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Sample records for nuclear reactions cross-sections

  1. Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.

    2005-01-01

    Integral excitation functions for the production of residual nuclides with light charged particles are basic data for different applications. The proton induced nuclear reactions are the most widely used and their cross section data are extensively studied. For practical applications these reactions are followed in importance by deuteron induced reactions. Due to the stripping process the production yield of the deuteron induced reactions is significant. High intensity deuteron beams can be produced relatively simply by accelerators. Deuteron induced reactions play an important role in secondary fast neutron sources, in thin layer activation technology, etc. The search of the literature shows that the cross section database for deuteron induced reactions is very poor (very few data above 15-20 MeV). No systematical study has been performed earlier. In addition the published data (except for a few well measured monitor and medically important reactions) show large discrepancies. To meet the requirements of these applications we performed a systematical experimental study of deuteron induced activation cross sections for different targets up to 50 MeV deuteron energy during the last years. Here we summarize the results for the most widely used technological materials: i.e. for metals. The targets were irradiated with external beams of the cyclotrons of Debrecen, Brussels and Sendai, Residual nuclei were measured by X- and gamma-spectrometry without chemical separation. The investigation includes a few hundred reactions induced on the following 20 target elements: Al, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Te, W, Ir, Pt, Pb. A significant part of the measured data is new. The measured excitation functions were compared with the theory by using the ALICE-IPPE and TALYS codes. For a few elements, isotopic cross sections were measured on highly enriched targets ( 100 Mo, 122,123 Te, 114 Cd) for medical radioisotope production Applications in the field of

  2. Nuclear structure effects on calculated fast neutron reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrigeanu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of accurate low-lying level schemes for reaction cross section calculation and need for microscopically calculated levels are proved with reference to fast neutron induced reactions in the A = 50 atomic mass range. The uses of the discrete levels both for normalization of phenomenological level density approaches and within Hauser-Feshbach calculations are discussed in this respect. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section of some isotopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coupled-channels optical model code OPTMAN is used as an alternative to experimental approach to evaluate the total reaction cross section for four different isotopes of Plutonium as an example of heavy rotational nuclei of the transuranium elements over an energy range of 10 to 20 MeV. The selected isotopes are the ...

  4. Activation cross-section data for -particle-induced nuclear reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M ALI

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Activation cross-section data for α-particle-induced nuclear reactions on natural ... (2018) 90:41. Table 1. Contributing reactions kinematics (taken from [35]). Product. Contributing reactions. Q-Value (MeV). Threshold energy Eth (MeV). 54Mn. 51V(α,n) ... peak) coupled to acquisition/analysis software. Their.

  5. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparency is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determining σ(sub R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  6. Experimental cross-sections for proton-induced nuclear reactions on Mo-nat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenák, Jaroslav; Lebeda, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 380, AUG (2016), s. 32-49 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Project s: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross-sections * excitation functions * proton-induced nuclear reactions * natural molybdenum * Mo-99 * Tc-99m * Tc96m+g * Tc-95m * thick target yields * U-120M cyclotron Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  7. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    The neutron activation of components in a nuclear device can provide useful signatures of weapon design or sophistication. This lecture will cover some of the basics of neutron reaction cross sections. Nuclear reactor cross sections will also be presented to illustrate the complexity of convolving neutron energy spectra with nuclear excitation functions to calculate useful effective reactor cross sections. Deficiencies in the nuclear database will be discussed along with tools available at Los Alamos to provide new neutron cross section data.

  8. Cross Sections Calculations of ( d, t) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Yiğit, M.; Tanır, G.

    2013-04-01

    In nuclear fusion reactions two light atomic nuclei fuse together to form a heavier nucleus. Fusion power is the power generated by nuclear fusion processes. In contrast with fission power, the fusion reaction processes does not produce radioactive nuclides. The fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2. So the fusion energy will not contribute to environmental problems such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. Fusion powered electricity generation was initially believed to be readily achievable, as fission power had been. However, the extreme requirements for continuous reactions and plasma containment led to projections being extended by several decades. In 2010, more than 60 years after the first attempts, commercial power production is still believed to be unlikely before 2050. Although there have been significant research and development studies on the inertial and magnetic fusion reactor technology, there is still a long way to go to penetrate commercial fusion reactors to the energy market. In the fusion reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. Therefore, for self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( d, t) nuclear reaction cross sections is of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at different energies. Since the experimental data of charged particle induced reactions are scarce, self-consistent calculation and analyses using nuclear theoretical models are very important. In this study, ( d, t) cross sections for target nuclei 19F, 50Cr, 54Fe, 58Ni, 75As, 89Y, 90Zr, 107Ag, 127I, 197Au and 238U have been investigated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy. The excitation functions for ( d, t) reactions have been calculated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculation results have been also compared with the available measurements in

  9. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Manwoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan 619-953 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the {sup 110,113g,117m}Sn, {sup 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g}In, and {sup 111m,115g}Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations.

  10. Investigation of activation cross-sections of alpha-induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Manwoo; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-01-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Sn, In, and Cd radionuclides from alpha-induced reactions on nat Cd from their respective threshold to 45 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the earlier measurements as well as with the theoretical values obtained from the TENDL-2012 library based on the TALYS 1.4 code. Our measurements for the 110,113g,117m Sn, 108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,113m,114m,115m,116m,117m,117g In, and 111m,115g Cd radionuclides in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The integral yields for thick target were also deduced using the measured cross-sections and the stopping power of natural cadmium target and found in agreement with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured cross-sections find importance in various practical applications including nuclear medicine and improvement of nuclear model calculations

  11. Activation cross-sections on cadmium: Proton induced nuclear reactions up to 80 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Kiraly, B.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Csikai, J.; Hermanne, A.; Uddin, M.S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Ido, T.; Shubin, Yu.N.; Kovalev, S.F.

    2006-01-01

    Cross-sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium were measured up to 80 MeV using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross-sections and derived integral yields are reported for the nat Cd(p,xn) 107g,108m,108g,109g,110m,110g,111g,112m,113m,114m,115m,116m1 In, nat Cd(p,x) 107,109,111m,115g Cd and nat Cd(p,x) 104g,105g,106m,110m,111g,113g Ag reactions. Earlier experimental data measured on natural cadmium were found only for 109,110,111,113,114 In in the literature. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Applications of the new cross-sections for data validation, medical radioisotope production, thin layer activation and dose calculation are discussed.

  12. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52 MeV

    OpenAIRE

    Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Haba, H.; Komori, Y.; Aikawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2 MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. Th...

  13. The total cross sections of heavy ion reaction and the nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of the systems 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 40 Ca, 12 C + 90 Zr, 12 C + 208 Pb, 40 Ca + 40 Ca, 40 Ca + 208 Pb + 90 Zr + 90 Zr, 90 Zr + 208 Pb and 208 Pb + 208 Pb for a wide range of energies has been calculated microscopically. A WKB expression for the imaginary phase shift in the impact paremeter representation has been employed. The imaginary part of the optical potential has been constructed by using the first term of multiple scattering theory with the effect of Pauli blocking incorporated into it. The inclusion of the nuclear and Coulomb interactions is shown to be important. The theoretical results do not show very good agreement with the experimental data at lower energies. This is attributed to the weak absorption contained in the imaginary potential of the ''tο A ο B '' interaction, wich contained only quasifree knock-out as the dominant reaction mechanism. (author) [pt

  14. Measuring nuclear reaction cross sections to extract information on neutrinoless double beta decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Agodi, C.; Acosta, L.; Auerbach, N.; Bellone, J.; Bijker, R.; Bonanno, D.; Bongiovanni, D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Boztosun, I.; Branchina, V.; Bussa, M. P.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Calvo, D.; Carbone, D.; Chávez Lomelí, E. R.; Coban, A.; Colonna, M.; D’Agostino, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Delaunay, F.; Deshmukh, N.; de Faria, P. N.; Ferraresi, C.; Ferreira, J. L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fisichella, M.; Foti, A.; Gallo, G.; Garcia, U.; Giraudo, G.; Greco, V.; Hacisalihoglu, A.; Kotila, J.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lanzalone, G.; Lavagno, A.; La Via, F.; Lay, J. A.; Lenske, H.; Linares, R.; Litrico, G.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Lubian, J.; Medina, N.; Mendes, D. R.; Muoio, A.; Oliveira, J. R. B.; Pakou, A.; Pandola, L.; Petrascu, H.; Pinna, F.; Reito, S.; Rifuggiato, D.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Russo, A. D.; Russo, G.; Santagati, G.; Santopinto, E.; Sgouros, O.; Solakci, S. O.; Souliotis, G.; Soukeras, V.; Spatafora, A.; Torresi, D.; Tudisco, S.; Vsevolodovna, R. I. M.; Wheadon, R. J.; Yildirin, A.; Zagatto, V. A. B.

    2018-02-01

    Neutrinoless double beta decay (0vββ) is considered the best potential resource to access the absolute neutrino mass scale. Moreover, if observed, it will signal that neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles). Presently, this physics case is one of the most important research “beyond Standard Model” and might guide the way towards a Grand Unified Theory of fundamental interactions. Since the 0vββ decay process involves nuclei, its analysis necessarily implies nuclear structure issues. In the NURE project, supported by a Starting Grant of the European Research Council (ERC), nuclear reactions of double charge-exchange (DCE) are used as a tool to extract information on the 0vββ Nuclear Matrix Elements. In DCE reactions and ββ decay indeed the initial and final nuclear states are the same and the transition operators have similar structure. Thus the measurement of the DCE absolute cross-sections can give crucial information on ββ matrix elements. In a wider view, the NUMEN international collaboration plans a major upgrade of the INFN-LNS facilities in the next years in order to increase the experimental production of nuclei of at least two orders of magnitude, thus making feasible a systematic study of all the cases of interest as candidates for 0vββ.

  15. Determination of nuclear cross-section of 81Br (n,,,) Br82 reaction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... flux of 4.2 x 1013 n cm-2 s-1. The BaBr2 was chemically processed and measured as Hydrogen Bromide (HBr82). The value of nuclear cross-section was determined to be 2.1 0.2 barns, which falls within the range of values as previously reported elsewhere. (Journal of Applied Science and Technology: 2001 6(1-2): 4-6) ...

  16. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  17. The AEP Barnbook DATLIB. Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections and Reactivity Parameter Library and Files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbacher, R.

    1987-10-01

    Nuclear reaction data for light isotope charged particle reactions (Z<6) have been compiled. This hardcopy contains file headers, plots and an extended bibliography. Numerical data files and processing routines are available on tape at IAEA-NDS. (author). Refs

  18. Gamma Ray Production Cross-Sections from Deuteron Induced Nuclear Reaction Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the present PIGE CRP our group decided to take part in several p-PIGE and d-PIGE thin target cross section measurements. The first task was the energy calibration of our accelerator, followed by the determination of the efficiency curve of the HPGe gamma-ray detector, and finally, to perform gamma-yield measurements and determine the first cross section values as a function of bombarding beam energy. For this experimental programme we chose deuterons as bombarding particles because d-PIGE data are scarce in IBANDL. Silicon nitride was selected as target material, since it has the advantage of being commercially available, and of giving data simultaneously for nitrogen and silicon. The proton and deuteron beams necessary for calibration and measurement were provided by the 5 MV electrostatic accelerator of ATOMKI. The accelerator has a 90-degree homogeneous field analysing magnet with adjustable energy defining slits before and after it. The magnetic field of the magnet is measured by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluxmeter. After passing through a switching magnet, the beam was transported to the PIGE reaction chamber specifically dedicated to this project and installed to the J30 beam-line. The rather small chamber (with a diameter of 9.5 cm) was insulated from the rest of the beam pipe, but both shared a common vacuum system. The chamber had several diaphragms in its long entrance tube to form a beam of 2 mm diameter and also to eliminate secondary particles, and ended in a long Faraday cup. The accumulated beam charge was measured by an ORTEC 439 Digital Current Integrator. According to the test measurements, the stability of charge measurement was below 1%.. Gamma-rays were detected by a CANBERRA Model GR4025-7600SL coaxial type HPGe detector (59.5 mm diameter, 170 cm 3 volume, energy resolution 2.3 keV at 1.33 MeV) at an angle of 55 o relative to the incident beam direction and at a distance of 9.5 cm between the front face of the

  19. Measurement of activation cross sections of the proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Mahunka, I.; Csikai, J.; Hermanne, A.; Uddin, M.S.; Hagiwara, M.; Baba, M.; Ido, T.

