authors)

  10. Stake and limit of nuclear energy on the respect of social, cultural and economic rights of African people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KABORE Al Hassan

    2009-06-01

    The development of the capacities of energy production generates economic, social and cultural progress. However the energy production, especially that related to nuclear power, comprises many risks for man and his environment. These risks are primarily related to safety and health. In the developing countries like Burkina Faso, the nuclear engineering is used in the field of socio-economic and cultural development, and is beneficial to agriculture, medicine, the breeding, the research and management of water resources. The use of this nuclear engineering must however be subjected to the safety standards in the prospect of minimizing dangers such as accident risks, the stealing of sealed sources or its use by unqualified people. Its use should also be done in line with respecting human rights according to the convention on the complementary repair of damages. That would help reduce considerably the impacts of the use of nuclear engineering on human rights relating to public health, the environment and to the food [fr

  11. Perspectives of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, R.L.

    1981-06-01

    In an analysis of the content of American television news coverage of nuclear power over 11 years the dominant issue was found to be fear of what could happen, not what actually did happen. The major issue confronting the nuclear industry is how to deal with this fear. People tend to fear unfamiliar things, things they cannot control, and concentrated threats. The industry can use the fact that fear rivets attention to motivate people to learn. It is important not to create a division between nuclear opponents and proponents, but to work together with the opposition. The public needs to become involved directly and personally with nuclear power, through plant tours, exposure to people working in the industry, and other means of education about the risks and benefits of all energy sources

  12. The nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, H.; Troesch, G.

    2001-01-01

    The Tchernobyl accident has revealed to the public the extent of the consequences of a major nuclear power plant accident. This book takes stock of the safety measures adopted by western countries, in particular in France, and of the evaluation of the risks and consequences of such an accident. It explains the principles and measures implemented to ensure the safety of fuel cycle facilities, of their personnel and of the population. It presents also the consequences for the environment and for the public of a serious nuclear reactor accident, as they are evaluated today by the national safety authorities. Content: basic notions of physics, data and units, biological radiation effects, regulatory radiation protection system, standards, natural radioactivity and other sources of population irradiation, instrumentation, protection against external radiation sources and contaminations, fuel cycle and nuclear energy production, nuclear facilities and safety, possible consequences of a reactor accident in a French plant, main nuclear accidents worldwide, wastes and radioactive effluents, transport of radioactive materials, organization of nuclear safety in France, protection of nuclear materials. (J.S.)

  13. Risks in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindackers, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The German nuclear power plant risk assessment study has not contributed to a higher degree of acceptance of light-water reactors among the general public. One reason is the fact that its predictions are much too inaccurate, and the consequences from severe accidents, regardless of their possibly extremely small likelihood, speak for themselves. The work still to be done in Phase B of the risk analysis will only be useful, if the safety factors in risk assessments can be drastically increased. The results of the risk analysis cannot be used in legislation or the administration of justice, because they are too incomplete and inaccurate. Scientific findings in risk analysis show that new designs and new components complicate objective judgement of changes in reactor safety engineering considerably. Every change in the required precautionary safety measures must be carefully considered, and if need be tested under the appropriate conditions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Nuclear risks perception and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we present the studies made by the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) on the nuclear risks perception by the public and we compare this perception of risks with other industries

  15. Specific transport and storage solutions: Waste management facing current and future stakes of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniau, Helene; Gagner, Laurent; Gendreau, Francoise; Presta, Anne

    2006-01-01

    development process; - Current solutions proposed by COGEMA LOGISTICS; - Transport of Low Level and Very Low Level waste (LLW and VLLW); - Shipment of large volumes; - Non-reusable transport packaging; - Packaging transport permit the storage in final disposal area; - A steep increase of transport flows in the next 10 years; - Future challenges, waste from dismantling operations; - Transport packaging of IP 2 type and IP 2 package; - Some examples of standardized packages; - DV78 Package; - CC102 over pack; - A solution for liquid waste from NPPs, TNTMCIEL; - Transport of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) and High Level Waste (HLW); - Alpha waste (or TRU waste); - TNTMGEMINI; - RD 26 package; - Bituminized waste (ILW): the TNTM833; - Technological waste in CBFC'2 (ILW): the TNTM837; - Universal Canisters for Vitrified waste (HLW) and Compacted waste (ILW); - Vitrified waste (HLW); - Transport solutions for CSD-V canisters: the TNTM28 VT; - Dual purpose solutions for CSD-V canisters, the TS 28; - CSD-V programme of return; - Compacted waste (ILW): the TNTM843; - Some future stakes and new developments. The following conclusions completes the paper. COGEMA LOGISTICS experience in designing packages and transporting nuclear materials is part of the COGEMA / AREVA waste management policy, which aims to waste volume reduction through waste sorting and packaging in universal canisters or standard waste containers. For the design and manufacture of special shipping casks, as for nuclear transportation and storage, COGEMA LOGISTICS tailors its solutions to its international customers' requirements. Personnel safety, transportation safety and environmental protection are put first. These reasons have lead COGEMA LOGISTICS to become the world's leading designer of nuclear fuel packages, with unique expertise in designing packages for back-end transportation and storage of nuclear materials. Beyond being a transport company and packaging designer, COGEMA LOGISTICS is a partner implementing

  16. Lethal stakes: rig-hand killings show rising security risks abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing demands for protection money from foreign exploration and pipeline construction companies by left-wing guerrilla groups in various South American countries led to greater attention being focused on security services. This paper discusses the various alternatives to consider when choosing a security service. The experience of a Canadian pipeline company with projects in South America, and in need of security services, is described. The company felt that it was important that the security firm have a Calgary presence. It ended up hiring Calgary Protection Concepts Corporation, which is run by former Canadian police and intelligence officers, who provide a wide range of security services. Staff spend time in the country involved to look over the local security situation, develop contacts with local intelligence officers, and contract overseas agents who arrange for bodyguards, escorts and armored cars. ProCon also helps companies develop crisis management plans, guiding senior personnel through scenarios such as kidnapping, extortion and civil strife. ProCon also has a 24-hour emergency assistance call centre to provide immediate advice, to notify personnel and family members and to monitor the situation. Trust is key to hiring an outside security service since the security firm becomes party to extremely confidential information. Top security firms usually specialize in either security work or political risk analysis, but not both. The reason for this is that there are big differences in mentality, training and capabilities between studying risks and actively guarding against hazards

  17. Lethal stakes: rig-hand killings show rising security risks abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A

    1999-05-03

    The increasing demands for protection money from foreign exploration and pipeline construction companies by left-wing guerrilla groups in various South American countries led to greater attention being focused on security services. This paper discusses the various alternatives to consider when choosing a security service. The experience of a Canadian pipeline company with projects in South America, and in need of security services, is described. The company felt that it was important that the security firm have a Calgary presence. It ended up hiring Calgary Protection Concepts Corporation, which is run by former Canadian police and intelligence officers, who provide a wide range of security services. Staff spend time in the country involved to look over the local security situation, develop contacts with local intelligence officers, and contract overseas agents who arrange for bodyguards, escorts and armored cars. ProCon also helps companies develop crisis management plans, guiding senior personnel through scenarios such as kidnapping, extortion and civil strife. ProCon also has a 24-hour emergency assistance call centre to provide immediate advice, to notify personnel and family members and to monitor the situation. Trust is key to hiring an outside security service since the security firm becomes party to extremely confidential information. Top security firms usually specialize in either security work or political risk analysis, but not both. The reason for this is that there are big differences in mentality, training and capabilities between studying risks and actively guarding against hazards.

  18. Nuclear systems of the future. Stakes, R and D strategy, and international cooperation; Les systemes nucleaires du futur. Enjeux, strategie de recherche et developpement, et cooperation internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    As demonstrated by prospective studies, nuclear energy will represent a decisive contribution in the future energy mix. The long-term strategy of development of nuclear energy requires to foresee a new generation of nuclear systems, named generation 4. The goal of these new systems is to optimize the use of nuclear fuels, to minimize the generation of wastes and to enlarge the field of applications of nuclear energy to other applications like: hydrogen and synthetic fuels generation, heat generation for the industry etc. This document presents the French R and D strategy on nuclear systems of 4. generation that has been approved by the public authorities. This strategy follows three axes: a priority research on fast neutron systems with fuel recycle (sodium fast reactors (SFR) and gas fast reactors (GFR)), a research on key-technologies for the supply of very high temperature heat (very high temperature reactor (VHTR), fast and thermal neutron reactors, and water decomposition processes), and a continuation of researches on PWR reactors improvement. An integral recycling of all actinides in fast neutron reactors requires the development of new fuel reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication processes. A reference scenario for the progressive renewal of French nuclear facilities foresees the simultaneous development of fast neutron systems and the start-up of a new spent fuel reprocessing plant. France in involved in the development of the SFR, GFR and VHTR systems thanks to its participation to the Generation 4 international forum and to bilateral cooperation with other big nuclear partners like Russia and China. One of the main stakes of the French nuclear industry is to be able to invest in the R and D of future nuclear systems in order to valorize the experience gained so far in sodium FBR systems and in fuel cycle processes. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear safety research - risk and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear power industry deals in many kinds of risks, complicated by political stress and communication problems. Power plant design must prepare for the unexpected attack, physical as well as psychological, but a zero-defects technology is not possible. The public has not been made sufficiently aware of the risk the US takes if there is not enough energy because nuclear power has been curtailed. Energy shortages could drive industry and jobs abroad, force the public to turn to government for a solution, drive the country to energy allocation, and cause a nuclear war. Policies that prevent closing the nuclear fuel cycle are ineffective in preventing proliferation and counterproductive to national needs

  20. Risks and nuclear insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debaets, M.; Springett, G.D.; Luotonen, K.; Virole, J.

    1988-01-01

    When analysing the nuclear insurance market, three elements must be taken into account: the nuclear operator's liability is regulated by national laws and/or international Conventions, such operators pay large premiums to insure their nuclear installations against property damage and finally, the nuclear insurance market is made up of pools and is mainly a monopoly. This report describes the different types of insurance coverage, the system governing nuclear third party liability under the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention and several national laws in that field. The last part of the report deals with liability and insurance aspects of international transport of nuclear materials [fr

  1. District file of major risks for the Moselle district: B6 - The nuclear risk; B7 - The risk related to radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    A first document addresses the nuclear risk with some generalities (definition, occurrence, consequences for people and for the environment with an indication of exposure thresholds, presentation of individual safety directives), a discussion of the nuclear risk level in the district (history, contamination threats, preventive actions for the Cattenom nuclear plant, existence of a triple barrier for radioactive product containment, other factors aimed at nuclear safety, urban development control, control of nuclear activities, information, rescue organisation, map of concerned communes). The second document addresses the risk related to radioactive material transport with some generalities (definition, occurrence, consequences for persons and goods, individual safety directive in case of road or railway accident), a more detailed analysis of the risk in the district (situation of the radioactive material transport in the district, risk history, human and environmental stakes, preventive actions, radiation protection safety challenges, safety factors, control of transports, rescue organisation)

  2. Risk assessment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodansky, D.

    1982-01-01

    The range of risk perceptions involving nuclear power is so great that there is little hope of bridging extreme positions, but a consensus based upon reasoned discussion among uncommitted people could determine a sensible path. Our concerns over the uncertainties of risk assessment have made it increasingly difficult to make responsible decisions fast enough to deal with modern needs. The result is an immobility in energy matters that can point to a 2% reduction in oil use as its only triumph. The risk of nuclear war as a result of military action over energy issues suggests to some that the solution is to abolish nuclear power (however impractical) and to others that a rapid spread of nuclear power will eliminate energy as an incentive for war. If nuclear war is the major risk to consider, risk assessments need to include the risks of war, as well as those of carbon dioxide buildup and socio-economic disruptions, all of which loom larger than the risks of nuclear-plant accidents. Energy choices should be aimed at diminishing these major risks, even if they include the use of nuclear power. 26 references

  3. Stake holders involvement in emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.

    2002-01-01

    The management of a nuclear crisis involves many actors apart from the radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. More than stakeholders involvement, what is at stake is a better co-operation and mutual understanding amongst the various actors. This mutual understanding requires that a minimal common nuclear risk culture exists. Presently, in France, the representation of the nuclear risk is split into two clear-cut misconceptions: risk denial or catastrophe, with almost nothing in between. In order to contribute to building progressively a common nuclear risk culture, the information about the risk and its management needs to be discussed and criticized by various actors, including non institutional actors who play an important role for the diffusion of the risk culture. Hence, IPSN decided in year 2000 to elaborate a specific feature allowing information and debate on the nuclear risk and its short and long terms management. It will take the form of a CD-ROM, which is currently elaborated by a task group taking into account: - the 'social expectancies', as they have been identified by a sociologist, - the available documents about the nuclear risk, the crisis and its management, which were analysed. The analysis shows that there is a need for a new type of feature. The feature contains first a common bulk which addresses all types of nuclear accidents and then, specific developments for each type of accidents occurring in different nuclear installations. Specialists in CD-ROM design are involved in the project. It is very important to design the structure of the CD-ROM in such a way as it presents the technical information in an understandable manner for non-specialists. This CD-ROM, which should be widely distributed and will serve as a support for debates, may contribute to building up progressively a common risk culture. It should help to aim at a better mutual understanding between experts and lay people whose points of view about the nuclear risk

  4. Liability for the nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L.; Spriet, B.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs

  5. Risk management in nuclear projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The risk management will be defined by different aspects: danger or loss possibility, or responsibility for damage. The risk management is one stage of project management. The risk management is a continuous process of planning, identification, quantification, answer and risk control to maximize the success potential of activity. The reduction of risk is part of priority establishment. This work will indicate how introduce this important instrument in the management of nuclear projects. (author)

  6. Nuclear energy. Risk or advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettiger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear energy is controversial. But what's all about really in the controversy? It's about more than safty or electricity prices. Nuclear energy is not only a technical or political question, but also a moral, a human. The discussion enter various rational and irrational arguments, beside straightforward arguments various misleading and mendacious exist. The present publication is comprehensively dedicated to the thema of nuclear energy - its pro and contra - and considers its risks and advantages. Thereby the sources of energy, the processes in the nuclear reactor, and the risk potentials (Harrisburg, Chernobyl, Fukushima) are illustratively and reproducibly presented. Extensively the text explains the forms of the radiation, its doses, and the tolerance of it. Also to the theme waste and final disposal an explaining chapter is dedicated and the question for the exit from nuclear energy elucidated. Finally the author appoints with the question ''How considers mankind nuclear energy world-wide'' the international comparison.

  7. The nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudens, Henri de

    2013-06-01

    After a presentation of some general notions related to radioactivity, to the action and effects of radiation on matter and on living creatures, to natural irradiation and irradiation resulting from human activities, and to standards and regulation in radiation protection, this publication presents issues related to the safety of nuclear installations: presentation of the different types of nuclear installations, safety principles. The next part proposes an overview of different types of criticality accidents by distinguishing those occurring in medical or industrial installations and radioactive sources, those related to military activities, and those occurring in nuclear reactors. Other addressed topics are: radioactive wastes and effluents (definitions, classification, origin and quantity, packaging and storage), transportation of radioactive materials (regulation, parcel types, radiation protection during transportation, transport accidents), regulation of basic nuclear installations and safety organisation (safety control during normal operation, crisis management, post-accidental management, public information), the protection of sensitive nuclear materials (material types and general principles, regulation, arrangement to protect materials in installations, transports, audits, international controls). Nuclear fusion is then presented (principle, confinement types, the ITER project), and an overview of military applications is finally proposed (ship propulsion, nuclear weapons, the non proliferation issue)

  8. Nuclear risk and citizen information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.

    1999-01-01

    This issue studies the citizen information relative to the nuclear risk. If the regulation about the information and the participation of the citizen on the nuclear risk is relatively complete, the industrial and administrative practice is marked by the habits of information retention. The official caution has for motive the fact to provoke the unjustified anxiety of the populations. An opposite strategy is actually experimented with the operators of nuclear industry in informing the public opinion with the slightest technical incidents. (N.C.)

  9. Multilevel stake holder consensus building in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, Andrejs

    2008-01-01

    holders, including web networks of the RW disposal site investigations and decision-making, networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety; 3) Development of partnership between inter-national and intra-national stake holders - a key towards democratic dialogue, with the aim to observe the whole set of distinguishing interests and to reach a shared understanding of the disputable issue; 4) Emerged controversies are resolvable using synergetic approaches of conflict resolution: a) moderate chaos (mutual flexibility) succeeds to non-rigid step-by-step approach to the choice of the host country, b) fuzziness in the siting strategy could promote societal SO by reducing mutual misunderstanding in decision-making; 5) Social learning, cross-cultural thinking, integrative pluralism and knowledge - basic prerogatives for developing participative consciousness and co-awareness of existence of shared goals and favouring adequate equity and risk perception. The stake holder interaction for repository siting at the Lithuanian-Latvian border is treated. Conclusion: The proposed approach towards reaching consensus for siting multinational RW repositories - by emphasizing social learning and creative flexibility - can be extended to solving similar problems for arrangement of nuclear power plants and research units. One can recommend to develop - in the frame of international cooperation - further systemic interdisciplinary studies being goal-oriented towards implementing actual shared projects. (author)

  10. Risk management at GPU Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on GPU Nuclear. Among other goals, it established the independence of key safety functions as highlighted by the lessons learned from the accident. In particular, an independent Nuclear Assurance Division was established which include Quality Assurance, Training and Education, Emergency Preparedness, and Nuclear Safety Assessment. The latter consisted of corporate and site independent-safety-review groups. As the GPU Nuclear organization matured, a mid-1987 reorganization created an even more focused Planning and Nuclear Safety Division bringing together Nuclear Safety Assessment with Licensing and Regulatory Affairs and Risk Management. The Risk Management Group (RMG), which began its work in fall 1987, was formed to develop a framework for proactive identification, evaluation, and cost-effective reduction and management of risks of all types. The RMG set out to learn as much as possible about risks and their management in nuclear and other high-technology industries. This began with a thorough literature search. It progressed to interviews with individuals and organizations which have demonstrated innovative ideas, experience, and reputations for safe and reliable operation

  11. Nuclear risk behind the border?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1995-01-01

    The condition of nuclear wastes and facilities in Russia and in the Baltic countries arouses concern in Finland. Russia has two large nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons, over 300 nuclear submarine reactors and more than ten icebreaker reactors in close proximity to Finland's eastern border. The Lithuanian Ingalina nuclear power plant is also situated close to Finland. Following the Chernobyl accident, considerable improvements have been made to the technology and safety culture of Russian nuclear power plants, for instance, through international support programmes. The unstable social climate in Russia is, however, slowing progress down. Yet it is certain that no accident in the power plants near Finland's borders would cause immediate health risks in Finland, or would threaten the health of large numbers of people in the long term, either. Russia has not always taken proper care of its nuclear waste. In particular, spent fuel from nuclear submarines stored in Northern Russia causes problems. Russians have disposed of some waste by dumping ship reactors, with their fuel, into the Arctic Ocean. Some nuclear-powered submarines have sunk with all their crew. Russia has also conducted many nuclear tests in the vicinity of Finland. (orig.)

  12. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  13. Experience-based knowledge in nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness - involvement of national stake holders. Report from the EURANOS project; Erfaringsbasert kunnskap i norsk atomberedskap - medvirkning fra beroerte parter. Rapport fra EURANOS-prosjektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay-Larsen, I.; Oughton, D.; Liland, A.; Eikelmann, I.M.; Hansen, H.S.

    2009-05-15

    The report identifies and summarises the most important experiences related to long term rehabilitation of contaminated areas after the Chernobyl accident, as phrased by representatives from the agricultural sector (including reindeer herding), primary health care, academia, NGOs, local and regional authorities, as well as national authorities with responsibilities for emergency preparedness within their sector. It also includes recommendations for future collaboration to ensure competence and stake holder involvement in Norwegian nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness. (Author)

  14. Nuclear energy: benefits versus risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Of the benefits of nuclear power three are described briefly. 1. It offers virtually an inexhaustible supply of cheap electricity, so the real reason for its installation in the U.S. (80 nuclear power plants on order and 15 in operation) is to save money. (2) Nuclear power would offer a chance to clean up the atmosphere; it has been observed that the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is increasing at about 2 percent per decade, a change that may have implications for long-term effects on climate. (3) Power reactors will undoubtedly be the major producers of radioisotopes in the future; estimates of the benefits of these isotopes are of the order of $1000 million a year from such applications as fluid flow measurements, thickness gages, leak detection, well logging, deformation determinations, agricultural application, biological applications, and in medicine. Risks of operating nuclear power plants can be classified as: thermal pollution of the rivers and lakes; low level release of radioactivity into the air and ground waters caused by the normal operation of nuclear power and reprocessing plants; and the accidental release of large amounts of radioactivity. These risks are put in perspective by comparing them with common risks that man accepts daily--transportation, cigarette smoking, mountain climbing, etc.-- after which nuclear power seems not so risky after all

  15. Nuclear energy risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.D.; Bailey, R.E.; Randolph, J.C.; Hartnett, J.P.; Mastanaiah, K.

    1981-09-01

    The report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multidisciplinary policy research program. The study region consists of all of Kentucky, most of West Virginia, and substantial portions of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. By 1988, coal-fired electrical generating capacity in the region is expected to total over 100,000 MWe, versus about 11,000 MWe projected for nuclear-fueled capacity by that year. Thus, the ORBES emphasis was on coal-fired generation. This report attempts to fill in some of the gaps in the relative lack of emphasis on the risks and benefits of nuclear electricity production in the study region. It covers the following topics: (1) basic facts about radiation, (2) an overview of the current regulatory framework of the nuclear industry, (3) health risks associated with electricity production by LWRs, (4) the risks of nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and sabotage, (5) comparative economics and healthy risks of coal versus nuclear, and (6) the March 1979 accident at Three Mile Island

  16. Nuclear safety: risks and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Taking a fresh look at nuclear safety regulations, this study finds that the mandate and organization of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) militate against its making sound decisions. The author criticizes failures to make hard decisions on societal risk, to clarify responsibility, and to implement cost-effective safety measures. Among his recommendations are reorganization of the NRC under a single authoritative administrator, separation of technical issues from social ones, and reform of the Price-Anderson Act. The author concludes that the worst eventuality would be to continue the current state of indecision. 161 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  17. Risk management in nuclear power social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappa, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Problems connected with safety evaluation and risk management during operation of nuclear power installations are considered. Social aspects of risk assessment of enterprises with increased danger are discussed

  18. Risk decisions and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, S.O.

    1987-11-01

    The risk concept is multidimensional, and much of its contents is lost in the conventional reduction to a unidimensional and quantifiable term. Eight major dimensions of the risk concept are discussed, among them the time factor and the lack-of-knowledge factor. The requirements of a rational discourse are discussed, in general and in relation to risk issues. It is concluded that no single method for the comparison and assessment of risks can be seen as the only rational method. Different methods can all be rational, although based on different values. Risk evaluations cannot be performed as expert assessments, divorced from the political decision process. Instead, risk evaluation must be seen as an essentially political process. Public participation is necessary in democratic decision-making on risks as well as on other issues. Important conclusions can be drawn for the management of nuclear waste, concerning specifications for the technical solution, the need for research on risk concepts, and the decision-making process. (orig.)

  19. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Development Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2015-01-01

    There are clear advantages of development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for a crewed mission to Mars. NTP for in-space propulsion enables more ambitious space missions by providing high thrust at high specific impulse ((is) approximately 900 sec) that is 2 times the best theoretical performance possible for chemical rockets. Missions can be optimized for maximum payload capability to take more payload with reduced total mass to orbit; saving cost on reduction of the number of launch vehicles needed. Or missions can be optimized to minimize trip time significantly to reduce the deep space radiation exposure to the crew. NTR propulsion technology is a game changer for space exploration to Mars and beyond. However, 'NUCLEAR' is a word that is feared and vilified by some groups and the hostility towards development of any nuclear systems can meet great opposition by the public as well as from national leaders and people in authority. The public often associates the 'nuclear' word with weapons of mass destruction. The development NTP is at risk due to unwarranted public fears and clear honest communication of nuclear safety will be critical to the success of the development of the NTP technology. Reducing cost to NTP development is critical to its acceptance and funding. In the past, highly inflated cost estimates of a full-scale development nuclear engine due to Category I nuclear security requirements and costly regulatory requirements have put the NTP technology as a low priority. Innovative approaches utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU). Even though NTP can be a small source of radiation to the crew, NTP can facilitate significant reduction of crew exposure to solar and cosmic radiation by reducing trip times by 3-4 months. Current Human Mars Mission (HMM) trajectories with conventional propulsion systems and fuel-efficient transfer orbits exceed astronaut radiation exposure limits. Utilizing extra propellant from one additional SLS launch and available

  20. Stakes Matter in Ultimatum Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Ertaç, Seda; Gneezy, Uri

    2011-01-01

    One of the most robust findings in experimental economics is that individuals in one-shot ultimatum games reject unfair offers. Puzzlingly, rejections have been found robust to substantial increases in stakes. By using a novel experimental design that elicits frequent low offers and uses much...... larger stakes than in the literature, we are able to examine stakes' effects over ranges of data that are heretofore unexplored. Our main result is that proportionally equivalent offers are less likely to be rejected with high stakes. In fact, our paper is the first to present evidence that as stakes...

  1. Nuclear power and investor perceptions of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.I.; Miller, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper explores and quantifies the recent Wall Street fears concerning nuclear utilities. An econometric model of investor behavior is presented that quantifies the nuclear risk premium for the period when nuclear fear among investors was at its height, in mid-1984. The principal finding is that the risk premium relates primarily to nuclear construction work in progress (CWIP), rather than to the commercial operation of completed nuclear plants. 7 references, 1 table

  2. RWE sells Nafta stake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    At year-end 2000, state-owned Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) signed a Memorandum of Understanding that set the conditions for the German concern RWE to purchase a 40 % stake in Nafta Gbely. This partnership agreement was meant to grant RWE participation in the management of the gas storage operator, which is controlled by SPP, and allow RWE to increase the use of Nafta's capacities. But in the 3 years since then, these objectives were not met. RWE representatives were not appointed to the Nafta Board and not a single cubic meter of RWE gas was stored at Nafta. RWE denied that it was considering leaving Nafta. Control of Nafta and SPP gradually passed to RWE's major competitors. The attitude of RWE only changed last week, when it sold its stake in Nafta to Ruhrgas under favourable conditions. Although Ruhrgas already more or less controlled Nafta via SPP, it paid RWE 62.22 million Eur for its stake. This represents a price per share of about 12.44 Eur more than RWE paid over two years ago and about double the market price. One of the possible reasons why RWE decided to leave the company is, apart from uncertainty surrounding future participation in the company management, uncertainty regarding whether there is a profit to be made on future dividends. Another reason may be the joint operation of both rivals in a number of companies. And so the Nafta trade may be part of the establishment of areas of influence

  3. Deal or No Deal? Decision Making under Risk in a Large-Stake TV Game Show and Related Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Assem (Martijn)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe central theme of this dissertation is the analysis of risky choice. The first two chapters analyze the choice behavior of contestants in a TV game show named “Deal or No Deal” (DOND). DOND provides a unique opportunity to study risk behavior, because it is characterized by very large

  4. Risk assessment and nuclear insurance: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitchman, J.V.; King, W.T. Jr.; Olding, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the nascent years of commercial nuclear power, the insurance industry expressed confidence in the safety of nuclear operations by committing unprecedented insurance capacity to nuclear risks. As the nuclear industry has developed, it has compiled an enviable safety record. The initial confidence of the insurance industry has thus been justified and an ever-increasing portion of the financial liability associated with nuclear operations has been accepted by the world-wide insurance markets. This increasing acceptance and understanding of nuclear risks by the insurance industry has resulted in significantly reduced rates and large premium refunds for nuclear operators

  5. Can risk communication provide assistance in nuclear energy disputes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear technology in Canada appears to he limited by a lack of public acceptance of fuel waste disposal strategies. The outcome of the recent environmental assessment process conducted on the deep geological disposal concept bears-out this point. A brief review of transcripts from the he public hearing portion of this process indicates that public sentiment on the issue includes anti-nuclear attitudes and concern over equity, safety, and trust. This paper discusses Canadian sentiment on the issue and suggests that it is in line with public views on similar issues in other nations. The field of risk communication has played a significant role in understanding the root causes of public opposition. This paper suggests that the field is well-placed to play an expanded role in resolving the issues underlying public concerns, (e.g., lack of trust, public disenfranchisement with the decision making process); however, this is a supportive role. It is suggested that broad-based involvement, commitment, and collaboration among all stake holders in this dispute are necessary if improvement is to be achieved. (author)

  6. Development of nuclear power plant Risk Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoming; Sun Jinlong; Ma Chao; Wang Lin; Gu Xiaohui; Bao Zhenli; Qu Yong; Zheng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Risk Monitor is a tool to monitor the real-time risk of a nuclear power plant for risk management and comprehensive decision-making, which has been widely used all over the world. The nuclear power plant Risk Monitor applies the real-time risk model with low-complicacy that could reflect the plant's actual configuration, automatically reads the plant's configuration information from the engineering system through the developed interface, and efficiently analyzes the plant's risk Dy the intelligent parallel-computing method in order to provide the risk basement for the safety management of nuclear power plant. This paper generally introduces the background, architecture, functions and key technical features of a nuclear power plant Risk Monitor, and validates the risk result, which could well reflect the plant's risk information and has a significant practical value. (authors)

  7. Benefits and risks of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1982-01-01

    This popular report tries to compare advantages and risks of nuclear energy to one another. In comparison with other risks the author considers the remaining risk of nuclear energy acceptable. The main condition of a further development is, however, a political decision borne by the majority of the population. (UA) [de

  8. Children Do Not Behave Like Adults: Gender Gaps in Performance and Risk Taking within a Random Social Context in the High-StakesGame Shows Jeopardy and Junior Jeopardy

    OpenAIRE

    Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny; Lindquist, Gabriella Sjögren

    2014-01-01

    Using unique panel data, we compare cognitive performance and wagering behavior of children (10-11 years) with adults playing in the Swedish version of the TV-shows Jeopardy and Junior Jeopardy. Although facing the same well-known high-stakes game, and controlling for performance differences, there is no gender gap in risk-taking among girls and boys in contrast with adults, and, while girls take more risk than women, boys take less risk than men. We also find that female behavior is differen...

  9. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  10. Methods for risk estimation in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvenet, A [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    1979-01-01

    The author presents methods for estimating the different risks related to nuclear energy: immediate or delayed risks, individual or collective risks, risks of accidents and long-term risks. These methods have attained a highly valid level of elaboration and their application to other industrial or human problems is currently under way, especially in English-speaking countries.

  11. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  12. Trends in risk management in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn Seock

    1996-01-01

    Safety management may be classified into three dimensions: risk management, accident management, and emergency management. This paper addresses the recent trends of safety management in nuclear industry, focussing on risk management and accident management

  13. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  14. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  15. Shale gas - Risks and stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This book aims at exploring all aspects of the shale gas issue: geological data, environmental impacts, financial aspects and economical impacts of shale gas exploitation. It compares the available information with the field reality and defeats the dogmatic mirages. The research and compilation work carried out by the author make this book a reference in the domain of shale gas exploitation

  16. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  17. Assessing the risks of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nigel

    1986-01-01

    The question how safe is safe is discussed. The way in which nuclear energy is presented in the context of the risks inherent in daily life is considered. Calculations based on actual reactor accidents (not Chernobyl) are then extrapolated for the proposed Sizewell-B reactor. Comparison is made between the risks of the nuclear industry and coal mining. Risk perception is considered and a risk index is constructed that allows for the fact that nuclear power continues to arouse public fear in spite of a good safety record. (UK)

  18. Nuclear risk, psychological impact and public attitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghita, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Research shows that the images of potential nuclear disasters that have been formed in the mind of antinuclear on public are remarkable different from the assessments put forth by many technical experts. In communicating risk, it is important for authorities to add information about risk assessments approach and its inherent scientific uncertainties. Presenting the benefits as well as the risks also can help the audience balance the issues involved in making decisions about technical risk. The paper describes the public perceptions related to nuclear risk and the risk assessment techniques valuable as communication tools. (author)

  19. Public attitudes toward nuclear risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    As the world progresses in technology, public awareness of risks and benefits have become more acute. This is more so towards nuclear risks and benefits. This comes about when people throughout the world, because of the energy crisis, have accepted the nuclear option. Hand in hand with the benefits that it brings are the risks of radiation and other calamities. ''The role of information, the methods of public participation, and the involvement of scientific expertise play an important part in risk assessment.'' Interest in nuclear power has gained momentum with the announcement of the construction of the first nuclear power plant. Different reactions, brought about by economic, social, moral and political factors were evident, but the economic benefits seem to prevail. Nuclear power accidents, citing particularly the recent TMI incident, have started the hornets nest of nuclear controversies and have widened the scope of concern on nuclear power. The newspapers and the media, public meetings and hearings have been used as arenas of these conflicts. These brought about varying opinions and growing disagreement among the public. Risk assessment is therefore dependent on effective communication not only with the public but between scientists and decision makers and also individuals. Risk assessment in nuclear power is a complex undertaking which is to consider a wide spectrum of factors to come up with reliable results. (author)

  20. Benefits and risks of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.

    1977-03-01

    Discussion, in a popular form, of issues of interest for an unemotional information of the public on problems of nuclear power: 1) Energy consumption, its assumed growth, and possible ways of supply; 2) the physical fundamental and technical realisation of power generation by nuclear fission; 3) problems of the fuel cycle and possible solutions; 4) the effects of radioactive radiation; 5) the safety of nuclear power plants and the risks of nuclear power as compared to other technical and natural risks. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Short term and long term radiation protection aspects of a nuclear accident: a Cd-Rom for a better stake holders' involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudiz, A.; Badie, M.; Brenot, J.

    2002-01-01

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the Prefet, the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the gendarmerie and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described: professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the counter-measures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho-sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities?

  2. Proliferation risks from nuclear power infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    Certain elements of nuclear energy infrastructure are inherently dual-use, which makes the promotion of nuclear energy fraught with uncertainty. Are current restraints on the materials, equipment, and technology that can be used either to produce fuel for nuclear electricity generation or material for nuclear explosive devices adequate? Technology controls, supply side restrictions, and fuel market assurances have been used to dissuade countries from developing sensitive technologies but the lack of legal restrictions is a continued barrier to permanent reduction of nuclear proliferation risks.

  3. Reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The March 2005 'International conference on nuclear security, global directions for the future' noted that nuclear terrorism is one of the greatest threats to society. Eminent members of a multi-national panel stated that there is no one principal activity to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism and that a combination of activities is required. This paper seeks to identify those activities by analyzing the elements that comprise the risk of nuclear terrorism. For the purpose of the analysis, risk is the product of the probability of a terrorist attack (A p ), the success of a terrorist act (S p ) and the consequence (C) of the attack: R=A p * S p * C. The paper examines each of these three elements of risk with the objective of identifying what we are doing and what else we could be doing to reduce risk. It takes into consideration some historic catastrophes, examines how they might have been prevented or their consequences reduced, and if there are lessons that are applicable to reducing the risk of nuclear terrorism. The paper demonstrates that we have concentrated on only one of the three elements of risk and offer suggestions for diminishing the risk of nuclear terrorism by addressing all the elements. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  5. Global Risk of Nuclear Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Diez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nuclear terrorism, a threat that President Obama called "the gravest danger we face," has signaled a paradigm shift in international security. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, sensitive nuclear technologies and materials have become increasingly available. Globalization and the inadequate enforcement of treaties and export controls have allowed the proliferation of nuclear weapons materials. Today, international terrorist organizations seek to employ weapons of mass destruction (WMD as a means to influence national policies around the world. AlQaida spokesman Suleiman Abu Gheith declared that in order to balance the injustices that have been inflicted on the Muslim population worldwide, al-Qaida's new objective is "to kill 4 million Americans–2 million of them children." As political scientist Graham Allison notes, this could be achieved with either 1,334 attacks similar in magnitude to those of 9/11, or one nuclear bomb.Building a nuclear program is an arduous task that requires tacit knowledge, the recruitment of nuclear scientists, engineers, and machinists, and the resources and time to obtain nuclear materials and components. While it is unlikely that terrorist organizations have the capacity to develop full-fledged programs in the near term, terrorist development and acquisition of nuclear weapons remains a long-term threat that requires international action.

  6. Risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The German risk analysis program for nuclear power plants aiming at the man and the environment is presented. An accident consequence model to calculate the radiological impact and the potential health effects is described. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Specific aspects of insurance of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelici, C.

    1980-03-01

    The following questions are discussed in connection with the insurance of nuclear risks: insurance techniques, the nuclear operator's limitation of liability in amount and in time, its channelling, the principle of sole liability and exonerations, the insurers' position, the cover provided and state intervention beyond that amount. (NEA) [fr

  8. Consultant tells how to reduce nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1983-01-01

    John Garrick of Pickard, Lowe, and Garrick, an Irvine, CA, consulting firm, thinks nuclear plant risks can be measured and managed through creative use of probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). PRAs can be used to quantify the likelihood of an accident from all causes except sabotage or war, says Garrick. Although that use has been criticized, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is moving toward formal use of PRAs in its internal analyses. 7 figures, 1 table

  9. Methodology for analyzing risk at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Hosik; Lee, Nayoung; Ham, Taekyu; Seo, Janghoon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology for evaluating the risk at nuclear facilities was developed. • Five measures reflecting all factors that should be concerned to assess risk were developed. • The attributes on NMAC and nuclear security culture are included as attributes for analyzing. • The newly developed methodology can be used to evaluate risk of both existing facility and future nuclear system. - Abstract: A methodology for evaluating risks at nuclear facilities is developed in this work. A series of measures is drawn from the analysis of factors that determine risks. Five measures are created to evaluate risks at nuclear facilities. These include the legal and institutional framework, material control, physical protection system effectiveness, human resources, and consequences. Evaluation attributes are developed for each measure and specific values are given in order to calculate the risk value quantitatively. Questionnaires are drawn up on whether or not a state has properly established a legal and regulatory framework (based on international standards). These questionnaires can be a useful measure for comparing the status of the physical protection regime between two countries. Analyzing an insider threat is not an easy task and no methodology has been developed for this purpose. In this study, attributes that could quantitatively evaluate an insider threat, in the case of an unauthorized removal of nuclear materials, are developed by adopting the Nuclear Material Accounting & Control (NMAC) system. The effectiveness of a physical protection system, P(E), could be analyzed by calculating the probability of interruption, P(I), and the probability of neutralization, P(N). In this study, the Tool for Evaluating Security System (TESS) code developed by KINAC is used to calculate P(I) and P(N). Consequence is an important measure used to analyze risks at nuclear facilities. This measure comprises radiological, economic, and social damage. Social and

  10. Methods of assessing nuclear power plant risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Kovacz, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of safety evalution is based on safety criteria -standards or set qualitative values of parameters and indices used in designing nuclear power plants, incorporating demands on the quality of equipment and operation of the plant, its siting and technical means for achieving nuclear safety. The concepts are presented of basic and optimal risk values. Factors are summed up indispensable for the evaluation of the nuclear power plant risk and the present world trend of evaluation based on probability is discussed. (J.C.)

  11. Nuclear plant construction and investment risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Escalated cost estimations, delays and cancellations in nuclear construction have caused a preoccupation with the risks of nuclear power plant construction that dominates utility stock investment, overshadowing increased earnings per share and recent growth in production. The issue will be resolved when increased power demand requires new construction, but the effect has so far been to erode the economic advantage of nuclear power and threaten the ability of utilities to get rate increases high enough to cover their costs. Projected delays and cost escalations and their effects must go into an economic appraisal of the investment risks

  12. Concept of risk: risk assessment and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dissertation is a critical examination of risk assessment and its role in public policy. Nuclear power safety safety issues are selected as the primary source of illustrations and examples. The dissertation examines how risk assessment studies develop a concept of risk which becomes decisive for policy choices. Risk-assessment techniques are interpreted as instruments which secure an evaluation of risk which, in turn, figures prominently in technical reports on nuclear power. The philosophical critique is mounted on two levels. First, an epistemological critique surveys distinctions between the technical concept of risk and more familiar senses of risk. The critique shows that utilization of risk assessment re-structures the concept of risk. The technical concept is contrasted to the function of risk within a decision-maker's conceptual agenda and hierarchy of values. Second, an ethical critique exposes the value commitments of risk assessment recommendations. Although some of these values might be defended for policy decisions, the technical character of risk assessment obfuscates normative issues. Risk assessment is shown to be a form of factual enquiry which, nonetheless, represents a commitment to a specific selection of ethical and social values. Risk assessment should not be interpreted as a primary guide to decision unless the specific values incorporated into its concept of risk are stated explicitly and justified philosophically. Such a statement would allow value questions which have been sublimated by the factual tone of the analytic techniques to be debated on clear, social and ethical grounds

  13. Methodology for risk analysis of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    Both the licensing standards for general uses in nuclear facilities and the specific ones require a risk assessment during their licensing processes. The risk assessment is carried out through the estimation of both probability of the occurrence of the accident, and their magnitudes. This is a complex task because the great deal of potential hazardous events that can occur in nuclear facilities difficult the statement of the accident scenarios. There are also many available techniques to identify the potential accidents, estimate their probabilities, and evaluate their magnitudes. In this paper is presented a new methodology that systematizes the risk assessment process, and orders the accomplishment of their several steps. (author)

  14. Nuclear power plant risk assembly and decomposition for risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iden, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The state-of-the-art method for analyzing the risk from nuclear power plants is probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The intermediate results of a PRA are first assembled to quantify the risk from operating a nuclear power plant in the form of (1) core damage (or core melt) frequency, (2) plant damage state frequencies, (3) release category frequencies, and (4) the frequency of exceeding specific levels of offsite consequences. Once the overall PRA results have been quantified, the next step is to decompose those results into the individual contributors to each of the four forms of risk in some rank order. The way in which the PRA model is set up to assemble and decompose the plant risk determines the ease and usefulness of the PRA model as a risk management tool for evaluating perturbations to the PRA model. These perturbations can take the form of technical specification changes, hardware modifications, procedural changes, etc. The matrix formalism developed by Dr. Stan Kaplan for risk assembly and decomposition represents a significant breakthrough in making the PRA model an effective risk management tool. The key to understanding the matrix formalism and making it a useful tool for managing nuclear power plant risk is the structure of the PRA model. PRA risk model structure and decomposition of the risk results are discussed with the Seabrook PRA as an example

  15. Cancer risks near nuclear installations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, D.

    1999-01-01

    The descriptive studies actually at disposal bring to the fore some children leukemia aggregates around some nuclear sites. (Sellafield, and Dounreay in the United kingdom, Kruemmel in Germany). Nevertheless, the studies grouping several sites do not find any global excess. The analytical studies have not brought any answer until now, but have allowed to eliminate some hypothesis such the Gardner genetic hypothesis. (N.C.)

  16. A strategy for improving public confidence of nuclear energy based on the segmentation of stake holders -Focused on Univ. Students, the Opinion Leader in the Next Generation-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jenam

    2012-01-01

    Korea Nuclear Energy Promotion Agency(hereafter, referred as KONEPA) is a public institution established in March, 1992 to improve correct understanding of nuclear energy through development and dissemination of objective, scientific knowledge on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. KONEPA divided the targeted group into four large groups? opinion leaders, civil-social group, LOCA governments, general public/next-generation students/teachers? according to the knowledge levels of nuclear power and involvements in nuclear power plants, and implemented 'customized strategy' suited to the own characteristic of each group. Of these four groups, the next generation, focused on the 'Univ. students' will be discussed with their activities and future plans in this paper

  17. Estimating Fire Risks at Industrial Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a wide variety of nuclear production facilities that include chemical processing facilities, machine shops, production reactors, and laboratories. Current safety documentation must be maintained for the nuclear facilities at SRS. Fire Risk Analyses (FRAs) are used to support the safety documentation basis. These FRAs present the frequency that specified radiological and chemical consequences will be exceeded. The consequence values are based on mechanistic models assuming specific fire protection features fail to function as designed

  18. Public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Masae

    1991-01-01

    Public or social risk perception is composed of individual risk perceptions. But public or social risk perception should be understood as a product of social dynamism, not the sum of individual risk perceptions. After the Chernobyl accident Japanese antinuclear movements expanded nationwide. In particular, there was a strong upsurge of criticism of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Complex (NFCC) project in the siting area at Rokkasho-mura, and even in other places. The movement against the NFCC project peaked with the election of an anti-nuclear candidate in the 1989 election to the Upper House of the Japanese parliament. The result of this election, and others in the same area, reflected nuclear risk perceptions in the siting prefecture (local authority district) of Aomori. This paper examines the public attitudes to nuclear risk in Japan. The anti-NFCC movement now has a core of regional support. Given a triggering event, the anti-NFCC movement could revive rapidly and the movement could spread nationwide. (author)

  19. Managing to reduce nuclear financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillin, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear power plant projects have weathered volatile economic conditions and uncertain regulatory climates with varying degrees of success. Some electric utilities can point to excellent construction and operating records, while others have suffered continuous difficulties. Are the success stories the result of good luck or effective management. This article identifies the potential sources of financial risk in a nuclear project and describes several methods available to management for controlling financial liability. A commitment to the highest level of technical and managerial skills is cited as a necessary component of all successful nuclear undertakings. 4 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  20. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-01

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation's electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study's methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared

  1. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  2. Insurance of the Nuclear Risk in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassard, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This March, Japan commemorated the first anniversary of the Fukushima tragedy, when an unhappy combination of natural disasters led to a nuclear accident. The material and human damage was enormous and it will be decades before memories fade and the Japanese can try to forget this tragedy, which attests to the great vulnerability of - even the most advanced - economies to natural and technological risks. In the wake of the accident, there has been much debate on the pertinence of the use of nuclear fission in energy production, particularly in France. Without going over these debates once again, it is nonetheless legitimate to ask not just how well equipped we are to prevent nuclear risks, but also how the consequences of a potential nuclear disaster would be dealt with in this country. It is this question that Guy Brassard latches on to. After reminding us of the limits of the responsibility of EDF (Electricite de France) and the state in France regarding the indemnification of the damage that would ensue from such a disaster, Brassard stresses the inadequacy of the guarantees in force and calls for the creation of a reserve fund for exceptional events. He stresses the need to mitigate the nuclear risk through a clear assessment of power stations on the basis of uniform security parameters, a publicly avail able economic analysis of the electricity mix, and the establishment of measures of efficiency and prudence in the use of France's nuclear resources. He ends by proposing a model, based on a large number of international studies, for calculating the costs of a scheme for insuring against exceptional risks. From these it emerges that a very moderate increase in the price of electricity would make it possible to set aside 100 billion euros over 18 years to meet a risk that would arise only once every century. A relatively negligible investment for the future by comparison with the cost to the public finances of such a disaster occurring. (author)

  3. Insurance risk of nuclear power plant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, J.

    1976-01-01

    The limited number of sites available in the Federal Republic of Germany for the erection of nuclear power plants has resulted in the construction of multiple nuclear generating units on a few sites, such as Biblis, Gundremmingen and Neckarwestheim. At a value invested of approximately DM 1,200/kW this corresponds to a property concentration on one site worth DM 2 - 3 billion and more. This raises the question whether a concentration of value of this magnitude does not already exceed the limits of bearable economic risks. The property risk of a nuclear power plant, as that of any other industrial plant, is a function of the property that can be destroyed in a maximum probable loss. Insurance companies subdivide plants into so-called complex areas in which fire damage or nuclear damage could spread. While in some foreign countries twin nuclear power plants are built, where the technical systems of both units are installed in one building without any physical separation, dual unit plants are built in the Federal Republic in which the complexes with a high concentration of valuable property are physically separate building units. As a result of this separation, property insurance companies have no grounds for assessing the risk and hence, the premium different from those of single unit plants. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the methodology and the results of a study of public attitudes towards five energy sources: nuclear power, hydro power, solar energy, oil and geothermal energy. The analysis is based on a survey carried out in the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. The samples consist of Barangay Leaders (192 respondents), Science teachers (170 respondents), and university students (174 respondents). The survey utilized a questionnaire which is based on a psychometric model and allows for internal cross-checking of independent attitude measures. The analysis shows that for all subgroups nuclear power is the least preferred option. Those opposing nuclear power also have negative attitudes towards oil and are less favourable towards the other energy systems also. It was found that the subjects strongly related nuclear power to environmental risks (which they did not for solar, hydro, geothermal) and were not convinced about its economic benefits. They rated the technological benefits of all the five energy systems equally high and believed in sociopolitical implications of all energy systems except solar energy. Women are strongly less favourable towards nuclear power and oil than men. They are also more afraid of its risks and less convinced about its benefits. The influence of other variables like age, education and information source is rather low. The report also compares public attitudes towards nuclear power and geothermal energy in the vicinity of a geothermal site in Dumaguete City in Negros Oriental

  5. Nuclear risk management: Widening the circle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, P.

    1992-01-01

    For the French man-in-the-street, the term ''nuclear risk'' will doubtless conjure up, in the first place, the Chernobyl disaster. But owing to the widespread use made in France of radioelements and radiation in research, health protection and many industries, together, of course, with the all-pervading nuclear energy network, this risk is in fact controlled by a multitude of familiar well proven actions performed daily by a large number of people. Naturally, present provisions aimed at preventing disasters or dealing with them if they occur are grounded on analysis of extreme cases, but also on practical routine feedback provided by plant operators, experts and public authorities concerned by the nuclear industry

  6. Nuclear energy risks and benefits in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, S.

    2007-01-01

    Energy demand, rising prices, security of supply, climate change... these are major issues facing today's energy policy makers. In response, the NEA has recently published a study on Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Energy in order to provide these policy makers with authoritative information in support of their decision making. The study has also provided much of the basis for this article. (author)

  7. Sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding work faced with certain risk in recent years, the domestic nuclear power enterprises in the bidding work never stop research and explore the effective ways to guard against legal risks, and has made considerable progress, the eighteenth big country advocates the safety and efficiency of nuclear power development policy, in the face of the subsequent nuclear power construction projects have started, nuclear power enterprise bidding risk management work shoulder heavy responsibilities article through nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management present situation, proposed the sustainable promotion nuclear power enterprise procurement bidding risk management countermeasures. (author)

  8. The risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the later years the risks of nuclear proliferation have again become a major topic of interest. This is primarily due to the acute problems caused by Iraq, North Korea, and the 3 new states of the former USSR, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Analysis shows that security problems and prestige are the two most important motives, when the risks of proliferation are considered. But motives are not enough. To produce nuclear weapons a number of technological requirements must also be fulfilled. The country must be able to produce almost pure fissile material, i.e. 235 U or 239 Pu. It must also be able to solve a number of metallurgical, explosive, ignition, physics and other problems. These are in particular non-trivial, if a implosion weapon is to be designed. A review is made of the nuclear facilities in a number of the countries which have been suggested as possible future nuclear weapons countries. In particular facilities which can produce almost pure fissile materials, 235 U and 239 Pu, are considered. The possibility of nuclear terrorists have often been discussed in the media. However, it seems very unlikely that even a major terrorist or mafia organization will be able to solve all the weapons design problems, even if they could steal the fissile material. It is finally discussed what can be done to reduce the risk of further nuclear proliferation. Political pressure can be brought to bear on countries outside the NPT to join it, but it can be counter-productive, and sometimes the countries that are able to exert such pressure, are not willing to do so for other political reasons. The problem of countries which are party to the NPT, but which are believed to acquire nuclear weapons capability in violation of the treaty, can be countered by unannounced inspections of non-declared facilities. However, such inspections can only be meaningfully performed if the necessary intelligence is available. (EG)

  9. Probabilistic risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmanns, U.

    1988-01-01

    Risk analysis is applied if the calculation of risk from observed failures is not possible, because events contributing substantially to risk are too seldom, as in the case of nuclear reactors. The process of analysis provides a number of benefits. Some of them are listed. After this by no means complete enumeration of possible benefits to be derived from a risk analysis. An outline of risk studiesd for PWR's with some comments on the models used are given. The presentation is indebted to the detailed treatment of the subject given in the PRA Procedures Guide. Thereafter some results of the German Risk Study, Phase B, which is under way are communicated. The paper concludes with some remarks on probabilistic considerations in licensing procedures. (orig./DG)

  10. Quantified risk assessment - a nuclear industry viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief summary of the methodology used for the assessment of risk arising from fuel handling and dismantling operations in advanced gas-cooled reactor power stations. The difficulties with and problems arising from such risk assessments are discussed. In particular, difficulties arise from (i) the onerous risk criteria that nuclear plants are expected to satisfy, (ii) the necessary complexity of the plant, (iii) the conflicting requirements for the fault consequence assessments to be bounding but not grossly pessimistic, and (iv) areas of fault frequency assessment which contain possibly subjective considerations such as software and common mode failure. (author)

  11. Risk analysis with regard to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the following questions: why are risk analyses elaborated. How are they carried out and which problems may arise. Completeness problem, data, human factors, common-mode-failures, accident simulation. To give an idea of the applicability of the results of risk analyses the author deals with systems comparison and system optimization, maintenance and testing strategies, incidents and the course of accidents that have to be considered in designing technical safety measures for nuclear power plants. Finally, the author tries to enter into questions that might arise due to the effects risk analyses may create in the general public. (HSCH) [de

  12. Environment stakes and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquoy, Ph.

    2002-01-01

    This document devoted to the environment discusses on the following topics: the environmental policies, the threats for the environment (climatic change, water management and risks), the deforestation, the sustainable development of cities, the safety first principle, the energy challenge, the international cooperation, the North-South relations. (A.L.B.)

  13. Assessing the risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Meyerhof, D.P.; Somers, E.; Waight, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The current concern with diminishing supplies of non-renewable energy has brought into clearer focus the debate on the future of nuclear energy. Application of the risk assessment process to the biological effects of radiation is considered worthwhile so that the nature and order of the hazards entailed can be appreciated in the total context of the problem. The derivation of regulations and the process of cost-risk-benefit analysis are also discussed. In view of the widespread public concern and, on occasion, apprehension about the development of nuclear energy it has been thought useful to tabulate the elements of this concern so as to gain a fuller understanding of the manner in which the public perceives and weighs risks. (author)

  14. Radiation effects, nuclear energy and comparative risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the

  15. New nuclear investment - an unmanageable risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity supply markets in many developed countries has led to significant charges in investment patterns. The decline in orders for nuclear stations has been one consequence, as investors require quick returns and so prefer less capital-intensive sources, notably natural gas. However, a system of tradable carbon emission permits could, in effect, create a guaranteed market for non-fossil fuelled electricity. Investment in more capital-intensive forms of electricity, such as nuclear power and renewables, would therefore present a lower economic risk. (author)

  16. Risk analysis of nuclear safeguards regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ayat, R.A.; Altman, W.D.; Judd, B.R.

    1982-06-01

    The Aggregated Systems Model (ASM), a probabilisitic risk analysis tool for nuclear safeguards, was applied to determine benefits and costs of proposed amendments to NRC regulations governing nuclear material control and accounting systems. The objective of the amendments was to improve the ability to detect insiders attempting to steal large quantities of special nuclear material (SNM). Insider threats range from likely events with minor consequences to unlikely events with catastrophic consequences. Moreover, establishing safeguards regulations is complicated by uncertainties in threats, safeguards performance, and consequences, and by the subjective judgments and difficult trade-offs between risks and safeguards costs. The ASM systematically incorporates these factors in a comprehensive, analytical framework. The ASM was used to evaluate the effectiveness of current safeguards and to quantify the risk of SNM theft. Various modifications designed to meet the objectives of the proposed amendments to reduce that risk were analyzed. Safeguards effectiveness was judged in terms of the probability of detecting and preventing theft, the expected time to detection, and the expected quantity of SNM diverted in a year. Data were gathered in tours and interviews at NRC-licensed facilities. The assessment at each facility was begun by carefully selecting scenarios representing the range of potential insider threats. A team of analysts and facility managers assigned probabilities for detection and prevention events in each scenario. Using the ASM we computed the measures of system effectiveness and identified cost-effective safeguards modifications that met the objectives of the proposed amendments

  17. For a Better Estimation of Gamma Heating in Experimental Reactors and Devices: Stakes and Work Plan from Calculation Methods to Nuclear Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Matthieu; Vaglio-Gaudard, Claire; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Reynard-Carette, Christelle

    2013-06-01

    The Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) is an international Material-Testing Reactor currently under construction at CEA Cadarache. The determination of gamma heating levels in this future commercial reactor is of crucial importance as gamma heating affects both safety and performance parameters of the JHR. Required accuracy (5% at one standard deviation) makes it necessary to calibrate bias and uncertainty associated with JHR gamma-heating calculations. Main steps of bias determination for gamma-heating calculations include, firstly, the development of a calculation methodology with controlled use of physical approximations; secondly, the interpretation of gamma-heating measurements so as to determine bias supposed to be only due to nuclear data. (authors)

  18. Envirhom: stakes and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After a recall of the evolution of the international system for the protection against ionizing radiations, this report discusses the evolution of a new societal context (evolution of risk perception, concern about accidental situations). It also discusses the emerging scientific issues and challenges regarding the knowledge about biological and health effects of ionizing radiations, which requires investigations on the ecosystems, the effects of chronic low level exposures, and the propagation of effects at different biological levels (cells, tissue, individual, population, communities, and ecosystems). Then, it presents the IRSN environment-health research program, ENVIRHOM, its objectives, and its results concerning the environment on the one side, and health on the other side. The 'environment' side and the 'health' side of this program are then more precisely presented as well as their results

  19. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  20. The nuclear industry - pollution and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Unlike other power sources, the only pollution from the nuclear industry is radioactive pollution, which on average in Britain represents 0.2% of the annual dose due to natural background radiation. This 0.2% is not spread uniformly over the population and there is genuine concern about its effects where it is most concentrated. The only significant doses of radiation to the general public due to the nuclear industry are derived from the spent-fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and in particular from the concentration of Caesium-134 and Caesium-137 in fish, Ruthenium-106 in edible seaweeds and plutonium in shellfish and in silt. The concern about the possible escape of high-level wastes stored at the Sellafield site is discussed, and the hazard compared with that dangerous chemicals stored at other industrial sites. The effects of pollution by the nuclear industry, based on the conventional and generally accepted view of radiation risks, add up to a few deaths per year in the 50 million population of England and Wales from an industry producing 15% of the electricity needs of those countries. When this is compared with the risk associated with other methods of electricity production, the author concludes that replacement by nuclear power of any major source of power using fossil fuel, with the possible exception of natural gas, would save lives

  1. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John C

    2011-01-01

    The book has been developed in conjunction with NERS 462, a course offered every year to seniors and graduate students in the University of Michigan NERS program. The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used to analyze the unavailability of systems with repairs, fault trees and event trees used in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear a

  2. Applications of nuclear safety probabilistic risk assessment to nuclear security for optimized risk mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, S.K.; Harvey, S.B. [Amec Foster Wheeler, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Critical infrastructure assets such as nuclear power generating stations are potential targets for malevolent acts. Probabilistic methodologies can be applied to evaluate the real-time security risk based upon intelligence and threat levels. By employing this approach, the application of security forces and other protective measures can be optimized. Existing probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) methodologies and tools employed. in the nuclear industry can be adapted to security applications for this purpose. Existing PSA models can also be adapted and enhanced to consider total plant risk, due to nuclear safety risks as well as security risks. By creating a Probabilistic Security Model (PSM), safety and security practitioners can maximize the safety and security of the plant while minimizing the significant costs associated with security upgrades and security forces. (author)

  3. Integrated project risk management of nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Xu Yuanhui

    2001-01-01

    The concept and the features of risks in nuclear power projects are introduced, and in terms of nuclear power projects' own features, the Nuclear Power Project Integrated Risk Management Model is presented. The identification, estimation, evaluation, response plan development, control of risks and the theoretical basis of risk management are discussed. The model has feedback and control functions in order to control and manage the risks dynamically

  4. Advantages and risks of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszly, I.

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis and comparison of different energy resources available to human usage. The first in the row is the fossil energy, obtained by burning hydrocarbons and its effects, i.e. acid rains and global warming. A second example is that of renewable sources, like hydro energy and its effects like the problems generated by the necessary dams. Other renewables are wind energy, used on a small scale yet, basically clean, however with damaging effects like noise, and solar energy. Nuclear energy has its own risks, generated mainly by nuclear accidents. However, the mainly open cycle fuel consumption has the problem of creating radioactive nuclear waste. Safety in nuclear power plants is based on negative feed-back, the principles of single failure, diversity and depth protection, including the importance of human factor. The breakdown on April 10, 2003 at Paks PWP NPP is also analysed. It has been caused by residual heat during a maintenance process in an already stopped reactor, lacking proper cooling. (Gy.M.)

  5. Nuclear power risks in perspective. Proceedings of a seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, H S [ed.

    1981-01-01

    The objectives of this seminar were to inform the nuclear industry of the benefits and the radiological and other risks associated with the nuclear power generation fuel cycle; to compare these risks with other energy systems, other industries and life in general; to review current views on the public perception of risk; and to review methods for determining levels of risk acceptable to society.

  6. The nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange risk management research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    To manage and control foreign exchange rate risk under the floating exchange rate system, historical simulation method of VaR model has been utilized to evaluate the nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange risk and the risk causation has been analyzed. Finally, the measure of enhancing the nuclear power corporation's foreign exchange rate risk management level has been exposed for sharing. (author)

  7. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    nuclear radiation from Fukushima" which focus on mis-information and fear mongering. Nuclear power and NTR are powerful resources that can open many doors for future prosperity and capability. With great power comes great responsibility. Radiation and its effects need to be better understood, quantified, and communicated. A human mission to mars has its own risks of deep space radiation and is considered a considerable risk at 400 milli-Sieverts per year in deep space and 245 milli-Sieverts per year on the surface of Mars as measured by the Mars Curiosity mission. Although these quantities of ionizing radiation are within the astronaut career limit, it exceeds the yearly average amounts of ionizing radiation. Astronaut crews have experienced these levels of radiation before, but for durations shorter than a year, and a mission to Mars could possibly be 3 years in length. There is also evidence that people can comfortably handle higher levels of ionizing radiation where the radiation occurs naturally like Ramsar, Iran when people can experience 270 milli-Sieverts per year. A risk posture that the development, test, and flight of an NTR will meet opposition from groups who oppose nuclear energy must be likely and the impact can be sever to the effort. Active risk mitigation must be taken for an NTR full-scale development project. The NTR design must take into account safety for transport and off nominal conditions. Nuclear fuel element must consider containment of fission products and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) that may meet less opposition should be considered for safety and security reasons. Even though testing was conducted on Rover/NERVA safely and successfully in the 60's with exhaust sent heavenward in to open air, modern testing of NTR must consider full containment and no release of ionizing radiation to the public and must meet the current requirement of no more than 0.1 milli-Sieverts per year to the public. 0.1 milli-Sieverts is equivalent to eating one banana or

  8. Nuclear safety culture and integrated risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Orvis, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    A primary focus of nuclear safety is the prevention of large releases of radioactivity in the case of low-probability severe accidents. An analysis of the anatomy of nuclear (Chernobyl, Three Mile Island Unit 2) and nonnuclear (Challenger, Bhopal, Piper Alpha, etc.) severe accidents yields four broad categories of root causes: human (operating crew response), machine (design with its basic flaws), media (natural phenomena, operational considerations, political environment, commercial pressures, etc.)-providing triggering events, and management (basic organizational safety culture flaws). A strong management can minimize the contributions of humans, machines, and media to the risk arising from the operation of hazardous facilities. One way that management can have a powerful positive influence is through the establishment of a proper safety culture. The term safety culture is used as defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Safety Advisory Group

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-01-01

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment

  11. The stakes of radiation protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2005-01-01

    The benefit/risk ratio of radiological examinations, particularly with the multi-cut scanner, can be insured only if the justification and optimization principles are respected. the justification stands on the reference to the guide of good practice of imaging examinations and the respect of the public health code that imposes an exchange of written information between the requester and the achiever. The optimization stands on the dosimetry evaluation of his practice and the comparison with the diagnosis reference levels, to realize the examinations at the lowest radiological cost. The stakes are the certainty not to be harmful for the patient, the rehabilitation of the radiologist in his consultant part rather than in this performer one and the protection against eventual legal consequences. (N.C.)

  12. The role of stake holders in the Italian debate on the national radioactive waste deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In early 2003, following an increased concern about the international terrorist threat, the Italian Government declared an emergency status for national nuclear installations, and in particular for radioactive waste deposits. A working group of experts - mainly from the Society for the Management of Nuclear Installations (SOGIN) and the Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA) - was appointed and charged with the analysis of the technical aspects implied in the creation of a repository to host permanently LLRW and MLRW as well as to host temporarily HLRW. In November 2003 the Italian Government passed a decree to authorize the creation of a national nuclear waste repository within a geological salt deposit in the territory of Scanzano Jonico, in the Basilicata Region. The decision was made without any negotiation with the local population and the authorities of Scanzano Jonico. The lack of transparent communication and the attempt to impose the project 'from the top' was perceived as a 'deceptive strategy'. The population of the entire region spontaneously organized a mass protest movement against the project; blockades were carried out on the major highway connecting Northern to Southern Italy and the controversy gained the attention of the national mass media. Two weeks later, the Italian government withdrew the decree. Presently, the Italian nuclear waste is distributed over more than 20 locations in 11 different Regions, and the creation of a national disposal site has been postponed. The present study aims at highlighting the reasons behind social conflicts on nuclear waste risks. We will examine the attitudes and the communication strategies of the different stake holders which took part in the public debate on the Italian nuclear waste dump. Drawing on methodologies used in media studies, we are carrying out a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the main national and local newspapers in order to draw a 'map' of the

  13. Nuclear power investment risk economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, W.J.; Postula, F.D.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes an economic model which was developed to evaluate the net costs incurred by a utility due to an accident induced outage at a nuclear power plant. During such an outage the portion of the plant operating costs associated with power production are saved; however, the owning utility faces a sizable expense as fossil fuels are burned as a substitute for the incapacitated nuclear power. Additional expenses are incurred by the utility for plant repair and if necessary, decontamination costs. The model makes provision for mitigating these costs by sales of power, property damage insurance payments, tax write-offs and increased rates. Over 60 economic variables contribute to the net cost uncertainty. The values of these variables are treated as uncertainty distributions and are used in a Monte carlo computer program to evaluate the cost uncertainty (investment risk) associated with damage which could occur from various categories of initiating accidents. As an example, results of computations for various levels of damage associated with a loss of coolant accident are shown as a range of consequential plant downtime and unrecovered cost. A typical investment risk profile is shown for these types of accidents. Cost/revenue values for each economic factor are presented for a Three Mile Island - II type accident, e.g., uncontrolled core heatup. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Nuclear Waste, Risks and Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael; Swahn, Johan

    2006-01-01

    to increase trust in so far as gaining public commitment for a repository, but only as long as long-term environmental safety is made the central objective. Trust will also increase along with continued transfer to a sustainable energy system. The problems of dealing with nuclear waste are often seen as a 'show-stopper' for nuclear power. It must, however, be emphasised that nuclear power does not become compatible with sustainable development even if the best environmental solution is found for the already existing waste. Nuclear power is fundamentally based on finite resources. The technology relies on environmentally harmful mining and creates extremely hazardous waste. It also has an intrinsic risk for catastrophic release of harmful radiation and increases the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation

  15. Nuclear Waste, Risks and Sustainable Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Mikael [Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Stockholm (Sweden); Swahn, Johan [Swedish NGO Office for Nuclear Waste Review (MKG), Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    believe it is possible to increase trust in so far as gaining public commitment for a repository, but only as long as long-term environmental safety is made the central objective. Trust will also increase along with continued transfer to a sustainable energy system. The problems of dealing with nuclear waste are often seen as a 'show-stopper' for nuclear power. It must, however, be emphasised that nuclear power does not become compatible with sustainable development even if the best environmental solution is found for the already existing waste. Nuclear power is fundamentally based on finite resources. The technology relies on environmentally harmful mining and creates extremely hazardous waste. It also has an intrinsic risk for catastrophic release of harmful radiation and increases the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation.

  16. Risk perception as it applies to nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Disparate perceptions of risk have emerged as one of the critical issues confronting the future of commercial nuclear power. This paper explores the origins and possible ramifications of the public's perception of risks associated with commercial nuclear power and related high-level nuclear waste disposal programs. This paper summarizes the results of numerous psychometric studies and public opinion polls that analyze the relationship of risk to nuclear power and waste management

  17. ERP project implementation and risk management of nuclear power enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fei

    2008-01-01

    According to the characteristic and development trend of nuclear power enterprise informatization, combined with the general ERP implementation experience, the method is proposed to ensure the successful implementation and risk management of ERP project in nuclear power enterprise. (authors)

  18. Prospects for public participation on nuclear risks and policy options: innovations in governance practices for sustainable development in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M; van den Hove, S

    2001-09-14

    We outline the potential participative governance and risk management in application to technological choices in the nuclear sector within the European Union (EU). Well-conducted public participation, stakeholder consultation and deliberation procedures can enhance the policy process and improve the robustness of strategies dealing with high-stakes investment and risk management challenges. Key nuclear issues now confronting EU member states are: public concern with large-scale environmental and health issues; the Chernobyl accident (and others less catastrophic) whose effect has been to erode public confidence and trust in the nuclear sector; the maturity of the nuclear plant, hence the emerging prominence of waste transportation, reprocessing and disposal issues as part of historical liability within the EU; the nuclear energy heritage of central and eastern European candidate countries to EU accession. The obligatory management of inherited technological risks and uncertainties on large temporal and geographical scales, is a novel feature of technology assessment and governance. Progress in the nuclear sector will aid the development of methodologies for technological foresight and risk governance in fields other than the nuclear alone.

  19. Utility and risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Merz, E.; Muench, E.; Oesterwind, D.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1979-09-01

    The present report contains lectures of a seminar that was arranged by the programme group nuclear power and environment of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich . The items were: 1) Do we need nuclear energy. An attempt at a system analytic answer. 2) Energy production by means of nuclear fission. 3) The nuclear power plants. 4) Nuclear energy and radiation hazard. 5) Safety of nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  20. Nuclear safety risk control in the outage of CANDU unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Mingliang; Zheng Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fuel remains in the core during the outage of CANDU unit, but there are still nuclear safety risks such as reactor accidental criticality, fuel element failure due to inability to properly remove residual heat. Furthermore, these risks are aggravated by the weakening plant system configuration and multiple cross operations during the outage. This paper analyzes the phases where there are potential nuclear safety risks on the basis of the typical critical path arrangement of the outage of Qinshan NPP 3 and introduces a series of CANDU-specific risk control measures taken during the past plant outages to ensure nuclear safety during the unit outage. (authors)

  1. Hydrogen risk reduction in Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahed, M.A.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant with core melt and hydrogen production, the hydrogen risk is one of the main concerns. It may jeopardize the containment integrity due to violent deflagration that can lead to DDT (Deflagration Detonation Transient) or even detonation of proper hydrogen mitigation means are not available. The design of the EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) Hydrogen mitigation and control system is based on the lumped parameter code WAVCO and the 3D code GASFLOW. The concept consists of recombiners and igniters to cope with all scenarios including those without steam. The system has been checked to avoid DDT by the 7λ criteria that's implemented in GASFLOW. Future analysis could deal with determining dynamic pressure loads, if appropriate, and some sensitivity studies to check the hydrogen control measures with respect to different source locations and mass flow rates. Also a conditional criterion for determining the likelihood of fast deflagration should be developed. (author)

  2. Economic risks of nuclear power reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, R.P.; Aldrich, D.C.

    1984-04-01

    Models to be used for analyses of economic risks from events which occur during US LWR plant operation are developed in this study. The models include capabilities to estimate both onsite and offsite costs of LWR events ranging from routine plant forced outages to severe core-melt accidents resulting in large releases of radioactive material to the environment. The models have been developed for potential use by both the nuclear power industry and regulatory agencies in cost/benefit analyses for decision-making purposes. The new onsite cost models estimate societal losses from power production cost increases, plant capital losses, plant decontamination costs, and plant repair costs which may be incurred after LWR operational events. Early decommissioning costs, plant worker health impact costs, electric utility business costs, nuclear power industry costs, and litigation costs are also addressed. The newly developed offsite economic consequence models estimate The costs of post-accident population protective measures and public health impacts. The costs of population evacuation and temporary relocation, agricultural product disposal, land and property decontamination, and land interdiction are included in the economic models for population protective measures. Costs of health impacts and medical care costs are also included in the models

  3. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  4. Statistical problems in the assessment of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Information on nuclear power plant risk assessment is presented concerning attitudinal problems; and methodological problems involving expert opinions, human error probabilities, nonindependent events, uncertainty analysis, and acceptable risk criteria

  5. The effectiveness and development trend of nuclear third party liability insurance in the nuclear risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power considerably benefited mankind since it was utilized peaceably. The cleanness, safety and high efficiency of nuclear power were gradually known and recognized by the public. However at the same time, nuclear power had produced significant accident and consequently caused severe aftereffects during its utilization. Therefore, effective management of nuclear risk and reducing its accident probability are the social responsibilities of every nuclear nation. From the insurance point of view, this document analyzes the validity and development trends of nuclear third party insurance in nuclear risk management. It also introduces effectual experience in this field from nuclear insurance developed countries. This document discusses the necessity of consummating nuclear third party insurance under the aggressive development situation of nuclear power in our country. (author)

  6. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  7. Public health risks associated with the CANDU nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.; Zikovsky, L.