    2007-01-01

    Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on Pd are important for medical radioisotope production, for activation analysis, for development of low activation materials and other purposes. No experimental data exist in the literature for low and medium energy range protons. A detailed study of the excitation functions was performed up to 80 MeV proton energy by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectrometry. The irradiations were carried out at the external beam lines of the AVF cyclotron at the Tohoku University, Japan (80 and 70 MeV) and the CGR 560 cyclotron at the Vrije Universiteit Brussels (38, 29 and 17 MeV). The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the parallel measured excitation functions of nat Al(p,x) 22,24 Na and nat Cu(p,x) 56,58 Co, 62,65 Zn monitor reactions. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross sections have been measured for the production of 105mg,106m,110m Ag, 101 Pd, 101 mRh and 97 Ru radionuclei. Calculations for the excitation functions using the Alice-IPPE code were performed with a view to estimate the weight of the different contributing reactions and to check the trend and the magnitude of the obtained experimental data. (author)

  20. Cross section measurement of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium up to 52MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Haba, H; Komori, Y; Aikawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Cross sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions have been measured on thin natural cadmium targets foils in the energy range from 11 to 51.2MeV. This work was a part of our systematic study on excitation functions of light ion induced nuclear reactions on different target materials. Regarding the cross sections, the alpha induced reactions are not deeply enough investigated. Some of the produced isotopes are of medical interest, others have application in research and industry. The radioisotope 117m Sn is a very important theranostic (therapeutic + diagnostic) radioisotope, so special care was taken to the results for that isotope. The well-established stacked foil technique followed by gamma-spectrometry with HPGe gamma spectrometers were used. The target and monitor foils in the stack were commercial high purity metal foils. From the irradiated targets 117m Sn, 113 Sn, 110 Sn, 117m,g In, 116m In, 115m In, 114m In, 113m In, 111 In, 110m,g In, 109m In, 108m,g In, 115g Cd and 111m Cd were identified and their excitation functions were derived. The results were compared with the data of the previous measurements from the literature and with the results of the theoretical nuclear reaction model code calculations TALYS 1.8 (TENDL-2015) and EMPIRE 3.2 (Malta). From the cross section curves thick target yields were calculated and compared with the available literature data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The application of nuclear cross section measurements to spallation reactions in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects and implications of nuclear transformations of the comic ray particles themselves, and how those transformations are simulated in the laboratory are dealt with. Thus, although the majority of cosmic rays are protons and alpha particles, it is the small fraction of heavier species that is the main concern here. These nuclides interact with the interstellar matter (again mostly hydrogen and helium) in which they propagate, and thus can undergo nuclear reactions. For the cosmic ray physicist the effects of these reactions are both favourable and unfavourable. The unfavourable aspect arises from the fact that the composition of the cosmic ray is significantly altered, thus tending to mask an important indication as to their origin. Counterbalancing this is the fact that the effects left by the nuclear reactions are one of the most valuable links with the propagation process itself. A careful unravelling of these effects can thus reveal important information on where and how this propagation takes place. The type of nuclear information needed and techniques that are used to obtain it are considered. (Auth.)

  2. Determination of cross sections of nuclear reactions to use Al as monitoring foil in heavy ion irradiation with 20Ne projectile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.; Datta, J.; Guin, R.; Verma, R.

    2009-01-01

    The beam current is generally accurately measured using monitoring foils during the irradiation of thick samples by high energy ion beams. The cross sections of many nuclear reactions induced by light particles are available in literature for use as monitoring foil. However, such cross sections of heavy ion induced reactions are not reported much for their use in applied works. We have determined cross sections of two nuclear reactions, 27 Al ( 20 Ne,2p2n) 43 Sc and 27 Al ( 20 Ne, 2pn) 44m Sc, to use Al as monitoring foil for the irradiation with 20 Ne heavy ion beam. (author)

  3. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on neodymium up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental excitation function of deuteron induced reactions on natural Nd. • Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2012). • Physical yield calculation and comparison. • Discussion of medical and industrial applications. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rare earths, the reactions on neodymium for production of therapeutic radionuclides were measured for the first time. The excitation functions of the nat Nd(d,x) 151,150,149,148m,148g,146,144,143 Pm, 149,147,139m Nd, 142 Pr and 139g Ce nuclear reactions were assessed by using the stacked foil activation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. The experimental excitation functions were compared to the theoretical predictions calculated with the modified model codes ALICE-IPPE-D and EMPIRE-II-D and with the data in the TENDL-2012 library based on latest version of the TALYS code. The application of the data in the field of medical isotope production and nuclear reaction theory is discussed

  4. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on neodymium up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Experimental excitation function of deuteron induced reactions on natural Nd. • Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS (TENDL-2012). • Physical yield calculation and comparison. • Discussion of medical and industrial applications. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on rare earths, the reactions on neodymium for production of therapeutic radionuclides were measured for the first time. The excitation functions of the {sup nat}Nd(d,x) {sup 151,150,149,148m,148g,146,144,143}Pm, {sup 149,147,139m}Nd, {sup 142}Pr and {sup 139g}Ce nuclear reactions were assessed by using the stacked foil activation technique and high resolution γ-spectrometry. The experimental excitation functions were compared to the theoretical predictions calculated with the modified model codes ALICE-IPPE-D and EMPIRE-II-D and with the data in the TENDL-2012 library based on latest version of the TALYS code. The application of the data in the field of medical isotope production and nuclear reaction theory is discussed.

  5. Investigation of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural Mo up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on molybdenum up to 50 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yield calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Medical radioisotope production; {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo. - Abstract: Cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of {sup 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,91m,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 50 MeV deuteron energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. The goal of this work was first of all to study the production possibility of the medically important {sup 99m}Tc, and its {sup 99}Mo parent, to get experimental data useful in accelerator technology, and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The thick target yields and production possibilities of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo were estimated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy, and it is shown that besides the proton induced reactions, deuteron induced reactions on enriched molybdenum target seem to be promising. For most of the reaction products published experimental data for excitation functions are available only up to 20 MeV, and our new values confirm and extend the dataset. The experimental data were compared with the results of model calculations obtained by using ALICE-IPPE-D, EMPIRE-II-D and two versions of the TALYS code resulting in moderate agreement.

  6. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  7. Total cross-sections assessment of neutron reaction with stainless steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto

    2002-01-01

    The integral testing of neutron cross-sections for Stainless Steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files have been performed. The shielding benchmark calculations for Stainless Steel SUS-310 has been analysed through ORNL-Broomstick Experiment calculation which performed by MAERKER, R.E. at ORNL - USA ( 1) . Assessment with JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI nuclear data files and data from GEEL have also been carried out. The overall calculation results SUS-310 show in a good agreement with the experimental data, although, underestimate results appear below 3 MeV for all nuclear data files. These underestimation tendencies clearly caused by presented of iron nuclide which more than half in Stainless Steel compound. The total neutron cross-sections of iron nuclide contained in various nuclear data files relatively lower on that energy ranges

  8. Reaction cross section for Ne isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, R.N.; Sahu, B.K.; Patra, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the present contribution, first the bulk properties are calculated, such as binding energy (BE), root mean square charge radius r ch , matter radius r m and quadrupole deformation parameter β 2 for 18-32 Ne isotopes in the Relativistic mean field (RMF) and effective field theory motivated RMF (E-RMF) formalisms . Then the total nuclear reaction cross section σR is analyzes for the scattering of 20 Ne and 28-32 Ne from a 12 C target at 240 MeV/nucleon by using the RMF model. Thus the objective of the present study is to calculate the bulk properties as well as a systematic analysis of σR over a range of neutron rich nuclei in the frame work of Glauber model

  9. Measurements and Evaluation of Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections Leading to Various Practical Applications in Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik

    2008-07-15

    This report contains the measurements and evaluation of production cross sections of some medically and technologically important radionuclides over the energy range 1-40 MeV by using a conventional stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe) -ray spectrometry. The irradiations were done by using the external beam line of the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The standard cross sections for monitor reactions were taken from IAEA web site. Integral yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections. Reported data were compared with the available literature data, theoretical calculations by the codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE, and a good overall agreement among them was found.

  10. Reaction cross section calculation of some alkaline earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, Eyyup; Kavun, Yusuf; Sarpün, Ismail Hakki

    2017-09-01

    Reaction cross section knowledge is crucial to application nuclear physics such as medical imaging, radiation shielding and material evaluations. Nuclear reaction codes can be used if the experimental data are unavailable or are improbably to be produced because of the experimental trouble. In this study, there action cross sections of some target alkaline earth elements have been calculated by using pre-equilibrium and equilibrium nuclear reaction models for nucleon induced reactions. While these calculations, the Hybrid Model, the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model, the Full Exciton Model, the Cascade Exciton Model for pre-equilibrium reactions and the Weisskopf-Ewing Model for equilibrium reactions have been used. The calculated cross sections have been discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from Experimental Nuclear Reaction Data library.

  11. Cross-sections of (p, xn) nuclear reactions on Pb and Bi by 100 MeV protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oranj, Leila Mokhtari; Jung, Nam Suk; Oh, Joo Hee; Lee, Arim; Kim, Dong Hyun; Bae, Oryun; Lee, Hee Seock [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The development of high-intensity and high-energy accelerator is gaining interest in Korea, in recent years. Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP), Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL), Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) facilities are being designed. In the frame of above projects, for the safety issue and shielding analysis of the accelerator facility, extensive studies including experimental and simulation on the production yields of residual nuclei induced in the accelerator materials such as Pb, Cu and Bi by protons and heavy ions are in progress. In this work, we measured cross-sections of {sup na}'tPb(p,xn){sup 206,205,204,20{sup ,202}}Bi and {sup 209}Bi(p, xn){sup 207,206,205,204},{sup 203}Po nuclear reactions by the 100-MeV protons. The present experimental data are in good agreement with the results of Titarenkoet al. and Gloris et al.. Experimental data were higher than theoretical data. In other words, results of TALYS code and data in TENDL library underestimated the measured crosss sections and library of TALYS code and TENDL need to be improved.

  12. Activation cross-sections of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on natural iron up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-01

    Activation cross-sections of the {sup nat}Fe(d,x){sup 55,56,57,58g+m}Co, {sup 52g,54,56}Mn, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 59}Fe reactions were measured from their respective thresholds to 24 MeV via a stacked foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas partial agreements are obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2011 library. The present measurement reports four cross-sections of {sup 58g+m}Co, {sup 56}Mn and {sup 59}Fe radionuclides in the energy range of 20–24 MeV for the first time. Physical thick target yields deduced from the measured cross-sections are compared with the directly measured yields available in the literature. The measured {sup 58}Fe(d,p){sup 59}Fe cross section is underestimated by the original TENDL-2011 library while overestimated by the TENDL-2011 library renormalized by Ignatyuk for the FENDL-3 library.

  13. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 148, SI (2018), s. 338-382 ISSN 0090-3752 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron induced reactions * proton induced reactions * cross sections Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.146, year: 2016

  14. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  15. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on proton and deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghe@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D.S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawakami, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Koyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Maeda, Y. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Makinaga, A. [Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, North-14, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 (Japan); Momiyama, S. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakano, K. [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering Science, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Niikura, M. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shiga, Y. [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Söderström, P.-A. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); and others

    2016-03-10

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  16. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs and 90Sr on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of 137Cs and 90Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  17. Total reaction cross section calculations in proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, H.P.; Axen, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general semiempirical total reaction cross section formula for proton-nucleus reactions. It is applicable for all materials with nuclear charge Z greater than 5, and all proton kinetic energies from the lowest measured energies up to ≅20 GeV. While the regime of applicability is greatly enlarged, agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is comparable to or better than all earlier published results in their regime of applicability. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Determination and theoretical analysis of the differential cross sections of the 2H(d,p) reaction at energies and detection angles suitable for NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneta, V.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Gastis, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Vlastou, R.; Kontos, A.; Mayer, M.; Misaelides, P.; Perdikakis, G.

    2014-01-01

    The accurate determination of deuteron depth profile presents a strong analytical challenge for all the principal IBA (Ion Beam Analysis) techniques. As far as NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) is concerned, the 2 H(d,p) reaction, seems to be a promising candidate, especially in the case of complex matrices, or for the study of deep-implanted deuteron layers. In the present work differential cross-section values for the 2 H(d,p) reaction have been determined at 140, 160 and 170 degrees, for E d (lab) = 900-1600 keV, with an energy step of 50 keV, using a well-characterized, thin C:D target deposited on a polished Si wafer. The detection system consisted of 3 silicon surface barrier (SSB) detectors (thickness of 1000 μm) placed at a distance of about 11-13 cm from the target, at the appropriate angles. The experimental results were analyzed using the R-matrix calculations code AZURE. The results, in graphical and tabular form, will soon be available to the scientific community through IBANDL

  19. Parameterized total cross sections for pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Total inclusive cross sections for neutral and charged pion production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions have been calculated and compared to experiment. Nucleon-nucleon theoretical cross sections have been scaled up to nuclear collisions using a scaling factor similar to (A P A T ) 2/3 , where A P and A T are the nucleon numbers of the projectile and target nuclei. Variations in the power of this scaling factor have been studied and a good fit to experiment is obtained with a small modification of the power. Theoretical cross sections are written in a form that is very suitable for immediate input into transport codes

  20. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extension of activation cross section data of long lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on platinum up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural platinum up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison with the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Cross section of Au, Pt and Ir radioisotopes. • Application for Thin Layer Activation (TLA). - Abstract: In the frame of a systematical study of light ion induced nuclear reactions on platinum, activation cross sections for deuteron induced reactions were investigated. Excitation functions were measured in the 20.8–49.2 MeV energy range for the {sup nat}Pt(d,xn){sup 191,192,193,194,195,196m2,196g,198g,199}Au, {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 188,189,191,195m,197m,197g}Pt and {sup nat}Pt(d,x){sup 189,190,192,194m2}Ir reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with previous results from the literature and with the theoretical predictions in the TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries. The applicability of the produced radio-tracers for wear measurements has been presented.

  2. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.

  3. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross-sections and fragment yields in carbon beams using the SHIELD-HIT Monte Carlo code. Comparison with experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Gudowska, Irena; Lazzeroni, Marta; Brahme, Anders; Botvina, Alexander; Sobolevsky, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    In light ion therapy, the knowledge of the spectra of both primary and secondary particles in the target volume is needed in order to accurately describe the treatment. The transport of ions in matter is complex and comprises both atomic and nuclear processes involving primary and secondary ions produced in the cascade of events. One of the critical issues in the simulation of ion transport is the modeling of inelastic nuclear reaction processes, in which projectile nuclei interact with target nuclei and give rise to nuclear fragments. In the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT, inelastic nuclear reactions are described by the Many Stage Dynamical Model (MSDM), which includes models for the different stages of the interaction process. In this work, the capability of SHIELD-HIT to simulate the nuclear fragmentation of carbon ions in tissue-like materials was studied. The value of the parameter κ, which determines the so-called freeze-out volume in the Fermi break-up stage of the nuclear interaction process, was adjusted in order to achieve better agreement with experimental data. In this paper, results are shown both with the default value κ = 1 and the modified value κ = 10 which resulted in the best overall agreement. Comparisons with published experimental data were made in terms of total and partial charge-changing cross-sections generated by the MSDM, as well as integral and differential fragment yields simulated by SHIELD-HIT in intermediate and thick water targets irradiated with a beam of 400 MeV u −1 12 C ions. Better agreement with the experimental data was in general obtained with the modified parameter value (κ = 10), both on the level of partial charge-changing cross-sections and fragment yields. (paper)

  4. Experimental cross-sections for proton induced nuclear reactions on mercury up to 65 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A., E-mail: aherman@vub.ac.be [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Szücs, Z.; Brezovcsik, K. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sections for formation of activation products induced by protons on natural mercury targets were measured. Results for {sup 196m,196g,197g}(cum), {sup 198m,198g,199g}(cum), {sup 200g}(cum), {sup 201,202}Tl, {sup 194g}(cum), {sup 195g}(cum), {sup 196g}(cum), {sup 198m,199g}(cum) Au and {sup 195m,197m,203}Hg are presented up to 65 MeV incident particle energy, many of these for the first time. The experimental data are compared with literature values and with the predictions of the TALYS 1.6 code (results taken from TENDL-2015 on-line library), thick target yields were derived and possible applications in biomedical sciences are discussed.

  5. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  6. Activation cross-section data for alpha α-particle-induced nuclear reactions on natural vanadium for practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B. M.; Al-Abyad, M.; Seddik, U.; El-Kameesy, S. U.; Ditrói, F.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F.

    2018-03-01

    Excitation functions for α -induced reactions on natural vanadium were measured in the energy range up to 20 MeV. The stacked-foil activation technique was used. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical calculations using EMPIRE-3.1, EMPIRE-3.2.2 and TENDL 2015, and with earlier experimental results. Thick target yields were calculated for the production of ^{54}Mn and for the associated impurity ^{52}Mn.

  7. Application of nuclear models to neutron nuclear cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear theory is used increasingly to supplement and extend the nuclear data base that is available for applied studies. Areas where theoretical calculations are most important include the determination of neutron cross sections for unstable fission products and transactinide nuclei in fission reactor or nuclear waste calculations and for meeting the extensive dosimetry, activation, and neutronic data needs associated with fusion reactor development, especially for neutron energies above 14 MeV. Considerable progress has been made in the use of nuclear models for data evaluation and, particularly, in the methods used to derive physically meaningful parameters for model calculations. Theoretical studies frequently involve use of spherical and deformed optical models, Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory, preequilibrium theory, direct-reaction theory and often make use of gamma-ray strength function models and phenomenological (or microscopic) level density prescriptions. The development, application and limitations of nuclear models for data evaluation are discussed in this paper, with emphasis on the 0.1 to 50 MeV energy range. (Auth.)

  8. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  9. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  10. Extension of the energy range of the experimental activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium up to 65MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-04-01

    Activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of proton induced nuclear reactions on dysprosium were extended up to 65MeV by using stacked foil irradiation and gamma spectrometry experimental methods. Experimental cross-sections data for the formation of the radionuclides (159)Dy, (157)Dy, (155)Dy, (161)Tb, (160)Tb, (156)Tb, (155)Tb, (154m2)Tb, (154m1)Tb, (154g)Tb, (153)Tb, (152)Tb and (151)Tb are reported in the 36-65MeV energy range, and compared with an old dataset from 1964. The experimental data were also compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS nuclear reaction model code as listed in the latest on-line libraries TENDL 2013. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  12. KAPSIES: A program for the calculation of multi-step direct reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    We present a program for the calculation of continuum cross sections, sepctra, angular distributions and analyzing powers according to various quantum-mechanical theories for statistical multi-step direct nuclear reactions. (orig.)

  13. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of ¹⁷⁸W/(178m)Ta generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of (178m)Ta through (nat)Hf(α,xn)(178)W-(178m)Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions (nat)Hf(α,x)(179,177,176,175)W, (183,182,178g,177,176,175)Ta, (179m,177m,175)Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the (nat)Ta(d,xn)(178)W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ((3)He,x)) production routes for (178)W. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear characteristics of Pu fueled LWR and cross section sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Toshikazu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    The present status of Pu utilization to thermal reactors in Japan, nuclear characteristics and topics and cross section sensitivities for analysis of Pu fueled thermal reactors are described. As topics we will discuss the spatial self-shielding effect on the Doppler reactivity effect and the cross section sensitivities with the JENDL-3.1 and 3.2 libraries. (author)

  15. Theoretical study of cross sections of proton-induced reactions on cobalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yiğit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear fusion may be among the strongest sustainable ways to replace fossil fuels because it does not contribute to acid rain or global warming. In this context, activated cobalt materials in corrosion products for fusion energy are significant in determination of dose levels during maintenance after a coolant leak in a nuclear fusion reactor. Therefore, cross-section studies on cobalt material are very important for fusion reactor design. In this article, the excitation functions of some nuclear reaction channels induced by proton particles on 59Co structural material were predicted using different models. The nuclear level densities were calculated using different choices of available level density models in ALICE/ASH code. Finally, the newly calculated cross sections for the investigated nuclear reactions are compared with the experimental values and TENDL data based on TALYS nuclear code. Keywords: Cobalt, Nuclear Structural Materials, Reaction Cross Section, TENDL Database

  16. Table of cross section (n,p), (n,α) and (n, 2n) reactions in steel components and other nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.

    1972-01-01

    Reactions (n,p) and (n, α ) produce in the materials large amount of hydrogen and helium atoms. The presence, specially of helium, changes the physical properties of materials and particularly reduce the ductility of irradiated stainless steel cladding above 500 degree centigree. Cross sections of all isotopes which constitute the S.S. and other clad materials, have been completed. Experimental available data were obtained from BNL (1956, 64 and 68), and the rest, from J.C, ROY and J . J . HAWTON calculations in a fission neutron spectrum (1960). (Author)

  17. Measurement of the effective thermal cross section of {sup 134}Cs by triple neutron capture reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Harada, Hideo; Katoh, Toshio [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Motoishi, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal cross section ({sigma}{sub eff}) of the {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs reaction was measured by the activation method and the {gamma}-ray spectroscopic method in order to obtain fundamental data for research on the transmutation of nuclear wastes. The effective thermal cross section of the reaction {sup 134}Cs(n,{gamma}){sup 135}Cs was found to be 140.6{+-}8.5 barns. (author)

  18. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  19. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  20. (n,α reactions cross section research at IPPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorginis G.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experimental set-up based on an ionization chamber with a Frisch grid and wave form digitizer was used for (n,α cross section measurements. Use of digital signal processing allowed us to select a gaseous cell inside the sensitive area of the ionization chamber and determine the target atoms in it with high accuracy. This kind of approach provided us with a powerful method to suppress background arising from the detector structure and parasitic reactions on the working gas components. This method is especially interesting to study neutron reactions with elements for which solid target preparation is difficult (noble gases for example. In the present experiments we used a set of working gases which contained admixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, argon and boron. Fission of 238U was used as neutron flux monitor. The cross section of the (n,α reaction for 16O, 14N, 20Ne, 36Ar, 40Ar and the yield ratio α0/α1 of 10B(n,α0 to 10B(n,α1 reactions was measured for neutron energies between 1.5 and 7 MeV. Additionally a measurement of the 50Cr(n,α cross section using a solid chromium target is also reported.

  1. Research on the display of nuclear cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shien; Wang Kan; Yu Ganglin

    2008-01-01

    Minutely parsed the dot cross-section format (ACE format) data of the ENDF/ B-6.8 database, which is the foundation of the program that achieved the reading and related handling of ACE format data. This program achieved the plotting, zooming and comparing display functions of nuclear cross section-energy of ENDF/B-6.8 database. It also provides the standard picture formatting file output and/or standard text formatting file output of interesting nuclear data. It accomplished some appropriate validations of this program via the comparing between program results and reference data. (authors)

  2. Neutron-induced capture cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of neutron-capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei is opening the way to understand and clarify the properties of many nuclei of interest for nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and particularly for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The surrogate approach is well-recognized as a potentially very useful method to extract neutron cross sections for low-energy compound-nuclear reactions and to overcome the difficulties related to the target radioactivity. In this work we will assess where we stand on these neutron-capture cross section measurements and how we can achieve the short-lived Minor Actinides nuclei involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. The CENBG collaboration applied the surrogate method to determine the neutron-capture cross section of 233Pa (T1/2 = 27 d. The 233Pa (n,γ cross section is then deduced from the measured gamma decay probability of 234Pa compound nucleus formed via the surrogate 232Th(3He,p reaction channel. The obtained cross section data, covering the neutron energy range 0.1 to 1 MeV, have been compared with the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The importance of establishing benchmarks is stressed for the minor actinides region. However, the lack of desired targets led us to propose recently the 174Yb (3He,pγ reaction as a surrogate reaction for the (n,γ predetermined benchmark cross section of 175Lu. An overview of the experimental setup combining gamma ray detectors such as Ge and C6D6 in coincidence with light charged particles ΔE-E Telescopes will be presented and preliminary results will be discussed.

  3. ENDF/B-VIII.0: The 8th Major Release of the Nuclear Reaction Data Library with CIELO-project Cross Sections, New Standards and Thermal Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. A.; Chadwick, M. B.; Capote, R.; Kahler, A. C.; Trkov, A.; Herman, M. W.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Danon, Y.; Carlson, A. D.; Dunn, M.; Smith, D. L.; Hale, G. M.; Arbanas, G.; Arcilla, R.; Bates, C. R.; Beck, B.; Becker, B.; Brown, F.; Casperson, R. J.; Conlin, J.; Cullen, D. E.; Descalle, M.-A.; Firestone, R.; Gaines, T.; Guber, K. H.; Hawari, A. I.; Holmes, J.; Johnson, T. D.; Kawano, T.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Koning, A. J.; Kopecky, S.; Leal, L.; Lestone, J. P.; Lubitz, C.; Márquez Damián, J. I.; Mattoon, C. M.; McCutchan, E. A.; Mughabghab, S.; Navratil, P.; Neudecker, D.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Noguere, G.; Paris, M.; Pigni, M. T.; Plompen, A. J.; Pritychenko, B.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Roubtsov, D.; Rochman, D.; Romano, P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Simakov, S.; Sin, M.; Sirakov, I.; Sleaford, B.; Sobes, V.; Soukhovitskii, E. S.; Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Thompson, I.; van der Marck, S.; Welser-Sherrill, L.; Wiarda, D.; White, M.; Wormald, J. L.; Wright, R. Q.; Zerkle, M.; Žerovnik, G.; Zhu, Y.

    2018-02-01

    We describe the new ENDF/B-VIII.0 evaluated nuclear reaction data library. ENDF/B-VIII.0 fully incorporates the new IAEA standards, includes improved thermal neutron scattering data and uses new evaluated data from the CIELO project for neutron reactions on 1H, 16O, 56Fe, 235U, 238U and 239Pu described in companion papers in the present issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. The evaluations benefit from recent experimental data obtained in the U.S. and Europe, and improvements in theory and simulation. Notable advances include updated evaluated data for light nuclei, structural materials, actinides, fission energy release, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray spectra, thermal neutron scattering data, and charged-particle reactions. Integral validation testing is shown for a wide range of criticality, reaction rate, and neutron transmission benchmarks. In general, integral validation performance of the library is improved relative to the previous ENDF/B-VII.1 library.

  4. Activation cross section and isomeric cross section ratios for the (n ,2 n ) reaction on 153Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhua; Jiang, Li; Li, Suyuan

    2017-10-01

    The 153Eu(n ,2 n ) m1,m2,g152Eu cross section was measured by means of the activation technique at three neutron energies in the range 13-15 MeV. The quasimonoenergetic neutron beam was formed via the 3H(d ,n ) 4He reaction, in the Pd-300 Neutron Generator at the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). The activities induced in the reaction products were measured using high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy. The cross section of the population of the second high-spin (8-) isomeric state was measured along with the reaction cross section populating both the ground (3-) and the first isomeric state (0-). Cross sections were also evaluated theoretically using the numerical code TALYS-1.8, with different level density options at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. Results are discussed and compared with the corresponding literature.

  5. Attempts to infer the neutron inelastic cross sections using charged particle induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Negret, A; Borcea, C; Bucurescu, D; Deleanu, D; Dessagne, Ph; Filipescu, D; Ghita, D; Glodariu, T; Kerveno, M; Marginean, N; Marginean, R; Mihai, C; Olacel, A; Pascu, S; Plompen, A J M; Sava, T; Stroe, L; Suliman, G

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were performed at the Tandem accelerator of the Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, IFIN-HH with the purpose to investigate the possibility to use alpha-induced reactions for the calculation of neutron inelastic cross sections based on the Bohr hypothesis of the compound nucleus. A first experiment compared the gamma production cross sections excited in the $^{25}$Mg($\\alpha, n\\gamma$ )$^{28}$Si and the $^{28}Si(n, n′\\gamma)^{28}$Si reactions. A second measurement, supported by the ERINDA project, was dedicated to the measurement of $^{70}Zn(\\alpha, n\\gamma )^{73}$Ge cross sections with the purpose of inferring the neutron inelastic cross sections on $^{73}$Ge.