    1983-06-01

    This report analyzes in a preliminary way the risks to the public posed by the CANDU nuclear fuel cycle. Part 1 considers radiological risks, while part 2 (published as INFO-0141-2) evaluates non-radiological risks. The report concludes that, for radiological risks, maximum individual risks to members of the public are less than 10 -5 per year for postulated accidents, are less than 1 percent of regulatory limits for normal operation and that collective doses are small, less than 3 person-sieverts. It is also concluded that radiological risks are much smaller than the non-radiological risks posed by activities of the nuclear fuel cycle

  8. The allocation of liability for nuclear risks - the UK standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, J.W.L.

    1983-01-01

    While nuclear legislation in most countries channels liability for nuclear damage solely to the operator of a nuclear installation, contractors supplying equipment and services in the United Kingdom and abroad may be liable for nuclear risks in certain circumstances. This paper discusses the risks for which a contractor may be held liable and the uncertainties in their respect. It also suggests some steps that can be taken to ensure that such risks are borne by those who can most readily bear them. (NEA) [fr

  9. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  10. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    ...), and failure modes of systems. All of this material is general enough that it could be used in non-nuclear applications, although there is an emphasis placed on the analysis of nuclear systems...

  11. Quantifying the social costs of nuclear energy: Perceived risk of accident at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtala, Anni; Remes, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The preferences expressed in voting on nuclear reactor licenses and the risk perceptions of citizens provide insights into social costs of nuclear power and decision making in energy policy. We show analytically that these costs consist of disutility caused by unnecessary anxiety - due to misperceived risks relating to existing reactors - and where licenses for new nuclear reactors are not granted, delayed or totally lost energy production. Empirical evidence is derived from Finnish surveys eliciting explicitly the importance of risk perceptions on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts. We show that the estimated marginal impact of a high perceived risk of nuclear accident is statistically significant and that such a perception considerably decreases the probability of a person supporting nuclear power. This result holds across a number of robustness checks including an instrumental variable estimation and a model validation by observed voting behavior of the members of Parliament. The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost, and are likely to affect the revenues, costs and financing conditions in the nuclear power sector in the future. - Highlights: • Survey on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts utilized. • A high perceived risk of nuclear accident decreases support for nuclear power. • The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost.

  12. Benefits and risks of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.; Borsch, P.; Feldmann, A.; Jaek, W.; Muench, E.; Voss, A.; Wolters, J.

    1983-01-01

    In the controversy of the pro's and con's of nuclear energy, emotions and ideologies have replaced factual observations. In this situation, this contribution hopes to offer the public some factual information concerning the problems of nuclear energy. Therefore, the project group Nuclear Energy and the Environment discusses the topics of energy demands, physical principles, fuel cycle, radioactive radiation, and safety of nuclear power plants. (RW) [de

  13. Five walls against risk communication of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    The author has made efforts to establish risk communication in the nuclear industry since the JCO criticality accident. Some people understood the importance and the usefulness of risk communication both for local residents and their own business. Others, however, thought it troublesome, costly, and useless for their organization and nuclear safety. I think, unfortunately, experiences after the Fukushima accident force them to hesitate at communicating risks with the public more and more. I will discuss why and how risk communication of nuclear technology is difficult. (author)

  14. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  15. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  16. A new approach in nuclear risk theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serbanescu, D.

    1994-01-01

    The basic problem of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is the errors evaluation. The main contributor to the final PSA results is the systematical error induced by the method itself. There may be some alternatives to the PSA classical approaches. All the new more successful approaches in the PSA results validation are related to the modelling problem. A comparison between two possible approaches for a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) leakage event tree is included: The new approach proposed in (Serbanescu, 1991); the approach used in (Serbanescu, 1992), based on some unexplored yet features of the existing PSA analyses. The results are presented in relative units and an algorithm which was already implemented on an IBM.PC computer (Serbanescu, 1991) is used as a tool to decisions making tool. The decision making process should be based on a nuclear power plant (NPP) between modelling from the risk analysis point of view. This is the main feature of the proposed approach. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Communication on the risk of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    The contribution takes it that the assumption, acceptance problems of nuclear energy are based on information deficit, is groundless in the end. It is true that there is a big knowledge gap between the nuclear energy experts and the broad public, empirical investigations, however, point out that increased knowledge would by no means go along with increased nuclear energy acceptance in the population. Also, the interpretation pattern 'Science and technology hostility' is not good enough to explain the nuclear energy controversy, because nuclear energy opponents oppose nuclear energy in an increasingly professional manner, and as an alternative they do not propagate renunciation of technology but another kind of energy technology. The degree of intensity and the long duration of the nuclear energy controversy in the Federal Republic of Germany in international comparison is defined by 1. little willingness in the 'interest block' in state, industry and nuclear research in favour of speeding up nuclear energy expansion, to yield to the requirements of the anti-nuclear-energy movement, and 2. factual possibilities of the ecological movement, also without parliamentary majority, to hinder the nuclear energy program and, consequently, to influence political decisions. In addition, social peripheral conditions play a role. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  19. Risk assessment for nuclear processes at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, one of the US Department of Energy's nuclear materials processing facilities, has for many years conducted risk-based safety analyses for the nuclear processes conducted at the facilities. This approach has allowed comparisons of risks to established criteria for acceptability. When the risk-based program was begun, it was evident that its success would depend upon having a compilation of data that was site specific. The decision was made to create a data bank of undesirable events that had occurred at the site's nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. From this modest beginning, five data banks have been created for nuclear fuel reprocessing, waste management, nuclear fuel fabrication, tritium operations, and the Savannah River Technology Center. In addition to the primary purpose of providing a sound basis for risk-based safety analyses, these highly versatile data banks are routinely used for equipment breakdown histories, incident investigations, design studies, project justifications, reliability studies, process problem solving, training, and audits

  20. Perceived nuclear risk, organizational commitment, and appraisals of management: A study of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.; Salminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined to what extent nuclear risk perceptions, organizational commitment (OC), and appraisals of management are associated with each other among nuclear power plant personnel. The sample consisted of 428 nuclear power plant workers who completed a questionnaire at their workplace. Perceived nuclear risk and OC were most closely related to the appraisals of the top management of the organization. As the trust in and satisfaction with the top management increased, perceived nuclear safety and acceptance of the organizational goals and values heightened. This result is discussed in the context of industrial safety management. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, Loic; Dupain, Julien; Descamps, Olivier; Blosseville, Thomas; Connors, Anne; Canto, Albane; Robischon, Christian; Boedec, Morgan; Tubiana, Fabian; Bomstein, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  2. Liability for the nuclear risk; Aansprakelijkheid voor het nucleaire risico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faure, M. [ed.] [Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands); Govaerts, P.; Malbrain, C.; Veuchelen, L. [Centre d`Etude de l`Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Spriet, B. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Inst. voor Strafrecht; Heldeweg, M.; Hertogs, M.; Van Maanen, G.; De Roos, T.; Seerden, R. [Maastrichts Europees Instituut voor Transnationaal Rechtswetenschappelijk Onderzoek METRO, Rijksuniversiteit Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    1993-12-31

    Results of a cooperative research project on the juridical aspects of nuclear risk (criminal, civil and administrative aspects), according to the Belgian and Dutch laws, are presented. In this multi-disciplinary project also attention is paid to the economic impacts and positive-scientific aspects of the nuclear risk regarding radioactive waste problems and nuclear accidents. The liability for and the decision-making regarding the site selection of nuclear power plants is dealt with as well. 9 figs., 23 tabs., 198 refs.

  3. A stake in the business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Chris T

    2005-09-01

    When Chris Sullivan and three friends opened the first Outback Steakhouse in March 1988, in Tampa, Florida, they were hoping it would be successful enough to spawn a few more and maybe some other kinds of restaurants as well. Since then, their chain of Australia-themed restaurants has grown to some 900 locations and counting-plus another 300 or so "concept" restaurants that operate from under Outback's corporate umbrella. Growth like that doesn't happen accidentally, Sullivan says, but it certainly wasn't part of the original plan. In this first-person account, Outback's chairman describes the organization's formula for growth and development, which is consciously rooted in the founders' belief in putting people first. They've created an organizational model in which field managers make most of the decisions, garner the rewards, and live with the consequences. Specifically, the founders believe that the most effective way to make customers happy is to first take care of the people who cook for them, serve them, and supervise operations at the restaurants. Outback servers have fewer tables to worry about than those at other restaurant chains; the cooks have bigger, cooler, better-equipped kitchens; and the supervisors work their way up the ranks toward an equity stake in the restaurant or region they run. There are no administrative layers between field managers and the executives at headquarters. Giving employees good working conditions and the chance to become owners has proved to be good business: Turnover among hourly employees is low, and Outback and its subsidiaries opened 120 restaurants last year, increasing sales by 20.1%. The company must grow in order to keep offering career opportunities to its workers; in turn, those opportunities ensure that Outbackers remain committed to making customers happy and the company successful.

  4. Discussions about nuclear and radiation risk information communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Erqi; Peng Xianxun

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the definition and the objective of risk communication and the development of the risk communication research. It stated that how to establish a trustworthy relationship with public and the 8 aspects that should be done for keeping the relationship. With the analysis of the cognition and the influencing of the nuclear and radiation risk, this article figured out the factors which could influence the cognition of public on nuclear and radiation risk. Moreover, it explained the principles for enhancing the efficiency of the risk communication and the specific works in each phase of the risk communication. Finally, the suggestions for the development of the risk communication of the nuclear and radiation in China had been provided. (authors)

  5. Colloquium on the stakes and new realities of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Today, renewable energies represent 23% of the French energy production and should become a real advantage to overcome the greenhouse effect stakes and to optimize the durable development policy. This book brings together the interventions of the different participants to this colloquium on renewable energies. The following aspects were covered: how to make renewable energies profitable in the framework of an industrial facility; which specific renewable energy models would allow to overcome the greenhouse effect stake; how emission permits can incite to the use of renewable energies and reduce the pollution tax amount; how to take advantage of the new wastes valorization techniques in the rationalization of energy expenses; advantages and limitations of renewable energies in the on-site energy optimization; opportunities and stakes of the climate risk for renewable energies; last developments of the national regulatory framework applicable to renewable energies; status and perspectives of the European directive project on renewable energies; the suitability of renewable energies with respect to the energy needs of the industry and tertiary sectors; how to insert renewable energies in a durable development policy; how to exploit the diversity of renewable energies in order to maximize their economical and environmental potentialities; how to integrate the solar thermal and photovoltaic energies in the framework of a global environmental policy. (J.S.)

  6. Discussion about risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Yeyi

    2008-01-01

    The article introduces the background and status quo of regulations on the nuclear safety in China, and points out the inadequacies existing with the current regulations. The author explains the risk-informed safety management concerning its development, status quo, and achievements made, in an attempt to make out the trend of improving regulations on the nuclear safety through risk-informed methods. Combining the U.S. development program of establishing risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety, the author narrates principles and features of the new regulations system, and provides suggestions for the promotion of risk-informed safety management and establishment of risk-informed regulations on the nuclear safety. (author)

  7. Nuclear risk: information of medical practitioners in Isere Department. Impact of the booklet: 'doctors and nuclear risk'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonquet, M.E.

    1990-02-01

    In this thesis, the author first presents 'Isere, pilot department' operation, then the importance of nuclear risks in Isere, considers the role and place of medical practitioners in the management of this risk and in information request of medical personnel. The author also presents the booklet 'Doctors and nuclear risk' and analyzes the results of study on its impact close to medical population. 9 tabs., 25 figs

  8. Nuclear energy and the public: risk perception, attitudes and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1982-01-01

    A research group at the Nuclear Research Centre, Julich, has attempted to trace public attitudes to nuclear power and their roots. The structure of attitudes, types of reasoning and the processes involved in deciding about nuclear power were measured. Intuitive perceptions of technology and risk were studied. Attitudes to nuclear energy are found to be the result of intuitive processes and opposition is 'natural' on the basis of intuitive reasoning. Many people who believe nuclear power to be hazardous nevertheless will accept it as inevitable for the economic advantages it will bring in the future. (U.K.)

  9. Putting risk analysis into perspective: a comparative review of major societal risk studies of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.E.; Hansson, B.; Kaspersson, R.; ORiordan, T.; Paschen, H.

    1983-04-01

    The emphasis in this final report of the project Evaluation of major Swedish energy risk assessments in an international perspective is shifted towards the comparative aspect. The comprehensive nuclear risk study has been used as an instrument to satisfy many needs simultaneously. The research consisted of an examination of existing risk studies of five nations, namely West Germany, UK, US, Canada and Sweden. The effect of nuclear risk studies on society at large and on public attitude towards nuclear power in particular is discussed. Finally, the effect on the nuclear establishment is analysed. (G.B.)

  10. The nuclear risk and its comparison with the risks of other human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    After some definitions concerning the concept of risk, the acceptable risk, the risk level and the social and individual aversion, the article analysis the nuclear prejudice and its probability, by emphasizing all the difficulties to establish a scientific opinion in the nuclear field as well as the lack of statistics of nuclear accidents. Some examples of different reactor accidents of high likelihood are presented and compared with other types of risks of the same probability. Identical analyses are executed for the mean and low probability accidents of the pacific applications of the nuclear industry. (A.F.)

  11. The nuclear accident risk: a territorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroise, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    How many people live in the vicinity of French nuclear power stations? Recent events - notably in Japan, but also in France - highlight the urgent need to be able to predict the possible effects of a nuclear accident on surrounding territories. Here, Ambroise Pascal identifies two key criteria for such an estimation: residential density and land use. (author)

  12. The media treatment of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.

    1987-01-01

    The way that newspapers, radio and television news work, is explained so that reporting of nuclear stories can be better understood. The media's attitude to what makes a story newsworthy is explained. This, coupled with a chronology of the rise of the anti-nuclear lobby, is used to explain why some stories have been given prominence. The secretive and evasive attitude of the nuclear industry coupled with poorly communicated information about leaks etc have contributed to a lack of trust and made the public more aware and concerned with nuclear matters. This has sometimes led to unbalanced reporting by the media. The coverage of the Chernobyl reactor accident is examined. Some general points about the openness of BNFL and the government's reporting of nuclear incidents are made. (UK)

  13. Risks of nuclear crisis in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, Camille

    2015-01-01

    The author first recalls the history of the emergence of a nuclear Asia, its evolution during and after the Cold War. As Asia appears to be a region combining phenomena of proliferation and of arms race, the author outlines the multiple possibilities of emergence of a nuclear crisis in this region: possibility of conflict between Pakistan and India, the unpredictable behaviour of North Korea, a crisis between China and Taiwan or China and Japan that might result in a US commitment. The author then identifies some peculiarities of Asian nuclear challenges: a context of arms race with rather opaque nuclear postures and doctrines of Asian countries, development of antimissile capacities and of autonomous ballistic programmes in different Asian countries, project of development of anti satellite weapons by China. For all that, nuclear deterrence appears not to be surely operative in Asia

  14. Fukushima and thereafter: Reassessment of risks of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, T.N.; Gopi Rethinaraj, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident on March 11, 2011 in Japan has severely dented the prospects of growth of civilian nuclear power in many countries. Although Japan's worst nuclear accident was triggered by an unprecedented earthquake and tsunami, inadequate safety countermeasures and collusive ties between the plant operators, regulators, and government officials left the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant beyond redemption. A critical examination of the accident reveals that the accumulation of various technical and institutional lapses only compounded the nuclear disaster. Besides technical fixes such as enhanced engineering safety features and better siting choices, the critical ingredient for safe operation of nuclear reactors lie in the quality of human training and transparency of the nuclear regulatory process that keeps public interest—not utility interest—at the forefront. The need for a credible and transparent analysis of the social benefits and risks of nuclear power is emphasized in the context of energy portfolio choice. - Highlights: ► Public perception associates reactor accidents with nuclear weapon explosions. ► Future siting of nuclear plants should avoid coasts prone to flooding and tsunamis. ► Nuclear regulators have to independent from political and industry pressures. ► Building new nuclear power plants will not be feasible without state subsidies. ► Social cost benefit analysis of nuclear power is essential to gain public acceptance.

  15. Ways and means of insuring against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell Miles, A.

    1975-01-01

    Despite stringent safety requirements imposed upon nuclear installations, the need for adequate insurance cover is motivated by the consideration that a nuclear accident could lead to very grave consequences. To marshal the large insurance capacity required, national pools were formed in many countries, which may enter into arrangements with other similar national pools to increase their own capacity with a view to an appropriate spread of the risks involved. In the absence of a national nuclear pool, application for nuclear insurance would normally be made to the national insurance market association concerned. Virtually every type of nuclear risk is insurable; various forms of material damage and liability insurances are available. The financial liability of nuclear operators is established by national legislation on the basis of international conventions. Insurance coverage is linked to the operator's amount of liability established by law. A third party nuclear liability insurance policy usually consists of three parts: Part I covers the operator's liability under his domestic nuclear legislation; Part II provides non-nuclear power for accidents on the site up to a separate liability limit selected by the operator; and Part III provides cover for costs. Other types of insurance deal with damage to the site and the installation (material damage), consequential losses, contingent liabilities of suppliers of goods and services (products liability), nuclear material in transit and nuclear-propelled ships. (author)

  16. Nuclear energy: public controversies and the analysis of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sills, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Energy is a social concept, the product of social, economic, and political processes that define certain raw materials as resources and thus convert them into usable energy. Like all social concepts, energy is controversial. Out of a wide range of controversies, three are selected for analysis here: (1) the relationship of nuclear power systems to nuclear weapons proliferation; (2) the risks of terrorism and sabotage associated with the operation of nuclear power facilities, including threats to civil liberties; and (3) the problems associated with the long-term management of radioactive wastes. The final section of the paper describes various modes of analyzing risks and the perception of risks. It is concluded that it may take many decades to learn whether nuclear energy is as natural a source of electrical power as wells are of drinking water, or whether nuclear energy is a horror that mankind in the 1980s or 1990s took a hard look at and then backed away. (author)

  17. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for nuclear power has declined greatly, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. Numerous studies have demonstrated the public's extreme perceptions of risk and negative attitudes regarding nuclear power. This negativity is remarkable in light of the confidence most technical analysts have regarding the safety of this technology. Public fears and opposition to nuclear power can be seen as a crisis in confidence, a profound breakdown in trust in the scientific, governmental, and industrial managers of nuclear technologies. The problem is not due to public ignorance or irrationality, but is deeply rooted in individual psychology and the adversarial nature of our social, institutional, legal, and political systems of risk management. In the absence of revolutionary changes in the ways that risks are managed in our society, it is unlikely that public trust, confidence, and acceptance of nuclear power can be regained

  18. Innovative real time simulation training and nuclear probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Operator errors have been an area of public concern for the safe operation of nuclear power plants since the TMI2 incident. Simply stated, nuclear plants are very complex systems and the public is skeptical of the operators' ability to comprehend and deal with the vast indications and complexities of potential nuclear power plant events. Prior to the TMI2 incident, operator errors and human factors were not included as contributing factors in the Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies of nuclear power plant accidents. More recent efforts in nuclear risk assessment have addressed some of the human factors affecting safe nuclear plant operations. One study found four major factors having significant impact on operator effectiveness. This paper discusses human factor PRAs, new applications in simulation training and the specific potential benefits from simulation in promoting safer operation of future power plants as well as current operating power plants

  19. Transportation risks in the US nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, R.E.; Andrews, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Estimated risks associated with accidental releases of materials transported for each step of the nuclear fuel cycle are presented. The risk estimates include both immediate and latent fatilities caused by releases of these materials in transportation accidents. Studies of the risk of transporting yellowcake, fresh nuclear and low level wastes from the front end of the fuel cycle have not been completed. Existing information does permit estimates of the risks to be made. The estimates presented result from the very low hazards associated with release of these materials. These estimates are consistent with the results of other studies. The results show that risks from all the fuel cycle transportation steps are low. The results also indicate that the total transportation risks associated with the nuclear fuel cycle are distributed about evenly between the fuel supply end and waste management end of the cycle. Risks in the front end of the cycle result primarily from the chemical toxicity of the materials transported. The results of the risk analysis studies for transportation of nuclear fuel cycle materials are compared with the results for the three studies that have been completed for non-nuclear systems. The risk analysis methodology used in these studies identifies the complete spectrum of potential accident consequences and estimates the probability of events producing that level of consequence. The maximum number of fatalities predicted for each material is presented. A variety of risk measures have been used because of the inherent difficulties in making risk comparisons. Examination of a number of risk measures can provide additional insights and help guard against conclusions that are dependent on the way the risk information has been developed and displayed. The results indicate that the risks from transporting these materials are all relatively low in comparison to other risks in society

  20. The risks at nuclear power stations and their insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1994-01-01

    Insurance can offer an uninterrupted insurance cover from start-up-to shut-down of a nuclear power station. This is assured by the insurance for the erection, for the nuclear liability, for the nuclear/fire, for the engines, for operational interruptions and for the transport. For each of the above mentioned insurance branches, essential characteristic features, such as risk carrier, protection range and insurance costs, are given. (orig.) [de

  1. Nuclear Power: Understanding the Economic Risks and Uncertainties

    OpenAIRE

    Kessides, Ioannis N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies the fundamental elements and critical research tasks of a comprehensive analysis of the costs and benefits of nuclear power relative to investments in alternative baseload technologies. The proposed framework seeks to: (i) identify the set of expected parameter values under which nuclear power becomes cost competitive relative to alternative generating technologies; (ii) identify the main risk drivers and quantify their impacts on the costs of nuclear power; (iii) estima...

  2. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: jonatasfmata@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  3. Application of probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Jonatas F.C. da; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi, occurred in Japan in 2011, brought reflections, worldwide, on the management of nuclear and environmental licensing processes of existing nuclear reactors. One of the key lessons learned in this matter, is that the studies of Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Severe Accidents are becoming essential, even in the early stage of a nuclear development project. In Brazil, Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, CNEN, conducts the nuclear licensing. The organism responsible for the environmental licensing is Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, IBAMA. In the scope of the licensing processes of these two institutions, the safety analysis is essentially deterministic, complemented by probabilistic studies. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is the study performed to evaluate the behavior of the nuclear reactor in a sequence of events that may lead to the melting of its core. It includes both probability and consequence estimation of these events, which are called Severe Accidents, allowing to obtain the risk assessment of the plant. Thus, the possible shortcomings in the design of systems are identified, providing basis for safety assessment and improving safety. During the environmental licensing, a Quantitative Risk Analysis (QRA), including probabilistic evaluations, is required in order to support the development of the Risk Analysis Study, the Risk Management Program and the Emergency Plan. This article aims to provide an overview of probabilistic risk assessment methodologies and their applications in nuclear and environmental licensing processes of nuclear reactors in Brazil. (author)

  4. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  5. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  6. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  7. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Process for Risk-Informing the Nuclear Waste Arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is increasing the use of risk insights and information in its regulation of nuclear materials and waste. The objective of this risk-informed regulatory effort is to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the agency, while maintaining or increasing its focus on safety. The agency's Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards (NMSS) proposed a five-step process to carry out a framework for increasing the use of risk information and insights in its regulation of nuclear materials and waste. The office is carrying out the five-step process to risk-inform the nuclear materials and waste arenas. NMSS's actions included forming a Risk Task Group and the use of case studies to test and complete screening criteria for identifying candidate regulatory applications amenable for risk-informing. Other actions included involving stakeholders through enhanced public participation, developing safety goals for materials and waste regulatory applications, and establishing a risk training program for staff. Through the case studies, NRC staff found the draft screening criteria to be effective in deciding regulatory areas that may be amenable to an increased use of risk insights. NRC staff also found that risk information may have the potential to reduce regulatory burden and improve staff's efficiency in making decisions, while maintaining safety. Finally, staff found that it would be possible to develop safety goals for the nuclear materials and waste arenas

  8. New risks for a new era in nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purica, I.

    2002-01-01

    At present, the nuclear power is re-emerging after a still ongoing controversial period. The risks, that have started to be analyzed in the nuclear industry, opened the way for methods and algorithms that are wide spread now in all situations whose strong dynamics requires that kind of approach. The onset of terrorism in the last year and risk exposure of the nuclear power plants, that are potential sources of hazards if targeted appropriately, require orienting the risk methods to this type of analysis along with the technical solutions. Also, the financial volatility of the world of today, creates barriers in the development of nuclear plant financial structures. The possibility to combine the decommissioning of old thermal capacities and their replacement with nuclear capacities that results in Emission Reduction Units that can be traded internationally, raise the opportunity for a better financial structure of nuclear power projects in connection with thermal capacity shutdown. The risk decreasing is significant and the impact on the costs make nuclear power even more cost-effective. In the paper we review some aspects of terrorism risk analysis and the impact of emission trading on the financial structure of an NPP project in very conservative conditions. (author)

  9. Media and risk. A phase model elucidating media attention to nuclear energy risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Silje

    2017-01-01

    In today's risk-filled society, it is vital to recognize not only the risks that we face every day, but also that knowledge of such risks spreads, above all, via mass media. Risk-related information contributes to our knowledge and affects how we perceive risks and what risk decisions we ultimately make. Among the most memorable disasters of risks taken in recent memory, the nuclear energy accident in Fukushima, Japan, in 2011 changed how the public, policymakers, and media outlets perceive and deliberate the risk of nuclear energy. In response, the research question of this study interrogates how media portrayed the risk of nuclear energy and how coverage of the technology changed after the accident at Fukushima. The study concentrates on how two Swiss newspapers covered nuclear energy between 2010 and early 2015. By using a broad definition of risk and an innovative empirical operationalization of the concept, the study identifies different risk attention phases in media coverage, each characterized by different focus on risk dimensions. Interestingly, results show that those media paid considerable attention to political decisions about the use of nuclear energy, and surprisingly, the detrimental dimension of risk was in focus even before the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. Although the benefits of nuclear technology became obscured after Fukushima, they recuperated interest as early as a year later. Such results raise a question regarding risk decisions and the use of nuclear energy - namely, when do societies decide upon risks, and how do media portray the risk at that moment in time?

  10. Media and risk. A phase model elucidating media attention to nuclear energy risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, Silje

    2017-07-01

    In today's risk-filled society, it is vital to recognize not only the risks that we face every day, but also that knowledge of such risks spreads, above all, via mass media. Risk-related information contributes to our knowledge and affects how we perceive risks and what risk decisions we ultimately make. Among the most memorable disasters of risks taken in recent memory, the nuclear energy accident in Fukushima, Japan, in 2011 changed how the public, policymakers, and media outlets perceive and deliberate the risk of nuclear energy. In response, the research question of this study interrogates how media portrayed the risk of nuclear energy and how coverage of the technology changed after the accident at Fukushima. The study concentrates on how two Swiss newspapers covered nuclear energy between 2010 and early 2015. By using a broad definition of risk and an innovative empirical operationalization of the concept, the study identifies different risk attention phases in media coverage, each characterized by different focus on risk dimensions. Interestingly, results show that those media paid considerable attention to political decisions about the use of nuclear energy, and surprisingly, the detrimental dimension of risk was in focus even before the 2011 nuclear accident in Japan. Although the benefits of nuclear technology became obscured after Fukushima, they recuperated interest as early as a year later. Such results raise a question regarding risk decisions and the use of nuclear energy - namely, when do societies decide upon risks, and how do media portray the risk at that moment in time?.

  11. An approach for determining the acceptable levels of nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a methodology for determining the acceptable levels of risk with respect to nuclear energy. It was concluded that the Atomic Energy Control Board should identify the interest groups that affect its choice of an acceptable level of risk, determine their expectations, and balance the expectations of the various groups such that the resulting acceptable level of risk is still acceptable to the Board. This would be done by interviewing experts on the subject of nuclear safety, developing and pretesting a public questionnaire, and surveying the public on acceptable cost-risk combinations

  12. Risk assessment for transportation of radioactive materials and nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Wilson, R.K.; Hartman, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the lead technical role for probabilistic risk assessments of transportation of nuclear weapons, components, and special nuclear material in support of the US Department of Energy. The emphasis of the risk assessments is on evaluating the probability of inadvertent disposal of radioactive material and the consequences of such a release. This paper will provide an overview of the methodology being developed for the risk assessment and will discuss the interpretation and use of the results. The advantages and disadvantages of using risk assessment as an alternative to performance-based criteria for packaging will be described. 2 refs., 1 fig

  13. Opportunities to reduce risk associated with nuclear logging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wraight, P.D.; Robinson, E.; de Fleurieu, R.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear logging provides petroleum exploration and production companies with data that are critical to their decisions and operations. Because this type data is so important, environmentally conscious well-logging and service companies are constantly reviewing the risks to people and environment associated with nuclear sources with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle in mind. Opportunities to additionally reduce risks, which can be accomplished only with the active involvement of oil companies, are proposed in this paper

  14. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs

  15. Development of Risk Assessment Methodology for State's Nuclear Security Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Seo, Hyung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Kwak, Sung Woo

    2011-01-01

    Threats of nuclear terrorism are increasing after 9/11 terrorist attack. Treats include nuclear explosive device (NED) made by terrorist groups, radiological damage caused by a sabotage aiming nuclear facilities, and radiological dispersion device (RDD), which is also called 'dirty bomb'. In 9/11, Al Qaeda planed to cause radiological consequences by the crash of a nuclear power plant and the captured airplane. The evidence of a dirty bomb experiment was found in Afganistan by the UK intelligence agency. Thus, the international communities including the IAEA work substantial efforts. The leaders of 47 nations attended the 2010 nuclear security summit hosted by President Obama, while the next global nuclear summit will be held in Seoul, 2012. Most states established and are maintaining state's nuclear security regime because of the increasing threat and the international obligations. However, each state's nuclear security regime is different and depends on the state's environment. The methodology for the assessment of state's nuclear security regime is necessary to design and implement an efficient nuclear security regime, and to figure out weak points. The IAEA's INPRO project suggests a checklist method for State's nuclear security regime. The IAEA is now researching more quantitative methods cooperatively with several countries including Korea. In this abstract, methodologies to evaluate state's nuclear security regime by risk assessment are addressed

  16. Public perception process of nuclear power risk and some enlightenment to public education for nuclear power acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based on the international research literatures on perception of risks, designs a conceptual model of public perception of nuclear power risk. In this model, it is considered that the public perception of nuclear power risk is a dynamic, complicate and closed system and is a process from subjective perception to objective risk. Based on the features of the public perception of nuclear power risk and multi-faceted dimension influences as discussed, suggestions for the public education for nuclear power acceptance are given in five aspects with indication that the public education for nuclear power acceptance plays an important role in maintaining the public perception of nuclear power risk system. (author)

  17. Maintenance risk management in Dayabay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Tong Jiejuan

    2005-01-01

    The importance of proper maintenance to safe and reliable nuclear plant operation has long been recognized by the nuclear utility and regulatory body. This paper presents a process of maintenance risk management developed for a Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The process includes three phases: (I) long term maintenance plan risk management, (II) monthly maintenance plan risk management, and (III) detailed risk management for high risk configuration. A risk matrix is developed for phase I whose purpose is to provide a rough guide for risk management in the making of the annual maintenance plan. For Phase II and Phase III, a software tool named Maintenance- Risk-Monitor is developed based on the internal initiating event, level 1 PSA model. The results of Phase II are the risk information of the all plant configurations caused by the unavailability of the components included the monthly maintenance plan. When the increase of core damage frequency (CDF) or the incremental core damage probability (ICDP) of a configuration is higher than the corresponding thresholds, Phase III is needed for this high risk configuration to get the useful information such as risk-importance components, human actions and initial events, from which appropriate preventive measurements could be derived. It is hoped that the provided process of maintenance risk management, together with the developed software tool, could facilitate the maintenance activities in the NPPs of China. (authors)

  18. Climate Change or Nuclear Power - Which Risk do we Prefer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, Donald

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and nuclear power provide two of the biggest technological risks of our times. Both involve widespread risks, long-term wastes and inter-generational equity, but in rather different ways. If it came to a choice, which is the worse set of risks to run? Serious doubts have been raised whether the implementation of renewable energies and energy saving are able in practice to deliver quickly enough the radical reductions of CO 2 emissions that are needed to tackle climate change. Some countries may face a dilemma - to continue another generation of nuclear power or to accept that its CO 2 emissions will rise when current nuclear stations finish their time? This paper compares the risks, and explores the ethical issues around which a society would have to weigh up such a choice, the role of the precautionary principle, and the place of expert and lay evaluations of risk (full text of contribution)

  19. Nuclear power: accident probabilities, risks, and benefits. A bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    This report is a selected listing of 396 documents pertaining to nuclear accident probability and nuclear risk. Because of the attention focused on these concepts by the recent (August 1974) publication of the draft of WASH-1400, ''Reactor Safety Study,'' it is intended that this bibliography make conveniently available the existence of relevant literature on these concepts. Such an awareness will enhance an understanding of probability and risk as applied to nuclear power plants and is essential to their further development and/or application. This bibliography includes first a listing of the selected documents with abstracts and keywords, followed by three indexes: (1) keyword, (2) author, and (3) permuted title

  20. Health risk in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznakov, V.

    1997-01-01

    Worked out are the health risk indices for NPP personnel that could be used in normal operation and in case of accident. These indices concern temporary incapacity for work, invalidity, lethality, cancer, etc. Risk estimation is based on produced energy in NPP or on the collective dose of personnel exposure. Assessed are the specific risk values for NPP ''Kozloduy'', which show that the risk in normal operation is significantly low (of the order of 2.3 ./. 7.2 x 10 -4 for invalidity, lethality and cancer). Health risk indices can be used when comparing various alternative energy sources, as well as for determination of the power strategy of a country. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plants without the risk of a reactor disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, L.

    1980-01-01

    Nowadays everybody believes that all nuclear power plants are an inevitable risk for the life of the people in its environment; this is a prejudice. This article points out that it is possible to plan nuclear power plants in a way that no deaths in the population have to be feared, even in the heaviest possible disturbances. In order to realise such nuclear power plants, it is necessary either to improve the cooling of the fuel rods by passive additional safety measures of which one unlimitedly efficient thus excluding a nuclear melting accident or to improve the safety containers so that it remains sufficiently tight. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Risk Prevention for Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawy, I.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper investigates the parameters which may have effects on the safety of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources used in peaceful applications of atomic energy. The emergency response planning in such situations are also indicated. In synergy with nuclear safety measures, an approach is developed in this study for risk prevention. It takes into consideration the collective implementation of measures of nuclear material accounting and control, physical protection and monitoring of such strategic and dangerous materials in an integrated and coordinated real-time mode at a nuclear or radiation facility and in any time

  3. Risk monitor riskangel for risk-informed applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Jiaqun; Wang, Jin; Li, Yazhou; Hu, Liqin; Wu, Yican

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A general risk monitor riskangel with high-speed cutsets generator engine. • Benchmarks of actual nuclear power plant (NPP) instantaneous risk models. • Applications in daily operation, maintenance plan and component out of service. - Abstract: This paper studied the requirements of risk monitor software and its applications as a plant specific risk monitor, which supports risk-informed configuration risk management for the two CANDU 6 units at the Third Qinshan nuclear power plant (TQNPP) in China. It also describes the regulatory prospective on risk-informed Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) applications and the use of risk monitor at operating nuclear power plants, high level technical and functional requirements for the development of CANDU specific risk monitor software, and future development trends.

  4. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  5. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, John M. II; Heydt, Harold J.; Opare, Emmanuel O.; Oswald, Kyle B.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  6. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations. (authors). 2 figs., 6 refs

  7. Risk management of onsite transportation of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.; Wang, O.S.; Mercado, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site recently has undergone a significant change in mission. The focus of operations has shifted from plutonium production to environmental restoration. This transition has caused a substantial increase in quantities of nuclear waste and other hazardous materials packaged and transported onsite. In response to the escalating transportation activity, Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford), the Hanford Site operations and engineering contractor, is proposing an integrated risk assessment methodology and risk management strategy to enhance the safety of onsite packaging and transportation operations involving nuclear waste. The proposed methodology consists of three integral parts: risk assessment, risk acceptance criteria, and risk minimization. The purpose of the methodology is to ensure that the risk for each ongoing transportation activity is acceptable and to minimize the overall risk for current and future onsite operations

  8. Nuclear waste in the Pacific: perceptions of the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, I.R.W.

    1984-01-01

    This dissertation examines the problem of the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the Pacific region. There is a consensus of scientific opinion that the technical difficulties in waste disposal can be overcome. The most acceptable solution seems to be the multi-barrier approach for deep land-based geologic disposal. A questionnaire survey on the perception of nuclear and other hazards, conducted with student populations in Japan and Australia, and a survey of reporting of nuclear events in Pacific newspapers over the period 1946 to the 1980s, reveal that the image of nuclear weapons dominates public views on the risks associated with waste disposal in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands. The problem of finding a suitable site for a nuclear waste disposal facility is to a large extent political. The capacity of anti-nuclear groups to influence waste disposal policies in Australia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands is examined. Current public attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal will delay the further development of activities connected with the nuclear fuel cycle, but this may change over time if the connection between commercial nuclear power and nuclear weapons can be severed more effectively. The most urgent problem in the region is the waste from the ambitious nuclear power programs of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan

  9. High-stakes educational testing and democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between high-stakes educational testing and democracy drawn from the experiences of 20th-century high-stakes educational testing practices in the Danish history of education. The article presents various concepts of democracy using leading propositions within...... the field of education. Then a sample of relevant historic case studies are examined in light of these definitions. Among other things, the article concludes that a combination of different evaluation technologies – some formative and some summative – might be the safest way to go from a democratic...