  6. Nuclear fission and neutron-induced fission cross-sections

    CERN Document Server

    James, G D; Michaudon, A; Michaudon, A; Cierjacks, S W; Chrien, R E

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Fission and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross-Sections is the first volume in a series on Neutron Physics and Nuclear Data in Science and Technology. This volume serves the purpose of providing a thorough description of the many facets of neutron physics in different fields of nuclear applications. This book also attempts to bridge the communication gap between experts involved in the experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear properties and those involved in the technological applications of nuclear data. This publication will be invaluable to those interested in studying nuclear fis

  7. Atlas of giant dipole resonances. Parameters and graphs of photonuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, A.V.; Varlamov, V.V.; Rudenko, D.S.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of giant dipole resonances (GDR) observed in photonuclear reaction cross sections using various beams of incident photons are presented. Data, given for 200 stable isotopes from 2 H to 243 Am including their natural compositions, were collected from papers published over the years 1951-1996. GDR parameters, such as energy positions, amplitudes and widths, are included into the table and organized by element, isotope and reaction. Graphs of the majority of the photonuclear reaction cross sections, included in the international nuclear data library EXFOR by the end of 1998, are presented. The graphs are provided for 182 stable isotopes and natural compositions. (author)

  8. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  9. New data on cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 50 MeV and comparison of production routes of medically relevant Au and Hg radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tárkányi, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Ditrói, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Takács, S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural gold up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison of results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TENDL-2014 calculations. • Medical radioisotope production. - Abstract: Investigations of cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold were extended up to 50 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. New cross-sections are reported for the {sup 197}Au(d,xn){sup 197m,197g,195m,195g,193m,193g}Hg and {sup 197}Au(d,x){sup 198m,198g,196m,196g,195,194}Au nuclear reactions. The application for production of the medically relevant isotopes {sup 198}Au and {sup 195m,195g,197m,197g}Hg is discussed, including the comparison with other charged particle induced production routes. The possible use of the {sup 197}Au(d,x){sup 197m,197g,195m,193m}Hg and {sup 196m,196g}Au reactions for monitoring deuteron beam parameters is also investigated.

  10. Simple, empirical approach to predict neutron capture cross sections from nuclear masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, A.; Casten, R. F.; Cakirli, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Background: Neutron capture cross sections are essential to understanding the astrophysical s and r processes, the modeling of nuclear reactor design and performance, and for a wide variety of nuclear forensics applications. Often, cross sections are needed for nuclei where experimental measurements are difficult. Enormous effort, over many decades, has gone into attempting to develop sophisticated statistical reaction models to predict these cross sections. Such work has met with some success but is often unable to reproduce measured cross sections to better than 40 % , and has limited predictive power, with predictions from different models rapidly differing by an order of magnitude a few nucleons from the last measurement. Purpose: To develop a new approach to predicting neutron capture cross sections over broad ranges of nuclei that accounts for their values where known and which has reliable predictive power with small uncertainties for many nuclei where they are unknown. Methods: Experimental neutron capture cross sections were compared to empirical mass observables in regions of similar structure. Results: We present an extremely simple method, based solely on empirical mass observables, that correlates neutron capture cross sections in the critical energy range from a few keV to a couple hundred keV. We show that regional cross sections are compactly correlated in medium and heavy mass nuclei with the two-neutron separation energy. These correlations are easily amenable to predict unknown cross sections, often converting the usual extrapolations to more reliable interpolations. It almost always reproduces existing data to within 25 % and estimated uncertainties are below about 40 % up to 10 nucleons beyond known data. Conclusions: Neutron capture cross sections display a surprisingly strong connection to the two-neutron separation energy, a nuclear structure property. The simple, empirical correlations uncovered provide model-independent predictions of

  11. Review of multigroup nuclear cross-section processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubey, D.K.; Hendrickson, H.R. (comps.)

    1978-10-01

    These proceedings consist of 18 papers given at a seminar--workshop on ''Multigroup Nuclear Cross-Section Processing'' held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, March 14--16, 1978. The papers describe various computer code systems and computing algorithms for producing multigroup neutron and gamma-ray cross sections from evaluated data, and experience with several reference data libraries. Separate abstracts were prepared for 13 of the papers. The remaining five have already been cited in ERA, and may be located by referring to the entry CONF-780334-- in the Report Number Index. (RWR)

  12. Nuclear Data for Reactor Physics: Cross sections and level densities in the actinide region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein L.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data in the actinide region are particularly important because they are basis behind all simulations of nuclear reactor core behaviour over both long time scales (fuel depletion and waste production and short time scales (accident scenarios. Nuclear reaction cross sections must be known as precisely as possible so that core reaction rates can be accurately calculated. Although cross section measurements in this region have been widely performed, for certain nuclei, particularly those with short half lives, direct measurements are either very difficult or impossible and thus reactor simulations must rely on theoretical calculations or extrapolations from neighbouring nuclei. The greatest uncertainty in theoretical cross section calculations comes from the lack of knowledge of level densities, for which predicted values can often be incorrect by a factor of two or more. Therefore there is a strong case for a systematic experimental study of level densities in the actinide region for the purpose of a providing a stringent test of theoretical cross section calculations for nuclei where experimental cross section data are available and b for providing better estimations of cross sections for nuclei in which no cross section data are available.

  13. Measurement of nuclear cross sections using radioactive beams; Medicion de secciones eficaces nucleares usando haces radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    One of the main applications of the production and use of nuclear radioactive beams is the measurement of nuclear cross sections. In this work is used a {sup 6} He nuclear radioactive beam ({beta} emitting with half life 806.7 ms) for the study of the reaction {sup 6} + {sup 209} Bi which could have several products. This investigation was realized in collaboration with the personnel of the Nuclear Structure laboratory at the University of Notre Dame (U.S.A.) and the National institute of Nuclear Research and CONACyT by Mexico. (Author)

  14. Cross Section Measurements of the Reaction 23Na(p, γ)24Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeltzig, Axel; Deboer, Richard James; Macon, Kevin; Wiescher, Michael; Best, Andreas; Imbriani, Gianluca; Gyürky, György; Strieder, Frank

    2017-09-01

    The reaction 23Na(p, γ)24Mg can provide a link from the NeNa to the MgAl cycle in stellar burning and is therefore of interest in nuclear astrophysics. To determine the reaction rates at stellar temperatures, new cross section measurements at low proton energies have been performed recently, and further experiments are underway. The current cross section data implies that the reaction rate up to temperatures of 1 GK is determined by a few narrow resonances and direct capture. Complementary to these experimental efforts at low proton energies, cross section measurements at higher energies can help to constrain the direct capture and broad resonance contributions to the cross section and reduce the uncertainty of the extrapolation towards stellar energies. In this paper we report an experiment to measure the 23Na(p, γ)24Mg cross section with a solid target setup at the St. ANA 5U accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The experiment and the current status of data analysis will be described. This work benefited from support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA-CEE), the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), and the Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI).

  15. (n,2n) reaction cross-sections at 14 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-06-29

    Data (CINDA) Database version of June 29, 2007. [14] A B Pashchenko, Reaction cross-sections induced by 14.5 MeV and by Cf-252 and. U-235 fission spectrum neutrons, Report INDC (CCP)-323/L, IAEA, Nuclear Data. Section, Vienna, Austria, 1991. [15] M Maiti, M Nandy, S N Roy and P K Sarkar, Pramana – J. Phys.

  16. (n,2n) reaction cross-sections at 14 MeV

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The need for fast neutron-induced reaction cross-section data has been increasing in several applied fields; for example, biomedical applications such as production of radioisotopes and cancer therapy, accelerator-driven transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclear wastes to short-lived or stable isotopes by secondary ...

  17. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchopár, Martin; Wagner, Vladimír; Svoboda, Ondřej; Vrzalová, Jitka; Chudoba, Petr; Kugler, Andrej; Adam, Jindřich; Závorka, L.; Baldine, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, FEB (2015), s. 63-69 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : relativistic deuteron reactions * cross-sections * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  18. Neutron and gamma-ray emission double differential cross sections for the nuclear reaction by 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji; Shigyo, Nobuhiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray production double differential cross sections were measured for iron by the use of 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} mesons. The measured cross sections were compared with the calculated values by HETC-KFA2. For the neutrons, the calculated results deviate from the experimental data in the neutron energy region below 30 MeV. The calculated values of gamma-ray production agree with the experimental data at gamma-ray energies from 1 to 7 MeV within a factor of three. (author)

  19. Cross section measurements of proton capture reactions on Se isotopes relevant to the astrophysical p process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foteinou, V.; Harissopulos, S.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Provatas, G.; Spyrou, A.; Perdikakis, G.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Demetriou, P.

    2018-03-01

    Cross sections of proton capture reactions on 74Se, 78Se, and 80Se have been measured at incident beam energies from 2 to 6 MeV, 1.7 to 3 MeV, and 1.5 to 3.5 MeV, respectively. In the case of Se,8078, cross sections were obtained from in-beam γ -angular distribution measurements, whereas for the 74Se isotope they were derived from off-beam activity measurements. The measured cross sections were compared with calculations performed with the nuclear reaction code talys (version 1.6). A good agreement between theory and experiment was found. Astrophysical S factors and reaction rates deduced from the experimental and calculated cross sections were also compared and the impact of different nuclear ingredients in the calculations on the reaction rates was investigated. It was found that, for certain combinations of nuclear input models, the reaction rates obtained at temperatures relevant to p -process nucleosynthesis differ by a factor 2 at the most, differences that are well within the acceptable deviations of calculated p -nuclei abundances and observations.

  20. PRECO-D2: program for calculating preequilibrium and direct reaction double differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbach, C.

    1985-02-01

    The code PRECO-D2 uses the exciton model for preequilibrium nuclear reactions to describe the emission of particles with mass numbers of 1 to 4 from an equilibrating composite nucleus. A distinction is made between open and closed configurations in this system and between the multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components of the preequilibrium cross section. Additional MSD components are calculated semi-empirically to account for direct nucleon transfer reactions and direct knockout processes involving cluster degrees of freedom. Evaporation from the equilibrated composite nucleus is included in the full MSC cross section. Output of energy differential and double differential cross sections is provided for the first particle emitted from the composite system. Multiple particle emission is not considered. This report describes the reaction models used in writing PRECO-D2 and explains the organization and utilization of the code. 21 refs.

  1. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, W.S.; Andrew, E.R.; Bottomley, P.A.; Holland, G.N.; Moore, W.S.; Worthington, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique. (author)

  2. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1978-04-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.

  3. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Photodisintegration average cross sections of dysprosium p-nuclei near (γ,n) reaction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S.

    2017-05-01

    First measured cross section data on (γ,n) reaction of dysprosium proton-rich nuclei 156Dy and 158Dy was experimentally determined via activation methods using a bremsstrahlung photons beam delivered by an electron medical accelerator. An integrated cross section of 144± 44 mb is calculated for the 156Dy (γ,n) reaction at the energy interval 9.4-14MeV while for the 158Dy (γ,n) reaction at the energy interval 9.1-14 MeV is estimated as 168± 42 mb. Moreover, theoretical calculations have been performed for all Dy isotopes employing the TALYS code. The effect of the nuclear-physics input parameters (γ-ray strength function, nuclear level densities) on the cross section calculations has been studied to successfully reproduce the experimental data. The effective cross section estimated using the TALYS code ranges between 115 and 206 mb for 156Dy ( γ,n) and between 124 and 206mb for 158Dy (γ,n) reaction depending on the γ-ray strength function used.

  5. Photodisintegration average cross sections of dysprosium p-nuclei near (γ, n) reaction threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagena, E.; Stoulos, S. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Nuclear Physics Lab., School of Physics, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    First measured cross section data on (γ, n) reaction of dysprosium proton-rich nuclei {sup 156}Dy and {sup 158}Dy was experimentally determined via activation methods using a bremsstrahlung photons beam delivered by an electron medical accelerator. An integrated cross section of 144±44 mb is calculated for the {sup 156}Dy (γ, n) reaction at the energy interval 9.4-14 MeV while for the {sup 158}Dy (γ, n) reaction at the energy interval 9.1-14 MeV is estimated as 168±42 mb. Moreover, theoretical calculations have been performed for all Dy isotopes employing the TALYS code. The effect of the nuclear-physics input parameters (γ-ray strength function, nuclear level densities) on the cross section calculations has been studied to successfully reproduce the experimental data. The effective cross section estimated using the TALYS code ranges between 115 and 206 mb for {sup 156}Dy (γ, n) and between 124 and 206mb for {sup 158}Dy (γ, n) reaction depending on the γ-ray strength function used. (orig.)

  6. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  7. Calculational tools for the evaluation of nuclear cross-section and spectra data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    A technique based on discrete energy levels rather than energy level densities is presented for nuclear reaction calculations. The validity of the technique is demonstrated via theoretical and experimental agreement for cross sections, isomer-ratios and gamma-ray strength functions. 50 refs., 7 figs

  8. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  9. Measurement of (n, xnγ reaction cross sections in W isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Greg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluated nuclear data bases currently used for numerical simulation for the development of nuclear reactors still present large uncertainties. Their improvement is necessary, in particular through better reaction models and nuclear data. Among the reactions of interest, (n, xn reactions are of great importance for the operation of a reactor as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. Experimental data on (n, xnγ reaction provide strong constraints on nuclear reaction mechanism theories. Tungsten isotopes - which are deformed like actinides but do not fission - are of interest to test the models. 182,184,186W(n, xnγ cross sections are measured; results are compared with model calculations by TALYS, EMPIRE and CoH codes.

  10. New numerical methods for nuclear cross section processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferran, Ghislain

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear data allow to describe how a particle interacts with matter. These data are therefore at the basis of neutron transport and reactor physics calculations. Once measured and evaluated, they are given in libraries as a list of parameters. Before they can be used in neutron transport calculations, processing is required which includes taking into account several physical phenomena. This can be done by several softwares, such as NJOY, which all have the drawback to use old numerical methods derived from the same algorithms. For nuclear safety applications, it is important to rely on independent methods, to have a comparison point and to isolate the effects of the treatment on the final results. Moreover, it is important to properly master processing accuracy during its different steps. The objective of this PhD is then to develop independent numerical methods that can guarantee nuclear data processing within a given precision and to implement them practically, with the creation of the GAIA software. Our first step was the reconstruction of cross sections from the parameters given in libraries, with different approximations of the R-matrix theory. Reconstruction using the general formalism, without any approximation, has also been implemented, which has required the development of a new method to calculate the R-matrix. Tests have been performed on all existing formalisms, including the newest one. They have shown a good agreement between GAIA and NJOY. Reconstruction of angular differential cross sections directly from R-matrix parameters, using the Blatt-Biedenharn formula, has also been implemented and tested. The cross sections we have obtained at this point correspond to a target nucleus at absolute zero temperature. Because of thermal agitation, these cross sections are subject to a Doppler effect that is taken into account by integrating them with Solbrig's kernel. Our second step was then to calculate this integral. First, we have elaborated and

  11. Cross-Section Measurements of (n, xn) Threshold Reactions in Au, Bi, I, In and Ta

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Vrzalová, J.; Wagner, Vladimír; Krása, Antonín; Kugler, Andrej; Majerle, Mitja

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 1709-1712 ISSN 0374-4884 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07050 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Energy plus transmutation * (n, xn) reaction * Quasi-monoenergetic neutron source * Cross-section Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2011

  12. IAEA nuclear data for applications: Cross section standards and the reference input parameter library (RIPL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Noy, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Pronyaev, Vladimir G.

    2003-01-01

    An integral part of the activities of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section involves the development of nuclear data for a wide range of user applications. When considering low-energy nuclear reactions induced by neutrons, photons and charged particles, a detailed knowledge is required of the production cross sections over a wide energy range, spectra of emitted particles and their angular distributions. Two highly relevant IAEA data development projects are considered in this paper. Neutron reaction cross-section standards represent the basic quantities needed in nuclear reaction cross-section measurements and evaluations. These standards and the covariance matrices of their uncertainties were previously evaluated and released in 1987. However, the derived uncertainties were subsequently considered to be unrealistic low due to the effect of the low uncertainties obtained in fitting the light element standards to the R-matrix model; as a result, evaluators were forced to scale up the uncertainties to 'expected values'. An IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements' was initiated in 2002 to improve the evaluation methodology for the covariance matrix of uncertainty in the R-matrix model fits, and to produce R-matrix evaluations of the important light element standards. The scope of this CRP has been substantially extended to include the preparation of a full set of evaluated standard reactions and covariance matrices of their uncertainties. While almost all requests for nuclear data were originally addressed through measurement programmes, our theoretical understanding of nuclear phenomena has reached a reasonable degree of reliability and nuclear modeling has become standard practice in nuclear data evaluations (with measurements remaining crucial for data testing and benchmarking). Since nuclear model codes require a considerable amount of numerical input, the IAEA has instigated extensive efforts to

  13. Measurement of activation cross sections for quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced reactions of {sup 89}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Nadeem, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Mumbai (India); Lee, Manwoo [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The neutron induced cross sections of the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reactions were measured in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV by using an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutrons used for the above reactions are based on a {sup 9}Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the neutron spectra from the Be target were done using the MCNPX 2.6.0 program. Theoretical calculations were performed for the {sup 89}Y(n, 2n){sup 88}Y, {sup 89}Y(n, 3n){sup 87}Y and {sup 89}Y(n, 4n){sup 86}Y reaction cross sections using nuclear model code Talys 1.8. The measured and calculated cross sections were compared with the literature data given in EXFOR and the TENDL-2015 data libraries. The present data of the {sup 89}Y(n, xn) reaction were also compared with the similar data of the {sup 89}Y(γ, xn) reaction to examine the effect of the entrance channel parameters as well as the role of projectiles and ejectiles. (orig.)

  14. Standard reference and other important nuclear data by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report is a current review of the status of standard reference and other important nuclear data pointing out data discrepancies, recommending new measurements, and comparing the current version of ENDF/B with data. Neutron reactions with 1 H, 3 H, 6 Li, 10 B, 12 C, 59 Co, 80 Kr, 136 Xe, 153 Eu, and 197 Au are included, along with reaction and other data for the actinide nuclei. Cross sections, spectra, etc., are given for some of the nuclides considered

  15. Standard and Nonstandard Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions Cross Sections and Event Rates to Neutrino Detection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Papoulias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we explore ν-nucleus processes from a nuclear theory point of view and obtain results with high confidence level based on accurate nuclear structure cross sections calculations. Besides cross sections, the present study includes simulated signals expected to be recorded by nuclear detectors and differential event rates as well as total number of events predicted to be measured. Our original cross sections calculations are focused on measurable rates for the standard model process, but we also perform calculations for various channels of the nonstandard neutrino-nucleus reactions and come out with promising results within the current upper limits of the corresponding exotic parameters. We concentrate on the possibility of detecting (i supernova neutrinos by using massive detectors like those of the GERDA and SuperCDMS dark matter experiments and (ii laboratory neutrinos produced near the spallation neutron source facilities (at Oak Ridge National Lab by the COHERENT experiment. Our nuclear calculations take advantage of the relevant experimental sensitivity and employ the severe bounds extracted for the exotic parameters entering the Lagrangians of various particle physics models and specifically those resulting from the charged lepton flavour violating μ-→e- experiments (Mu2e and COMET experiments.

  16. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Fleming, Michael; Gilbert, Mark R.

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs), which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and sustainable understanding

  17. Status report on cross-sections of monitor reactions for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwerer, O.; Okamoto, K.

    1989-12-01

    The status of data on cross-sections of 19 monitor reactions, especially for cyclotron operation, is summarized. Most of the information was extracted from the data compiled in EXFOR (EXchange FORmat) which is a common format used by the co-operating nuclear data centres in the world. The EXFOR data were supplemented by a number of additional data sets found in the literature. For each reaction a brief status summary, graphical plots of the available experimental and evaluated data, and a table of all experimental data sorted by incident particle energy, are given

  18. Cross Sections for Neutron-induced Reactions on Actinide Targets Extracted from Surrogate Experiments: A Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Lesher, S R; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J; Younes, W

    2009-10-01

    The Surrogate nuclear reactions method, an indirect approach for determining cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving difficult-to-measure targets, is reviewed. Focusing on cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on actinides, we review the successes of past and present applications of the method and assess its uncertainties and limitations. The approximations used in the analyses of most experiments work reasonably well for (n,f) cross sections for neutron energies above 1-2 MeV, but lead to discrepancies for low-energy (n,f) reactions, as well as for (n,{gamma}) applications. Correcting for some of the effects neglected in the approximate analyses leads to improved (n,f) results. We outline steps that will further improve the accuracy and reliability of the Surrogate method and extend its applicability to reactions that cannot be approached with the present implementation of the method.

  19. Determination of radiative capture cross-section for astrophysics from transfer reaction using radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumel, D

    2002-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions are a source of stellar energy and play a crucial role for the nucleosynthesis in astrophysical sites. Among these reactions, the radiative capture process defined as: x + A -> B + gamma is a key reaction involved in all the basic astrophysical processes over the nuclear chart. In the case of the capture of charged particles like (p,gamma) reactions, cross-sections are strongly weakened due to the low incident energies as compared to the Coulomb barrier. Their measurement in laboratories is even more complicate when the capturing nucleus is radioactive, difficult or even impossible to be used as a target. Such radioactive nuclei are involved essentially in 'explosive' environments where capture reactions are fast enough to compete with the beta-decay process. Even in non-explosive situations, unstable nuclei are sometimes important as we shall see for the hydrogen burning in the sun. To circumvent the difficulties of direct measurements with radioactive nuclei, indirect methods have be...

  20. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections for 8Li+12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barioni, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine, A.; Lichtenthaeler Filho, Rubens; Mendes Junior, D.; Crema, E.; Pires, K.C.C.; Morais, M.C.; Morcelle, V.; Faria, P.N. de; Pampa, Ruben; Assuncao, M.; Mukherjee, S.; Monteiro, D.S.; Lubian, J.; Shorto, J.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The elastic scattering angular distribution for 8 Li on 12 C has been measured at E LAB = 23.9 MeV with 8 Li radioactive nuclear beam produced by the Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil facility (RIBRAS). This angular distribution was analysed in terms of optical model with Woods-Saxon and double-folding Sao Paulo potentials. The roles of the breakup and inelastic channels were also investigated with cluster folding and deformed potentials, respectively, through coupled channels calculations. The angular distributions for the proton-transfer 12 C( 8 Li, 9 Be) 11 B reaction was also measured at the same energy, simultaneously with the elastic scattering. The spectroscopic factor for the 9 Be I 8 Li+p> bound system was obtained through DWBA (Distorted-Wave Born Approximation) calculations with the code Fresco, and compared with shell model calculations and other experimental values. The spectroscopic factor obtained was used for normalization of the capture reaction cross section 8 Li(p, gamma) 9 Begs. The depth of the scattered potential obtained was 40,1 +- 1,6 MeV. The astrophysical S-factor curves and the reaction rate for the capture reaction 8 Li(p,gamma) 9 Begs were calculated. Total reaction cross sections for the present system were also extracted from the elastic scattering analysis. A systematic of the reduced reaction cross section obtained from the present and published data on 6 ; 7 ; 8 Li isotopes on 12 C was performed as a function of energy. (author)

  1. Formats and processing of evaluated nuclear data into multigroup cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, M.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of these lectures concerns the data in nuclear files and their manipulation. The structure of the data files as divided into the resonance region (subdivided into the resolved and the unresolved regions) and the continuum region is presented. The reactions concerned are the elastic scattering; the radiative capture and the fission methods for averaging the cross sections are given. Then, the group averaging formulas and the self-shielding factors are presented in some detail. The second part concerns a presentation of nuclear data files handling and conversion. The main libraries are listed and several maintenance computer codes presented. The way the conversion among different files is handled is also presented. The listings of several BASIC programs for different cross section calculations are given. These codes are self-guided

  2. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  3. FENDL/E-2.0. Evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections and photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. Version 1, March 1997. Summary documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashchenko, A.B.; Wienke, H.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the description of a physical tape containing the basic evaluated nuclear data library of neutron-nucleus interaction cross sections, photon production cross sections and photon-atom interaction cross sections for fusion applications. It is part of the evaluated nuclear data library for fusion applications FENDL-2. The data are available cost-free from the Nuclear Data Section upon request. The data can also be retrieved by the user via online access through international computer networks. (author)

  4. Measurement of cross-sections of yttrium (n,xn) threshold reactions by means of gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chudoba, Petr; Wagner, V; Vrzalova, J; Svoboda, O; Majerle, M; Stefanik, M; Suchopar, M; Kugler, A; Bielewicz, M; Strugalska-Gola, E; Szuta, M; Hervas, D; Herman, T; Geier, B

    2014-01-01

    Neutron activation and gamma spectrometry are usable also f or the determination of cross-sections of different neutron reactions. We have studied the cross-sections of yttrium (n, x n) threshold reactions using quasi-monoenergetic neutron source based on the reaction on 7 Li target at Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR in Rez. Yttrium (n, x n) threshold reactions are suitable candidates for fast neutron field measurement by activation detectors. Fast neutron field monitoring is necessary already today at a wide range of accelerator facilities and will gain on importance in future fast reactors of generation IV, accelerator transmutation systems or fusion reactors. The knowledge of the cross-sections is crucial for such purpose. Unfortunately, the cross-section is sufficiently known only for 89 Y(n,2n) 88 Y reaction. For higher orders of reactions there are almost no experimental data. Special attention was paid to t he 89 Y(n,3n) 87 Y reaction. The cross-sections of both 89 Y(n,2n) 88 Y and 89 Y(n,3n) 87 Y re...

  5. Integral Cross-Sections of the Photonuclear Reactions in the Region of Giant Dipole Resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Belov, A G; Gudima, K K; Zuzaan, P

    2000-01-01

    The cross-sections of the photonuclear reactions (gamma, n) were measured for the 12 nuclei in the region between {45}Sc and {208}Pb. The measurements were performed by the activation method on the bremsstrahlung of the microtron with the boundary energy of 25 MeV. The integral cross-sections were calculated using the modificated model of the preequilibrium decay. The satisfactory agreament of the experimental and calculated cross-section was observed.

  6. Experimental study of the cross-sections of alpha-particle induced reactions on $^{209}$Bi

    CERN Document Server

    Hermanne, A; Shubin, Yu N; Szucs, Z; Takács, S; Tarkanyi, F; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2005.01.015

    2005-01-01

    alpha -particle-induced nuclear reactions for generation of /sup 211 /At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E/sub alpha /=39 MeV. Excitation functions are reported for the reactions /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,2n)/sup 211/At, /sup 209/Bi( alpha ,3n)/sup 210/At and /sup 209/Bi( alpha , x)/sup 210/Po. Results obtained from direct alpha -emission measurements and gamma -spectra from decay products are compared and correspond well with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross-sections and optimised production pathways for minimal contamination are presented. A comparison with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE is discussed.