  10. ASME nuclear codes and standards risk management strategic planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.; Erler, Bryan A.; Wesley Rowley, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is prepared in honor and in memory of the late Professor Emeritus Yasuhide Asada to recognize his contributions to ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards initiatives, particularly those related to risk-informed technology and System Based Code developments. For nearly two decades, numerous risk-informed initiatives have been completed or are under development within the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organization. In order to properly manage the numerous initiatives currently underway or planned for the future, the ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards (BNCS) has an established Risk Management Strategic Plan (Plan) that is maintained and updated by the ASME BNCS Risk Management Task Group. This paper presents the latest approved version of the plan beginning with a background of applications completed to date, including the recent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) standards developments for nuclear power plant applications. The paper discusses planned applications within ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards that will require expansion of the ASME PRA Standard to support new advanced light water reactor and next generation reactor developments, such as for high temperature gas-cooled reactors. Emerging regulatory developments related to risk-informed, performance- based approaches are summarized. A long-term vision for the potential development and evolution to a nuclear systems code that adopts a risk-informed approach across a facility life-cycle (design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure) is also summarized. Finally, near term and long term actions are defined across the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organizations related to risk management, including related U.S. regulatory activities. (author)

  11. Nuclear option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemm, K R

    1978-05-01

    The global outlook is that nuclear reactors are here to stay and South Africa has already entered the nuclear power stakes. This article discusses the rocketing oil prices, and the alternatives that can be used in power generation, the good safety record of the nuclear industry and the effect that South Africa's first nuclear power station should have on the environment.

  12. Nuclear power without a risk is possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, K.

    1977-01-01

    This popular-science article introductorily deals with the great danger arising from the continous plutonium production of common nuclear reactors and indicates a new gas nuclear reactor technology which is at present being followed by NASA. In this new type of breeder reactor a) gaseous thorium compounds or UF 6 are to be used as fuels externally introduced, b) the transuranium elements obtained from the nuclear fission, especially plutonium, are to be continuously recycled into the reactor and finally completely used up. The advantage of this reactor is considered to be, amongst other, that fissionable material usuable for the making of atom bombs, is no longer present in the atomic waste and the slight critical mass rules out reactor catastrophies. (GG) [de

  13. Risk in Nuclear Industry. Liability for Nuclear Damage. Status of the Problem in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalevich, Oleg M.; Gavrilov, Sergey D.; Voronov, Dmitry B.

    2001-01-01

    Russia is one of a few nuclear power states obtaining the whole number of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) components - from mining of uranium and on-site electricity production, from NPP spent nuclear fuel processing and extracted fissile materials and radionuclides, which are available in industry, in medicine and in other relevant areas, to radioactive waste processing and disposal. For this reason it is very important to solve the problem of nuclear fuel cycle safety as it is a single system task with an adequate approach for all cycle components. The problem is that NFC facilities are technologically various and refer to different industries (mining, machinery engineering, power engineering, chemistry, etc.). Besides, the above facilities need the development of various scientific bases. The most NFC facilities is directly connected with peaceful use of nuclear energy and with military nuclear industry, as the defense orders stimulated the development of NFC. The specific attention to safety problems at the beginning of nuclear complex foundation adversely affected the state attitude towards the risk in nuclear industry, it has left the traces at present. In our paper we touch upon the problems of risk and the liability for nuclear damage for the third persons. The problems of nuclear damage compensation for nuclear facilities personnel and for the owners (operating organizations) are beyond our subject

  14. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-01-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  15. ASME nuclear codes and standards risk management strategic plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, several risk-informed initiatives have been completed or are under development within the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organization. In order to better manage the numerous initiatives in the future, the ASME Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards has recently developed and approved a Risk Management Strategic Plan. This paper presents the latest approved version of the plan beginning with a background of applications completed to date, including the recent issuance of the ASME Standard for Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Nuclear Power Plant Applications. The paper discusses potential applications within ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards that may require expansion of the PRA Standard, such as for new generation reactors, or the development of new PRA Standards. A long-term vision for the potential development and evolution to a nuclear systems code that adopts a risk-informed approach across a facility life-cycle (design, construction, operation, maintenance, and closure) is summarized. Finally, near term and long term actions are defined across the ASME Nuclear Codes and Standards organizations related to risk management, and related U.S. regulatory activities are also summarized. (author)

  16. Clarification of nuclear risk recognition scheme through dialogue forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Ekou; Takahashi, Makoto; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2007-01-01

    The design framework and operational guidelines for conducting repetitive dialogue between public and nuclear engineers are described in this paper. An action research project named repetitive dialogue forum has been conducted in two municipalities where nuclear facilities were sited. The qualitative evaluation by public participants indicated that the public trust in the nuclear experts, known as the crucial factor for meaningful communication, was successfully established through the dialogue forum. In addition, the expert showed a marked psychological change from distrust to trust in public. Through a detailed analysis of the comments of the participants raised during the forums, the nuclear risk recognition scheme of the public was clarified. The constituents of the risk recognition scheme about nuclear facilities were identified as follows. The first is related to the technical risk recognition factor including purely technical risk, organizational elements and regulatory elements. The second is the social risk recognition factor including economical and mental elements. The last is the communication factor including the influence of mass media, difficulty in frank communication in local community etc. It became clear that the information provision activities conducted by the government and the nuclear industry were lack of in-depth understanding of actual information needs in the public. Provision of information contents consistent with our observations is recommended for reestablishment of public trust in expert and for more informative dialogical interactions. (author)

  17. Nuclear power investment risk economic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postula, F.D.; Houghton, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the economic model which was developed to evaluate the net costs incurred by an owner due to an accident induced outage at a nuclear power plant. During such an outage, the portion of the plant operating costs associated with power production are saved; however the owner faces a sizable expense as fossil fuels are burned as a substitute for power from the incapacitated nuclear plant. Additional expenses are incurred by the owner for plant repair and, if necessary, decontamination cost. The model makes provision for mitigating these costs by sales of power, property damage insurance payments, tax write-offs and increased rates

  18. Perception of risk in the nuclear debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, C.

    1979-01-01

    The Ranger Uranium Environmental Inquiry was conducted by a commission set up in 1975 to fulfil the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act 1974. The case before the inquiry was a proposal to mine and mill a uranium ore body in the Alligator Rivers region of the Northern Territory. However, the scope of the inquiry was broadened to include all matters related to the nuclear power industry. The author analyses the evidence given to the inquiry. Topics covered include destruction of the Aboriginal culture, health hazards, international safeguards, alternative sources of energy, ecological disruption, environmental pollution, nuclear wastes and alternative economic analyses

  19. Nuclear and non-nuclear risk. An exercise in comparability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The present report is the result of a study contract given out by the CEC in order to collect useful information and opinions in the area of risk assessment and related concepts such as risk acceptability, risk perception and acceptance. The main objectives of the study are to examine the underlying factors which determine the existing levels of non-nuclear risks, and the extent to which societies are likely to seek means of reducing them, and to suggest means of working towards the derivation of acceptable nuclear risks which will be compatible with practice in relation to non-nuclear risks. The Case Studies which comprise Volume 2 of this Report are based on UK experience

  20. EPRI nuclear fuel-cycle accident risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The present results of the nuclear fuel-cycle accident risk assessment conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute show that the total risk contribution of the nuclear fuel cycle is only approx. 1% of the accident risk of the power plant; hence, with little error, the accident risk of nuclear electric power is essentially that of the power plant itself. The power-plant risk, assuming a very large usage of nuclear power by the year 2005 is only approx. 0.5% of the radiological risk of natural background. The smallness of the fuel-cycle risk relative to the power-plant risk may be attributed to the lack of internal energy to drive an accident and the small amount of dispersible material. This work aims at a realistic assessment of the process hazards, the effectiveness of confinement and mitigation systems and procedures, and the associated likelihood of errors and the estimated size of errors. The primary probabilistic estimation tool is fault-tree analysis, with the release source terms calculated using physicochemical processes. Doses and health effects are calculated with CRAC (Consequences of Reactor Accident Code). No evacuation or mitigation is considered; source terms may be conservative through the assumption of high fuel burnup (40,000 MWd/t) and short cooling period (90 to 150 d); high-efficiency particulate air filter efficiencies are derived from experiments

  1. Assessment of major nuclear technologies with decision and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeldt, D. von

    1995-01-01

    Selecting technologies for major nuclear programs involves several complexities, including multiple stakeholders, multiple conflicting objectives, uncertainties, and risk. In addition, the programmatic risks related to the schedule, cost, and performance of these technologies often become major issues in the selection process. This paper describes a decision analysis approach for addressing these complexities in a logical manner

  2. Values, Perceived Risks and Benefits, and Acceptability of Nuclear Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda; Poortinga, Wouter

    We examined how personal values and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with the acceptability of nuclear energy (NE). A theoretical model is tested in which beliefs about the risks and benefits of NE mediate the relationship between values and acceptability. The results showed that

  3. Some thoughts on risk acceptance and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brejora, S.

    2001-01-01

    Risks are assessed very differently in our modern society. While a number of everyday risks, some of which are hardly perceptible while others are quite spectacular, are accepted to a considerable extent, many other risks, often minor ones, are overemphasized and rejected. Risk assessment in the minds of people is a function of a number of subjective, emotional factors with decisive psychological components which lead to irrational assessment especially of a number of manmade risks, including nuclear power. Factors to be mentioned in the assessment of the risks of nuclear power, among others, are the imaginary phenomenon of radioactivity and nuclear fission; the growing intrusion of technology into our living environment; the need to fall back upon expert knowledge; and the intuitive, wrong correlation of technical expense for safety with the perceived risk. As is seen, opinions are formed not solely on the basis of rational findings, but are influenced by many factors, some of which cannot be reproduced in a rational way. This makes it imperative to include in the debate about risks of technology, specifically the discussion about the use of nuclear power, the psychological aspect in order to arrive at a reasonable way for society to handle technology. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear power risks: challenge to the credibility of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Federal Government and the nuclear industry have deliberately deceived the American public about the risks of nuclear power. Facts have been systematically withheld, distorted, and obscured, and calculations have been deliberately biased in order to present nuclear power in an unrealistically favorable light. Most persistent and flagrant have been: (a) attempts to normalize public perception of nuclear accident casualties with those of more familiar accidents; and (b) the cloaking of the objectively undocumentable faith of the atomic energy establishment that a nuclear accident is extremely unlikely in a smokescreen of invalid, pseudoquantitative statistical probabilities in order to convince the public that the chance of an accident is negligible. Prime examples of these abuses are found in the Rasmussen report on nuclear reactor safety and in its representation to the public

  5. Assuaging Nuclear Energy Risks: The Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Astasia

    2011-01-01

    The recent nuclear renaissance has motivated many countries, especially developing nations, to plan and build nuclear power reactors. However, domestic low enriched uranium demands may trigger nations to construct indigenous enrichment facilities, which could be redirected to fabricate high enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. The potential advantages of establishing multinational uranium enrichment sites are numerous including increased low enrichment uranium access with decreased nuclear proliferation risks. While multinational nuclear initiatives have been discussed, Russia is the first nation to actualize this concept with their Angarsk International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC). This paper provides an overview of the historical and modern context of the multinational nuclear fuel cycle as well as the evolution of Russia's IUEC, which exemplifies how international fuel cycle cooperation is an alternative to domestic facilities.

  6. Risk-benefit evaluation of nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miettinen, J.; Savolainen, I.; Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment scheme is described for the risk-benefit analyses of nuclear power versus conventional alternatives. Given the siting parameters for the proposed nuclear plant an economic comparison is made with the most advantageous competitive conventional production scenario. The economic benefit is determined from the differential discounted annual energy procurement cost as a function of the real interest rate and amortization time. The risk analysis encompasses the following factors: radiation risks in normal operation, reactor accident hazards and economic risks, atmospheric pollutants from the conventional power plants, and fuel transportation. The hazards are first considered in terms of probabilistic dose distributions. In the second stage risk components are converted to a compatible form where excess mortality is used as the risk indicator. Practical calculations are performed for the power production alternatives of Helsinki where district heat would be extracted from the nuclear power plant. At the real interest rate of 10% and amortization time of 20 yr the 1000 MW(e) nuclear option is found to be Pound9.1 m per yr more economic than the optimal conventional scenario. Simultaneously the nuclear alternative is estimated to reduce excess mortality by 2 to 5 fatal injuries annually. (author)

  7. The great US nuclear gamble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaughey, John.

    1997-01-01

    An unlikely combination of PECO, United States Energy company, and British Energy, with its nuclear plant operation expertise, are combining their interests as the AmerGen Energy Company. AmerGen is seeking to take over ailing US nuclear plants and boost their performance, to the benefit of consumers, and shareholders alike. Considerable financial and public face risks are at stake for the two companies, but despite its public unpopularity, nuclear power generates more than 20% of US electric power, and so the payback is also potentially, correspondingly high. This paper explores this history and likely success of this surprising cooperative venture. (UK)

  8. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined

  9. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation Risk Assessment Methodology for Homeland Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teagarden, Grant A.; Canavan, Kenneth T.; Nickell, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    In response to increased interest in risk-informed decision making regarding terrorism, EPRI was selected by U.S. DHS and ASME to develop and demonstrate a nuclear sector specific methodology for owner / operators to utilize in performing a Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP) assessment for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The objective is to characterize SNF transportation risk for risk management opportunities and to provide consistent information for DHS decision making. The method uses a characterization of risk as a function of Consequence, Vulnerability, and Threat. Worst reasonable case scenarios characterize risk for a benchmark set of threats and consequence types. A trial application was successfully performed and implementation is underway by one utility. (authors)

  11. Risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated risk perception, well-being, and organizational commitment among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant, completed a questionnaire which included the same questions as those in previous surveys on risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. Hazards at work were not seen as a sizable problem by nuclear power plant personnel. The study group estimated the safety of nuclear power plants better and the possibility of a serious nuclear accident as more unlikely than the general public. Compared to employees in other industrial companies, the overall perceived risks at work among plant personnel did not exceed the respective perceptions of the reference groups. Risk-related attitudes did not explain well-being among plant personnel, but the relationship between the perceived probability of a serious nuclear accident at work and organizational commitment yielded to a significant correlation: Those plant workers who estimated the likelihood of an accident higher were less committed to the organization. 21 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Assessment of accident risks from german nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The German risk study are presented. The main objectives can be summed up as follows: (a) An assessment of the societal risk due to accidents in nuclear power plants with reference to German conditions; (b) To get experience in the field of risk analysis and to provide a basis for estimation of uncertainties; (c) To provide guidance for future activities in the German Reactor Safety Research Program. Finally several conclusions reached by this study are discussed. (author)

  13. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  14. Validating High-Stakes Testing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Makes the point that the interpretations and use of high-stakes test scores rely on policy assumptions about what should be taught and the content standards and performance standards that should be applied. The assumptions built into an assessment need to be subjected to scrutiny and criticism if a strong case is to be made for the validity of the…

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma risk among nuclear workers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Guseva Canu, I; Laurier, D

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation has been suggested as a causal risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Studies of patients treated by radiotherapy for primary cancers have suggested that radiation contributes to the development of secondary MPM. Here we examined the risk to nuclear workers of MPM related to exposure to low doses of occupational radiation at low dose rates. All results concerning MPM risk in published studies of nuclear workers were examined for their association with radiation exposure and potential confounders. We found 19 relevant studies. Elevated risks of pleural cancer were reported in most (15/17) of these studies. Eight reported risks higher for radiation monitored workers than for other workers. However, of 12 studies that looked at associations with ionising radiation, only one reported a significant dose-risk association. Asbestos was an important confounder in most studies. We conclude that studies of nuclear workers have not detected an association between ionising radiation exposure and MPM. Further investigations should improve the consideration of asbestos exposure at the same time as they address the risk of MPM related to occupational exposure of nuclear workers to low doses of ionising radiation at low dose rates. (review)

  16. Malignant pleural mesothelioma risk among nuclear workers: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Guseva Canu, I; Laurier, D, E-mail: camille.metz@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Epidemiology, Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation has been suggested as a causal risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Studies of patients treated by radiotherapy for primary cancers have suggested that radiation contributes to the development of secondary MPM. Here we examined the risk to nuclear workers of MPM related to exposure to low doses of occupational radiation at low dose rates. All results concerning MPM risk in published studies of nuclear workers were examined for their association with radiation exposure and potential confounders. We found 19 relevant studies. Elevated risks of pleural cancer were reported in most (15/17) of these studies. Eight reported risks higher for radiation monitored workers than for other workers. However, of 12 studies that looked at associations with ionising radiation, only one reported a significant dose-risk association. Asbestos was an important confounder in most studies. We conclude that studies of nuclear workers have not detected an association between ionising radiation exposure and MPM. Further investigations should improve the consideration of asbestos exposure at the same time as they address the risk of MPM related to occupational exposure of nuclear workers to low doses of ionising radiation at low dose rates. (review)

  17. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffran, Juergen [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Research Group Climate Change and Security

    2009-07-01

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  18. Climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament. From security threats to sustainable peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffran, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    In the future, nuclear and climate risks may interfere with each other in a mutually enforcing way. Con-flicts induced by climate change could contribute to global insecurity and create more incentives for states to rely on military force, including nuclear weapons. Rather than being a direct cause of war, cli-mate change significantly affects the delicate balance between social and environmental systems in a way that could undermine human security and societal stability with potentially grave consequences for international security. Increased reliance on nuclear energy to reduce carbon emissions will contribute to the risks of nuclear proliferation. A renewed nuclear arms race would consume considerable resources and undermine the conditions for tackling the problem of climate change in a cooperative manner. Nuclear war itself would severely destabilize human societies and the environment, not to speak of the possibility of a nuclear winter that would disrupt the atmosphere. On the other hand, finding solutions to one problem area could help to find solutions in the other. Pre-venting the dangers of climate change and nuclear war requires an integrated set of strategies that ad-dress the causes as well as the impacts on the natural and social environment. Institutions are needed to strengthen common, ecological and human security, build and reinforce conflict-resolution mechanisms and low-carbon energy alternatives, and create sustainable lifecycles that respect the capabilities of the living world. This article examines the linkages between nuclear and climate risks, identifies areas where both threats converge, and offers an approach to move from living under these security threats to building sustain-able peace. By bringing to light the multidimensional interplay between climate change, nuclear risks and nuclear disarmament, this study aims to help the reader grasp their interconnectedness and recognize its critical implications for the strategic security

  19. Quantifying the perceived risks associated with nuclear energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for quantifying and assessing perceived risks in an empirical manner. The analytical model provides for the identification and assignment of any number of quantifiable risk perception factors that can be incorporated within standard risk methodology. The set of risk perception factors used to demonstrate the model are those that have been identified by social and behavioural scientists as principal factors influencing people in their perception of risks associated with major technical issues. These same risk factors are commonly associated with nuclear energy issues. A rational means is proposed for determining and quantifying these risk factors for a given application. The model should contribute to improved understanding of the basis and logic of public risk perception and provide practical and effective means for addressing perceived risks when they arise over important technical issues and projects. (author)

  20. Risk and safety analysis of nuclear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, John C; McCormick, Norman J

    2011-01-01

    .... The first half of the book covers the principles of risk analysis, the techniques used to develop and update a reliability data base, the reliability of multi-component systems, Markov methods used...

  1. Wind power: Areva acquires a 51% stake in Multibrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    AREVA announced the acquisition of a 51% stake in Multibrid, a designer and manufacturer of multi-megawatt off-shore wind turbines based in Germany. With this acquisition, AREVA has entered into a joint venture with Prokon Nord, a German off-shore wind turbine and biomass plant developer and current owner of Multibrid. This transaction values Multibrid at euro 150 million. AREVA plans to rapidly further develop Multibrid's activities by giving the company access to its industrial resources, financial base and international commercial network. In return, Multibrid will provide AREVA with its leading-edge technology which, developed for 5 MW turbines, can achieve a very high output while reducing operating costs thanks to a simplified maintenance system. With this stake in Multibrid, AREVA aims to increase its presence on the offshore wind market that meets land settlement requirements and that should grow significantly in the years to come (from 300 MW in Europe today to an expected 1400 MW by 2011). As an exclusive supplier of Prokon Nord, Multibrid will participate in projects such as Borkum West (30 MW), the first offshore project in Germany, Borkum West 2 (400 MW), and Cote d'Albatre (105 MW), the first offshore wind farm project in France. The stake in Multibrid strengthens AREVA's strategic positioning on the CO 2 -free energy market, thanks to complementary solutions ranging from nuclear technologies to renewables. A number of recent achievements illustrate this strategy: - bio-energy (crucial energy supply in numerous rural areas): delivery of turnkey biomass power plants; ongoing construction of 10 plants in India, Thailand and Brazil; future development plans in fast-growing regions, such as Latin America; - wind power: Multibrid adds to the Group's stake in REpower and to its partnership with Suzlon for which AREVA is the number one supplier of transmission and distribution solutions for wind power; - hydrogen and fuel cells: design and manufacture of

  2. Efforts to utilize risk assessment at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment means the use of the outputs that have been obtained through risk identification and risk analysis (risk information), followed by the determination of the response policy by comparing these outputs with the risk of judgement standards. This paper discusses the use of risk information with multifaceted nature and its significance, and the challenges to the further penetration of these items. As the lessons and risk assessment learnt from the past accidents, this paper takes up the cases of the severe accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi power stations, and discusses their causes and expansion factors. In particular, at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, important lessons were shortage in measures against the superimposition of earthquake and tsunami, and the insufficient use of risk assessment. This paper classified risk assessment from the viewpoint of risk information, and showed the contents and index for each item of risk reduction trends, risk increase trends, and measures according to the importance of risk. As the benefits of activities due to risk assessment, this paper referred to the application cases of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of IAEA, and summarized the application activities of 10 items of risk indexes by classifying them to safety benefits and operational benefits. For example, in the item of flexible Allowed Outage Time (AOT), the avoidance of plant shutdown and the flexibility improvement of maintenance scheduling at a plant are corresponding to the above-mentioned benefits, respectively. (A.O.)

  3. German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear emergency preparedness and response in Japan. Risk management and communication regarding nuclear events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Severe accidents at nuclear plants can result in long-standing and large-scale disasters encompassing wide areas. The public may have special concerns regarding these plants and radiation-related health risks. It has therefore been argued that risk communications efforts, along with rigid safety management of nuclear plants, are imperative to prevent such accidents, mitigate their impacts, and alleviate public concerns. This article introduces a set of laws, acts, codes, and guidelines concerning nuclear safety in Japan. In addition, the preparedness and mitigation plans and programs for dealing with nuclear accidents and possible disasters are also discussed. Furthermore, the ongoing accidents at the Fukushima nuclear power plants following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, and the government response to them are presented. A set of points regarding the management and communications of power plant accidents are discussed. (author)

  5. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk; Revisao sistematica de estudos perceptivos sobre risco nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-07-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear power plant regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, J B

    1980-09-01

    A specific program is recommended to utilize more effectively probabilistic risk assessment in nuclear power plant regulation. It is based upon the engineering insights from the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) and some follow-on risk assessment research by USNRC. The Three Mile Island accident is briefly discussed from a risk viewpoint to illustrate a weakness in current practice. The development of a probabilistic safety goal is recommended with some suggestions on underlying principles. Some ongoing work on risk perception and the draft probabilistic safety goal being reviewed on Canada is described. Some suggestions are offered on further risk assessment research. Finally, some recent U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission actions are described.

  7. Nuclear station safety standardization from a risk concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents a method of standardizing safety-system reliability on an entirely new basis: all hypothetical accidents are approximated as groups, for each of which one proposes permissible frequencies on the basis of the risk concept. In this risk concept, the ''average person'' is a person living near a nuclear station or working in it, who is of average age, average state of health, and so on. Therefore, the risk can be found by summing the estimated individual risks for a particular group in the population followed by division by the number of people in that group. Basic assumptions in deriving permissible safety-system reliability are presented. Estimated permissible failure probabilities are given to illustrate the proposed method and to refine the initial data. The probabilities may also be used to lay down the reliability requirements for safety systems in particular nuclear stations on the risk basis

  8. Structuring Cooperative Nuclear RIsk Reduction Initiatives with China.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, Larry [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Reinhardt, Jason Christian [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Hecker, Siegfried [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation engaged several Chinese nuclear organizations in cooperative research that focused on responses to radiological and nuclear terrorism. The objective was to identify joint research initiatives to reduce the global dangers of such threats and to pursue initial technical collaborations in several high priority areas. Initiatives were identified in three primary research areas: 1) detection and interdiction of smuggled nuclear materials; 2) nuclear forensics; and 3) radiological (“dirty bomb”) threats and countermeasures. Initial work emphasized the application of systems and risk analysis tools, which proved effective in structuring the collaborations. The extensive engagements between national security nuclear experts in China and the U.S. during the research strengthened professional relationships between these important communities.

  9. Nuclear power risk criteria for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.

    1988-08-01

    The preliminary sequence of events for three types of LOCAs (low, medium and large) and seven transients, particularly turbine trip, loss of offsite power were developed. All of the systems involved in the sequence were examined and analysed in detail and a success criterion was defined for each system in accordance with the initiating events. The difference of transient with and without SCRAM was discussed and a special sequence for the last case (ATWS) was developed. The quantification of the sequence was performed using some results from the PSA (level 1) for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) and the most significant sequences were shown. 16 refs, 7 figs, 7 tabs

  10. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  11. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Quantifying risks in nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortenson, S.

    1982-01-01

    A top-level application of an RSS risk assessment procedure is selected as a unifying framework within which the long-time (about 1000 years) performance of a waste repository may be considered. Two major themes are developed: First, the fractional contribution of the engineered features to the ''system'' risk is determined. This contribution effectively segregates those features over which conservative design and quality control may be used to control risk. Second, the development of event tree logic to support such analysis is shown to represent a meaningful, systematic means of factoring-in the total system dynamics; in particular, the generality provided by such an approach lends itself well to consideration of a broad spectrum of accident sequences which includes varying responses of the waste repository system to time-dependent ''accident'' initiators and system failure synergism. Modification to traditional logic development methods to span the longtime system performance are described in some detail, and the attendant data requirements are developed

  13. Risks from proposed nuclear waste dump unacceptable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, John

    1999-01-01

    The author has a critical look at the proposal by Pangea Resources Australia Pty Ltd (PARPL) to establish in Australia a permanent underground disposal site for radioactive waste from around the world. In his opinion, the inevitable risk in the proposal stems from the magnitudes: 250,000 tonnes of enormously dangerous RADwaste in the northern hemisphere 20,000 km from its destined dump in Australia, where it must remain intact for at least 10,000 years. These magnitudes - of tonnage, lethality, distance of transport, and time - entail great inherent risk. He also argue that the job of the Australian scientists is to apply due diligence to PARPL proposal

  14. Nuclear installations abroad the accident risks and their potential consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turvey, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper endeavors to assess the threat to Ireland from severe accidents at civil nuclear installations. Among the various types of nuclear installations worldwide, reactors and reprocessing plants are considered to be the most threatening and so the paper focuses on these. The threat is assumed to be a function of the risk of severe accidents at the above types of installations and the probability of unfavourable weather conditions carrying the radioactive releases to Ireland. Although nuclear installations designed in eastern Europe and Asia are less safe than others, the greatest threat to Ireland arises from nearby installations in the UK. The difficulty of measuring the probabilities and consequences of severe nuclear accidents at nuclear installations in general is explained. In the case of the UK installations, this difficulty is overcome to some degree by using values of 'tolerable' risk adopted by the national nuclear regulator to define the radiotoxic releases from nuclear accidents. These are used as input to atmospheric dispersion models in which unfavourable weather conditions for Ireland are assumed and radiation doses are calculated to members of the Irish public. No countermeasures, such as sheltering, are assumed. In the worst cast scenario no deaths would be expected in Ireland in the immediate aftermath of the accident however, an increase in cancers over a period of 25 years or so would be expected assuming present-day models for the effect of low level radiation are valid

  15. Nuclear Energy: General aspects of risk assessment and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischerhof, Hans.

    1977-01-01

    While the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have progressed greatly in many countries and nuclear energy for electricity generation is greatly in demand also in developing countries, progress in this field is being threatened by minorities in those very countries which were originally responsible for this development. The paper analyses the various reasons behind this public opposition. The fear of nuclear war cannot be dispelled despite Government declarations promoting prohibition of the use of nuclear energy for military purposes and the numerous parties to the non-proliferation treaty. However, there is no cogent reason for transferring this mistrust to the peaceful uses of this source of energy. Also, hostility to technology is gaining ground in many countries and large groups of people are not prepared to accept the minimalised risks of nuclear energy. It is recommended that industry and politicians should pay more attention than in the past to the psychological question of acceptance of nuclear energy and lawyers have an important role to play in this context. They should co-operate more in gaining acceptance for the undeniable even if improbable remaining risks and integrate nuclear energy even closer into established law. (NEA) [fr

  16. Nuclear installations abroad the accident risks and their potential consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turvey, F J [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    This paper endeavors to assess the threat to Ireland from severe accidents at civil nuclear installations. Among the various types of nuclear installations worldwide, reactors and reprocessing plants are considered to be the most threatening and so the paper focuses on these. The threat is assumed to be a function of the risk of severe accidents at the above types of installations and the probability of unfavourable weather conditions carrying the radioactive releases to Ireland. Although nuclear installations designed in eastern Europe and Asia are less safe than others, the greatest threat to Ireland arises from nearby installations in the UK. The difficulty of measuring the probabilities and consequences of severe nuclear accidents at nuclear installations in general is explained. In the case of the UK installations, this difficulty is overcome to some degree by using values of `tolerable` risk adopted by the national nuclear regulator to define the radiotoxic releases from nuclear accidents. These are used as input to atmospheric dispersion models in which unfavourable weather conditions for Ireland are assumed and radiation doses are calculated to members of the Irish public. No countermeasures, such as sheltering, are assumed. In the worst cast scenario no deaths would be expected in Ireland in the immediate aftermath of the accident however, an increase in cancers over a period of 25 years or so would be expected assuming present-day models for the effect of low level radiation are valid.

  17. Security risks in nuclear waste management: Exceptionalism, opaqueness and vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Beken, Tom; Dorn, Nicholas; Van Daele, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses some potential security risks, concerning terrorism or more mundane forms of crime, such as fraud, in management of nuclear waste using a PEST scan (of political, economic, social and technical issues) and some insights of criminologists on crime prevention. Nuclear waste arises as spent fuel from ongoing energy generation or other nuclear operations, operational contamination or emissions, and decommissioning of obsolescent facilities. In international and EU political contexts, nuclear waste management is a sensitive issue, regulated specifically as part of the nuclear industry as well as in terms of hazardous waste policies. The industry involves state, commercial and mixed public-private bodies. The social and cultural dimensions--risk, uncertainty, and future generations--resonate more deeply here than in any other aspect of waste management. The paper argues that certain tendencies in regulation of the industry, claimed to be justified on security grounds, are decreasing transparency and veracity of reporting, opening up invisible spaces for management frauds, and in doing allowing a culture of impunity in which more serious criminal or terrorist risks could arise. What is needed is analysis of this 'exceptional' industry in terms of the normal cannons of risk assessment - a task that this paper begins. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear Power and Societal Problems in Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Presently, nuclear power is in focus of the public safety concern and several governments are forced to reconsider its continued role in the national power policy. In this situation it is mandatory for the utilities and the industry to present credible risk management strategies. Development...... in this, some basic problems in the present models of accident causation are described with their influence on risk management strategies. Some critical research problems are identified and illustrated by examples of accidents within shipping, aviation, etc.and parallels drawn to the conditions of nuclear...

  19. Perceived environmental and health risks of nuclear energy in Taiwan after Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jung-Chun; Lee, Chiao-Tzu Patricia; Kao, Shu-Fen; Chen, Ruey-Yu; Ieong, Marco C F; Chang, Hung-Lun; Hsieh, Wan-Hua; Tzeng, Chun-Chiao; Lu, Cheng-Fung; Lin, Suei-Loong; Chang, Peter Wushou

    2014-12-01

    After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in Japan in 2011, a nation-wide survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Taiwan, with a sample size of 2,742 individuals including the residents who live within and beyond 30 km from a nuclear power plant (NPP), to evaluate the participants' perceived nuclear risk in comparison with their perceived risks from selected environmental hazards and human behaviors. The three leading concerns of nuclear energy were "nuclear accidents (82.2%)," "radioactive nuclear waste disposal (76.9%)" and "potential health effects (73.3%)." Respondents (77.6%) perceived a higher relative risk of cancer incidence for those who live within 30 km from an NPP than those who live outside 30 km from an NPP. All the participants had a higher risk perception of death related to "nuclear power operation and nuclear waste" than cigarette smoking, motorcycling, food poisoning, plasticizer poisoning and traveling by air. Moreover, the residents in Gongliao where the planned fourth NPP is located had a significantly higher perceived risk ratio (PRR) of cancer incidence (adjusted odd ratio (aOR)=1.84, p value=0.017) and perceived risk of death (aOR=4.03, p valuenuclear energy. The other factors such as female gender (aOR/p value, 1.25/0.026 and 1.34/0.001 respectively), lower education levels (aOR/p value: 1.31/0.032; 2.03/nuclear accidents (aOR/p value: 1.33/0.022; 1.51/nuclear energy, respectively. In addition, the respondents' concerns about nuclear waste disposal and possible eco-environmental damage made significant contributions (aOR/ p value: 1.39/ 0.001; 1.40/nuclear power. These factors are considered as important indicators and they can be used for suggesting future policy amendments and public referendum on the decision of the operation of the planned NPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Probabilistic risk assessment in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes the more important improvements in risk assessment methodology developed over the last decade. The book covers the following areas - a general view of risk pertaining to nuclear power, mathematics necessary to understand the text, a concise overview of the light water reactors and their features for protecting the public, probabilities and consequences calculated to form risk assessment to the plant, and 34 applications of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the power generation industry. There is a glossary of acronyms and unusual words and a list of references. (author)

  1. Modeling issues in nuclear plant fire risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses various issues associated with current models for analyzing the risk due to fires in nuclear power plants. Particular emphasis is placed on the fire growth and suppression models, these being unique to the fire portion of the overall risk analysis. Potentially significant modeling improvements are identified; also discussed are a variety of modeling issues where improvements will help the credibility of the analysis, without necessarily changing the computed risk significantly. The mechanistic modeling of fire initiation is identified as a particularly promising improvement for reducing the uncertainties in the predicted risk. 17 refs., 5 figs. 2 tabs

  2. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaper, H.; Eggink, G.J.; Blaauboer, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    This report is focussed on an integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European nuclear power plants. For each of the European nuclear power plants the probability of accidental releases per year of operation is combined with the consequences in terms of the excess doses received over a lifetime (70 years). Risk estimates are restricted to cancer mortality and do not include immediate or short term deaths in the direct vicinity ( -8 per year in Western Europe. Going East the risks increase gradually to over 1000 x 10 -8 per year in regions of the former Soviet Union, where reactors of the Chernobyl type are located. The nuclear power plants in the East European countries dominate the estimated risk pattern and contribute at least 40-50% to the average risk in the West European countries. Improving the reactor safety in eastern European countries could lead to considerable reductions in estimated excess mortality risks. In western Europe the mortality risk might be reduced by a factor of two, and in eastern Europe by a factor of 100 to 1000. (orig.)

  3. Preliminary risk benefit assessment for nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Denning, R. S.; Friedlander, A. L.; Priest, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the recent work of the authors on the evaluation of health risk benefits of space disposal of nuclear waste. The paper describes a risk model approach that has been developed to estimate the non-recoverable, cumulative, expected radionuclide release to the earth's biosphere for different options of nuclear waste disposal in space. Risk estimates for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository and the short- and long-term risk estimates for space disposal were developed. The results showed that the preliminary estimates of space disposal risks are low, even with the estimated uncertainty bounds. If calculated release risks for mined geologic repositories remain as low as given by the U.S. DOE, and U.S. EPA requirements continue to be met, then no additional space disposal study effort in the U.S. is warranted at this time. If risks perceived by the public are significant in the acceptance of mined geologic repositories, then consideration of space disposal as a complement to the mined geologic repository is warranted.

  4. Development of risk criteria for the whole nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, G.

    1988-02-01

    Methods were developed for intercomparison of the risks arising from normal operation of different energy producing systems, for determination of socially acceptable security level of the energy supply, and for estimation of short and medium range transport of radioactive airborne materials. A computer programme was developed for the quick evaluation of situations arising from accidental radioactive releases from the nuclear power plants. In the production of electrical energy/heat the intercomparison to other forms of energy can be limited to the comparison of the effects of airborne pollutants, because other possible harmful effects are practically same for all energy production systems. When the effects of a given source are to be determined, all other realistically possible solutions also have to be investigated. For the determination of public risk arising from different energy production systems intercomparison calculations are performed. The air pollution transport models, with suitable parameters, are effective tools for the risk intercomparison calculations. In each of the investigated cases, nuclear versus conventional heating plant, and nuclear versus conventional power plant, the results definitely showed that the nuclear variant produces a fairly lower public risk than the conventional one. The security of the energy supply from the consumer's viewpoint was considered an important aspect in the public risk analysis economically as well as generally. Figs, tabs

  5. Exploring Students' Ideas about Risks and Benefits of Nuclear Power Using Risk Perception Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ahmet; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Due to increased energy demand, Turkey is continuing to explore the possibilities of introducing nuclear power. Gaining acceptance from local populations, however, may be problematic because nuclear power has a negative image and risk perceptions are complicated by a range of psychological and cultural factors. In this study, we explore the views…

  6. Man, technology and risk: a study on intuitive risk assessment and attitudes towards nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-06-01

    Using the instruments of empirical social sciences, a cross-section study was conducted comprising experiments on qualitative risk characteristics, in-depth interviews on mechanisms of risk perception and representative surveys of the public on technical risk sources, in particular with regard to nuclear energy. The results of these studies show that person-related expectations in respect of risk consequences, the possibility of personal influencing control, the severeness of risk consequences and one's own risk propensity play a significant role in the evaluation of risks.

  7. Assessing the optimism-pessimism debate: Nuclear proliferation, nuclear risks, and theories of state action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Nathan Edward

    2001-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the current debate in international relations literature over the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons. On this subject, IR scholars are divided into roughly two schools: proliferation 'optimists,' who argue that proliferation can be beneficial and that its associated hazards are at least surmountable, and proliferation 'pessimists,' who believe the opposite. This debate centers upon a theoretical disagreement about how best to explain and predict the behavior of states. Optimists generally ground their arguments on rational deterrence theory and maintain that nuclear weapons can actually increase stability among states, while pessimists often ground their arguments on 'organization theory,' which contends that organizational, bureaucratic, and other factors prevent states from acting rationally. A major difficulty with the proliferation debate, however, is that both sides tend to advance their respective theoretical positions without adequately supporting them with solid empirical evidence. This dissertation detailed analyses of the nuclear programs in the United States, Russia, China, India, and Pakistan to determine whether countries with nuclear weapons have adequate controls over their nuclear arsenals and tissue material stockpiles (such as highly enriched uranium and plutonium). These case studies identify the strengths and weaknesses of different systems of nuclear controls and help predict what types of controls proliferating states are likely to employ. On the basis of the evidence gathered from these cases, this dissertation concludes that a further spread of nuclear weapons would tend to have seriously negative effects on international stability by increasing risks of accidental, unauthorized, or inadvertent use of nuclear weapons and risks of thefts of fissile materials for use in nuclear or radiological devices by aspiring nuclear states or terrorist groups. (author)

  8. Analysis and management of risks from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    The Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Risk Criteria for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle was begun in 1983 with several objectives: A primary objective was to permit countries with little experience with risk assessment methods to gain familiarity with these techniques. Another objective was to support work regarding safety criteria complementary to the risk assessment work. Risk criteria expressed as quantitative safety goals or targets can be used to establish acceptable safety levels; in this respect, they define what it is that risk assessments should measure; conversely the capabilities of risk assessment must be recognized when risk criteria are established. In addition to the work by each participating country under the sponsorship of the programme, the exchange of information between the participants was an objective of the programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Simple probabilistic method for relative risk evaluation of nuclear terrorism events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songbai; Wu Jun

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of the event-tree and probability analysis methods, a probabilistic method of nuclear terrorism risk was built, and the risk of terrorism events was analyzed. With the statistical data for and hypothetical data for relative events, the relative probabilities of the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were obtained, as well as the relative risks of these four kinds of nuclear terrorism events were calculated by using this probabilistic method. The illustrated case show that the descending sequence of damages from the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events for single event is as following: nuclear explosive and improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and 'dirty bomb'. Under the hypothetical condition, the descending sequence of possibilities for the four kinds of nuclear terrorism events is as following: 'dirty bomb', nuclear facility attacked, improvised nuclear explosive and nuclear explosive, but the descending sequence of risks is as following: 'dirty bomb', improvised nuclear explosive, nuclear facility attacked, and nuclear explosive . (authors)

  10. Finance and climate, which stakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauthier, Alice

    2016-03-01

    As the financing emerged during the Paris COP21 and in IPCC reports as a need as well as a mean to act against climate change, the author first discusses the issue of the cost of adaptation and of its financing. She also discusses whether mitigation costs would result in destabilising financial flows. She comments the possible stronger decline of investments in fossil energies, and addresses the problem of fund raising for adaptation and mitigation. She discusses the possibility of a pricing action (notably regarding CO_2) to constrain economic actors, and the necessity of a re-assessment of the carbon risk

  11. Risk management on nuclear power plant. Application of probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    In U.S.A., nuclear safety regulation is moving to risk-informed regulation (RIR), so necessity of a standard to provide contents of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) constructing its roots has been discussed for a long time. In 1998, the Committee on Nuclear Risk Management (CNRM) of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) began to investigate the standard, of which last edition was published as the Standard for Probabilistic Risk Management for Nuclear Power Plant Applications: RA-S-2002 (PRMA) on April, 2002. As in the Committee, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), electric power companies, national institutes, PRA specialists, and so on took parts to carry out many discussions with full energies of participants on risk management in U.S.A., the standard was finished after about four years' efforts. In U.S.A., risk management having already used PRA is successfully practiced, U.S.A. is at a stage with more advancing steps of the risk management than Japan is. Here was described on the standard of PRA and a concrete method of the risk management carried out at nuclear power stations. (G.K.)

  12. Risk management: A tool for improving nuclear power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This technical document on risk management as a tool for improving nuclear power plant (NPP) operations is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other reports developed through this project have identified overall strategies and techniques that NPP operating organization managers can use to succeed in more competitive energy markets. For example, in IAEA-TECDOC-1123, Strategies for Competitive Nuclear Power Plants, one of the most important strategies identified was integrated risk management. This publication provides a recommended structure for risk management along with examples of how NPP operating organizations are using this tool to help them integrate safety, operational and economic related risks in a changing business environment

  13. Risk acceptance criteria of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felizia, Eduardo R.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes some of the regulatory and control functions legally conferred upon the Argentine Nuclear Regulatory Authority concerning radiological risks, as well as a critical analysis of the radiological risk acceptance criteria contained in the Argentine regulatory system. A summary of the application of regulatory standards AR 3.1.3. - 'Radiological criteria related to accidents in nuclear power reactors' and AR 4.1.3. - 'Radiological criteria related to accidents in research reactors' to concrete cases is made, while the favourable and unfavourable aspects of the risk acceptance criteria are discussed. The conclusion is that the Argentine regulatory system contains adequate radiological risk acceptance criteria, that the latter are consistent with the radiological protection principles applicable to man and that, for the moment, there is no need to perform any modifications that would broaden the conceptual framework on which such criteria are based. (author) [es

  14. Carcinogenic risk in diagnostic nuclear medicine: biological and epidemiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbeek, F.; Pauwels, E.K.J.; Broerse, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade new data have become available on the mechanism of carcinogenesis and on cancer induction by ionizing radiation. This review concentrates on these two items in relation to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine. On the basis of reports of expert committees, the concept of radiation risk is elucidated for high and low doses. Mortality risk factors due to ionizing radiation are put in perspective to other risks. The extra risk for patients who undergo a scintigraphic examination for fatal cancer is very small and is of the order of 1.4 x 10 -4 . It is most unlikely that this figure can even be verified by actual measurement since the majority of nuclear medicine patients will die of other causes before the radiogenic cancer manifests itself. (orig.)

  15. Benefits and risks of P & T of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahams, K. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-10-01

    Efforts on waste transmutation are coordinated in a research programme called RAS. One of the aims of this RAS program is to inform the public and advise the authorities on methods for transmutation/conditioning of nuclear waste, and on techniques which are being developed. Such new procedures for the treatment of waste should of course not lead to significant risks for the present population. Small risks might be accepted, but these should sufficiently be compensated for by favours to future generations.

  16. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, G.E.

    1992-06-01

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) 1 and Integral Fast Reactor (IF) 2 technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle

  17. Risks associated with nuclear material recovery and waste preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R R; Erdmann, R C

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the risk associated with nuclear material recovery and waste preparation is presented. The steps involve: reprocessing of spent fuel to recycle fissionable material, refabrication of the recovered material for use as reactor fuel, and the transportation links connecting these plants with the power plants and waste repositories. The risks considered are radiological and non-radiological, accident and routine effects on the public and workers during plant construction, operation and decommissioning.

  18. Safety of light water reactors. Risks of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veser, Anke; Schlueter, Franz-Hermann; Raskob, Wolfgang; Landman, Claudia; Paesler-Sauer, Juergen; Kessler, Guenter

    2012-01-01

    The book on the safety of light-water reactors includes the following chapters: Part I: Physical and technical safety concept of actual German and future European light-water reactors: (1) Worldwide operated nuclear power plants in 2011, (2) Some reactor physical fundamentals. (3) Nuclear power plants in Germany. (4) Radioactive exposure due to nuclear power plants. (5) Safety concept of light-water reactors. (6) Probabilistic analyses and risk studies. (7) Design of light-water reactors against external incidents. (8) Risk comparison of nuclear power plants and other energy systems. (9) Evaluation of risk studies using the improved (new) safety concept for LWR. (19) The severe reactor accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Part II: Safety of German LWR in case of a postulated aircraft impact. (11) Literature. (12) Review of requirements and actual design. (13) Incident scenarios. (14) Load approach for aircraft impact. (15) Demonstration of the structural behavior in case of aircraft impact. (16) Special considerations. (17) Evaluation of the safety state of German and foreign nuclear power plants. Part III: ROSOS as example for a computer-based decision making support system for the severe accident management. (19) Literature. (20) Radiological fundamentals, accident management, modeling of the radiological situation. (21) The decision making support system RODOS. (22) RODOS and the Fukushima accident. (23) Recent developments in the radiological emergency management in the European frame.

  19. Climatic change and security stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.; Hallegatte, St.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate change and security. Potential threats from climate change, as a unique source of stress or together with other factors, to human security are first examined. Some of the most explicit examples illustrate this section: food security, water availability, vulnerability to extreme events and vulnerability of small islands States and coastal zones. By questioning the basic needs of some populations or at least aggravating their precariousness, such risks to human security could also raise global security concerns, which we examine in turn, along four directions: rural exodus with an impoverishment of displaced populations, local conflicts for the use of natural resources, diplomatic tensions and international conflicts, and propagation to initially-unaffected regions through migratory flows. (authors)

  20. Lessons learned from first generation nuclear plant probabalistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper by Garrick summarizes the state-of-the-art in what are perhaps the most archetypical probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Because of its unique regulatory environment and because of the high levels of perceived (not necessarily actual) risk, the nuclear industry more than any other has been concerned with quantitative risk analysis. Garrick's paper summarizes the lessons learned from ten PRA's conducted in the nuclear industry, including six that can be characterized as full-scope risk studies. Most of the quantitative data, though, came from two especially thorough studies done for the Zion and Indian Point power plants, operated by Commonwealth Edison and Consolidated Edison respectively. The principal conclusions of the Garrick survey are that the public risk (from radiation release) is now known to be very small for commercial nuclear power plants, but that the risk to utilities (from core damage) is somewhat larger. Significant radiation releases require both core meltdown -- an event occurring only about once every 10,000 reactor-years -- and containment failure, occurring only about once in every hundred meltdowns

  1. Comparison of methodologies for assessing the risks from nuclear weapons and from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    There are important differences between the safety principles for nuclear weapons and for nuclear reactors. For example, a principal concern for nuclear weapons is to prevent electrical energy from reaching the nuclear package during accidents produced by crashes, fires, and other hazards, whereas the foremost concern for nuclear reactors is to maintain coolant around the core in the event of certain system failures. Not surprisingly, new methods have had to be developed to assess the risk from nuclear weapons. These include fault tree transformations that accommodate time dependencies, thermal and structural analysis techniques that are fast and unconditionally stable, and parameter sampling methods that incorporate intelligent searching. This paper provides an overview of the new methods for nuclear weapons and compares them with existing methods for nuclear reactors. It also presents a new intelligent searching process for identifying potential nuclear detonation vulnerabilities. The new searching technique runs very rapidly on a workstation and shows promise for providing an accurate assessment of potential vulnerabilities with far fewer physical response calculations than would be required using a standard Monte Carlo sampling procedure

  2. Nuclear risk analysis of the Ulysses mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartram, B.W.; Vaughan, F.R.; Englehart, D.R.W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator fueled with plutonium-238 dioxide on the Space Shuttle-launched Ulysses mission implies some level of risk due to potential accidents. This paper describes the method used to quantify risks in the Ulysses mission Final Safety Analysis Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The starting point for the analysis described herein is following input of source term probability distributions from the General Electric Company. A Monte Carlo technique is used to develop probability distributions of radiological consequences for a range of accident scenarios thoughout the mission. Factors affecting radiological consequences are identified, the probability distribution of the effect of each factor determined, and the functional relationship among all the factors established. The probability distributions of all the factor effects are then combined using a Monte Carlo technique. The results of the analysis are presented in terms of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) by mission sub-phase, phase, and the overall mission. The CCDFs show the total probability that consequences (calculated health effects) would be equal to or greater than a given value

  3. Nuclear power plant risk from tropical cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Tropical cyclones are considered to have a potential for contributing to the overall core-melt frequency at Turkey Point. A tropical cyclone is known to have the four main hazards associated with it: wind, tidal surge, wind-generated missiles, and precipitation. To understand the contribution to overall core-melt risk at Turkey Point, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of these hazards and their relative importance. The results are bounded by the hurricane surge scenario, where the frequency of core melt is equal to the frequency of the surge reaching 19 ft NGVD (National Geographic Vertical Datum). This could be mitigated by potential recovery actions for the tropical cyclone scenario. The probability of the storm surge reaching 19 ft NVGD is estimated to be 1 x 10 -4 . The data associated with the tropical cyclones as discussed in detail in the body of this paper are lacking in quantity and quality. By taking the conservative approach in creating the wind/frequency, wind/surge, and surge/frequency relationships, the conclusion that the results are worst case is reasonable. With this in mind, it is logical to conclude that the value of further hazard analysis to narrow down the built-in conservative margin using the existing data and technology is doubtful. Thus, a recovery approach to driving the risk level down is the most pragmatic step to be taken

  4. Critical analysis of major incidents risks in civil nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    The differences existing between the PWR type reactors and the RBMK type reactors are explained as well as the risk associated to each type when it exists. The Ines scale, tool to give the level of an accident gravity comprises seven levels, the number seven is the most serious and corresponds to the Chernobyl accident; The number zero is of no consequence but must be mentioned as a matter of form. The incidents from 1 to 3 concern increasing incidents, affecting the nuclear power plant but not the external public. The accidents from 4 to 7 have a nature to affect the nuclear power plant and the environment. An efficient tool exists between nuclear operators it is made of the reports on incidents encountered by close reactors. Two others type reactors are coming, the high temperature type reactors and the fast neutrons reactors. different risks are evoked, terrorism, proliferation, transport and radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  5. Management of risks in the chemical and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Frullani, S.; Pocchiari, F.; Rogani, A.; Silano, V.; Tabet, E.; Zapponi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative overview is provided of some major aspects concerning assessment and management of chemical and nuclear risks arising as a consequence of accidents. Statutory procedures for constructing and running nuclear and chemical plants in Italy are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to the major changes that are likely to occur after the adoption of the EEC Council Directive 82/501, designed to prevent major accidents which might result from certain industrial activities and to limit their consequences for humans and their environment. Present status and future trends of accident analysis and risk assessment are also dealt with, and special emphasis is placed on aspects common to both nuclear and chemical plants. Lastly, managerial aspects of contingency planning for, and response to, emergencies and accidents involving toxic chemical and/or ionizing radiations are examined with the aim of identifying more critical steps. (author)

  6. Risk assessment and the social response to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical framework for risk assessment studies is presented. Methodologies from various disciplines can be used within this framework to allow a scientific approach to the understanding of complex interactions between technological and social systems. A pilot application of an attitude-formation model to examine the underlying determinants of groups for and against nuclear power is summarized. (author)

  7. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  8. Risk management and nuclear human resources management in construction nuclear power plants in the Gulf Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed Hakami; Salim Almarmary

    2009-01-01

    The countries of the Gulf region have the capacity to rapidly expand their economic growth and gross domestic product (GDP). Also, one may observe that their growth rate is very high. To match this, they need a mix of energy sources for this economic growth. Nuclear power plants can have a significant role as a source of energy in the Gulf countries. Although, some of the Gulf countries signed contracts to construct nuclear power plants, they still require high a level of education as well as sufficient and adequate human resources in order to solve complex issues which may happen at nuclear power plants. The objective of this paper is to identify the complex issues that may arise at a nuclear site. Then the paper goes on to discuss how to evaluate these issues. Finally, the paper studies how to manage and control such complex issues in the work place. The advantage of highly educated people as well as sufficient and adequate human resource can increasingly protect and save human health and the natural environment from issues relating to the use of nuclear energy. There are vast theories, strategies and tools that have discussed in regards to human resources management in the nuclear industries. However, this paper chiefly provides a new risk management methodology. This methodology helps to highlight the risk factors and their consequences at nuclear sites. This paper is intended to decrease risks; to protect human health in the work place at nuclear power plants and save the environment within and beyond national borders and for future generations. It aims to increase safety from the use of nuclear energy, particularly in the Gulf countries.(Author)

  9. Raising the stakes: How students' motivation for mathematics associates with high- and low-stakes test achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M

    2015-04-01

    This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.

  10. Nuclear risk and communication: the essential role of safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: whether concerning mad cow disease, asbestos, nuclear, OGM or now, dioxin in French meat, public health risks have been making the headlines of newspapers for a while. And, firms whose activity is associated with these risks are in effect in the defendants box. Therefore, communicating becomes difficult: their word is suspect and, debates quite rapidly exceed the firm competencies to become a socio-cultural conflict. This paper explores in nuclear fields the essential role of safety authorities in such communication cases. Our surveys and the comparative case study between the pipe at La Hague and 'contaminated' nuclear transports in France are eloquent: the messages of nuclear firms is perceived through their image of a State within the State built from the past and reinforced by the negative prism of the news. Regular and technical arguments (the respect of norms) entertain the debate rather than hush it. That is why we could infer an objective, and independent opinion is required, one different from the firm, the public and ministries: its role of referee could allow a constructive dialog between the public and the firm. Risk communication nature and efficiency depend on that (cf. the diagram). As a solution, we think about a legitimate authority organization identified by the public first, but by other actors as well. From the public point of view, if we see the place of pressure groups (e.g. Greenpeace) in the debate as a measure of the lack of trust in the independence of safety authorities, we can infer that it is a reaffirmation of democracy which is demanded by the French public, which could be satisfied with powerful safety authorities. That is why safety authorities have an essential role to play, beyond this of control, in nuclear risk communication towards the public. Diagram: communication path between a nuclear firm and the public during conflict. (author)

  11. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications? Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time

  12. Radiation risk and its estimation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.

    1979-01-01

    The level of knowledge achieved in estimating risks due to the operation of nuclear facilities is discussed. In this connection it is analyzed to what extent risk estimates may be used for establishing requirements for facilities and measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. At present, estimates of risks are subject to great uncertainties. However, the results attainable already permit to discern the causes of possible accidents and to develop effective measures for preventing such accidents. For the time being (and maybe in principle) risk estimation is possible only with more or less arbitrary premises. Within the foreseeable future, cost-benefit comparisons cannot compensate for discretionary decisions in establishing requirements for measures of radiation protection and accident prevention. In preparing such decisions based on experience, expert opinions, political and socio-economic reflections and views, comparison of the risk of novel technologies with existing ones or accepted risks may be a useful means. (author)

  13. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  14. The contracting risks of nuclear power engineering and the risk management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuying

    2010-01-01

    With the trend of professional operation on the nuclear power engineering (thereafter using NPE for short) construction, the companies specialized on NPE whole-contracting are established one after the other, the mode of NPE whole-contracting has been wide adopted domestically. As people always concern for the safety of nuclear power, the risks exposed to NPE contractors are also concerned with the operator, the NPE corporations and the society. Therefore, it is very meaningful to analyze on the risks exposed to NPE contractors and the strategies they should take, for it not only determines whether the NPE construction will be finished on time, but also related to sustainable development of the NPE contracting corporations. The main content of this paper includes the analysis on the features and advantages of NPE whole contracting, the major NPE contracting risks, such as nuclear safety risks, strategic risks, market risks, legal risks, financial risks and operation risks, and the strategies to prevent or to control these risks. The paper focuses on identifying those business processes which risks may frequently take place, and how to manage them, illustrating practice cases to explain the theory, in order to make reference to NPE corporations. (author)

  15. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by ''rare''? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate "1"3"7Cs and gaseous "1"3"1I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted "1"3"7Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of "1"3"7Cs and "1"3"1I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  16. Regulatory Risk Management of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Glenn R.

    2002-01-01

    Regulatory risk reflects both the likelihood of adverse outcomes during regulatory interactions and the severity of those outcomes. In the arena of advanced nuclear power plant licensing and construction, such adverse outcomes may include, for example, required design changes and construction delays. These, in turn, could significantly affect the economics of the plant and the generation portfolio in which it will operate. In this paper, the author addresses these issues through the lens of risk management. The paper considers various tools and techniques of regulatory risk management, including design diversity and hedging strategies. The effectiveness of alternate approaches is weighed and recommendations are made in several regulatory contexts. (author)

  17. Nuclear Risk, Crisis, and Expertise: The Administrator's Role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Claude

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of nuclear risk, one of the most important risks in France, allows us to pinpoint the possible role of the administrator in various situations. The latter has no political power (which devolves on elected representatives), nor does he possess the knowledge of the scientist, or expert in the field. With neither power nor scientific knowledge, he is expected to do what he has been trained to do: 'administer' people, things, knowledge, space and time, even when the combination of risk and crisis constitutes a threat to any and all order. The role of the administrator is thus to contribute to the organization and management of crisis and uncertainty

  18. N reactor individual risk comparison to quantitative nuclear safety goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.; Rainey, T.E.; Zentner, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    A full-scope level III probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been completed for N reactor, a US Department of Energy (DOE) production reactor located on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) provided the technical leadership for this work, using the state-of-the-art NUREG-1150 methodology developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The main objectives of this effort were to assess the risks to the public and to the on-site workers posed by the operation of N reactor, to identify changes to the plant that could reduce the overall risk, and to compare those risks to the proposed NRC and DOE quantitative safety goals. This paper presents the methodology adopted by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and SNL for individual health risk evaluation, its results, and a comparison to the NRC safety objectives and the DOE nuclear safety guidelines. The N reactor results, are also compared with the five NUREG-1150 nuclear plants. Only internal events are compared here because external events are not yet reported in the current draft NUREG-1150. This is the first full-scope level III PRA study with a detailed quantitative safety goal comparison performed for DOE production reactors

  19. Understanding the nature of nuclear power plant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, R. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of understanding of severe accident consequences from the non-mechanistic assumptions of WASH-740 to WASH-1400, NUREG-1150, SOARCA and today in the interpretation of the consequences of the accident at Fukushima. As opposed to the general perception, the radiological human health consequences to members of the Japanese public from the Fukushima accident will be small despite meltdowns at three reactors and loss of containment integrity. In contrast, the radiation-related societal impacts present a substantial additional economic burden on top of the monumental task of economic recovery from the nonnuclear aspects of the earthquake and tsunami damage. The Fukushima accident provides additional evidence that we have mis-characterized the risk of nuclear power plant accidents to ourselves and to the public. The human health risks are extremely small even to people living next door to a nuclear power plant. The principal risk associated with a nuclear power plant accident involves societal impacts: relocation of people, loss of land use, loss of contaminated products, decontamination costs and the need for replacement power. Although two of the three probabilistic safety goals of the NRC address societal risk, the associated quantitative health objectives in reality only address individual human health risk. This paper describes the types of analysis that would address compliance with the societal goals. (authors)

  20. CAREM-25: a low-risk nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Nunez Mac Leod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The future use of nuclear energy for electricity production is assumed as a viable alternative at present, mainly taking into account the high environmental impact of the fossil fuel alternatives (greenhouse effect, acid rain). In the worldwide context, however, it is desirable that the next generation of nuclear power stations to be safer than the present ones. To demonstrate the safety level of a particular nuclear installation, the Risk Analysis (or Probabilistic Safety Assessment) is the most appropriate tool. Quantitative risk estimations can be performed with PSA. The risk can be split as the product of two factors: the first one takes into account the occurrence probability of accidental sequences that involve the release of radioactive material, and the second takes into account the magnitude and consequences of such a release. In the present work, the reduction of both factors is analyzed. The probability is reduced by the use of simpler and more reliable systems to perform the safety functions, and the consequence by the use of small power production units, provided with passive mitigation systems and long response times. The work is illustrated with a risk comparison for electricity production with CAREM-25 units, towards classic production units (Atucha II). The results are based on PSAs performed for both plants. The conclusions show an effective risk reduction (both in probability and in consequence) for the innovative CAREM-25 plant, coming to doses so low as to prevent any acute effect in the nearby population. (author)

  1. Flood risk analysis procedure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology and procedure for determining the impact of floods on nuclear power plant risk. The procedures are based on techniques of fault tree and event tree analysis and use the logic of these techniques to determine the effects of a flood on system failure probability and accident sequence occurrence frequency. The methodology can be applied independently or as an add-on analysis for an existing risk assessment. Each stage of the analysis yields useful results such as the critical flood level, failure flood level, and the flood's contribution to accident sequence occurrence frequency. The results of applications show the effects of floods on the risk from nuclear power plants analyzed in the Reactor Safety Study

  2. Public health risks associated with the CANDU nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.; Zikovsky, L.

    1982-09-01

    This report has been prepared in the hope that it will calculate, apparently for the first time, the non-radiological risks associated with the use of nuclear fuels. The specific risks identified and evaluated in this work should be balanced against the benefits resulting from the use of nuclear fuels or against the risks inherent in other fuels. Due to lack of sufficient data in certain areas the results obtained are subject to a large degree of uncertainty and therefore the results indicate an order of magnitude rather than exact values of hazard. The total hazard can be expressed as 6.0 ± 4.8 x 10 -3 fatalities and 4.8 ± 0.7 x l0 -2 injuries per 1 GWy of electricity produced

  3. Probabilistic Risk Assessment on Maritime Spent Nuclear Fuel Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Robby; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management has been an indispensable issue in South Korea. Before a long term SNF solution is implemented, there exists the need to distribute the spent fuel pool storage loads. Transportation of SNF assemblies from populated pools to vacant ones may preferably be done through the maritime mode since all nuclear power plants in South Korea are located at coastal sites. To determine its feasibility, it is necessary to assess risks of the maritime SNF transportation. This work proposes a methodology to assess the risk arising from ship collisions during the transportation of SNF by sea. Its scope is limited to the damage probability of SNF packages given a collision event. The effect of transport parameters' variation to the package damage probability was investigated to obtain insights into possible ways to minimize risks. A reference vessel and transport cask are given in a case study to illustrate the methodology's application.

  4. Risks perception and the public acceptance of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Walter Mendes; Gavazza, Sergio; Estrada, Julio J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This work establishes a methodology to evaluate the public acceptance of nuclear technology taking into consideration several risk concepts. Basic concepts of the nuclear science were transmitted, in form of lectures and courses, to the 13,439 Goiania residents, after the closing of the decontamination works, caused by the violation of the source of 137 Cs, of a teletherapy machine, in 1987. The results of the indicators shown that public's individuals perceive radiation risks and develop behaviors according to a constructive outline. The public does not know technical terms, being quite influenced by media, from where gets information of interest. The public orders the risks, relating them to accidents according to subjective criteria and models them as unknown, new and not observed at short period, establishing destruction, environmental catastrophe and diseases images. (author)

  5. Assessment of reduction in perception of nuclear risk related to perception of environmental risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a bibliographic research accomplished to evaluate the matter of reduction in risk perception, on people in general, that nuclear energy can show, for generation of electric power, face to perception of risk associated to environmental questions, as the global warming, from greenhouse effect, addressing the matter to the relevance of public acceptance for the development of new technologies. (author)

  6. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1990-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers were slow to recognize the importance of public attitudes and perceptions in shaping the fate of nuclear power. In 1976, Alvin Weinberg observed: 'As I compare the issues we perceived during the infancy of nuclear energy with those that have emerged during its maturity, the public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy appears to be the question that we missed rather badly.... This issue has emerged as the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy.' Today, fourteen years later, the problem of public acceptance is even more critical. Either the problem is damn tough or we have not been working hard enough to solve it (I suspect that both of these assertions are true). Public support for nuclear power has declined steadily for a decade and a half, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. In mid-March of 1979, the movie The China Syndrome had its premier, dramatizing the worst-case predictions of the earliest risk assessment studies. Two weeks later, events at Three Mile Island made the movie appear prophetic. Succeeding years have brought us Chernobyl and other major technological disasters, most notably Bhopal and the Challenger accident. The public has drawn a common message from these accidents - that nuclear (and other) complex technology is unsafe, that expertise is inadequate, and that government and industry cannot be trusted to manage nuclear power safely. These dramatic accidents and the distrust they have spawned have been reinforced by numerous chronic problems involving radiation, such as the discovery of significant radon concentrations in many homes, the continuing battles over the siting of facilities to store or dispose of nuclear wastes, and the disclosures of serious environmental contamination emanating from nuclear weapons facilities (at Hanford, Fernald, Rocky Flats and Savannah River)

  7. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovic, P [University of Oregon and Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Scientists and policy makers were slow to recognize the importance of public attitudes and perceptions in shaping the fate of nuclear power. In 1976, Alvin Weinberg observed: 'As I compare the issues we perceived during the infancy of nuclear energy with those that have emerged during its maturity, the public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy appears to be the question that we missed rather badly.... This issue has emerged as the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy.' Today, fourteen years later, the problem of public acceptance is even more critical. Either the problem is damn tough or we have not been working hard enough to solve it (I suspect that both of these assertions are true). Public support for nuclear power has declined steadily for a decade and a half, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. In mid-March of 1979, the movie The China Syndrome had its premier, dramatizing the worst-case predictions of the earliest risk assessment studies. Two weeks later, events at Three Mile Island made the movie appear prophetic. Succeeding years have brought us Chernobyl and other major technological disasters, most notably Bhopal and the Challenger accident. The public has drawn a common message from these accidents - that nuclear (and other) complex technology is unsafe, that expertise is inadequate, and that government and industry cannot be trusted to manage nuclear power safely. These dramatic accidents and the distrust they have spawned have been reinforced by numerous chronic problems involving radiation, such as the discovery of significant radon concentrations in many homes, the continuing battles over the siting of facilities to store or dispose of nuclear wastes, and the disclosures of serious environmental contamination emanating from nuclear weapons facilities (at Hanford, Fernald, Rocky Flats and Savannah River)

  8. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  9. Nuclear risk and optimal civil liability of the operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Andre; Spaeter, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    The civil liability of nuclear operators are regulated by two sets of international Conventions. In particular, strict liability, limited financial responsibility and the obligation of providing financial guaranties are imposed to the nuclear operator by the Paris Convention and the Vienna Convention. Then national legislations are free to increase the financial cap of responsibility fixed by the international regimes. First we present the main elements of these Conventions. Then we focus on the impact of a modification in the amount of responsibility of the nuclear operator on his risk mitigation policy and on his financial condition. In particular we show that an increase of the cap beyond a given level determined by the model gives the operator some incentives to lessen the investment in prevention, contrary to what is expected. Besides, the impact of the preventive activities done by the firm on its financial constraint depends on the sensitivity of the risk distribution to the variation of the prevention level: The risk mitigation activities must be discussed with respect to the severity of the incidents and/or to the size of the nuclear park

  10. New approach to managing nuclear criticality risk at Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.; Droke, R.; Paine, D.

    1992-01-01

    The negative aspects of having a nuclear criticality accident at a fuel fabrication facility have substantially increased in recent years. Although ensuring that the facility is designed and operating in a critically safe manner is a high management priority, practices of managing the risk of a criticality accident have not significantly changed. The method of evaluating risk based on quantitative analysis can enable management to adapt to the increased consequences of a nuclear criticality accident. Additional controls may be placed on high-risk areas within a facility to ensure safe operation of the plant. Areas where controls are in place that impede the productivity of the facility and have negligible impact on criticality safety may be removed or replaced. Management can also streamline the safety analysis efforts applied to facility upgrades by demonstrating that proposed design changes do not compromise criticality safety. Future expansion of quantitative analysis techniques will also allow risk-based management decisions on industrial, radiological, and environmental safety

  11. German study on the risks of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollny, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke', DRS, (German study on the risks of nuclear plants) calculates a frequency of 1/10000 years (i.e. once in 10000 years of reactor operation) for the event of insufficient cooling of the reactor core occurring. The resulting collective risk is put at approximately 10 deaths per year for 25 plants. As the explanations show, the error margin of such a risk statement is enormous. Moreover, much seems to indicate that the risk was underrated. Apart from this, risk analyses are of doubtful value in the decision process for or against the introduction of large-scale technologies. They cannot replace the individual decision of all concerned. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Coping with nuclear power risks: a national strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1983-01-01

    The question of risk policy for nuclear power plants must be addressed in the framework of a total social benefit and cost perspective that is not fully defined, and which may always lack a unanimous consensus in our pluralistic and politically varying society. This report emphasizes those aspects that may be important to a final balance, particularly where the social values involved are culturally self-evident. To illustrate those social values, this paper begins with a global view and proceeds to the individual nuclear plant

  13. Tritium : health risks, regulatory issues and the nuclear future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D. B.; Garva, A.

    2010-10-01

    The refurbishment of existing reactors and proposed new build reactors in Canada has resulted in increased public opposition to nuclear power. This opposition has been fuelled by information provided to local groups by highly motivated national and international anti-nuclear groups who foster overstated and often incorrect views on the risks of low doses of radiation. Over the past several years, there has been increased scientific and public interest in the risks of low exposures to tritium. Scientific aspects which have received considerable attention include amongst others, behaviour in the environment, the possibility of increasing the relative biological effectiveness for tritium, the importance of organically bound tritium, and tritium dosimetry. In Canada at least, the perception of harm from exposures to low levels of tritium has been enhanced in the public mind by a proposal in one Province to lower the drinking water standard for tritium from 7,000 Bq/L to 20 Bq/L, which certain non-governmental organizations use to suggest the risks have been greatly underestimated in the past. Actually regulatory environment, the approval of local public of often a requirement for licensing a nuclear facility and thus it is important to ensure that correct information is not only available but available in a technically correct but easily understood form. This paper reviews the currently available scientific information on the risks from exposure to tritium and provides a context of the implications for regulatory actions and communications with the public. (Author)

  14. Trial of risk assessment of a hypothetical nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Norichika; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2013-01-01

    An equation for risk assessment in physical protection is shown by a probability of an adversary attack during a period time, P A , a probability of system effectiveness, P E , and consequence value, C. In addition, P E is shown as the multiplication of a probability of interruption of the facility, P I , by a probability of neutralization by response force, P N . In this study, it is assumed that an adversary assaults a hypothetical nuclear facility. The new quantification method about P A and P I in risk evaluation formula is devised, and risk assessment is attempted. In case of P A , the possibility of assaults against a nuclear facility is discussed by using terrorism data written in the open source database of terrorism, Global Terrorism Database (GTD), summarized by University of Maryland. In addition, it is discussed about P I by using the way of thinking of a risk assessment tool, EASI, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). In the hypothetical nuclear facility, the performance of response force, sensors, and communication is expressed quantitatively by probability distribution based on some assumptions. (author)

  15. Risk and environmental impact assessment: nuclear and environmental licensing interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Eduardo M.; Monteiro, Iara A.