  7. Cross sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl, and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar nuclear reactions below 8.4 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope (34m)Cl, along with (38)Cl and (41)Ar, using deuteron bombardments of (36)Ar and (40)Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cross Sections of the 36Ar(d,α)34mCl, 40Ar(d,α)38Cl and 40Ar(d,p)41Ar Nuclear Reactions below 8.4 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, J W; Severin, G W; Barnhart, T E; Knutson, L D; Nickles, R J

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the cross section for production of the medically interesting isotope 34mCl, along with 38Cl and 41Ar, using deuteron bombardments of 36Ar and 40Ar below 8.4 MeV. ALICE/ASH analytical codes were employed to determine the shape of nuclear excitation functions, and experiments were performed using the University of Wisconsin tandem electrostatic accelerator to irradiate thin targets of argon gas. PMID:22041299

  9. Direct measurement of nuclear cross-section of astrophysical interest: Results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Francesca; Prati, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis are interconnected by a wide network of nuclear reactions: the study of such connection is usually known as nuclear astrophysics. The main task of this discipline is the determination of nuclear cross-section and hence of the reaction rate in different scenarios, i.e. from the synthesis of a few very light isotopes just after the Big Bang to the heavy element production in the violent explosive end of massive stars. The experimental determination of reaction cross-section at the astrophysical relevant energies is extremely difficult, sometime impossible, due to the Coulomb repulsion between the interacting nuclei which turns out in cross-section values down to the fbar level. To overcome these obstacles, several experimental approaches have been developed and the adopted techniques can be roughly divided into two categories, i.e. direct and indirect methods. In this review paper, the general problem of nuclear astrophysics is introduced and discussed from the point of view of experimental approach. We focus on direct methods and in particular on the features of low-background experiments performed at underground laboratory facilities. The present knowledge of reactions involved in the Big Bang and stellar hydrogen-burning scenarios is discussed as well as the ongoing projects aiming to investigate mainly the helium- and carbon-burning phases. Worldwide, a new generation of experiment in the MeV range is in the design phase or at the very first steps and decisive progresses are expected to come in the next years.

  10. Measurement of Neutron Reaction Cross Sections in Carbon using a Single Crystal Diamond Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, ENEA C.R. Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45 0044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Krasa, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Schillebeeckx, P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, - 2440 Geel (Belgium); Sergi, M. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania e INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2011-12-13

    A single crystal diamond detector was exposed to the quasi mono-energetic neutron fields in the energy range from 7 MeV to 20.5 MeV produced by the Van de Graaff neutron generator of the EC-JRC-IRMM. Pulse Height Spectra (PHS) of the neutron interaction with the diamond (carbon) were recorded in order to derive the experimental response function of this detector to neutrons in view of its use as a compact fast neutron spectrometer. Several peaks produced by outgoing charged particles produced when neutrons interact with carbon were identified using the reaction Q-values. The corresponding nuclear reactions, such as (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d) for different excitation states were identified in the PHS. The analysis of the peaks allows the derivation of some neutron reaction cross sections in carbon. The results are presented in this paper together with the associated uncertainties.

  11. Measurement of Neutron Reaction Cross Sections in Carbon using a Single Crystal Diamond Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon, M.; Angelone, M.; Krása, A.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Sergi, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    A single crystal diamond detector was exposed to the quasi mono-energetic neutron fields in the energy range from 7 MeV to 20.5 MeV produced by the Van de Graaff neutron generator of the EC-JRC-IRMM. Pulse Height Spectra (PHS) of the neutron interaction with the diamond (carbon) were recorded in order to derive the experimental response function of this detector to neutrons in view of its use as a compact fast neutron spectrometer. Several peaks produced by outgoing charged particles produced when neutrons interact with carbon were identified using the reaction Q-values. The corresponding nuclear reactions, such as (n,α), (n,p), (n,d) for different excitation states were identified in the PHS. The analysis of the peaks allows the derivation of some neutron reaction cross sections in carbon. The results are presented in this paper together with the associated uncertainties.

  12. Nuclear data processing for cross-sections generation for fusion-fission, ADS, and IV generation reactors utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Lorena C.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    One of the mains topics about nuclear reactors is the microscopic cross section for incident neutrons. Therefore, in this work, it is evaluated the microscopic and macroscopic cross section for a nuclide and a material. One of the nuclides microscopic cross-section studied is the {sup 56}Fe which is the highest compound from the material macroscopic cross section studied SS316. On the other hand, it was studied the microscopic cross section of the {sup 242}Pu which is one of the nuclides that composes the nuclear fuel. The nuclear fuel chosen is a spent fuel reprocessed by UREX+ technique and spiked with thorium with 20% of fissile material. Therefore it was studied the macroscopic cross section from this nuclear fuel. Both of them were compared by using three different ways to reprocess the nuclides, one for LWR, another for ADS and the last one for Fusion reactors. The library used was JEFF-3.2 recommend for the reactors studied. The comparison was made at 1200 K for the nuclear fuel and 700K for the SS316.The results present differences due to the energy discretization, the number of groups chosen for each reactor and some nuclear reactions taken into consideration according to the neutron spectrum for each reactor. The nuclides were processed by NJOY99.364 and plotted with MCNP-Vised. (author)

  13. Derivation of capture and reaction cross sections from experimental quasi-elastic and elastic backscattering probabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V.V. [International Center for Advanced Studies, Yerevan State University (Armenia); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    We suggest simple and useful methods to extract reaction and capture (fusion) cross sections from the experimental elastic and quasi-elastic backscattering data.The direct measurement of the reaction or capture (fusion) cross section is a difficult task since it would require the measurement of individual cross sections of many reaction channels, and most of them could be reached only by specific experiments. This would require different experimental setups not always available at the same laboratory and, consequently, such direct measurements would demand a large amount of beam time and would take probably some years to be reached. Because of that, the measurements of elastic scattering angular distributions that cover full angular ranges and optical model analysis have been used for the determination of reaction cross sections. This traditional method consists in deriving the parameters of the complex optical potentials which fit the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and then of deriving the reaction cross sections predicted by these potentials. Even so, both the experimental part and the analysis of this latter method are not so simple. In the present work we present a much simpler method to determine reaction and capture (fusion) cross sections. It consists of measuring only elastic or quasi-elastic scattering at one backward angle, and from that, the extraction of the reaction or capture cross sections can easily be performed. (author)

  14. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-01-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work

  15. Determination of the thermal neutron induced O-17(n,alpha) C-14 reaction cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J; Wagemans, C; Bieber, R; Geltenbort, P

    1998-01-01

    The. O-17(n(th),alpha)C-14 reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known N-14(n(th),p)C-14 cross section. For the flux calibration measurements, N-14(2) from the air was used. The O-17(n,alpha) measurements were performed with several

  16. Elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in 7 Li+ 27 Al reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With an aim to understand the effects of breakup and transfer channels on elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in the 7Li + 27Al reaction, simultaneous measurement of elastic scattering angular distributions and fusion cross-sections have been carried out at various energies (lab = 8.0–16.0 MeV) around the ...

  17. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sublet Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviations derived from Monte Carlo simulations, to the local and total uncertainty in the simulated reactions rates (RRs, which usually only apply to one application at a time. This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment, and discusses correct handling of the RR uncertainty quantification and propagation, including details of the cross section components in the RR uncertainty estimates, which are verified for relevant applications. The methodology that rigorously captures the spectral shift and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR are discussed with quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment of the spectrum profile and cross section contributions to the uncertainty in the RR and subsequent response functions. The recently developed inventory code FISPACT-II, when connected to the processed nuclear data libraries TENDL-2015, ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0u or JEFF-3.2, forms an enhanced multi-physics platform providing a wide variety of advanced simulation methods for modelling activation, transmutation, burnup protocols and simulating radiation damage sources terms. The system has extended cutting-edge nuclear data forms, uncertainty quantification and propagation methods, which have been the subject of recent integral and differential, fission, fusion and accelerators validation efforts. The simulation system is used to accurately and predictively probe, understand and underpin a modern and

  18. Neutron-induced reaction cross-section measurements using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The experimental setup of Louvain-la-Neuve (UCL-Belgium) used to perform lightcharged particle production experiment in fast neutron-induced reactions is presented. A short description of the neutron modular detector DEMON is also given. DEMON is a detector array for neutrons emitted in heavy ion induced reactions at ...

  19. Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems: the n_TOF project at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M.; Mastromarco, M.; Colonna, N.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Duran, I.; Dressler, R.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2014-12-01

    The study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n_TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.

  20. Neutron cross-sections for advanced nuclear systems: the n_TOF project at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagallo M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of neutron-induced reactions is of high relevance in a wide variety of fields, ranging from stellar nucleosynthesis and fundamental nuclear physics to applications of nuclear technology. In nuclear energy, high accuracy neutron data are needed for the development of Generation IV fast reactors and accelerator driven systems, these last aimed specifically at nuclear waste incineration, as well as for research on innovative fuel cycles. In this context, a high luminosity Neutron Time Of Flight facility, n_TOF, is operating at CERN since more than a decade, with the aim of providing new, high accuracy and high resolution neutron cross-sections. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, a rich experimental program relevant to nuclear technology has been carried out so far. The program will be further expanded in the near future, thanks in particular to a new high-flux experimental area, now under construction.

  1. A new calculation formula of the nuclear cross-section of therapeutic protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Ulmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously developed for nuclear cross-sections of therapeutic protons a calculation model, which is founded on the collective model as well as a quantum mechanical many particle problem to derive the S matrix and transition probabilities. In this communication, we show that the resonances can be derived by shifted Gaussian functions, whereas the unspecific nuclear interaction compounds can be represented by an error function, which also provides the asymptotic behavior. Method: The energy shifts can be interpreted in terms of necessary domains of energy to excite typical nuclear processes. Thus the necessary formulas referring to previous calculations of nuclear cross-sections will be represented. The mass number AN determines the strong interaction range, i.e. RStrong = 1.2·10-13·AN1/3cm. The threshold energy ETh of the energy barrier is determined by the condition Estrong = ECoulomb. Results and Conclusion: A linear combination of Gaussians, which contain additional energy shifts, and an error function incorporate a possible representation of Fermi-Dirac statistics, which is applied here to nuclear excitations and reaction with release of secondary particles. The new calculation formula provides a better understanding of different types of resonances occurring in nuclear interactions with protons. The present study is mainly a continuation of published papers.1-3--------------------------------Cite this article as: Ulmer W. A new calculation formula of the nuclear cross-section of therapeutic protons. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020211. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.11

  2. Geometrical aspects of reaction cross sections for 3He, 4He and 12C projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2003-04-01

    A black-disc model combined with accurate matter densities has been used for an investigation of reaction cross sections for 3 He, 4 He and 12 C projectiles. A simple relation is derived between the energy dependence of the reaction cross sections and the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A comparison is also made of the reaction cross sections for 3 He and 4 He for six different nuclei 12 C, 16 O, 40 Ca, 58,60 Ni and 208 Pb

  3. Modelling study on production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kara, Ayhan; Korkut, Turgay [Sinop Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering; Yigit, Mustafa [Aksaray Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts; Tel, Eyyup [Osmaniye Korkut Ata Univ. (Turkey). Faculty of Science and Arts

    2015-07-15

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radioactive drugs used for diagnosis or treatment in a tracer quantity with no pharmacological action. The production of radiopharmaceuticals is carried out in the special research centers generally using by the cyclotron systems. Indium-111 is one of the most useful radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. In this paper, we calculated the production cross sections of {sup 111}In radioisotope via {sup 111-114}Cd(p,xn) nuclear reactions up to 60 MeV energy. In the model calculations, ALICE/ASH, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2 Malta nuclear reaction code systems were used. The model calculation results were compared to the experimental literature data and TENDL-2014 (TALYS-based) data.

  4. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, R. R.

    2000-08-25

    This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + {sup 88}Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model.

  5. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, R. R.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + 88 Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model

  6. Influence of vibrations of gas molecules on neutron reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, C. D.; Schrack, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The change in molecular vibrational energy upon absorption of a neutron by a nucleus bound in a free molecule can influence resonance shape and other aspects of neutron reaction cross sections. A formalism is developed for centrosymmetric molecules such as UF6 and applied to the shape of the 6.67 eV resonance in 238U. The ratio of the resonance shape for 238UF6 gas and for solid 238U3O8 has been measured and compared with the calculation. Reasonable agreement is obtained indicating the validity of the calculation and the necessity to include vibration effects to avoid large errors in measurements and calculations on gascontaining systems. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 238U(n,γ) measured at 6.67 eV resonance; Effect of molecular vibrations studied experimentally and theoretically.

  7. Neutron-induced reaction cross-section measurements using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The experimental setup of Louvain-la-Neuve (UCL-Belgium) used to perform light- charged particle production experiment in fast neutron-induced reactions is presented. A short de- scription of the neutron modular detector DEMON is also given. DEMON is a detector array for neutrons emitted in heavy ion induced ...

  8. Reduction methodology for reaction cross sections induced by weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, N.N.; Mukherjee, S.; Appannababu, S.; Guimaraees, V.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in nuclear reactions with weakly bound nuclei has increased considerably along the last decade. Several experiments with stable and unstable projectiles have been performed and a variety of theoretical approaches have been developed. In particular, fusion and breakup reactions induced by such projectiles have been the object of several studies. Owing to the weak binding of the projectile, the breakup cross section may be quite large and coupling with the breakup channel can strongly affect the fusion cross section at near barrier energies. This influence stems from two effects, one of a static and the other of a dynamic nature, which are, however, not easy to be disentangled. The static effect results from the more diffuse density of the weakly bound nuclei, as compared with a strongly bound one. The contribution from weakly bound nucleons to the nuclear density extends further out and this gives rise to a lower and thicker potential barrier. There is general understanding that this static effect enhances the fusion cross section at near barrier energies. On the other hand, there is the dynamic effect corresponding to the coupling with the breakup channel. It is well known that the coupling with a finite number of bound channels enhances the sub-barrier fusion cross section. However, the effect of coupling to channels in the continuum (breakup) is controversial. In first place, one should have in mind that there are different fusion processes in collisions of weakly bound projectiles. One of such processes is the complete fusion, which takes place when the whole mass of the projectile fuses with the target. There may be fusion following breakup. In this case, the compound nucleus may contain the whole mass of the projectile (through sequential fusion of the fragments), or some fragment can escape the interaction region. The former corresponds also to complete fusion (sequential complete fusion) while the latter is known as incomplete fusion. So far

  9. Extracting integrated and differential cross sections in low energy heavy-ion reactions from backscattering measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G. G., E-mail: adamian@theor.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Diaz-Torres, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, I-38123 Villazzano, Trento (Italy); Gomes, P. R. S. [de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Litorânea, s/n, Niterói, R.J. 24210-340 (Brazil); Lenske, H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik der Justus–Liebig–Universität, D–35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-07-07

    We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle.