    1997-01-01

    The main aims of this paper are the identification and discussion of interfaces and application of common concepts in the existing nuclear and environmental licensing procedures. Risk and impact assessment of nuclear electricity generation are two of these concepts which are discussed detail. The risk concept, which had initially focused on engineering projects, has been extended to many other areas of human activity. Risk resulting from the use of ionization radiation has been associated to the dose for the critical members of the public. Therefore, radiation protection applies basic dose limits which are established in national and international recommendations. These recommendations are increasing the emphasis to keep all the exposures to ionizing radiation as low as reasonable achievable, economical and social factors being taken into account. On the other hand, environmental impact assessment has been used as a tool in planning and decision-making processes, thus including environmental concern in the discussion of social and economical development strategies. This paper aims to discuss the association of these two concepts by presenting the procedures of control of radiological impact during normal operation of a nuclear power plant and the various forms of risk communication to the public in the case of events occurrence. (author). 13 refs

  16. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  17. A societal risk analysis model for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, George T.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the last decade and a half reveals that the nuclear power industry, world wide, has devoted increased attention to the concepts of reactor risk, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and cost benefit analyses. Millions of dollars have been spent by the industry and by regulatory agencies on studies of specific plants, research into severe accident behavior, and the development of national risk goals. In the United States, there is a major effort underway to evaluate each operating nuclear plant using PRA and the latest information on severe accident behavior. This effort constitutes a search for 'outliers' or vulnerabilities which may be profitably addressed by changes to plant design or operation. The question, then, immediately arises: How much is it reasonable to spend on this particular 'outlier?' The answer to this question, in each case, calls for some systematic vehicle for evaluating the worth of risk reduction. In turn, this calls for some means to look at all aspects of risk using a common yardstick or unit of measure. A review of past practices in such evaluations leads one directly to the classical cost benefit analyses which rarely use any guideline more comprehensive than the old $1000 per person-rem. The real costs of the TMI accident point to a need for a more realistic treatment. The BoPhal accident, the Chernobyl accident, and the Exxon Valdez accident highlight risk aspects previously not explored in detail and further support the postulate that a better method is mandated by history

  18. Cost and risk tradeoff for routing nuclear spent fuel movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the transportation industry, much effort has been devoted to finding the least cost routes for shipping goods from their production sites to the market areas. In addition to cost, the decision maker must take the risk of an incident into consideration for transportation routing involving hazardous materials. The transportation of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites to repositories is an example. Given suitable network information, existing routing methods can readily determine least cost or least risk routes for any shipment. These two solutions, however, represent the extremes of a large number of alternatives with different combinations of risk and cost. In the selection of routes and also in the evaluation of alternative storage sites it is not enough to know which is the lease cost or lowest risk. Intelligent decision-marking requires knowledge of how much it will cost to lower risk by a certain amount. The objective of this study is to develop an automated system to evaluate the tradeoff between transportation cost and potential population at risk under different nuclear spent fuel transportation strategies

  19. Risk classification for nuclear facilities in connection with the illegal use of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahm, W.; Naegele, G.; Sellinschegg, D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown, and illustrated by an example, that specific conditions at a nuclear facility to a large extent determine the probability of a successful illegal attack against that facility. Therefore, a categorization of nuclear materials according to the associated hazards alone, as practised currently, does not appear to be sufficient for the establishment of a balanced national physical protection system. In this paper a possible way of categorizing nuclear facilities according to the associated risks, determined as objectively as possible, is discussed. It is felt that initially the analysis should be restricted to the determination of the conditional risks, associated with illegal acquisition and use of radioactive materials by a postulated hostile or similar group. (author)

  20. The risk of nuclear power plants for man. O risco das usinas nucleares para o homem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Maia, A [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    1981-01-01

    The author analyzes the risk of nuclear power plants for man with respect to biological radiation effects, sources, level and radiation effects in man. He uses the three Mile Island accident as lesson in order to illustrate a situation potentially dangerous. (C.M.).

  1. Nuclear risks perception and information; Perception des risques nucleaires et information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenot, J; Bonnefous, S; Hubert, P

    1994-12-31

    In this text we present the studies made by the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) on the nuclear risks perception by the public and we compare this perception of risks with other industries.

  2. Bowtie Risk Management methodology and Modern Nuclear Safety Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilizastigui Pérez, F.

    2016-01-01

    The Safety Report (SR) plays a crucial role within the nuclear licensing regime as the principal means for demonstrating the adequacy of safety analysis for a nuclear facility to ensure that it can be constructed, operated, maintained, shut down, and decommissioned safely and in compliance with applicable laws and regulations. It serves as the basis for granting authorizations for the commencement of the main stages of the facility’s life cycle as well as decision-making processes related to safety. Historically, the majority of nuclear safety reports have operated under rather prescriptive regimes, with emphasis placed on demonstrations of the robustness of the facility’s design (design safety) against prescriptive technical requirements set by the regulatory body, and less attention paid to demonstrating the adequacy and effectiveness of Operator’s management system for managing risks to daily operation.

  3. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  4. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks

  5. Billions at stake in climate finance: four key lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Peter [University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Boyd, Emily [University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Huq, Saleemul

    2009-11-15

    How can we break through the impasse on the road to Copenhagen? As the climate talks stall over the size of emissions cuts and who pays for them, it is increasingly clear that funding will be key to breaking the deadlock. Guaranteeing adequate levels of climate finance will be a deal maker or breaker for the poorest nations as the December summit approaches. But on the brink of a new chapter in climate funding, with unprecedented flows at stake, donor countries need to learn from decades of aid experience – mistakes as well as successes. Failure to do this risks wasting a great opportunity to kickstart low-carbon, climate-resilient development for the world's poor.

  6. Significance of earthquake risk in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sues, R.H.; Amico, P.J.; Campbell, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    During the last eight years, approximately 25 utility-sponsored probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have been conducted for US nuclear reactors. Of these, ten have been published, seven of which have included complete seismic risk assessment. The results of the seven published PRAs are reviewed here in order to ascertain the significance of the risk due to earthquake initiating events. While PRA methodology has been in a state of development over the past seven years, and the results are subject to interpretation (as discussed in the paper), from the review conducted it is clear that earthquake-induced initiating events are important risk contributors. It is concluded that earthquake initiating events should not be dismissed, a priori, in any nuclear plant risk assessment. (orig.)

  7. Population information on major technological risks and specially on nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Choudens, H.

    1992-01-01

    Following Chernobyl accident which has revealed in France a strong need for information on technological risks among population and a lack in its organization, the Mayor of Grenoble City who was also at this time, Environment Minister in French Government had initiated in lsere Region an important operation of consideration of action, which has to been undertaken to correct theses lacks. Among ten actions retained one of them was the creation of an Association for Information of the public for Prevention of major risks. This Association has first initiated a consultation on the perception by the population of the different major risks (Industrial and Naturals) in view of the results of this consultation, Medical Professions were the first concerned and a publication 'Medicine and Nuclear risk' has been elaborated and distributed to all doctors of the Region. A Memento on Nuclear risk as then been written and largely distributed in the region, especially in the medias. A booklet on nuclear risk and behavior in case of nuclear accident has then been realized and distributed to all people around Electronuclear Reactors of the Region and to children in the schools. In complement, public meetings have been organized in these sectors to inform, and discuss with the population. (author)

  8. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  9. City and energy: which common stakes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saujot, Mathieu; Peiffer-Smadja, Oceane; Renard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of several issues addressed during sessions hold during a year. The addressed topics have been: the interactions between forms of urban development and energy transition, energetic vulnerability in relationship with mobility, the role and participation of inhabitants in the making of the city and in energy transition (the challenge of ways of life and usages in eco-districts), stakes and consequences of a more integrated urban production, the local governance of energy. Each of these topics is discussed, and the main lessons learned are highlighted

  10. Marine renewable energies. Stakes and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Olivier; Macadre, Laura-Mae

    2012-05-01

    Marine renewable energies are able to supply carbon free energy from various ocean resources (tides, waves, currents, winds, salinity and temperature gradients). This sector, currently at an early stage of deployment, has good prospects of development in the coming years. ENEA releases a report on marine renewable energies giving a transversal vision of the associated stakes and prospects of development. Technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each marine energy are analyzed. French and European sources of funding, regulatory framework and potential environmental and social impacts are also reported

  11. Risk assessment basis for WWER-440 spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascek, M.; Necas, V.; Darilek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The most problematic part of nuclear fuel cycle is its back end. Various high level waste management are available or under development (final disposal of spent assemblies in deep repository, reprocessing, partitioning, transmutation,...). Application of any method is connected with production of characteristic high level waste (amount, radio-toxicity, form,...) as well as various risk level for the environment and mankind. Strategy selection should be based on risk analysis also. The paper deals with assessment of risk, that is associated with WWER-440 spent fuel inventory. In order to evaluate the risk, the accumulated amount of the radioactive inventory is calculated and the decay of the long-lived radionuclides is computed by ORIGEN code. Analysis is oriented on calculation of hazard indexes for assessing the relative hazards of actinides, toxic and long-lived radionuclides. (Authors)

  12. Methodology for flood risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Casada, M.L.; Fussell, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The methodology for flood risk analysis described here addresses the effects of a flood on nuclear power plant safety systems. Combining the results of this method with the probability of a flood allows the effects of flooding to be included in a probabilistic risk assessment. The five-step methodology includes accident sequence screening to focus the detailed analysis efforts on the accident sequences that are significantly affected by a flood event. The quantitative results include the flood's contribution to system failure probability, accident sequence occurrence frequency and consequence category occurrence frequency. The analysis can be added to existing risk assessments without a significant loss in efficiency. The results of two example applications show the usefulness of the methodology. Both examples rely on the Reactor Safety Study for the required risk assessment inputs and present changes in the Reactor Safety Study results as a function of flood probability

  13. Prevention of damage and 'residual risk' in nuclear power laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greipl, C.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of prevention of damage within the framework of nuclear power laws includes averting danger for the protection of third parties and preventing risks for the partial protection of third parties with the proviso that still a desire to use the concept 'residual risk' in addition, it should be limited, on the grounds of what can be reasonably expected, to those risks which cannot be reduced any further by the government, i.e. to risks which the public in general and third parties ('actually') must accept. In the future, questions regarding safety systems should be taken into account exclusively withing the context of 'what is necessary for protection against damage in keeping with the latest developments in science and technology' and not at the discretion of the law in denying permission according to Article 7 Paragraph 2 Atomic Energy Law. (orig.) [de

  14. The role of risk assessment in the nuclear regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study in the USA, the basic tasks of which are summarised, the use of quantitative risk-assessment techniques for the safety of nuclear power plants has increased considerably. Some of the viewpoints expressed on the use of these techniques are examined, and their limitations are discussed. Areas where risk-assessment techniques are applied by the NRC are listed and some recent examples are discussed. Risk assessment has also been used as a criteria for deciding the topics for the NRC's recommendations for research programs. It is concluded that the major contribution of risk assessment techniques should be in the form of background analyses that will aid decision making and could also significantly affect the scope and content of regulatory reviews. (UK)

  15. International recommendations for managing environmental risk from nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The establishment of any recommendations relating to the control of radiation exposure requires decisions on the management of the associated risk. Those decisions must reflect attitudes towards the acceptable levels of risk for both workers and the public. The environmental impact of nuclear energy principally concerns radiation doses and risks to members of the public. The author shows how the considerations of risk and acceptability are used internationally to set standards for protection. The results differ as between limiting doses for normal operations, for restricting the likelihood of accidents, intervening after an accident, or reducing doses from a chronic exposure situation. It is concluded that there is a coherent pattern in the resulting protection system

  16. Methods for estimating risks to nuclear power plants from shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.H.; Hartman, M.G.; Robbins, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear power plants sited on land near shipping lanes or offshore can be exposed to potential risks if there is nearby ship or barge traffic which involves the transport of hazardous cargo. Methods that have been developed for estimating the degree of risk are summarized. Of concern are any accidents which could lead to a release or spill of the hazardous cargo, or to an explosion. A probability of occurrence of the order of 10 -7 per year is a general guideline which has been used to judge whether or not the risk from hazards created by accidents is acceptable. This guideline has been followed in the risk assessment discussed in this paper. 19 references

  17. Raising the Stakes: High-Stakes Testing and the Attack on Public Education in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, David

    2013-01-01

    Over the last almost two decades, high-stakes testing has become increasingly central to New York's schools. In the 1990s, the State Department of Education began requiring that secondary students pass five standardized exams to graduate. In 2002, the federal No Child Left Behind Act required students in grades three through eight to take math and…

  18. Nuclear power plant safety - the risk of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, D.; Crancher, D.W.

    1975-08-01

    Although it is physically impossible for any nuclear plant to explode like an atom bomb, an accidental release of radioactive material into the environment is conceivable. Three factors reduce the probability of such releases, in dangerous quantities, to an extremely low level. Firstly, there are many safety features built into the plant including a leaktight containment building to prevent the escape of such material. Secondly, the quality of engineering and standards used are far more demanding than in conventional power engineering. Thirdly, strict government licensing and regulatory control is enforced at all phases from design through construction to operation. No member of the general public is known to have been injured or died as a result of any accident to a commercial nuclear power plant. Ten workers have died as a result of over-exposure to radiation from experimental reactors and laboratory work connected with the development of nuclear plant since 1945. Because of this excellent safety record the risk of serious accidents can only be estimated. On the basis of such estimates, the chance of an accident in a nuclear power reactor which could cause a detectable increase in the incidence of radiation-induced illnesses would be less than one chance in a million per year. In a typical highly industrialised society, such as the USA, the estimated risk of an individual being killed by such accidents, from one hundred operating reactors, is no greater than one chance in sixteen million per year. There are undoubtedly risks from reactor accidents but estimates of these risks show that they are considerably less than from other activities which are accepted by society. (author)

  19. The risk of storing radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1976-09-01

    Serious bottle-necks exist in the nuclear fuel cycle and will continue for the next decade. A total of 800 nuclear reactors are now in operation. 153 nuclear power plants represent an installed capacity of 70 GVe. Until 1985 five hundred nuclear power plants will be in operation from which up to this date 53.000 t uranium will have been discharged. Part of this will have to be reprocessed. Associated with the above mentioned amount are 500 t plutonium and 1.500 t highly radioactive wastes. Two risks for the population have to be considered: firstly, the effect of small amounts of radioactive substances released during normal operation of nuclear power plants (the annual dose is about 1 mrem per person). Secondly, the possibility of the release of great amounts of radioactivity during heavy accidents (the probability for which is extremely small). A series of feasible possibilities for conditioning are shown. Firstly, the wastes are packed in substances which are insoluble in water. Secondly, for low and medium wastes these can be mixed with concrete or bitumen and filled into stable containers. Thirdly, the wastes could also be solidified. Fourthly, the wastes could be enclosed in small glass spheres which are embedded in a metal matrix. (H.G.)

  20. Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, Richard; Lake, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands

  1. Provenance of nuclear radioactivity radiation and hazardous health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhuja, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    This assessment has an important consideration for nuclear energy upon the creation of radioactivity being generated and mobilized through various energy agencies. The term 'Radioactivity' or the rate of nuclear decay is measured in units called 'Becquerel' (Bq), where 1 Bq= 1 event (disintegration) per second. Another commonly used unit of radioactivity is the Curie (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.70 x 10"1"0 Bq. Radiation is all around us. It is in our environment and has been since the earth was formed. As a result, life has evolved in the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation. It comes from outer space (cosmic), ground (terrestrial) and even from within our own bodies. It is in the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the state of our wellbeing. However, the entire system is related to human and human-health issues. This paper examines the empirical evidence incorporated with human-made nuclear radioactivity from nuclear energy sources, especially while maintaining the viability of radioactive mechanisms, which may cause the uncontrolled highly dangerous harmful effects of radionuclides in human body and these radiations can even damage the DNA in the cells of people when exposed to it, because it is the DNA that passes on instructions for growth and development to the next generation. This, in turn, is the paradigm for the health risks of various sources of nuclear radioactivity. (author)

  2. Nuclear Liability and Insurance Cover for Risk of Nuclear Power Plants - Situation for Nuclear Installations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boediker, T.

    1998-01-01

    A dispute about nuclear liability and insurance cover for risks of nuclear power plants from an insurer's point of view has to determine and to judge the essential risk relevant factors. These are beside plant and site specific factors considerations of insurance restrictions in the extent of cover compared with the legal scope of liability for (re-)insurability's sake. Among such consideration are: financial limitation and obligation for its reinstatement, exclusions for gradual emissions of approved activities, armed conflicts, hostilities, civil war, insurrections or grave natural disaster and restrictions in the limitation and preclusion periods. In comparison with conventional liability risks there are some specialties to be considered some of which prove to be a risk relief other as a risk burden for insurance: Salvage expenses or interests and court costs to be paid by unsuccessful party in a lost litigation do not fall under legal liability and hence are excluded from the financial security cover so that are compensation is subject to agreed separate limits. A serious burden for the insurers can result out of the loss regulation costs in case of a severe nuclear accident. These expenses, which can exceed hundred million DM by far, are to be carried by the insurers in the frame of their obligation to investigate raised claims. Therefore the insurers should aim a fixed limitation in order to restrict their limit. (author)

  3. Coping with nuclear power risks: the electric utility incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.; Whipple, C.

    1982-01-01

    The financial risks associated with nuclear power accidents are estimated by interpolating between frequency-vs.-severity data from routine outages and the frequency-vs.-severity estimates from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400). This analysis indicates that the expected costs of plant damage and lost power production are large compared to the public risks estimated in WASH-1400, using values from An Approach to Quantitative Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants (NUREG-0739), prepared by the NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. Analyses of the cost-effectiveness of accident-prevention investments that include only anticipated public safety benefits will underestimate the value of such investments if reductions in power plant damage risk are not included. The analysis also suggests that utility self-interest and the public interest in safety are generally coincident. It is argued that greater use could be made of this self-interest in regulation if the relationship between the NRC and the industry were more cooperative, less adversary in nature

  4. The stakes in managing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissier, F.

    2012-01-01

    Like any human activity, the nuclear industry produces wastes. The wastes containing radioactive substances have to be managed as a function of the related risks. Nowadays, 1.300.000 tons of radioactive wastes have accumulated in France. More than 90% of them have short half-lives and are stored on the ground by ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) on 2 sites in the Aube district. ANDRA also designs solutions for stocking the other wastes. Those with long half-lives and very high activity will be stored deep underground (500 meter deep) at Cigeo in the Meuse and Haute-Marne districts. The wastes with long half-lives but low activity (less than 10 5 decays/s for graphite and less than a few thousands decays/s for radium contaminated wastes) will be disposed in a specific way. Implementing a storage solution for each type of waste is necessary for the nuclear industry's sustainability, but it does not dispense the latter from pursuing its efforts to reduce the quantity and danger of the wastes produced. This holds in particular for the so-called 'fourth generation' of future installations. It is important to take stock of all the issues related to managing nuclear wastes

  5. Risk Informed Approach for Nuclear Security Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control. Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance to States for developing a risk informed approach and for conducting threat and risk assessments as the basis for the design and implementation of sustainable nuclear security systems and measures for prevention of, detection of, and response to criminal and intentional unauthorised acts involving nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control. It describes concepts and methodologies for a risk informed approach, including identification and assessment of threats, targets, and potential consequences; threat and risk assessment methodologies, and the use of risk informed approaches as the basis for informing the development and implementation of nuclear security systems and measures. The publication is an Implementing Guide within the IAEA Nuclear Security Series and is intended for use by national policy makers, law enforcement agencies and experts from competent authorities and other relevant organizations involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of nuclear security systems and measures related to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control

  6. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk

  7. Risk perception of nuclear energy and the effect of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Caroline

    2000-08-01

    Results from 4 studies are reported. A mixture of survey, experimental and quasi-experimental designs and a variety of samples (undergraduates, postgraduates and graduates of Nottingham University, visitors to Sellafield and a random national UK sample) were used to examine risk perceptions of nuclear energy. The roles of risk, benefit, preference, knowledge, control, trust, attitudes, intentions to act and personality, in relation to nuclear energy, were examined. A survey study examined and explored the above-mentioned variables. Then experimental and quasi-experimental studies were devised using a BNFL video advert, a BNFL written newspaper advert and BNFL's Sellafield Visitors' Centre (SVC), to test the effectiveness of information on these variables. Through pre-post experimental and quasi-experimental studies, it was shown that levels of knowledge could be increased through information. This increase was also seen to be sustained over time, especially when people engaged in their learning environment (reading a newspaper or going to Sellafield). Regarding levels of knowledge, passively watching a video had a significant but very small effect. Changes in attitudes were also recorded, although these were only sustained over time for the Visitors' Centre. Concerning the other variables in question, changes in perceived risk, perceived benefit and preference were also recorded for the samples, although these results either could not be attributed to the different types of information, were not sustained or were no different to observations in the control groups. Some changes were recorded for aspects of control in the advert study although none were seen in the SVC study. No changes were found in trust for any of the different types of information. The main, consistent finding, was that sustained changes were recorded for knowledge and attitudes. These were both found to be linked to many of the variables under investigation, including risk perception. A study

  8. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-01

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  9. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-15

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  10. Huntsman takes a stake in Chemplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    Huntsman Chemical (Salt Lake City) has bought a 50% stake in Australian styrenics maker Chemplex (Melbourne) from Consolidated Press Holdings (Sydney). Huntsman stepped in after a previous acquisition plan by South Africa's Sentrachem (Johannesburg) broke down because of a failure to agree on price. Chemplex has two production locations near Melbourne: West Footscray, with capacity for 100,000 m.t./year of styrene, plus polystyrene, phenol, and acetone; and Dandenong, with production of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and latex. The company was originally Monsanto Australia, before being acquired by Consolidated Press in 1988. The deal will give Huntsman its first major production position in the Asia/Pacific region, apart from a 50% stake in a 25,000-m.t./year polystyrene plant in Taiwan, with Grand Pacific Petrochemical (Taipei) as a partner. In 1991, Huntsman abandoned plans to invest in a 25,000-m.t./year polystyrene plant in Thailand with Mitsubishi Corp. and Toa (Bangkok). Huntsman Chemical has annual revenues of $1.3 billion

  11. A global approach to risk management: lessons from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.; Kaufer, B.

    2003-01-01

    The industry's nuclear safety experts are continuously striving to minimise the possible risk and extent of a nuclear accident, while nuclear regulatory, authorities work to ensure that all safety requirements are met. Relying on a combination of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, they are obtaining positive results in terms of both risk-informed regulation and nuclear safety management. This article addresses this aspect of risk management, as well as the management of radiation exposure risk. It looks into nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management, and stresses the importance of coordinating potential protection approaches and providing effective communication should a nuclear accident occur. (authors)

  12. Modeling operational risks of the nuclear industry with Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, Patricia; Lustosa, Leonardo J.

    2009-01-01

    Basically, planning a new industrial plant requires information on the industrial management, regulations, site selection, definition of initial and planned capacity, and on the estimation of the potential demand. However, this is far from enough to assure the success of an industrial enterprise. Unexpected and extremely damaging events may occur that deviates from the original plan. The so-called operational risks are not only in the system, equipment, process or human (technical or managerial) failures. They are also in intentional events such as frauds and sabotage, or extreme events like terrorist attacks or radiological accidents and even on public reaction to perceived environmental or future generation impacts. For the nuclear industry, it is a challenge to identify and to assess the operational risks and their various sources. Early identification of operational risks can help in preparing contingency plans, to delay the decision to invest or to approve a project that can, at an extreme, affect the public perception of the nuclear energy. A major problem in modeling operational risk losses is the lack of internal data that are essential, for example, to apply the loss distribution approach. As an alternative, methods that consider qualitative and subjective information can be applied, for example, fuzzy logic, neural networks, system dynamic or Bayesian networks. An advantage of applying Bayesian networks to model operational risk is the possibility to include expert opinions and variables of interest, to structure the model via causal dependencies among these variables, and to specify subjective prior and conditional probabilities distributions at each step or network node. This paper suggests a classification of operational risks in industry and discusses the benefits and obstacles of the Bayesian networks approach to model those risks. (author)

  13. Modeling operational risks of the nuclear industry with Bayesian networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, Patricia [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial; Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: pwieland@cnen.gov.br; Lustosa, Leonardo J. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial], e-mail: ljl@puc-rio.br

    2009-07-01

    Basically, planning a new industrial plant requires information on the industrial management, regulations, site selection, definition of initial and planned capacity, and on the estimation of the potential demand. However, this is far from enough to assure the success of an industrial enterprise. Unexpected and extremely damaging events may occur that deviates from the original plan. The so-called operational risks are not only in the system, equipment, process or human (technical or managerial) failures. They are also in intentional events such as frauds and sabotage, or extreme events like terrorist attacks or radiological accidents and even on public reaction to perceived environmental or future generation impacts. For the nuclear industry, it is a challenge to identify and to assess the operational risks and their various sources. Early identification of operational risks can help in preparing contingency plans, to delay the decision to invest or to approve a project that can, at an extreme, affect the public perception of the nuclear energy. A major problem in modeling operational risk losses is the lack of internal data that are essential, for example, to apply the loss distribution approach. As an alternative, methods that consider qualitative and subjective information can be applied, for example, fuzzy logic, neural networks, system dynamic or Bayesian networks. An advantage of applying Bayesian networks to model operational risk is the possibility to include expert opinions and variables of interest, to structure the model via causal dependencies among these variables, and to specify subjective prior and conditional probabilities distributions at each step or network node. This paper suggests a classification of operational risks in industry and discusses the benefits and obstacles of the Bayesian networks approach to model those risks. (author)

  14. Construction risks of nuclear power plants for use in cost-effectiveness considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock-Werthmann, W.

    1986-08-01

    The construction risk study is concerned with a nuclear power station of 1300 MW(e) design output. The risk figures obtained demonstrate that construction risks of nuclear power plants form a substantial share of the total risk from all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. When compared with other risk figures it is apparent that only the fatalities caused by the extraction of uranium are of similar magnitude. (55 references). (DG)

  15. Acceptable risks: occupational health in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis examines the risk of working in the nuclear power industry. It reviews the history of the industry, government regulatory activities, and current scientific evidence of the health effects of radiation exposure. A discussion of current controversies over reduction in exposure limits is presented along with an analysis of the issues and problems associated with determinations of acceptable workplace risks. The thesis analyzes the controversy in terms of the acceptability of risk. The question of acceptability does not lend itself to technical evaluations of risks, costs, and benefits but is a social judgment of the necessity of a particular occupation or industry in society. At issue is the level of profits foregone by reductions in risk. This document concludes that the legitimacy of decisions about acceptable risks rests on the informed participation of all interested parties, including workers, in a process of defining socially necessary production. There must be opportunities to refuse higher risk jobs without losing a livelihood and adequate compensation for workers who accept hazardous jobs for the benefit of society

  16. The risk of nuclear power in Germany compared with the risk other electricity generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preiss, P.; Wissel, S.; Fahl, U.; Friedrich, R.; Voss, A.

    2013-01-01

    The report shows that no electricity generation technology is without risk and without environmental impact. Taking into account the quantifiable risks of loss expenses in case of accidents the study shows that the health hazards and economical risk are by trend about equal for nuclear power and renewable energy sources. The study is based on the statement that the severe accident in Fukushima-Daiichi cannot be ascribed to so-called remaining risk since the NPP was not designed for tsunamis of the size that occurred in 2011 although this size was of high probability and that the calculated very low probabilities for severe accidents in German nuclear power plants correspond to the reality.

  17. Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the 2005-06 NKS-B NordRisk project has been to present practical methods for probabilistic risk assessment from long-range atmospheric transport and deposition of radioactive material. In this project an atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition patterns derived from archived numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data coupled to an atmospheric dispersion model has been produced, and a PC-based software tool has been developed, based on a simplified description of the long-term, long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition. The atlas and the software tool may allow for a rapid, first assessment of the risks following a nuclear emergency, when detailed information on the long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition is not available. (au)

  18. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  19. Evaluating health risks in communities near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttenber, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, epidemiologic studies have been the most popular approach to examining health risks to populations near nuclear facilities. A review of these studies has identified a number of methodologic problems, particularly with regard to establishing causal relations between radiation exposure and disease. Recently, in the United States, dose reconstruction and risk assessment projects have been conducted as alternatives to epidemiologic studies. This paper reviews the problems associated with epidemiologic studies and discusses how dose reconstruction and risk assessment can serve as alternatives to epidemiologic studies. Examples are also provided to demonstrate how these techniques can be used to explore the feasibility of epidemiologic studies, and how dose reconstruction data can improve the quality of epidemiologic studies

  20. The German risk study for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    In August 1979 results of the ''German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants'' were published. The Main Report, in which approach and results of the study are documented, has been available since the end of 1979. It was the charter of the study - which was performed on behalf of the Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany - to apply as far as possible the methods of the US Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to German plant and site conditions. A direct transfer of the results was not deemed justified, mainly for the following reasons: There is quite a number of differences between the design of the reference plants of WASH-1400 (Surry-1, Peach Bottom-2) and German nuclear power plants. The mean population density in the Federal Republic of Germany is more than ten times of the United States. In the vicinity of nuclear power plants the ratio is about 3:1. To calculate the collective risk resulting from reactor accidents, a total of 25 plants at 19 different sites in the Federal Republic of Germany were considered. This included all plants with 600 MW or more electrical output, which were in operation, under construction or in licensing process by July 1, 1977. As an approximation to the real situation, it has been assumed that all 25 plants are technically identical to the reference plant

  1. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  2. Risk Informed Optimization of Nuclear Instrumentation for Emergency Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Emergency conditions after a nuclear accident are different in each case and cannot be predicted accurately. The accident at TMI did not contaminate the environment. The accident at Chernobyl had a large, early release of nuclear contamination, widely dispersed over many countries. Although there was no large, early release of contamination at Fukushima Daiichi, the timeline of the accident included days of later contamination of various degrees of severity. A large amount of the contamination has been released to the ocean and an exclusion zone still exists around the station. In all of these accidents there were no adequate radiation monitoring systems distant from the origin point that could provide accurate status to the authorities and the local population. In the recent years a number of new nuclear monitoring systems have been implemented or are under development to be installed in areas that might be exposed to nuclear contamination in emergencies. Based on the risk informed optimization methodology, this paper provides recommendations for selecting the quantity and type of instrumentation, the location and sampling of data, and the real-time processing of information. (authors)

  3. Split or Steal? Cooperative Behavior When the Stakes Are Large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Assem (Martijn); D. van Dolder (Dennie); R.H. Thaler (Richard)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe examine cooperative behavior when large sums of money are at stake, using data from the television game show Golden Balls. At the end of each episode, contestants play a variant on the classic prisoner's dilemma for large and widely ranging stakes averaging over $20,000. Cooperation

  4. Effectively managing nuclear risk through human performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The US commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained/qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a consistently high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of NPP ownership, as well as the current climate of concern about both rising energy costs and availability of power, has raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and improve performance even further in a generally high performing organization. Newer technology and more training by themselves are not the answer. Rather, the answer will lie in the human side of the organization and management's ability to tap into the unused potential of employee commitment and productivity. It is people who offer the greatest potential for organizational success. Given the fact that human performance has been demonstrated to yield higher rates of return than physical capital, it makes good business sense to determine how to encourage the behaviors in the workplace to manage the risk that will accompany efforts to boost the nuclear industry to new heights of excellence. This means effectively developing a performance improvement culture through identifying measurable performance indicators and determining how behaviors can best be influenced to improve those indicators. It also means seeing a culture of performance improvement and risk management as a strategic planning tool rather than a solution to a particular problem. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture of performance improvement and effectively managing risk

  5. Seismic fragilities for nuclear power plant risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic fragilities of critical structures and equipment are developed as families of conditional failure frequency curves plotted against peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on available data combined with judicious extrapolation of design information on plant structures and equipment. Representative values of fragility parameters for typical modern nuclear power plants are provided. Based on the fragility evaluation for about a dozen nuclear power plants, it is proposed that unnecessary conservatism existing in current seismic design practice could be removed by properly accounting for inelastic energy absorption capabilities of structures. The paper discusses the key contributors to seismic risk and the significance of possible correlation between component failures and potential design and construction errors

  6. Nuclear and non-nuclear risks: Address to the Parliamentary and Scientific Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.

    1988-01-01

    Risk assessment is first explained. For example, for a loss of coolant accident at Sizewell B the estimate of the likelihood that radioactivity would be released involves three numbers:- the frequency of loss of coolant from the reactor; how often the safety pumps which would have to work in case of a loss of coolant have failed when tested; and the chance that the containment round the reactor will fail. As each risk number is small, the combined risk is very small. Using the same method of assessment the risk of an accident affecting public safety at the liquid gas plant on Canvey Island is 1000 larger, but still small and acceptable. Much time and money was spent on establishing the 1000 times lower risk of an accident affecting public safety at the Sizewell reactor. The risk assessment was however, finally accepted. Fast reactors are even safer than pressurised water reactors and use a renewable energy source; their development is strongly advocated. It is noted that the risks from a medieval water-wheel were enormous compared with nuclear risks today. (U.K.)

  7. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmanen, Tapio (Univ. of Jyvaeskylae, Dept. of Social Sciences and Philosophy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)), e-mail: Tapio.Litmanen@jyu.fi

    2010-09-15

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  8. The utmost ends of the nuclear fuel cycle. How Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanen, Tapio

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze how Finns perceive the risks of uranium mining and nuclear waste management. In social science quite much research has been done on the issue of how people perceive the risks of nuclear waste and nuclear waste management, but not much has been done in analyzing the similarities and differences of risk perception (and ethical considerations) of the utmost ends of nuclear fuel cycle. There have been some changes in Finnish nuclear policy during ongoing decade, which make this type of study interesting: decision on the fifth nuclear power plant was done in 2002, the site for spent nuclear fuel has been chosen in 2001 and in 2010 the Parliament will decide which of three competitors will get the permission to construct the sixth nuclear power plant. This national nuclear renaissance was accompanied with the uranium boom, which started in 2005. New international interest in nuclear power had raised the price of uranium. International mining companies started uranium explorations because Finnish bedrock is the oldest in Europe, and it is similar with and also of the same age as is that of the great uranium producers, Canada and Australia. The analysis of risk perceptions between uranium questions and spent nuclear fuel is based on the national survey data (N=1180) gathered in 2007

  9. CO2 capture and sequestration. Technological and social stakes in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minh, Ha-Duong; Naceur, Chaabane

    2010-01-01

    Industrial technology already tested in Norway, North America and Algeria, the CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) consists in collecting carbon dioxide and to inject it into deep geological traps. This solution, which contributes to the fight against climatic change, arouses a growing up interest in France as a consequence of the Grenelle Environnement meetings. At a time when big research and demonstration programs are launched everywhere in Europe, this book proposes for the first time a status of the knowledge gathered so far by the specialists of the IPG (World Physics Institute), of the BRGM (Bureau of Geologic and Mining Researches), of the IFP (French Petroleum Institute), and of the CNRS (National Center of Scientific Research). It takes stock of the stakes of this new technology in France. Beyond the technical discussions between experts, the book deals with the external communication stakes and the open public debates. The point of views of the different intervening parties (research organizations, environmental non-governmental organizations, European lobby (Zero Emission Platform), citizens, journalists and companies are compared. A large part of the book aims at shading light on the social acceptability question of this technology. In addition to a synthesis of the available literature, it presents and analyses two participation instruments: a dialogue workshop and a geographical information web site. Content: 1 - scientific stakes of CO 2 geologic sequestration; 2 - technical stakes; 3 - economical stakes; 4 - risks and public opinion; 5 - social acceptability and territorial planning, the wind energy experience; 6 - the point of view of Action-Climat-France network (RAC-F); 7 - citizens' recommendations; 8 - the comeback of coal on the international energy scene; 9 - some consensus from a 'dialogue workshop': the social acceptability of CCS; 10 - bibliographic synthesis about the social acceptability of CCS; 11 - METSTOR, the interactive maping at

  10. Emergency response and nuclear risk governance. Nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents; Notfallschutz und Risk Governance. Zur nuklearen Sicherheit bei Kernkraftwerksunfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlen, Johannes

    2014-07-01

    The present study entitled ''Emergency Response and Nuclear Risk Governance: nuclear safety at nuclear power plant accidents'' deals with issues of the protection of the population and the environment against hazardous radiation (the hazards of nuclear energy) and the harmful effects of radioactivity during nuclear power plant accidents. The aim of this study is to contribute to both the identification and remediation of shortcomings and deficits in the management of severe nuclear accidents like those that occurred at Chernobyl in 1986 and at Fukushima in 2011 as well as to the improvement and harmonization of plans and measures taken on an international level in nuclear emergency management. This thesis is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The theoretical part focuses on embedding the subject in a specifically global governance concept, which includes, as far as Nuclear Risk Governance is concerned, the global governance of nuclear risks. Due to their characteristic features the following governance concepts can be assigned to these risks: Nuclear Safety Governance is related to safety, Nuclear Security Governance to security and NonProliferation Governance to safeguards. The subject of investigation of the present study is as a special case of the Nuclear Safety Governance, the Nuclear Emergency governance, which refers to off-site emergency response. The global impact of nuclear accidents and the concepts of security, safety culture and residual risk are contemplated in this context. The findings (accident sequences, their consequences and implications) from the analyses of two reactor accidents prior to Fukushima (Three Mile Iceland in 1979, Chernobyl in 1986) are examined from a historical analytical perspective and the state of the Nuclear Emergency governance and international cooperation aimed at improving nuclear safety after Chernobyl is portrayed by discussing, among other topics, examples of &apos

  11. Risk communication for existing exposure situation after the nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is explained for its better understanding and recognition. The present state (Oct. 2011) where crisis of Fukushima Nuclear Accident has reached a settlement with release of 0.1 GBq/hr from the reactor container, is called the existing exposure situation. Radiation risk must be reduced under such a situation as people have to live in. Risk is defined to be a probability of matters undesirable, its size is assessed by various conditions and assumptions, it is manageable on its assessment, but its realization largely depends on subjectivity. Measures for lessening the risk usually accompany a load and disadvantage, leading to an antinomy structure (trade-off), of which problem is ultimately an ethical task of public health and cannot be solved in the form everybody agrees with. Therefore, a mutual consent among concerned people is required for deciding the principle of the risk management, for which the risk communication is essential. Risk communication about radiation is an unavoidable task of medical staffs as guided by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (2001), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2008) reports, World Health Organization (WHO), etc. However, the communication about radiation has now become also a task of the ordinary public under the present situation. For this, medical staffs are expected to play their role by acquiring the statistical literacy as well as with the radiological concept because the risk assessment accompanies the uncertainty. The author concludes that the risk communication is a problem of resolution to act, not of coping with. (T.T.)

  12. Destructiveness criteria for seismic risk evaluation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saragoni, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Two criteria of destructiveness for seismic risk evaluation of nuclear power plant are presented. The first one is a simple linear criterion that allows to compute average response spectra in terms of earthquake accelerogram characteristics. The second defines the destructiveness potential factor P D which measures the capacity of earthquake to produce nonlinear damage. This second criterion that shows large differences of destructiveness capacity for earthquake accelerograms of different seismic environment, specially between subductive and transcursive, is strongly recommended. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab

  13. Source modelling in seismic risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yucemen, M.S.

    1978-12-01

    The proposed probabilistic procedure provides a consistent method for the modelling, analysis and updating of uncertainties that are involved in the seismic risk analysis for nuclear power plants. The potential earthquake activity zones are idealized as point, line or area sources. For these seismic source types, expressions to evaluate their contribution to seismic risk are derived, considering all the possible site-source configurations. The seismic risk at a site is found to depend not only on the inherent randomness of the earthquake occurrences with respect to magnitude, time and space, but also on the uncertainties associated with the predicted values of the seismic and geometric parameters, as well as the uncertainty in the attenuation model. The uncertainty due to the attenuation equation is incorporated into the analysis through the use of random correction factors. The influence of the uncertainty resulting from the insufficient information on the seismic parameters and source geometry is introduced into the analysis by computing a mean risk curve averaged over the various alternative assumptions on the parameters and source geometry. Seismic risk analysis is carried for the city of Denizli, which is located in the seismically most active zone of Turkey. The second analysis is for Akkuyu

  14. Uncertainty analysis in the applications of nuclear probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duy, T.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to propose an approach to model parameter and model uncertainties affecting the results of risk indicators used in the applications of nuclear Probabilistic Risk assessment (PRA). After studying the limitations of the traditional probabilistic approach to represent uncertainty in PRA model, a new approach based on the Dempster-Shafer theory has been proposed. The uncertainty analysis process of the proposed approach consists in five main steps. The first step aims to model input parameter uncertainties by belief and plausibility functions according to the data PRA model. The second step involves the propagation of parameter uncertainties through the risk model to lay out the uncertainties associated with output risk indicators. The model uncertainty is then taken into account in the third step by considering possible alternative risk models. The fourth step is intended firstly to provide decision makers with information needed for decision making under uncertainty (parametric and model) and secondly to identify the input parameters that have significant uncertainty contributions on the result. The final step allows the process to be continued in loop by studying the updating of beliefs functions given new data. The proposed methodology was implemented on a real but simplified application of PRA model. (author)

  15. Two decades of work and experience in cover for nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galazzo, V.

    1980-03-01

    This paper reviews the system for insuring nuclear risks and in particular the creation of nuclear insurance pools, notably the Italian Insurance Pool for Nuclear Risks. Collaboration on the national and the international insurance market, as well as the legal basis in Italy for establishing this type of insurance are also discussed. (NEA) [fr

  16. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey

  17. Determination of acceptable risk criteria for nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1977-10-21

    The initial phase of the work performed during FY 1977 consisted of performing a ''scoping'' study to define issues, determine an optimal methodology for their resolution, and compile a data base for acceptable risk criteria development. The issues, spanning technical, psychological, and ethical dimensions, were categorized in seven major areas: (1) unplanned or accidental events, (2) present vs future risks, (3) institutional controls and retrievability, (4) dose-response mechanism and uncertainty, (5) spatial distribution of exposed populations, (6) different types of nuclear wastes, and (7) public perception. The optimum methodology for developing ARC was determined to be multi-attribute decision analysis encompassing numerous specific techniques for choosing, from among several alternatives, the optimal course of action when the alternatives are constrained to meet specified attributes. The data base developed during the study comprises existing regulations and guidelines, maximum permissible dose, natural geologic hazards, nonradioactive hazardous waste practices, bioethical perspectives, and data from an opinion survey.

  18. The risk of childhood leukaemia near nuclear establishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stather, J.W.; Clarke, R.H.; Duncan, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    Childhood leukaemia has been reported to be increased in communities living near a number of nuclear sites in the United Kingdom. The National Radiological Protection Board has, over the last three and a half years, published the results of a series of studies giving radiation doses and risks calculated for some of these populations. The studies have all indicated that it is most unlikely that radiation doses arising from releases of radioactive materials into the environment could have contributed to any increase in the leukaemia incidence in local communities. In the absence of any other obvious causative agent, however, there remains some concern that the radiation doses and risks of leukaemia have been underestimated. This report, therefore, summarises the methods used in the analyses by the Board, examines possible sources of uncertainty in the calculations, and considers the extent to which more information is required. (author)

  19. Terrorism cover in France for property damage including nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The obligation to include terrorism cover in all Property Damage policies issued on the French Market is ruled by an Act of 1986 and introduced under Section R 126-2 of the French Code of Insurance. This section stipulates that Property Damage policies must provide cover for damage resulting from acts of terrorism, with the same deductible and the same limit than that of the other damage covered in the policy. Soon after the dramatic events of September 11, 2001 in the United States and although reinsurers worldwide restricted their offer of capacities, French insurers recognized that they had to maintain this global cover for the benefit of their insurers. After difficult discussions between insurers, reinsurers, brokers, risk managers and representatives of the State, the creation of a new Pool, backed with a State guarantee, was decided in less than three months. Effective January 1, 2002 and called Gestion d'Assurance et de Reassurance des Risques Attentats et Actes de Terrorisme (GAREAT), the Pool offers a multiple layers stop-loss cover for Property Damage only, i.e. excluding TPL policies. Considering that nuclear risks should be treated in the same way as other industrial risks, it was decided that they would be covered by GAREAT as well. In the meantime, by a Decree of December 28, 2001 modifying Section R 126-2, a special provision, aiming at reducing the limit and thus the price of this cover, was introduced in the Code. The purpose of this paper is to expose the present situation applying through GAREAT and, after two years of operation to discuss future developments, including other sources of capacity for the coverage of acts of terrorism in nuclear risks insurance.(author)

  20. A nuclear power enterprise debt management system construction Based on Sanmen Nuclear Power Co., LTD, debt risk management case analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan; Liu Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    Building nuclear power enterprises need huge investment , often tens of billions RMB. How to do a good job in corporate debt risk management, becoming powerful large-scale development of nuclear power ,ensuring the supply of funds and existing debt service in the process of large-scale development of nuclear power ,is an important task. In this paper, managing the company's debt is very urgent and necessary through analysis of SMNPC financing and debt structure; through the analysis of SMNPC's debt risk management , the authors would like to explore how to build up the framework of the debt management under the large-scale development of nuclear power construction . Nuclear power enterprises need to strengthen supervision mechanism and internal control,build-up and perfect all-round debt risk manage system, keep watch on debt risk in order to ensure preservation and increment of the value of state assets. (authors)

  1. Hypothesis of a nuclear accident to the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with important radioactive release out of the site: risks prevention, intervention strategies. Evaluation of the sensitization to the nuclear risk of the physician practicing near the site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, Th.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis has for hypothesis a nuclear accident at the nuclear power plant of Gravelines with radioactive release out of the site: the risks prevention and the strategies of intervention are studied. An evaluation of the sensitization to a nuclear risk is made for the general practitioner that practices near the site. (N.C.)

  2. The development of a nuclear accident risk information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. T.; Jeong, W. D.

    2001-01-01

    The computerized system NARIS (Nuclear Accident Risk Information System) was developed in order to support the estimation of health effects and the establishment the effective risk reduction strategies. Using the system, we can analyze the distribution of health effects easily by displaying the results on the digital map of the site. Also, the thematic mapping allows the diverse analyses of the distribution of the health effects. The NARIS can be used in the emergency operation facilities in order to analyze the distribution of the health effects resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant. Also, the rapid analysis of the health effect is possible by storing the health effect results in the form of a database. Therefore, the staffs of the emergency operation facilities can establish the rapid and effective emergency response strategies. The module for the optimization of the costs and benefits and the decision making support will be added. The technical support for the establishment of the optimum and effective emergency response strategies will be possible using this system

  3. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabathe, Laurent; Lignini, Franck; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Uzan-Elbez, Joelle; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2007-01-01

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of the risks induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions: - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products → radiological zoning; - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) → beryllium zoning; - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots → electromagnetic zoning; - fire hazard: fire compartmentalization; ·explosion hazard: anti-blast zoning; - waste treatment → waste zoning. Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer has also taken into account access requirements to equipments and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows meeting the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications are been studied in the tritium building: utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological hazard zones. A direct access from

  4. Impact of risk analysis on ITER nuclear buildings internal layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lignini, F.; Sabathe, L.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Uzan-Elbez, J.; Girard, J.-P.

    2006-01-01

    The internal layout of ITER nuclear buildings (Tokamak, Tritium, Hot cell and Radwaste buildings) is the result of an iterative process. Notwithstanding civil engineering requirements, technical and functional requirements for the processes housed in the buildings, the internal layout must also take into account safety requirements and workers protection requirements in normal, incidental and accidental conditions. Potential hazards and constraints result in the definition of various zonings. Each room is classified depending on the level of risk induced by normal and incidental or accidental conditions : - radiological exposure to tritium, and activated products → radiological zoning - exposure to beryllium (vacuum vessel blankets) → beryllium zoning - exposure to electromagnetic fields during plasma shots → electromagnetic zoning - fire hazard : fire compartmentalisation - explosion hazard → anti-blast zoning - waste treatment → waste zoning Prevention of common mode failure due to internal hazards (fire, flooding, load drop ...) for redundant safety important components is also taken into account by geographical separation or by installation of protections between components (either in the same room or preferably when possible by segregation in different rooms). The designer also has to take into account access requirements to equipment and circulation rules for personal, material and substances in ITER nuclear buildings. Risk analyses are performed in the Preliminary Safety Report in order to demonstrate that the layout of ITER nuclear buildings allows to meet the safety objectives and takes into account the requirements associated with the zonings classifications and complies with the regulation. When necessary, modifications are implemented in the design. For example, recent layout modifications were included in the tritium building : utility rooms (electrical supply) were transferred outside the radiological hazard zones. A direct access from the

  5. Modeling risk assessment for nuclear processing plants with LAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.T.; Tisinger, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using the Los Alamos Vulnerability and Risk Assessment (LAVA) methodology, the authors developed a model for assessing risks associated with nuclear processing plants. LAVA is a three-part systematic approach to risk assessment. The first part is the mathematical methodology; the second is the general personal computer-based software engine; and the third is the application itself. The methodology provides a framework for creating applications for the software engine to operate upon; all application-specific information is data. Using LAVA, the authors build knowledge-based expert systems to assess risks in applications systems comprising a subject system and a safeguards system. The subject system model is sets of threats, assets, and undesirable outcomes. The safeguards system model is sets of safeguards functions for protecting the assets from the threats by preventing or ameliorating the undesirable outcomes, sets of safeguards subfunctions whose performance determine whether the function is adequate and complete, and sets of issues, appearing as interactive questionnaires, whose measures (in both monetary and linguistic terms) define both the weaknesses in the safeguards system and the potential costs of an undesirable outcome occurring

  6. Nuclear power plants and prevention of sanitary risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    1977-01-01

    The radioprotection specialists know that people irradiation can cause fearful diseases even to their descendance. So they wanted to predict the upper limit of the damage that could be caused by irradiations at the limits of radioprotection doses of IRCP standards recommended for the whole population. For their previsional calculations, they admitted the proportionality between the most fearful risks and the accumulated individual dose, whatever the time is. According to such an hypothesis, the previsional damage would be proportional to the population dose. Observed damages on accidentally or experimentally irradiated population will be compared to the previsional damage, calculated from the values generally admitted for the risks. The author will consider the risks which are usually taken in account in the protection of people against the hazard of nuclear power plants such as: leukemia, thyroid cancer. Such comparisons will allow to propose, in the field of radioprotection: to abandon the hypothesis of proportionality between the risk and the dose; to admit a practical threshold dose for each of the most fearful effects; to admit the same radiation protection standards for eveyone; to try to interpret facts until then unnoticed, or when they have been seen, called 'paradoxical'; these facts may be due to the stimulating effect of a suitable dose of ionizing radiation. Such a stimulating effect is well known by the radiologists, but some of the latter are afraid of secondary delate effects. This new field of research may be as useful to radiotherapy as to radioprotection [fr

  7. Radiation risk to patients from nuclear medicine procedures in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, O.; Montalván, A.; Barreras, A.; Hernández, J.

    2015-01-01

    Man-made radiation exposure to the Cuban population predominantly results from the medical use of ionizing radiation. It was therefore the aim of the present study, to provide public health information concerning diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures carried out in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces between 2000 and 2005. Population radiation dose estimation due to administration of radiopharmaceuticals in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces was carried out using Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme (MIRD). Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used, the administered activity, the numbers of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved during the period 2000 – 2005. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.34 per 1000 population. The results show that imaging nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid and bone explorations with 13.3 and 12.9%, respectively and iodide uptake with 50% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose which averaged 95 man⋅Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagüey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 34.2 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 7.4 as a result of 24139 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding a total detriment of 1.72 per 1000 examination. (authors)

  8. Uncertainty, causality and decision: The case of social risks and nuclear risk in particular

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahidji, R.

    2012-01-01

    Probability and causality are two indispensable tools for addressing situations of social risk. Causal relations are the foundation for building risk assessment models and identifying risk prevention, mitigation and compensation measures. Probability enables us to quantify risk assessments and to calibrate intervention measures. It therefore seems not only natural, but also necessary to make the role of causality and probability explicit in the definition of decision problems in situations of social risk. Such is the aim of this thesis.By reviewing the terminology of risk and the logic of public interventions in various fields of social risk, we gain a better understanding of the notion and of the issues that one faces when trying to model it. We further elaborate our analysis in the case of nuclear safety, examining in detail how methods and policies have been developed in this field and how they have evolved through time. This leads to a number of observations concerning risk and safety assessments.Generalising the concept of intervention in a Bayesian network allows us to develop a variety of causal Bayesian networks adapted to our needs. In this framework, we propose a definition of risk which seems to be relevant for a broad range of issues. We then offer simple applications of our model to specific aspects of the Fukushima accident and other nuclear safety problems. In addition to specific lessons, the analysis leads to the conclusion that a systematic approach for identifying uncertainties is needed in this area. When applied to decision theory, our tool evolves into a dynamic decision model in which acts cause consequences and are causally interconnected. The model provides a causal interpretation of Savage's conceptual framework, solves some of its paradoxes and clarifies certain aspects. It leads us to considering uncertainty with regard to a problem's causal structure as the source of ambiguity in decision-making, an interpretation which corresponds to a

  9. The stakes of the park management in the lasting quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caseau, P.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to surround the stakes of the management in the lasting quality and not to give a table of problems. The actual situation shows two characteristics; the profit margins in the nuclear industry are very small, the economic growth is small too. The advantage of the operating park on any other kind electric source is extremely strong. So it is important to keep the actual park even if operating and maintenance costs increase. If a forty years life time allows to go until 2020 and fifty years until 2030 it is possible to consider that the comparison 'installed park cost/any other production mean cost' leads to keep the actual park until 2015-2025. The first reason is an economic reason. The second reason is connected to what will happen after, that is to say the replacement conditions.To be able to define in the best conditions a new park, devoted to last 60 years or more, that is the second reason to manage the actual park in the lasting quality. (N.C)

  10. Weighing the Risks of Nuclear Energy and Climate Change: Trust in Different Information Sources, Perceived Risks, and Willingness to Pay for Alternatives to Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja

    2017-03-01

    We examined how individuals perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation and how their perceptions are associated with trust in different risk information sources. We analyzed the interrelationships between trust, perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, perception of nuclear energy as an acceptable way to mitigate climate change, and willingness to pay (WTP) for alternatives to nuclear power. A nationwide survey (N = 967) collected in Finland was analyzed with structural equation modeling. The associations between trust and perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, and perception of nuclear power as a way to mitigate climate change varied by the type of information source. Political party support and other background variables were associated with trust in different information sources. The effect of trust in information sources on WTP was mediated by perceived risks and benefits. The results will increase our understanding of how individuals perceive nuclear energy as a way to cut CO 2 emissions and the role of trust in different information sources in shaping nuclear risk perceptions and energy choices. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofra Amir

    Full Text Available Online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk offer an unprecedented opportunity to run economic game experiments quickly and inexpensively. Using Mturk, we recruited 756 subjects and examined their behavior in four canonical economic games, with two payoff conditions each: a stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings were based on the outcome of the game (maximum earnings of $1; and a no-stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings are unaffected by the outcome of the game. Our results demonstrate that economic game experiments run on MTurk are comparable to those run in laboratory settings, even when using very low stakes.

  12. Economic games on the internet: the effect of $1 stakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ofra; Rand, David G; Gal, Ya'akov Kobi

    2012-01-01

    Online labor markets such as Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) offer an unprecedented opportunity to run economic game experiments quickly and inexpensively. Using Mturk, we recruited 756 subjects and examined their behavior in four canonical economic games, with two payoff conditions each: a stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings were based on the outcome of the game (maximum earnings of $1); and a no-stakes condition, in which subjects' earnings are unaffected by the outcome of the game. Our results demonstrate that economic game experiments run on MTurk are comparable to those run in laboratory settings, even when using very low stakes.

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle risk assessment: survey and computer compilation of risk-related literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, K.R.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rudolph, A.W.

    1982-10-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated the Fuel Cycle Risk Assessment Program to provide risk assessment methods for assistance in the regulatory process for nuclear fuel cycle facilities other than reactors. Both the once-through cycle and plutonium recycle are being considered. A previous report generated by this program defines and describes fuel cycle facilities, or elements, considered in the program. This report, the second from the program, describes the survey and computer compilation of fuel cycle risk-related literature. Sources of available information on the design, safety, and risk associated with the defined set of fuel cycle elements were searched and documents obtained were catalogued and characterized with respect to fuel cycle elements and specific risk/safety information. Both US and foreign surveys were conducted. Battelle's computer-based BASIS information management system was used to facilitate the establishment of the literature compilation. A complete listing of the literature compilation and several useful indexes are included. Future updates of the literature compilation will be published periodically. 760 annotated citations are included

  14. Novel thinking approach in a multinational nuclear partnership: towards the strengthening of the nuclear industry back end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Development of multinational radioactive waste (Rw) and spent fuel repositories provides a safe and secure nuclear industry back-end. The problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for Rw deep disposal is considered. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for Rw deep disposal, based on self-organization (So) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as the principle of requisite variety. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stake holder the national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stake holder consensus would be promoted by activating on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra and international stake holders, including web-based networks of disposal site investigations and decision making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and creativity are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus, for advancing the preparedness to act together and achieving desired shared goals. It is proposed: self-organized social learning will promote adequate perception of risk and prevent, by

  15. Novel thinking approach in a multinational nuclear partnership: towards the strengthening of the nuclear industry back end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.

    2010-10-01

    Development of multinational radioactive waste (Rw) and spent fuel repositories provides a safe and secure nuclear industry back-end. The problem of multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational/regional repositories for Rw deep disposal is considered. We propose an interdisciplinary synergetic approach to multilevel consensus building for siting and construction of shared multinational repositories for Rw deep disposal, based on self-organization (So) of various stake holders, chaos and fuzziness concepts as well as the principle of requisite variety. An entire partnering country is considered as a higher-level stake holder the national stake holder, represented by the national government, being faced to simultaneous seeking an upward (international) and a downward (intra-national) consensus in a psychologically stressed environment, possibly being characterized by diverse political, economic and social interests. There is deduced: a) building of international stake holder consensus would be promoted by activating on the international scale multilateral interactions between intra and international stake holders, including web-based networks of disposal site investigations and decision making, as well as networks for international cooperation among government authorities in nuclear safety, b) gradual progress in intergovernmental consensus and reaching multilateral agreements on shared deep repositories will be the result of dialogue, via observing the whole set of various interests and common resolving of emerged controversies by using advanced synergetic approaches of conflict resolution, and c) knowledge, mental flexibility and creativity are considered as basic prerogatives for gaining a higher level of mutual understanding and consensus, for advancing the preparedness to act together and achieving desired shared goals. It is proposed: self-organized social learning will promote adequate perception of risk and prevent, by

  16. Comparison of risk assessment methodologies for nuclear power and nuclear fuels processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, W.S.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-08-01

    The utilization of nuclear fission for the generation of electric power or other purposes has as its by-product radioactive fission products. These radioactive fission products represent a potential hazard different in nature from that associated with other process operations or other methods of electrical power generation. As a result the electrical power stations and the facilities designed to process the irradiated fuel to recover the still useful fuel and the products of the irradiation are designed with multiple physical barriers to contain the radioactive fission products in the event that an accident were to occur. In recent years, a disciplined approach has evolved for developing detailed models of a facility and its processes. These models can be used to assess the response for the facility to upset or accident events. The approach is based on an ordered application of available data employing fault tree/event tree methodologies. Data and/or engineering judgment are applied in a probabilisitc framework so the approach has been called Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). The approach has been applied to nuclear electric generating facilities and to nuclear fuel processing facilities to assess the potential for release of fission product and transuranium element radionuclides (the hazard) and the resulting risks. The application of the methodology to the electrical generating facilities and to the fuel processing facilities has evolved somewhat differently because of differences in the facilities, availability of failure rate data, and expected outputs. This paper summarizes the two approaches and the differences in them compares the risk results from the existing studies

  17. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  18. Management of radioactive materials and wastes: status, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Didier; Devin, Patrick; Tanguy, Loic; Bernard, Herve; Minon, Jean-Paul; Leclaire, Arnaud; Gilli, Ludivine; Lheureux, Yves; Pescatore, Claudio; Barbey, Pierre; Schneider, Thierry; Gay, Didier; Forest, Isabelle; Hemidy, Pierre-Yves; Baglan, Nicolas; Desnoyers, Bruno; Pieraccini, Michel; Poncet, Philippe; Seguin, Bertille; Calvez, Marianne; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Bancelin, Estelle; Fillion, Eric; Segura, Yannick; Vernaz, Etienne; Granier, Guy; De Preter, Peter; Petitfrere, Michael; Laye, Frederic; Nakamura, Takashi; Gin, Stephane; Lebaron-Jacobs, Laurence; Dinant, Sophie; Vacquier, Blandine; Crochon, Philippe; Griffault, Lise; Smith, Graham

    2013-10-01

    These technical days were organized by the Environment section of the French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP). Time was given to some exchange about the societal aspects of radioactive waste management as well as about the legal context but the most part of the debates delt with the actual management modalities of the different types of wastes, both in France and in foreign countries, and with the related stakes, in particular in terms of impact. This document brings together the presentations (slides) of the following talks: - Contributions of radiation protection to the long-term safety management of radioactive wastes (Jean-Paul MINON - ONDRAF); - The national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes (Arnaud LECLAIRE - ANDRA); - The high activity, medium activity-long living wastes in debate - a co-building approach (ANCCLI/Clis of Bure/IRSN) to share stakes, enlighten, and develop thought (Ludivine GILLI - IRSN, Yves LHEUREUX - ANCCLI); - Social aspects of Radioactive Waste Management - The International Learning (Claudio PESCATORE - AEN/OCDE); - Citizens involvement and ACRO's point of view on radioactive wastes management (Pierre BARBEY - ACRO); - New CIPR recommendations about the geologic disposal of long-living radioactive wastes (Thierry SCHNEIDER - CEPN); - Overview of processes under the views of radiation protection principles (Didier GAY - IRSN); - The national plan of radioactive materials and wastes management (Loic TANGUY - ASN); - Joint convention on spent fuel management safety and on radioactive waste management safety - status and main stakes (Isabelle FOREST - ASN); - Transport of radioactive wastes (Bruno DESNOYERS - AREVA); - Optimisation and limitation of the environmental impacts of very-low level wastes - valorisation and processes selection (Michel PIERACCINI - EDF), Philippe PONCET - AREVA); - Management of hospital wastes - Example of Montpellier's University Regional Hospital (Bertille SEGUIN - CHRU de Montpellier); - Waste

  19. What are the risks of the nuclear energy for the health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    After an evaluation of the main risks sources of the nuclear electric power cycle and a presentation of the implemented approach to control those risk, the authors explain how the this device is not sufficient to satisfy the public. It seems necessary to look for orientations allowing a better participation of the citizens to the risk acceptation of the nuclear activities. In this framework this report presents perspectives for a new management of the nuclear risk, around some great objectives: the control of the residual risk level, a better taking into account of the social attitude, to establish a mutual confidence in the daily risk management. (A.L.B.)

  20. Attitudes to risks in nuclear energy production; The personnel's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R. (Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Psychology)

    1993-01-01

    The survey which is overviewed in the article investigated risk perception among nuclear power plant personnel. The study group, 428 employees from a nuclear power plant in Finland, completed a questionnaire which contained the same questions as those in previous surveys on the risk perception of lay persons and industrial workers. The main emphasis of the study was on perceived risk at work and subjective estimations of a serious nuclear accident.

  1. The modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor: A cost/risk competitive nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotschall, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The business risks of nuclear plant ownership are identified as a constraint on the expanded use of nuclear power. Such risks stem from the exacting demands placed on owner/operator organizations of current plants to demonstrate ongoing compliance with safety regulations and the resulting high costs for operation and maintenance. This paper describes the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design, competitive economics, and approach to reducing the business risks of nuclear plant ownership

  2. A proposed risk acceptance criterion for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, K.

    1985-06-01

    The need to establish a radiological protection criterion that applies specifically to disposal of high level nuclear fuel wastes arises from the difficulty of applying the present ICRP recommendations. These recommendations apply to situations in which radiological detriment can be actively controlled, while a permanent waste disposal facility is meant to operate without the need for corrective actions. Also, the risks associated with waste disposal depend on events and processes that have various probabilities of occurrence. In these circumstances, it is not suitable to apply standards that are based on a single dose limit as in the present ICRP recommendations, because it will generally be possible to envisage events, perhaps rare, that would lead to doses above any selected limit. To overcome these difficulties, it is proposed to base a criterion for acceptability on a set of dose values and corresponding limiting values of probabilities; this set of values constitutes a risk-limit line. A risk-limit line suitable for waste disposal is proposed that has characteristics consistent with the basic philosophy of the ICRP and UNSCEAR recommendations, and is based on levels on natural background radiation

  3. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Risk (NUCLARR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, W.E.; Blackman, H.S.; Ryan, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Risk (NUCLARR) program is a multiyear effort sponsored by the NRC and is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The goal of this program is to establish and operate computerized data base management tools for the human reliability data bank specification developed by Comer and Donovan. The NRC and the risk analysis community recognized that implementing a fully functional library would not be feasible, or practical, without the aid of computerized tools for management and manipulation of its data sources. The end users of the NUCLARR can be classified into three categories according to specific needs. The first category is those users interested in reviewing individual data sources for a given situation. The second category of users selects multiple data sources for a specific case, summarizing the information, and performing comparative studies. The last category of users interfaces the NUCLARR with other programming applications, such as other data banks, and simulation models of risk assessment. Project status is provided in the paper

  4. Protection of French nuclear power plants against flooding risks - 15307

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaud, J.

    2015-01-01

    In France, the flooding risk has been taken into account since the beginning of the nuclear program and has been reinforced following operating feedback from French and international power plants. The main events which led to reinforcement were the partial flooding in the Blayais NPP that occurred in 1999 and the Fukushima accident in 2011. The current French fleet is composed of 58 PWR reactors located on 19 sites: 4 sites are sea side, 1 side is located on an estuary and all other are located on river side. The lessons learned from the Blayais event are: -) an update of the hazard evaluation of the risks, -) a new assessment of the sufficiency of the protective measures, and -) the taking into account of aggravating risks associated to support functions such as site inaccessibility, loss of off-site power, etc. The lessons learned from the Fukushima accident have confirmed and enhanced lessons from the Blayais event. In addition the Fukushima accident has underlined the need to have sufficient margins beyond the design to avoid cliff edge effects. The improvements implemented on the Blayais and the Belleville sites are detailed

  5. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  6. The nuclear medicine department in the emergency management plan: a referent structure for the nuclear and radiological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Lesgourgues, P.; Zamaron, S.; Boulard, G.

    2006-01-01

    Each french public or private hospital has to establish guidelines for an immediate response to mass casualties (Emergency Management Plan or 'White' Plan). For a nuclear accident or terrorist attack, the staff of the Nuclear Medicine Department may be adequately prepared and equipped. This paper presents the nuclear and radiological risks section of the final draft of the White Plan developed at Bordeaux University Hospital. (author)

  7. The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations: a discussion of the HSE's guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.A.; Woods, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Health and Safety Executive's discussion document, ''The Tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations'', published just a year ago considers the concept of risk and the broad principles of risk assessment and proposes guidelines on the tolerable levels of individual and societal risks from normal operation and from accidents at nuclear power stations. This paper discusses how these guidelines might be applied in safety assessments so as to ensure an acceptable level of safety and considers some of the problems inherent in the estimation of risk from nuclear power stations. It shows how the tolerable risk levels of the Health and Safety Executive's document are related to the standards used by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate when licensing nuclear installations. Some of the uncertainties in the estimation of acceptable risk are discussed as are the acceptance criteria used by the Inspectorate in its assessments of both normal and accident situations. (author)

  8. Dwelling thermal renovation: which stakes, which solutions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delduc, Paul; Demeulenaere, Laurence; Verdure, Mathieu; Ayong Le Kama, Alain; Fuk Chun Wing, Dimitri; Kiefer, Noemie; Mauroux, Amelie; Charlier, Dorothee; Hini, Sihame; Pinto Silva, Kleber; Giraudet, Louis Gaetan; Nauleau, Marie-Laure; Daussin-Benichou, Jeanne-Marie; Teissier, Olivier; Finidori, Esther; Grandjean, Alain; Allibe, Benoit; Gadrat, Pierre; Couriol, Aude; Menard, Francois; Rouquette, Celine; Houriez, Guillaume; Francois, Dominique; Aubert, Celine; Canardon, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes three sets of contributions. The first one addresses context and stakes. The contributions propose: a literature review on household behaviour and investments in energy efficiency, a focus on the key role of dwellings in energy transition through a comparative study of the four pathways of the National Debate for Energy Transition, and a discussion about consensus and uncertainties regarding the determining factors of heating temperature in dwellings. The second set addresses public policies and their assessment: improvement of the technical-economical assessment of the benefit of dwelling energetic renovations, discussion of the organisation and results of a survey on dwelling, equipment, and energy needs and uses, an analysis of several measures aimed at reaching objectives of energy efficiency of dwellings, a discussion of renovation works quality, a discussion of the impact of the sustainable development tax credit on thermal renovation, the optimisation of energy renovation in co-properties by third party financing, some foreign examples of policies in favour of dwelling thermal renovation. The third set of contributions addresses the needed technical, organisational and market evolutions: how the building sector can face the challenges of energy transition, the possibilities to propose innovative solutions adapted to existing housing buildings, and a comparative analysis of material and building equipment costs and market structures in Europe. Other texts are proposed in appendix: the origin of the Phebus survey, a description of incentive arrangements, and a map of climate zones in France

  9. Guidelines for communicating about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibly, and ethically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information

  10. Electric power from renewable energy: resources and stakes for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the essential of the last thematic letter published by the IFEN (French institute of the environment), devoted to the resources and stakes of the electric power produced by the renewable energies in France. (A.L.B.)

  11. Design Optimization and Fatigue Analysis of Laser Stake Welded Connections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Anshuman; Vel, Senthil S; Caccese, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    This report summanzes research on the design and fatigue analysis of laser-stake welded connections performed at the University of Maine from January 2006 to December 2007 for the Structural Response...

  12. French government to trim direct stake in Total

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the French government has decided to slash its direct stake in partly state owned oil company Total to 5% from 31.7%, a surprise move expected to raise 10 billion francs ($1.8 billion). At the same time, other state owned entities will be asked to boost their combined 2.2% stake in Total to 10%, leaving the government with a net 15% interest in Total vs. the current 34%. Initially, state owned insurance companies Groupe des Assurances Nationales and Assurances Generale de France will be asked to hike their stakes in Total, but others could be asked to join if needed to meet the 10% target. The government the its phase-down of participation in Total, established in 1924 to manage French interests in Iraq Petroleum Co., was prompted by the evolution of the oil context, which differs greatly from what had prompted a significant stake of the state in Total's capital

  13. Controlling principles for prior probability assignments in nuclear risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, I.; Unwin, S.D.

    1986-01-01

    As performed conventionally, nuclear probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) may be criticized as utilizing inscrutable and unjustifiably ''precise'' quantitative informed judgment or extrapolation from that judgment. To meet this criticism, controlling principles that govern the formulation of probability densities are proposed, given only the informed input that would be required for a simple bounding analysis. These principles are founded upon information theoretic ideas of maximum uncertainty and cover both cases in which there exists a stochastic model of the phenomenon of interest and cases in which these is no such model. In part, the principles are conventional, and such an approach is justified by appealing to certain analogies in accounting practice and judicial decision making. Examples are given. Appropriate employment of these principles is expected to facilitate substantial progress toward PRA scrutability and transparency

  14. Reducing the risk to Mars: The gas core nuclear rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; DeVolder, B.; Thode, L.; Zerkle, D.

    1998-01-01

    The next giant leap for mankind will be the human exploration of Mars. Almost certainly within the next thirty years, a human crew will brave the isolation, the radiation, and the lack of gravity to walk on and explore the Red planet. However, because the mission distances and duration will be hundreds of times greater than the lunar missions, a human crew will face much greater obstacles and a higher risk than those experienced during the Apollo program. A single solution to many of these obstacles is to dramatically decrease the mission duration by developing a high performance propulsion system. The gas-core nuclear rocket (GCNR) has the potential to be such a system. The authors have completed a comparative study of the potential impact that a GCNR could have on a manned Mars mission. The total IMLEO, transit times, and accumulated radiation dose to the crew will be compared with the NASA Design Reference Missions

  15. Validation of seismic probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a nuclear plant requires identification and information regarding the seismic hazard at the plant site, dominant accident sequences leading to core damage, and structure and equipment fragilities. Uncertainties are associated with each of these ingredients of a PRA. Sources of uncertainty due to seismic hazard and assumptions underlying the component fragility modeling may be significant contributors to uncertainty in estimates of core damage probability. Design and construction errors also may be important in some instances. When these uncertainties are propagated through the PRA, the frequency distribution of core damage probability may span three orders of magnitude or more. This large variability brings into question the credibility of PRA methods and the usefulness of insights to be gained from a PRA. The sensitivity of accident sequence probabilities and high-confidence, low probability of failure (HCLPF) plant fragilities to seismic hazard and fragility modeling assumptions was examined for three nuclear power plants. Mean accident sequence probabilities were found to be relatively insensitive (by a factor of two or less) to: uncertainty in the coefficient of variation (logarithmic standard deviation) describing inherent randomness in component fragility; truncation of lower tail of fragility; uncertainty in random (non-seismic) equipment failures (e.g., diesel generators); correlation between component capacities; and functional form of fragility family. On the other hand, the accident sequence probabilities, expressed in the form of a frequency distribution, are affected significantly by the seismic hazard modeling, including slopes of seismic hazard curves and likelihoods assigned to those curves

  16. Risk-based safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Prohaska, G.; Flodin, Y.; Grint, G.; Habermacher, H.; Hallman, A.; Isasia, R.; Melendez, E.; Verduras, E.; Karsa, Z.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwaeger, C.; Matahri, N.; Moravcik, I.; Tkac, M.; Preston, J.