  10. Cross-section and reaction rates for some reactions involved in explosive nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.

    1979-03-01

    Total proton-induced and alpha-induced reaction cross sections have been determined for the 24 Mg(α,n), 25 Mg(p,n), 26 Mg(p,n), 27 Al(p,n), 28 Si(α,n), 42 Ca(p,γ), 42 Ca(α,n) and 44 Ca(p,n) reactions from energies near threshold (except the exothermic (p,γ) reaction) to about 3 to 4 MeV above threshold. The product nuclei are all positron emitters with half-lives ranging from about 3 sec to about 4 hours. From the measured cross sections reaction rates have been calculated in the temperature range 1 9 9 =1, at which the discrepancy is large. Included also are analytic forms for (p,n), (α,n), and (p,γ) reactions which can be used to describe the reaction rate within the temperature range 1 9 <=6 and which agree with the experimental rates at the discrete temperatures where the reaction rates have been calculated

  11. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  12. A simple functional form for proton-208Pb total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Deb, P.K.; Amos, K.

    2001-01-01

    A simple functional form has been found that gives a good representation of the total reaction cross sections for the scattering from 208 Pb of protons with energies in the range 30 to 300 MeV. The ratios of the total reaction cross sections calculated under this approximations compared well (to within a few percent) to those determined from the microscopic optical model potentials

  13. Calculation and analysis of cross-sections for p+184W reactions up to 200 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Jun; Han, Yin-Lu

    2015-08-01

    A set of optimal proton optical potential parameters for p+ 184W reactions are obtained at incident proton energy up to 250 MeV. Based on these parameters, the reaction cross-sections, elastic scattering angular distributions, energy spectra and double differential cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 184W are calculated and analyzed by using theoretical models which integrate the optical model, distorted Born wave approximation theory, intra-nuclear cascade model, exciton model, Hauser-Feshbach theory and evaporation model. The calculated results are compared with existing experimental data and good agreement is achieved. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China, Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation (2007CB209903) and Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Nuclear Energy System (XDA02010100)

  14. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  15. Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections for 6Li,7Li,14N,20Ne and 40Ar between 23 and 49 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Cox, A.J.; Nasr, T.N.; De Jong, M.S.; Ginther, D.I.; Hasell, D.K.; Sourkes, A.M.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Margaziotis, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 14 N, 20 Ne and 40 Ar have been made in the energy range 23 to 49 MeV, using a variation of a standard attenuation technique. The measured cross sections are compared with optical-model and nuclear-transparency calculations. (orig.)

  16. Cross sections of deuteron-induced reactions on natSb up to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takács, S.; Takács, M.P.; Hermanne, A.; Tárkányi, F.; Adam Rebeles, R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on natural antimony. ► Production of Te, Sb and Sn isotopes. ► Comparison of experimental cross sections with results of TALYS calculations. ► Thick target yields. ► Production of 117m Sn for medical use. - Abstract: In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross sections of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions for formation of 118,119m,119g,121m,121g,123m Te, 118m,120m,122g,124g Sb and 117m Sn on nat Sb targets were determined up to 50 MeV. Cross sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the investigated reactions were compared with data reported in literature and results of theoretical calculations made by the TALYS code. From the measured cross section data integral thick target yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature.

  17. Fission neutron spectrum averaged cross sections for threshold reactions on arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, E.L.; Arribere, M.A.; Kestelman, A.J.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Cuyo Nacional Univ., Bariloche; Ribeiro Guevara, S.; Cohen, I.M.; Ohaco, R.A.; Segovia, M.S.; Yunes, A.N.; Arrondo, M.; Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the cross sections, averaged over a 235 U fission neutron spectrum, for the two high threshold reactions: 75 As(n,p) 75 mGe and 75 As(n,2n) 74 As. The measured averaged cross sections are 0.292±0.022 mb, referred to the 3.95±0.20 mb standard for the 27 Al(n,p) 27 Mg averaged cross section, and 0.371±0.032 mb referred to the 111±3 mb standard for the 58 Ni(n,p) 58m+g Co averaged cross section, respectively. The measured averaged cross sections were also evaluated semi-empirically by numerically integrating experimental differential cross section data extracted for both reactions from the current literature. The calculations were performed for four different representations of the thermal-neutron-induced 235 U fission neutron spectrum. The calculated cross sections, though depending on analytical representation of the flux, agree with the measured values within the estimated uncertainties. (author)

  18. Covariance matrices for nuclear cross sections derived from nuclear model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D. L.

    2005-01-01

    The growing need for covariance information to accompany the evaluated cross section data libraries utilized in contemporary nuclear applications is spurring the development of new methods to provide this information. Many of the current general purpose libraries of evaluated nuclear data used in applications are derived either almost entirely from nuclear model calculations or from nuclear model calculations benchmarked by available experimental data. Consequently, a consistent method for generating covariance information under these circumstances is required. This report discusses a new approach to producing covariance matrices for cross sections calculated using nuclear models. The present method involves establishing uncertainty information for the underlying parameters of nuclear models used in the calculations and then propagating these uncertainties through to the derived cross sections and related nuclear quantities by means of a Monte Carlo technique rather than the more conventional matrix error propagation approach used in some alternative methods. The formalism to be used in such analyses is discussed in this report along with various issues and caveats that need to be considered in order to proceed with a practical implementation of the methodology

  19. Reaction and fusion cross sections for 32S on 27Al and 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, F.; Sambataro, S.; Kusterer, K.; Liu Ken Pao; Doukellis, G.; Harney, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Elastic scattering and evaporation residues have been measured for the system 32 S + 27 Al at Esub(c)sub(.)sub(m)sub(.) = 66.4, 73.2 MeV and 32 S + 48 Ti at Esub(c)sub(.)sub(m)sub(.) = 96.0 MeV. Reaction cross sections have been obtained by use of the optical theorem and are found to be about 60% larger than the fusion cross sections. (orig.)

  20. Fusion cross-sections of 16O+16O reaction in pseudonucleon picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.C.; Waghmare, Y.R.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion cross-sections for 16 O+ 16 O reaction are calculated in classical equations of motion approach using the pseudonucleon picture. These calculated fusion cross-sections are very close to measured values than earlier calculated using the same NN interaction. The aim of the paper is to test the pseudonucleon picture. Use of this picture does not require one to consider the number of relative random orientations of the colliding clusters. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Photoneutron reaction cross sections from various experiments - analysis and evaluation using physical criteria of data reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, Vladimir; Ishkhanov, Boris; Orlin, Vadim; Peskov, Nikolai; Stepanov, Mikhail

    2017-09-01

    The majority of photonuclear reaction cross sections important for many fields of science and technology and various data files (EXFOR, RIPL, ENDF, etc.) supported by the IAEA were obtained in experiments using quasimonoenergetic annihilation photons. There are well-known systematic discrepancies between the partial photoneutron reactions (γ, 1n), (γ, 2n), (γ, 3n). For analysis of the data reliability the objective physical criteria were proposed. It was found out that the experimental data for many nuclei are not reliable because of large systematic uncertainties of the neutron multiplicity sorting method used. The experimentally-theoretical method was proposed for evaluating the reaction cross sections data satisfying the reliability criteria. The partial and total reaction cross sections were evaluated for many nuclei. In many cases evaluated data differ noticeably from both the experimental data and the data evaluated before for the IAEA Photonuclear Data Library. Therefore it became evident that the IAEA Library needs to be revised and updated.

  2. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveten G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method for extracting capture cross sections has to be investigated. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutroninduced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. First results are presented and discussed.

  3. Activation evaluation and isotopic effects in the (n, p) reaction cross section on A-180 target nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrigeanu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.Box MG-6, 76900 Bucharest (Romania); Forrest, R. A. [EURATOM-UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Roman, F. L.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.Box MG-6, 76900 Bucharest (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    The fast-neutron nuclear data for the stable isotopes of tungsten, tantalum and hafnium, which are important in nuclear technology applications, have been consistently analyzed by means of the nuclear model computer codes TALYS, EMPIRE-II and STAPRE-H. The latter code uses a unique parameter set. The long-lived Hf isomers, which could be produced after a few reactions on W and Ta in the first-wall material of fusion power plants, need special consideration. The analysis, making use of global as well as local parameters within different model assumptions, aims to increase the predictive power of the models, which is of interest to basic as well as applied questions. This work suggests a physical reason for some of the discrepancies between experimental and calculated cross sections for (n, p) and (n, {alpha}) reactions on {sup 181}Ta. Thus, the rather similar Q-values for the (n, p) reaction on the {sup 179}Hf, {sup 181}Ta, and {sup 183}W odd-A target nuclei, also with similar asymmetry-parameter values, support the comparable cross sections which are predicted by all three computer code calculations at variance with the lower measured cross sections of the {sup 181}Ta(n, p) {sup 181}Hf reaction. (authors)

  4. Measurement of the Amm242 neutron-induced reaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Wimer, N.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The neutron-induced reaction cross sections of Amm242 were measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. A new neutron-capture cross section was determined, and the absolute scale was set according to a concurrent measurement of the well-known Amm242(n ,f ) cross section. The (n ,γ ) cross section was measured from thermal energy to an incident energy of 1 eV at which point the data quality was limited by the reaction yield in the laboratory. Our new Amm242 fission cross section was normalized to ENDF/B-VII.1 to set the absolute scale, and it agreed well with the (n ,f ) cross section reported by Browne et al. (1984) from thermal energy to 1 keV. The average absolute capture-to-fission ratio was determined from thermal energy to En=0.1 eV, and it was found to be 26(4)% as opposed to the ratio of 19 % from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.

  5. A cross-sectional study of cutaneous drug reactions in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cutaneous drug reactions are a common impediment in therapy, the incidence ranging from 2% to 8%. This cross-sectional study was designed to compare different trends of cutaneous drug reaction in two different socioeconomic groups of patients in the same region. Aims: The aim was to evaluate common ...

  6. A cross-sectional study of cutaneous drug reactions in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-20

    Jul 20, 2011 ... This cross-sectional study was designed to compare different trends of cutaneous drug reaction in two different socio- ... maculopapular rash, all other skin reactions were observed more frequently with NSAIDS in dental College whereas ..... and causative agents in a tertiary care center in South India.

  7. Capture cross-section and rate of the 14 C (n, γ) 15 C reaction from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We calculate the Coulomb dissociation of 15C on a Pb target at 68 MeV/u incident beam energy within the fully quantum mechanical distorted wave Born approximation formalism of breakup reactions. The capture cross-section and the subsequent rate of the 14C(, )15C reaction are calculated from the ...

  8. First results of total and partial cross-section measurements of the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Scholz, Philipp; Spieker, Mark; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The γ process is assumed to play an important role in the nucleosynthesis of the majority of the p nuclei. Since the network of the γ process includes so many different reactions and - mainly unstable - nuclei, cross-section values are predominantly calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The values heavily depend on the nuclear-physics input parameters. The results of total and partial cross-section measurements are used to improve the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. In order to extend the experimental database, the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction was studied via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency HPGe γ-ray spectrometer HORUS at the University of Cologne. Proton beams with energies between 3.5 MeV and 5.0 MeV were provided by the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator leading to the determination of four new total cross-section values. After slight adjustments of the nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function an excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimentally deduced values for both total and partial cross sections has been obtained.

  9. The K + - Nucleus Microscopic Optical Potential and Calculations of the Corresponding Differential Elastic and Total Reaction Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Hanna, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic optical potential (OP) is calculated for the K+-meson scattering on the 12 C and 40 Ca nuclei at intermediate energies. This potential has no free parameters and based on the known kaon-nucleon amplitude and nuclear density distribution functions. Then, the Klein-Gordon equation is written in the form of the relativistic Schrodinger equation where terms quadratic in the potential was estimated can be neglected. The latter equations adapted to the considered task and solved numerically. The effect of revitalization is shown to play a significant role. A good agreement with the experimental data on differential elastic cross sections is obtained. However, to explain the data on total reaction cross sections the additional surface term of OP was introduced to account for influence of the peripheral nuclear reaction channels

  10. Measurement of (n,Xn) reaction cross sections at 96 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagrado Garcia, Melle Inmaculada C.

    2006-10-01

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n,Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross section measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 angle - 98 angle). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100) MeV. The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparison between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its treatment of nucleon-nucleon reactions. (author)

  11. Vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections for the D + H2 → DH + H reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continetti, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    In this thesis, crossed-molecular-beams studies of the reaction D + H 2 → DH + H at collision energies of 0.53 and 1.01 eV are reported. Chapter 1 provides a survey of important experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of the hydrogen exchange reaction. Chapter 2 discusses the development of the excimer-laser photolysis D atom beam source that was used in these studies and preliminary experiments on the D + H 2 reaction. In Chapter 3, the differential cross section measurements are presented and compared to recent theoretical predictions. The measured differential cross sections for rotationally excited DH products showed significant deviations from recent quantum scattering calculations, in the first detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical differential cross sections. These results indicate that further work on the H 3 potential energy surface, particularly the bending potential, is in order

  12. Cross sections and rate coefficients for charge exchange reactions of protons with hydrocarbon molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Wang, J.G.