    2003-01-01

    In a Concerted Action (CA), sponsored by the European Commission within its 5th Framework Program, a consortium of eleven partners from eight countries has reviewed and evaluated the application of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which - in combination with other tools - can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants. The project was aimed at identification of methods that can be used in a risk-informed regulatory system and environment, and to exploit PSA techniques for the development and use of meaningful additional/alternative SPIs. The CA included the review of existing indicator systems, and the collection of information on the experience from indicator systems by means of a specific questionnaire. One of the most important and challenging issues for nuclear plant owners and/or regulators is to recognize early signs of deterioration in safety performance, caused by influences from management, organization and safety culture (MOSC), before actual events and/or mishaps take place. Most of the existing SPIs as proposed by various organizations are considered as 'lagging' indicators, that is, they are expected to show an impact only when a downward trend has already started. Furthermore, most of the available indicators are at a relatively high level, such that they will not provide useful information on fundamental weaknesses causing the problem in the first place. Regulators' and utilities' views on the use of a Safety Performance Indicator System have also been a part of the development of the CA. (author)

  17. Patient absorbed dose and radiation risk in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.; Cochrane, P.

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of technetium-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals used as imaging agents in the nuclear medicine departments of Australian hospitals, patients have voiced concern about the effect of having radioactive materials injected into their bodies. The danger of X-ray exposure is widely known and well accepted, as is exposure to ultrasound, computed tomography scans and other imaging techniques. However, radioactivity is an unknown, and fear of the unknown can occasionally lead to patients refusing to undergo a nuclear medicine procedure. The authors emphasised that the radiation dose to a patient from a typical procedure would depend on the patient's medical history and treatment; the average dose being approximately 50 times the exposure received from the natural environmental background radiation. Furthermore, over an extended period the body can repair most minor damage caused by radiation, just as the body can repair the damage caused by sunburn resulting from too much exposure to sunlight. The risk of genetic effects as a result of a medical radiation dose is than very small

  18. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  19. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  20. System Theoretic Frameworks for Mitigating Risk Complexity in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adam David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cohn, Brian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Osborn, Douglas M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeMenno, Mercy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Maikael A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Ethan Rutledge [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parks, Mancel Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeantete, Brian A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    In response to the expansion of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) activities -- and the associated suite of risks -- around the world, this project evaluated systems-based solutions for managing such risk complexity in multimodal and multi-jurisdictional international spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation. By better understanding systemic risks in SNF transportation, developing SNF transportation risk assessment frameworks, and evaluating these systems-based risk assessment frameworks, this research illustrated interdependency between safety, security, and safeguards risks is inherent in NFC activities and can go unidentified when each "S" is independently evaluated. Two novel system-theoretic analysis techniques -- dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (DPRA) and system-theoretic process analysis (STPA) -- provide integrated "3S" analysis to address these interdependencies and the research results suggest a need -- and provide a way -- to reprioritize United States engagement efforts to reduce global nuclear risks. Lastly, this research identifies areas where Sandia National Laboratories can spearhead technical advances to reduce global nuclear dangers.

  1. Nuclear reactors in de-regulated markets: Integration between providers and customers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The deregulation of electricity markets has in most cases coincided with the end of state monopolies, where financial risks were borne by customers/citizens. Today, despite an economic advantage, nuclear power development faces two main problems: public acceptance and reticence of investors (banks, utilities shareholders). The development of electricity markets provides different financial instruments in order to hedge financial risks, but it is currently difficult to fix forward contracts for more than three to four years, and this period is insufficient for the financing of a nuclear reactor. A solution could be the evolution of nuclear providers into nuclear operators selling electricity (MWh) rather than selling nuclear capacity (MW), nuclear fuel and services. In this case, their customers would be utilities and big customers aiming to hedge a part of their supplies with long-term contracts or stakes in nuclear reactors without some nuclear constraints. (author)

  2. Multicomponent risk inherent to nuclear or radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyarkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A nuclear or radiation emergency response planning is based on expected avertable doses for a short (4 hours, 2 days, 1 week) and a long (50 or 70 years) periods of time. On calculating the doses one should take into account not only the sources of ionizing radiation with their foreseen characteristics, e.g. a half-life, but also the possibility of their probabilistic transformations. It can be illustrated by the chronicle of Chernobyl accident, where for nine days it was impossible to envisage with reliability the quantities of released radionuclides due to many uncontrolled factors related to the scope and character of the zone wreckage. Any other developments of the accident, such as destruction of the under reactor support plate, sinking of the melted zone into a highly radioactive water down at the reactor cavity or changing of the wind could have resulted in a substantial contamination of 3 mln. Kiev and other densely populated area of Ukraine. Another factor to be taken into account in the emergency response is a way of an actual risk perception by the population. The article suggests an approach to take into account the time-dependent secondary sources of exposure and the disparity in accepting the hazard of real risk of an accident by the trained workers and population. (author)

  3. Application and inspiration of risk control in dose control in Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shaoqing; Chen Yan; Chai Jianshe; Zhang Chunming

    2013-01-01

    The article introduced the basic concept of risk and risk control methods. Using the risk control methods, we analyzed and evaluated the actions to control dose of public and occupational radiation exposure in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident, especially found out the weak points of these actions, and finally discussed the application of the risk control methods in dose management during nuclear accidents. (authors)

  4. Nuclear and environmental risk perceptions: results from a study with university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of advanced technologies depends on public acceptance. Studies on risk perception can assist decision makers in their choices and working methodology, as well as science communicators. In this work, the field study was conducted with a university population with the objective of compare the perceptions of nuclear risk and environmental. Concluding that the perception of environmental risk has excelled in public opinion, overcoming the perceived nuclear risk. (author)

  5. The European Union face to the nuclear risks of the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the nuclear disarmament, the risk of nuclear proliferation, the brain drain and the traffic of nuclear materials in the Community of Independent States (CIS) after the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the actions carried out by the European Union to solve these growing up threats. (J.S.)

  6. Risks in the operation of hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison between the utilization of electrical energy generated by hydroelectric power plant and nuclear power plant is made. The risks from nuclear installations and the environmental effects of hydroelectric power plants and nuclear power plants are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Agro-fuels, a cartography of stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This document proposes a dashboard of the main issues regarding agro-fuels. Nine sheets propose basic information and data on these issues: 1- agro-fuel production and consumption in the world (ethanol, vegetable oils, perspective for demand in the transport sector), 2- energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions (energy assessments and greenhouse effect of agro-fuels, discrepancies of results between first-generation European agro-fuels, case of agro-fuels produced in Southern countries), 3- needed surfaces in Europe (land use and cultivable areas for agro-fuel production in Europe and in France, competition between food and energy crops), 4- deforestation in the South (relationship between agriculture, deforestation and agro-fuels, between deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions), 5- impacts on biodiversity (use of pesticides and fertilizers, large scale cultivations and single-crop farming, cultivation of fallow land and permanent meadows, deforestation in the South, relationship between agro-fuels and GMOs), 6- impacts on water, soil and air (water quality and availability, soil erosion, compaction and fertility loss, air quality), 7- food-related and social stakes (issue of food security, social impacts of agro-fuel production with pressure on family agriculture and issues of land property), 8- public supports and economic efficiency (public promotion of agro-fuels, agro-fuel and oil prices, assessment of the 'avoided' CO 2 ton), and 9- perspectives for second-generation agro-fuels (definitions and processes, benefits with respect to first-generation fuels, possible impacts on the environment, barriers to their development)

  8. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report

  9. Psychological factors in the perception and acceptablilty of risk: implications for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1976-01-01

    Public perception and acceptance of nuclear energy is now the most critical question concerning the future of nuclear energy. This is a review of the dynamics of societal risk taking as applied to nuclear power. It is shown that the human intellect is not well equipped for making decisions about risky activities. Risk-benefit relations are discussed. Some of the possible reasons why nuclear power is presently unpopular are described. Responses to a Battelle questionnaire on attitudes toward nuclear waste disposal are discussed

  10. Designing a Physical Security System for Risk Reduction in a Hypothetical Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.A.; Abd Elaziz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Physical security in a nuclear facility means detection, prevention and response to threat, the ft, sabotage, unauthorized access and illegal transfer involving radioactive and nuclear material. This paper proposes a physical security system designing concepts to reduce the risk associated with variant threats to a nuclear facility. This paper presents a study of the unauthorized removal and sabotage in a hypothetical nuclear facility considering deter, delay and response layers. More over, the study involves performing any required upgrading to the security system by investigating the nuclear facility layout and considering all physical security layers design to enhance the weakness for risk reduction

  11. On the Measures to Strengthen the Global Nuclear Safety Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental safety objective to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The intent and purpose of safety principles are to be applicable throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce radiation risks. Now as the nuclear option is being revisited in many places, a variety of stake holders will seek participation in such decisions. Nuclear and radiological accidents occurred wide world have served to arouse public concern. The development of here-and-now media capabilities have created an awareness that may not have previously existed. Improvement in educational systems and the development of the internet have made technical information and expertise available to individuals and locations that were previously without them. The core of the Global Nuclear Safety Regime (INSAG Series No.21) for nuclear installations are the activities undertaken by each state to ensure the safety and security of the nuclear installations within its jurisdiction. National efforts can be strengthened by: intergovernmental organizations, multinational networks among operators, multinational networks among regulators, multinational networks among scientists, the international nuclear industry, and the stake holders (public, news media, NGO's) that are engaged in Nuclear Safety. All of these efforts should be harnessed to enhance the achievement of safety

  12. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Young; Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  13. [Socio-psychological and ecological aspects within the system of nuclear radiation risk mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B I; Ushakov, I B; Zuev, V G

    2004-01-01

    The authors bring into light several aspects of nuclear radiation risks, i.e. physical safety of nuclear technologies and ecology, place of operator within the nuclear radiation safety system (proficiency, protective culture, safety guides) and consider approaches to the human factor quantification within the system of mitigation of risks from nuclear technologies, and IAEA recommendations on probable risk estimation. Future investigations should be aimed at extension of the radiation sensitivity threshold, personnel selection as by psychological so genetic testing for immunity to ionizing radiation, development of pharmachemical and physical protectors and methods of enhancing nonspecific resistance to extreme, including radiation, environments, and building of radiation event simulators for training.

  14. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Young [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Ye Jin; Ee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well designed future studies given the conflicting results from sensitivity analysis.

  15. US-Soviet cooperation in countering nuclear terrorism: the role of risk reduction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, S.; Warner, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Preventing nuclear terrorism should be high on the agenda of US-Soviet relations. Indeed, the specter of nuclear terrorism, more than any other factor originally prompted and has subsequently sustained the author's deep interest in US-Soviet agreements on establishment of US-Soviet Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers and other important risk-reduction measures. Such centers can play an invaluable role in facilitating discussions aimed at forestalling possible contingencies and in providing a mechanism for dampening escalatory dangers that might otherwise result from any future nuclear terrorism incident. In addition to these crucial substantive functions, the centers could serve to reassure anxious publics that the governments they have entrusted with command authority over tens of thousands of nuclear devices are giving the highest priority to reducing the risk that any of them will ever be used, whether by design or by accident. Nuclear risk Reduction Centers are an idea whose time has come

  16. The influence of nuclear risk sense to atomic industry's public relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biryukova, P.; Kazakevich, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this report is estimation of the influence of sensing of nuclear risk to atomic industry's public relation. In this report the reasons of the negative relation to nuclear energetic owing to inadequate sensing of the risk dealing with this fields have been represented. (authors)

  17. The Regulation of Major Risks in Relation to Large Nuclear Installations in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Van, L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, major risk prevention has generated legislative and regulatory texts in French law, particularly regarding nuclear installations. This article reviews the context and analyses the scope of the new regulations. They require the nuclear operator to take preventive measures, namely more stringent obligations from the safety viewpoint to inform the public. These include risk assessments and preparing emergency plans in case if accidents. (NEA)

  18. Accident risks in nuclear facilities (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-Sep 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1977-10-01

    The bibliography presents risk analysis and hazards evaluation of the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities, including the risk and hazards of transporting radioactive materials to and from these facilities. Radiological calculations for environmental effects of nuclear accidents are also included

  19. Accident risks in nuclear facilities (a bibliography with abstracts). Report for 1964-Sep 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grooms, D.W.

    1976-10-01

    The bibliography presents risk analysis and hazards evaluation of the design, construction and operation of nuclear facilities including the risk and hazards of transporting radioactive materials to and from these facilities. Radiological calculations for environmental effects of nuclear accidents are included. (This updated bibliography contains 195 abstracts, 64 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Risk knowledge and risk attitudes regarding nuclear energy sources in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharik, M.; Fischhoff, B.

    1993-01-01

    A series of four studies examined the relationship between how much people know about the risks of using nuclear energy sources in space and how they feel about the technology. The authors found that the more people know, the more favorable they are -- except for two groups of people selected from organizations with strong pro-industry or pro-environment positions. These results suggest that a technology will get a more favorable hearing if it can get its message out -- providing that it has a legitimate story to tell and that the situation has not become too polarized already. The limits to these conclusions are discussed. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Empirical Risk Analysis of Severe Reactor Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants after Fukushima

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2012-01-01

    Many countries are reexamining the risks connected with nuclear power generation after the Fukushima accidents. To provide updated information for the corresponding discussion a simple empirical approach is applied for risk quantification of severe reactor accidents with International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) level ≥5. The analysis is based on worldwide data of commercial nuclear facilities. An empirical hazard of 21 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 4; 62) severe accidents am...

  2. Cyber Security Risk Evaluation of a Nuclear I&C Using BN and ET

    OpenAIRE

    Jinsoo Shin; Hanseong Son; Gyunyoung Heo

    2017-01-01

    Cyber security is an important issue in the field of nuclear engineering because nuclear facilities use digital equipment and digital systems that can lead to serious hazards in the event of an accident. Regulatory agencies worldwide have announced guidelines for cyber security related to nuclear issues, including U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 5.71. It is important to evaluate cyber security risk in accordance with these regulatory guides. In this study, we propose a cyber security risk evaluatio...

  3. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Poloski, Adam P.; Vienna, John D.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Hobbs, David; Wilmarth, B.; Mcilwain, Michael; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, Steve; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    Cleaning up the nation's nuclear weapons complex remains as one of the most technologically challenging and financially costly problems facing the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Safety, cost, and technological challenges have often delayed progress in retrieval, processing, and final disposition of high-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, and challenging materials. Some of the issues result from the difficulty and complexity of the technological issues; others have programmatic bases, such as strategies that may provide undue focus on near-term goals or difficulty in developing and maintaining stakeholder confidence in the proposed solutions. We propose that independent basic fundamental science research, addressing the full cleanup life-cycle, offers an opportunity to help address these challenges by providing (1) scientific insight into the fundamental mechanisms involved in currently selected processing and disposal options, (2) a rational path to the development of alternative technologies should the primary options fail, (3) confidence that models that predict long-term performance of different disposal options are based upon the best available science, and (4) fundamental science discovery that enables transformational solutions to revolutionize the current baseline processes. Over the last 3 years, DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) has experienced a fundamental shift in philosophy. The mission focus of driving to closure has been replaced by one of enabling the long-term needs of DOE and the nation. Resolving new challenges, such as the disposition of DOE spent nuclear fuel, have been added to EM's responsibilities. In addition, the schedules for addressing several elements of the cleanup mission have been extended. As a result, EM's mission is no longer focused only on driving the current baselines to closure. Meeting the mission will require fundamental advances over at least a 30-year window if not longer as new challenges are added. The

  4. How much is our fairness worth? The effect of raising stakes on offers by Proposers and minimum acceptable offers in Dictator and Ultimatum Games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Novakova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether people respond differently to low and high stakes in Dictator and Ultimatum Games. We assumed that if we raised the stakes high enough, we would observe more self-orientated behavior because fairness would become too costly, in spite of a possible risk of a higher punishment. METHODS: A questionnaire was completed by a sample of 524 university students of biology. A mixed linear model was used to test the relation between the amount at stake (CZK 20, 200, 2,000, 20,000 and 200,000, i.e., approximately $1-$10,000 and the shares, as well as the subjects' gender and the design of the study (single vs. multiple games for different amounts. RESULTS: We have discovered a significant relationship between the amount at stake and the minimum acceptable offer in the Ultimatum Game and the proposed shares in both Ultimatum and Dictator Games (p = 0.001, p<0.001, p = 0.0034. The difference between playing a single game or more games with several amounts at stake did not influence the relation between the stakes and the offered and minimum acceptable shares. Women proved significantly more generous than men in their offers in the Dictator Game (p = 0.007. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that people's behavior in the Dictator and Ultimatum Games depends on the amount at stake. The players tended to lower their relative proposed shares, as well as their relative minimum acceptable offers. We propose that the Responders' sense of equity and fair play depends on the stakes because of the costs of maintaining fairness. However, our results also suggest that the price of fairness is very high and that it is very difficult, probably even impossible, to buy the transition of Homo sociologicus into Homo economicus.

  5. The year of the cat: Taxing nuclear risk with the help of capital markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, Jakob; Jus, Darko

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes new regulation for nuclear power reactors aimed at increasing their safety. We begin by describing how limited liability leads to risk-loving behaviour in nuclear power companies and unsafe nuclear power reactors. By reviewing current regulatory regimes, we show that this issue is not being sufficiently addressed today. Therefore, we evaluate five regulatory instruments: (1) safety regulation, (2) minimum equity requirements, (3) mandatory insurance, (4) risk-sharing pools, and (5) catastrophe bonds. We conclude that any of these instruments either cannot be recommended in its pure form or is infeasible in reality. We therefore propose a new approach that, in its core, consists of a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, capital markets assess the risk stemming from each nuclear reactor via catastrophe bonds. In the second step, the regulator uses this private risk assessment and intervenes by charging an actuarially fair premium in the form of a Pigouvian risk tax. Society ultimately acts as an explicit insurer for nuclear risk and is, on average, fairly compensated for the risk it is taking over. - Highlights: ► Limited liability leads to excessive risk-taking in nuclear power companies. ► Current regulation does not address this issue sufficiently. ► We evaluate five regulatory instruments and explain their shortcomings. ► We propose a market-based nuclear risk tax as a new regulatory instrument.

  6. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  7. On fire risk/methodology for the next generation of reactors and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, K.C.; Alesso, H.P.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Methodologies for including fire in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) have been evolving during the last ten years. Many of these studies show that fire risk constitutes a significant percentage of external events, as well as the total core damage frequency. This paper summarizes the methodologies used in the fire risk analysis of the next generation of reactors and existing DOE nuclear facilities. Methodologies used in other industries, as well as existing nuclear power plants, are also discussed. Results of fire risk studies for various nuclear plants and facilities are shown and compared

  8. Radiological risks and public acceptance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, Vitaly

    2001-01-01

    This presentation deals with: Nuclear Power Progress and Anti-nuclear Movement; Real Medical Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident; radiation protection Linear-Non-Threshold Concept as a main feature of ICRP-60 recommendations; irradiation effects in cells; future of nuclear energy -in restoration public trust in its safety and effectiveness

  9. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  10. Analysis on difference of risk perception between people engaged in nuclear business and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terado, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Sugiman, T.; Hibino, A.; Akimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    A new research project has started to develop two kinds of on-the-web communication systems which are aimed at effective social risk information on nuclear energy. One is mutual communication system for fostering safety culture among the workers in nuclear industry while the other is to enlighten general public about the risk issues on final disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Prior to the on-the-web systems development, social investigations have been conducted on risk perception for nuclear power for both the nuclear experts and women in the metropolitan area, in order to know how and what should be considered for the effective risk communication methods. It was found from the statistical analysis of the results of social investigation that the majority of nuclear people take business risk seriously but there is a fraction of nuclear people who are afraid of present practice of nuclear power operation while women in metropolitan area are evenly afraid of radioactive risk. The obtained results of social investigation gave useful insight for developing two kinds of risk communication systems and the related field study for enhancing safety culture in nuclear industries. (authors)

  11. Toward introduction of risk informed safety regulation. Nuclear Safety Commission taskforce's interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear Safety Commission's taskforce on 'Introduction of Safety Regulation Utilizing Risk Information' completed the interim report on its future subjects and directions in December 2005. Although current safety regulatory activities have been based on deterministic approach, this report shows the risk informed approach is expected to be very useful for making nuclear safety regulation and assurance activities reasonable and also for appropriate allocation of regulatory resources. For introduction of risk informed regulation, it also recommends pileups of experiences with gradual introduction and trial of the risk informed approach, improvement of plant maintenance rules and regulatory requirements utilizing risk information, and establishment of framework to assure quality of risk evaluation. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Climate change: which stakes? Stakes of climate change. Man and the trajectory of the Earth ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, Herve; Rogalski, Michel; Sachs, Ignacy

    2011-12-01

    A first article recalls what the greenhouse effect is, outlines that the increase of CO 2 concentration due to human activity is indisputable, that the future of the Kyoto Protocol remains hypothetical, that evolving towards a new development mode is a crucial necessity. It also addresses the issue of financing this struggle against climate change, and outlines the importance of international negotiations. A second article outlines the stakes of climate change, notably by referring to the different international summits and to the associated issues (commitments of most countries, technology transfers, and so on). The third article comments the entry into the Anthropocene as a disruption for the joint evolution of mankind and biosphere. The author outlines the need of a new planning for development, and briefly discusses the question of energies

  13. Danger defence and risk provision in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the atomic-law term of danger, which is defined as a product of likeliness and volume of damage, the author comments upon the decisive and, as to date, unsolved question of which degree of likeliness a possible course of events must have in order to be taken into consideration as a danger that must be averted. In doing this, it is stressed that the most important point is to find a rationally practicable standard of likeliness or unlikeliness. This standard is then developed from the deterministical point of view. It corresponds with the postulate that effective precautions must be taken against all known causes for incidents and accidents. A standard of practical ratio results from this: damage does not have to be taken into consideration any longer if, due to the precautions taken and the knowledge level of the leading scientists and technicians, if it is not likely to occur. In addition to this preventive protection from danger, paragraph 7, Sec.2 No.3 Atomic Energy Act stipulates another risk under the reservation of precaution, however the technical possibility of realization and the relativity of expenditure and benefit. With regard to these criteria, the author gives his opinion on the judgements of the administrative courts in Wuerzburg and Freiburg which, starting from the same principles, have different points of view on the question of the so-called rupture safety in nuclear power plants. (UN) [de

  14. Morality and nuclear energy: perceptions of risks and benefits, personal norms, and willingness to take action related to nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2010-09-01

    We examined factors underlying people's willingness to take action in favor of or against nuclear energy from a moral perspective. We conducted a questionnaire study among a sample of the Dutch population (N = 123). As expected, perceptions of risks and benefits were related to personal norms (PN), that is, feelings of moral obligation toward taking action in favor of or against nuclear energy. In turn, PN predicted willingness to take action. Furthermore, PN mediated the relationships between perceptions of risk and benefits and willingness to take action. In line with our hypothesis, beliefs about the risks and benefits of nuclear energy were less powerful in explaining PN for supporters compared to PN of opponents. Also, beliefs on risks and benefits and PN explained significantly more variance in willingness to take action of opponents than of supporters. Our results suggest that a moral framework is useful to explain willingness to take action in favor of and against nuclear energy, and that people are more likely to protest in favor of or against nuclear energy when PN are strong. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Scientific Opportunities to Reduce Risk in Nuclear Process Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, P.R.; Felmy, A.R.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Poloski, A.P.; Vienna, J.D.; Moyer, B.A.; Hobbs, D.; Wilmarth, B.; McIlwain, M.; Subramanian, K.; Krahn, S.; Machara, N.

    2009-01-01

    intent of this paper is to foster a dialogue on how basic scientific research can assist DOE in executing its cleanup and environmental management mission. In this document, we propose that such scientific investments should not be focused solely on what may be viewed as current DOE needs, but also upon longer-term investments in specific areas of science that underpin technologies presently in use. In the latter regard, we propose four science theme areas: 1) the structure and dynamics of materials and interfaces, 2) coupled chemical and physical processes, 3) complex solution phase phenomena, and 4) chemical recognition phenomena. The proposed scientific focus for each of these theme areas and the scientific opportunities are identified, along with links to major risks within the initiative areas identified in EM's Engineering and Technology Road-map. The authors encourage feedback from our colleagues in the nuclear waste and related fields. (authors)

  16. Accident risks in nuclear facilities. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning risk analysis and hazards evaluation of the design, construction, and operation of nuclear facilities. The citations also explore the risk and hazards of transporting radioactive materials to and from these facilities. Radiological calculations for environmental effects of nuclear accidents and the use of computer models in risk analysis are also included. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Current perspectives on nuclear power plant risks and the use of risk-based information in regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D F; Ernst, M L; Murphy, J

    1987-08-01

    For the first five years, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has supported extensive studies of severe accidents. One outcome of this work is a set of advanced method for analyzing the probabilities, source terms, consequences, and risks of such accidents. These methods are being applied to a set of six U.S. commercial nuclear power plants, covering a wide spread of nuclear steam supply systems and containment designs. This work is to be documented in the Reactor Risk Reference Document, NUREG-1150, and supporting contractors reports. The methods being used for NUREG-1150, and some initial plant results, are briefly described in this paper.

  18. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungkook Roh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  19. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Seung Kook; Lee, Jin Won

    2017-01-01

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance

  20. Differentiated influences of risk perceptions on nuclear power acceptance according to acceptance targets: Evidence from Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Seung Kook [Policy Research Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Won [School of Management, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2017-08-15

    The determinants of the public's nuclear power acceptance have received considerable attention as decisive factors regarding nuclear power policy. However, the contingency of the relative importance of different determinants has been less explored. Building on the literature of psychological distance between the individual and the object, the present study demonstrates that the relative effects of different types of perceived risks regarding nuclear power generation differ across acceptance targets. Using a sample of Korea, our results show that, regarding national acceptance of nuclear power generation, perceived risk from nuclear power plants exerts a stronger negative effect than that from radioactive waste management; however, the latter exerts a stronger negative effect than the former on local acceptance of a nuclear power plant. This finding provides implications for efficient public communication strategy to raise nuclear power acceptance.

  1. Public perception of risks from nuclear power plants in Japan, before the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Rumiko; Nakaune, Naoko; Kishikawa, Hiroki; Uchiyama, Iwao

    2011-01-01

    On this research we aim to clarify public perception of risks from nuclear power plants before the Great East Japan Earthquake. The findings of the questionnaire survey conducted in 2010 showed that 1) about 70% of the people felt that they gained benefit from nuclear power plants and these were needed for their daily life. 2) Fifty percent respondents recognized there was danger to themselves and their family members with regards to nuclear power plants. The risks of nuclear power plants to Japanese society ware estimated higher than that risk to individuals of Japanese public. 3) Perception of risks from nuclear power plants to individual Japanese tended to be slightly lower between 1999 and 2010. (author)

  2. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk; Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships

  3. Concept Design and Risk Assessment of Nuclear Propulsion Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, Youngmi; Yoo, Seongjin; Kim, Yeontae; Oh, June; Byun, Yoonchul; Woo, Ilguk [Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiho; Choi, Suhn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The nuclear propulsion ships (hereinafter referred to as 'nuclear ships') have been considered as an eco-friendly ship. There have historically been warship and submarine with the source of nuclear power. The use of nuclear ships has been recently extending to the icebreaker, the deep-water exploration ship, and the floating nuclear power plant. Prior to developing the new ship, we evaluated the economics of various types of ships and concluded that the container ship could be appropriate for the nuclear propulsion. In order to verify its safety, we performed the ship calculation based on the optimal arrangement of the nuclear reactor. Finally, we verified its safety by the HAZID. In the former research, we confirmed the applicability of the nuclear propulsion system for the large container ship. In this study, we verified the safety of the nuclear ships according to the HAZID analysis. We expect that this research will lead to safe design of the nuclear ships.

  4. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Case Study of Risk Informed Asset Management (RIAM) for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyoung Cheol; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Chung, Dae Wook

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the concern for Nuclear Asset Management (NAM) is increasing in nuclear industry. Asset Management is management of the financial assets of a company in order to maximize return. However, asset management in the nuclear industry is needed for coincidental consideration of nuclear safety and risk. Over fast several years, efforts for development of safety concerned and financial asset maximizing method, process and tools have been continued internationally. Risk Informed Asset Management (RIAM) is a methodology, process, and (eventually) software tool by which analyst review historical performance and develop predictive logic models and data analyses to provide plant manager and company decision-makers critical quantitative performance indicators

  6. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello's guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on "cancer risk from

  7. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks.

  8. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  9. Knowledge loss risk assessment in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Minodora; Constantin, Marin; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method developed in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti for knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear sector, in order to obtain a risk map at departmental and organizational level, by analyzing each position/people. The method starts from the classical method for knowledge loss risk assessment but takes into account the INR characteristics, the particularities of Romanian nuclear market and the difficulties of the classical method to estimate correctly the risk at the job level. A short description of the classical method of knowledge loss risk assessment, the improved method by introducing five new parameters for risk factor of vacant job are presented, how this last method has been applied in some departments from INR Pitesti and the preliminary risk matrix for knowledge loss at organization level is discussed. (authors)

  10. Risk and safety in the nuclear industry and conventional norms of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.

    1977-01-01

    The societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters (e. g., expected benefit, intensity of effect) are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP (as low as practiable) levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities

  11. Risk informed regulation of nuclear facilities: Overview of the current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This report provides guidance on the use of risk information by regulatory bodies as part of an integrated decision making process. This addresses the way in which risk information is being used in decisions about safety issues at nuclear plants, sometimes referred to as risk informed decision making, and how risk information is being used by regulatory bodies as an input into the activities that they carry out, sometimes referred to as risk informed regulation

  12. Risk-informed technology developments for nuclear power plants within the ASME in 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley Rowley, C.; Balkey, K.R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide information on developments within the ASME to support risk-informing NRC regulations for nuclear power plants. This paper builds on a publication at ICONE-8 that discussed ASME risk-informed nuclear power plant initiatives, both in Research and in Codes and Standards, particularly those related to risk-informing Part 50 of the 10 CFR (Code of federal regulations). During the past year, the ASME BNCS formed a Task Force to focus the Society's efforts to support risk-informing 10 CFR Part 50. Key efforts underway that are guided by the task force include finalizing the ASME PRA (probability risk assessment) Standard, developing a Code Case to risk-inform the repair, replacement, and modification activities for ASME components, and developing a Code Case to risk-inform the safety classification of pressure boundary components. Several other initiatives are also under investigation such as introducing risk insights into other ASME nuclear codes and standards supported by appropriate research and technical basis information. Supplementary information will also be provided to update an initial high level plan of ASME risk-informed initiatives for nuclear power plants that was presented at ICONE-8, including plans to communicate these risk-informed technology developments to the public. The authors included and acknowledged contributions from several other cognizant members of the ASME BNCS (board on nuclear codes standards) Task Group on RIP50 in the paper. (authors)

  13. Medical physics in France, stakes and necessities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    2004-01-01

    This series of slides presents the situation of medical physics in France: - role of the medical physicist with respect to the medical procedures in radiotherapy, radiology and nuclear medicine; - responsibility in the treatment chain; - professional qualification and training; - present day and future situation of the profession; - authorities answer; - a profession in great precariousness situation. (J.S.)

  14. Evaluation of Risk Perception and Risk-Comparison Information Regarding Dietary Radionuclides after the 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Nakatani, Jun; Oki, Taikan

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, to facilitate evidence-based risk communication we need to understand radiation risk perception and the effectiveness of risk-comparison information. We measured and characterized perceptions of dread risks and unknown risks regarding dietary radionuclides in residents of Fukushima, Tokyo, and Osaka to identify the primary factors among location, evacuation experience, gender, age, employment status, absence/presence of spouse, children and grandchildren, educational background, humanities/science courses, smoking habits, and various types of trustworthy information sources. We then evaluated the effects of these factors and risk-comparison information on multiple outcomes, including subjective and objective understanding, perceived magnitude of risk, perceived accuracy of information, backlash against information, and risk acceptance. We also assessed how risk-comparison information affected these multiple outcomes for people with high risk perception. Online questionnaires were completed by people (n = 9249) aged from 20 to 69 years in the three prefectures approximately 5 years after the accident. We gave each participant one of 15 combinations of numerical risk data and risk-comparison information, including information on standards, smoking-associated risk, and cancer risk, in accordance with Covello’s guidelines. Dread-risk perception among Fukushima residents with no experience of evacuation was much lower than that in Osaka residents, whereas evacuees had strikingly higher dread-risk perception, irrespective of whether their evacuation had been compulsory or voluntary. We identified location (distance from the nuclear power station), evacuation experience, and trust of central government as primary factors. Location (including evacuation experience) and trust of central government were significantly associated with the multiple outcomes above. Only information on “cancer risk from

  15. Information diffused by the operator on the nuclear risk: which answer to stakeholders expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plot-Vicard, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the practices of environmental information diffusion, and aims at identifying the possible discrepancies between information diffused by a company and the expectations of stakeholders, more particularly in the case of the nuclear risk. The first part presents the theoretical framework (notably the legitimacy theory) and determines the expectations of stakeholders as far as information on the nuclear risk is concerned. The second part describes and discusses information on nuclear risk diffused by operators in their annual reports, proposes an assessment of this information, and relates this assessment with the previous theoretical framework

  16. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-26

    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  17. Applying programmatic risk assessment to nuclear materials stabilization R and D planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenley, C.R.; Brown-van Hoozer, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A systems engineering approach to programmatic risk assessment, derived from the aerospace industry, was applied to various stabilization technologies to assess their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. The assessment provided valuable information for trading off available technologies and identified the at-risk technologies that will require close tracking by the Department of Energy (DOE) to mitigate programmatic risks

  18. Investigation into the risk perceptions of investors in the securities of nuclear-dependent electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spudeck, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Two weeks prior to the Three Mile Island accident, March 15, 1979, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission ordered five operating nuclear plants shut down in order to reexamine safety standards in these plants. Reports in the popular and trade press during this time suggested that these events, particularly the accident at Three Mile Island, caused investors in the securities of electric utilities that had nuclear-generation facilities to revise their risk perceptions. This study was designed to examine the impact of both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission order and the accident at Three Mile Island on investor risk perceptions. Selected categories of electric utilities were chosen to examine any differential risk effects resulting from these events. An asset pricing model devoid of many of the restrictive assumptions of more familiar models was used to model investor behavior. The findings suggest that the events described did cause investors to revise upward their perceptions of systematic risk regarding different categories of electric utilities. More specifically, those electric utilities that were operating nuclear plants in 1979 experienced the largest and most sustained increase in systematic risk. However, electric utilities that in 1979 had no operating nuclear plants, but had planned and committed funds for nuclear plants in the future, also experienced increases in systematic risk

  19. Efficient prevention and compensation of catastrophic risks. The example of damage by nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanden Borre, T.

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with the liability for damage due to catastrophic risks. The nuclear liability law serves as an example of such a catastrophic risk. The question that we tried to answer is what an efficient compensation scheme for catastrophic risks should look like. This question is dealt with both from a law and an economic point of view and from a comparative point of view. The main element in comparing the laws in different countries is the comparison between Belgian and Dutch civil (nuclear) liability law. But also American nuclear liability law is part of the analysis (the Price-Anderson Act). The book consists of four parts: (nuclear) civil liability law, legal and economic approach, analysis of other compensation systems and conclusions. The big themes in this book are therefore civil (nuclear) liability law, insurance law and environmental liability law [nl

  20. A study on risk perception toward nuclear power operation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Ciao-tzu; Hu Shiang-ling; Chang, Wushou P.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, more conflicts appear between the public and government over the establishment of the 4th nuclear power plant in Taiwan. In order to improve risk management by the Society, understanding the risk perception of the public will be essential. A pilot study on the risk perception toward nuclear power operation and other current risks was conducted in summer of 1999. In addition to perception towards nuclear power operation, the survey evaluated several dimensions of health-related risks including smoking, chemical wastes, nuclear wastes, air transportation, AIDS, and food intoxication. The questionnaire was designed to be proceeded under systemic instruction and followed with self-filling. 57 (85.1%) of 67 respondents worked at the Taipei Metropolitan Rapid Transportation, including 62 male subjects (92.5%). 44 (69.8%) respondents favored building the 4th nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The acceptable distance between their houses and the nuclear power plant was 145.13 km in average, as compared with 400 km that of North and South of Taiwan. The mean expenses they are willing to pay to reduce the risk of the NPP is about US $7.73, 0.56% of their average income. However, the levels of risks toward nuclear power operation is significant higher than these for air transportation, smoking, and food intoxication. Government's spending is assumed more effective to reduce the threats from risks of nuclear power operation, rather than professional's or experts' effects. Besides, other related factors include levels of involuntary exposure to NP operation (p<0.001) and number of people potentially in danger (p<0.001). These 2 altitudes are positively correlated with the respondents' perceived risks. Different attitudes toward NP operation within these engineers, and those evaluated by others, are of great interest. Further evaluation will be conducted to compare the mechanism involved. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Council