    2001-05-01

    The available experimental and theoretical cross section data on charge exchange processes in collisions of protons with hydrocarbon molecules have been collected and critically assessed. Using well established scaling relationships for the charge exchange cross sections at low and high collision energies, as well as the known rate coefficients for these reactions in the thermal energy region, a complete cross section database is constructed for proton-C x H y charge exchange reactions from thermal energies up to several hundreds keV for all C x H y molecules with x=1, 2, 3 and 1 ≤ y ≤ 2x + 2. Rate coefficients for these charge exchange reactions have also been calculated in the temperature range from 0.1 eV to 20 keV. (author)

  13. Total reaction cross sections and neutron-removal cross sections of neutron-rich light nuclei measured by the COMBAS fragment-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, B. M.; Isataev, T.; Erdemchimeg, B.; Artukh, A. G.; Aznabaev, D.; Davaa, S.; Klygin, S. A.; Kononenko, G. A.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Kuterbekov, K.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Mikhailova, T. I.; Maslov, V. A.; Mendibaev, K.; Sereda, Yu M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Vorontsov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Preliminary results of measurements of the total reaction cross sections σR and neutron removal cross section σ-xn for weakly bound 6He, 8Li, 9Be and 10Be nuclei at energy range (20-35) A MeV with 28Si target is presented. The secondary beams of light nuclei were produced by bombardment of the 22Ne (35 A MeV) primary beam on Be target and separated by COMBAS fragment-separator. In dispersive focal plane a horizontal slit defined the momentum acceptance as 1% and a wedge degrader of 200 μm Al was installed. The Bρ of the second section of the fragment-separator was adjusted for measurements in energy range (20-35) A MeV. Two-neutron removal cross sections for 6He and 10Be and one -neutron removal cross sections 8Li and 9Be were measured.

  14. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, E.A.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Chamon, L.C.; Hussein, M.S.; Moro, A.M.; Arazi, A.; Padron, I.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Assuncao, M.; Barioni, A.; Camargo, O.; Denke, R.Z.; Faria, P.N. de; Pires, K.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The elastic scattering of the radioactive halo nucleus 6 He on 27 Al target was measured at four energies close to the Coulomb barrier using the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) facility. The Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) was used and its diffuseness and imaginary strength were adjusted to fit the elastic scattering angular distributions. Reaction cross-sections were extracted from the optical model fits. The reduced reaction cross-sections of 6 He on 27 Al are similar to those for stable, weakly bound projectiles as 6,7 Li, 9 Be and larger than stable, tightly bound projectile as 16 O on 27 Al

  15. Isospin dependence of capture cross sections: The S36+Pb208 reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, R.; Loveland, W.; Vinodkumar, A. M.; Sprunger, P. H.; Prisbrey, L.; Peterson, D.; Zhu, S.; Kolata, J. J.; Villano, A.; Liang, J. F.

    2010-11-01

    The capture-fission cross section for the S36+Pb208 reaction was measured for seven center-of-mass energies ranging from 147.5 to 210.2 MeV. A comparison of the deduced interaction barriers from “distribution of barriers” measurements and simple 1/Ec.m. plots for 13 well-characterized systems shows the validity of the latter approach for deducing interaction barriers, especially for reaction systems involving radioactive beams where the former measurements are not currently feasible. Application of the 1/Ec.m. plot technique for the S36+Pb208 reaction gives an interaction barrier height of 140.4±1.4 MeV. This value as well as the deduced interaction barriers for all known studies of capture cross sections with radioactive beams are in good agreement with recent predictions of an improved isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model and a modified version of capture cross-section systematics by Swiatecki The deduced barriers for these n-rich systems are lower than one would expect from semiempirical systematics based upon the Bass potential. In addition to the barrier lowering, there is an enhanced subbarrier cross section in these n-rich systems not predicted by the Bass potential systematics. These enhanced subbarrier cross sections may be important in the synthesis of the heaviest nuclei.

  16. The cross sections of fusion-evaporation reactions: the most promising route to superheavy elements beyond Z=118

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of superheavy elements beyond oganesson (Og, which has atomic number Z = 118, is currently one of the main topics in nuclear physics. An absence of sufficient amounts of target material with atomic numbers heavier than californium (Z = 98 forces the use of projectiles heavier than 48Ca (Z = 20, which has been successfully used for the discoveries of elements with Z = 114 - 118 in complete fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections of 48Ca with actinide targets behave very differently to “cold” and “hot” fusion-evaporation reactions, where doubly-magic lead and deformed actinides are used as targets, respectively. The known cross sections of these reactions have been analysed compared to calculated fission barriers. It has been suggested that observed discrepancies between the cross sections of 48Ca-induced and other fusionevaporation reactions originate from the shell structure of the compound nucleus, which lies in the island of the stability. Besides scarcely known data on other reactions involving heavier projectiles, the most promising projectile for the synthesis of the elements beyond Og seems to be 50Ti. However, detailed studies of 50Ti, 54Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni-induced reactions are necessary to be performed in order to fully understand the complexities of superheavy element formation.

  17. The cross sections of fusion-evaporation reactions: the most promising route to superheavy elements beyond Z=118

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadambaa, Khuyagbaatar

    2017-11-01

    The synthesis of superheavy elements beyond oganesson (Og), which has atomic number Z = 118, is currently one of the main topics in nuclear physics. An absence of sufficient amounts of target material with atomic numbers heavier than californium (Z = 98) forces the use of projectiles heavier than 48Ca (Z = 20), which has been successfully used for the discoveries of elements with Z = 114 - 118 in complete fusion reactions. Experimental cross sections of 48Ca with actinide targets behave very differently to "cold" and "hot" fusion-evaporation reactions, where doubly-magic lead and deformed actinides are used as targets, respectively. The known cross sections of these reactions have been analysed compared to calculated fission barriers. It has been suggested that observed discrepancies between the cross sections of 48Ca-induced and other fusionevaporation reactions originate from the shell structure of the compound nucleus, which lies in the island of the stability. Besides scarcely known data on other reactions involving heavier projectiles, the most promising projectile for the synthesis of the elements beyond Og seems to be 50Ti. However, detailed studies of 50Ti, 54Cr, 58Fe and 64Ni-induced reactions are necessary to be performed in order to fully understand the complexities of superheavy element formation.

  18. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+12C reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Beck, C.; Atencio, S.E.; Dennis, L.C.; Frawley, A.D.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Kemper, K.W.; Kovar, D.G.; Maguire, C.F.; Padalino, S.J.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Tiede, M.A.; Wilkins, B.D.; Zingarelli, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Fusion evaporation-residue cross sections for the 28 Si+ 12 C reaction have been measured in the energy range 18≤E c.m. ≤136 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. Velocity distributions of mass-identified reaction products were used to identify evaporation residues and to determine the complete-fusion cross sections at high energies. The data are in agreement with previously established systematics which indicate an entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the incomplete-fusion evaporation-residue process. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with earlier measurements and the predictions of existing models

  19. Upper limit on the cross section for nuclear charge pickup by relativistic uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, A.J.; Price, P.B.; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    We have searched for examples of nuclear charge pickup by relativistic uranium ions in targets of both uranium and phosphate glass. We find none, which allows us to set an upper limit of 7.7 mb per target atom at the 90% confidence level on the cross section for this process. An extrapolation of the approximately quadratic dependence on projectile charge of the cross section for charge pickup predicts a cross section which would be ∼10 times larger. This breakdown in the scaling can be understood by the propensity of the actinides to fission upon the deposition of sufficient excitation energy

  20. Total nuclear photoabsorption cross section in the range 0.2 - 1.0 GeV for nuclei throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the total photoabsorption cross section for nuclei ranging from 4 He up to 238 U has been performed in the energy range 0.2-1.0 GeV. Mean total photoabsorption cross sections have been obtained by summing up the contributions from partial photo reactions, and found to follow an A l -dependence in the 0.2-1.0 GeV range. A review of the available total photoabsorption cross section data is also presented. Comparisons have been made with cross section values calculated by considering both the quasi-deuteron and π-meson photoproduction mechanism of primary nuclear photo interaction. (author)

  1. Elastic scattering and fusion cross-sections in Li + Al reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fusion cross-sections is a subject of great interest, particularly at energies close to the. Coulomb barrier [1–6]. The loss of flux from elastic channel goes to some of the reaction channels such as inelastic, breakup, transfer, and fusion, which changes the behaviour of the real and imaginary parts of the optical potential by ...

  2. Measurement of angle-correlated differential (n,2n) reaction cross section with pencil-beam DV neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, S.; Kondo, K.; Shido, S.; Miyamaru, H.; Murata, I.; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishitani, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    Angle-correlated differential cross-section for 9 Be(n,2n) reaction has been measured with the coincidence detection technique and a pencil-beam DT neutron source at FNS, JAEA. Energy spectra of two emitted neutrons were obtained for azimuthal and polar direction independently. It was made clear from the experiment that there are noise signals caused by inter-detector scattering. The ratio of the inter-detector scattering components in the detected signals was estimated by MCNP calculation to correct the measured result. By considering the inter-detector scattering components, the total 9 Be(n,2n) reaction cross-section agreed with the evaluated nuclear data within the experimental error. (author)

  3. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+28Si reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 28 Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models

  4. From cutting-edge pointwise cross-section to groupwise reaction rate: A primer

    OpenAIRE

    Sublet Jean-Christophe; Fleming Michael; Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear research and development community has a history of using both integral and differential experiments to support accurate lattice-reactor, nuclear reactor criticality and shielding simulations, as well as verification and validation efforts of cross sections and emitted particle spectra. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the neutron spectrum in its entirety, with correct propagation of uncertainties and standard deviatio...

  5. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducasse Q.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method has to be investigated. In particular, the absence of a compound nucleus formation and the Jπ dependence of the decay probabilities may question the method. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutron-induced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. The first results are hereby presented.

  6. Cross section asymmetry of deuteron photodesintegration reaction with polarized gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbenko, V.G.; Zhebrovskij, Yu.V.; Kolesnikov, L.Ya.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sorokin, P.V.

    1982-01-01

    The parameters of the reaction cross section asymmetry are determined to investigate the γ+d → n+p reaction. The measurements are exercised on a beam of linearly polarized photons of a linear 2 GeV electron accelerator by means of two magnetic spectrometers in the Esub(γ)=80-600 MeV energy range for 75-105 deg angles of proton escape in scm. The flowsheet of an experimental facility is presented. Technique of the experiment execution is presented. The obtained values of the cross section asymmetry parameter are presented in the table form for the 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150 deg angles. Calculation of the differential cross sections is carried out in pulse approximation. Energy Dependence and angutar distribUtions of the cross section asymmetry parameter of the investigated reaction are presented graphically. The obtained results are compared with the present experimental and theoretical data at 80 and 300 MeV photon energy. The comparison has revealed that none of the calculation methods is more preferable as well as no simple conclusion can be made on the existence of dibarin resonances

  7. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  8. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, K. L.; Kheswa, B. V.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Brits, C. P.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ) cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  9. Nuclear level densities and γ-ray strength functions of 180,181Ta and neutron capture cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malatji K.L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The γ-ray strength functions and nuclear level densities in the quasi-continuum of 180,181Ta are extracted from particle-γ coincidence events with the Oslo Method, below the Sn. The data were used as input in the TALYS reaction code for calculations of the astrophysical Maxwellian-averaged (n,γ cross-sections to investigate nucleosynthesis of nature's rarest stable isotope 180Ta.

  10. Estimation of (n,f) Cross-Sections by Measuring Reaction Probability Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettner, C; Ai, H; Beausang, C W; Bernstein, L A; Ahle, L; Amro, H; Babilon, M; Burke, J T; Caggiano, J A; Casten, R F; Church, J A; Cooper, J R; Crider, B; Gurdal, G; Heinz, A; McCutchan, E A; Moody, K; Punyon, J A; Qian, J; Ressler, J J; Schiller, A; Williams, E; Younes, W

    2005-04-21

    Neutron-induced reaction cross-sections on unstable nuclei are inherently difficult to measure due to target activity and the low intensity of neutron beams. In an alternative approach, named the 'surrogate' technique, one measures the decay probability of the same compound nucleus produced using a stable beam on a stable target to estimate the neutron-induced reaction cross-section. As an extension of the surrogate method, in this paper they introduce a new technique of measuring the fission probabilities of two different compound nuclei as a ratio, which has the advantage of removing most of the systematic uncertainties. This method was benchmarked in this report by measuring the probability of deuteron-induced fission events in coincidence with protons, and forming the ratio P({sup 236}U(d,pf))/P({sup 238}U(d,pf)), which serves as a surrogate for the known cross-section ratio of {sup 236}U(n,f)/{sup 238}U(n,f). IN addition, the P({sup 238}U(d,d{prime}f))/P({sup 236}U(d,d{prime}f)) ratio as a surrogate for the {sup 237}U(n,f)/{sup 235}U(n,f) cross-section ratio was measured for the first time in an unprecedented range of excitation energies.

  11. Statistical significance of non-reproducibility of cross sections in dissipative reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Dong Yuchuan; Li Songlin; Tian Wendong

    2003-01-01

    Two independent excitation function measurements have been performed in the reaction system of 19 F+ 93 Nb using two target foils of the same nominal thickness. The authors measured the dissipative reaction products at incident energies of 102 through 108 MeV with a step of 250 keV. The variance of energy autocorrelation functions of the reaction products was found to be three times of that originated from the randomized counting rates. By analysing the probability distributions of the deviations in the measured cross sections, the authors found that about 20% of all the deviations exceeds three standard deviations. This indicates that the non-reproducibility of the cross sections in the two independent measurements is of a statistical significance but not originated from randomized fluctuation of counting rates

  12. Energy-differential cross section measurement for the 51V(n,α)48Sc reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Meadows, J.W.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-07-01

    The activation method was used to measure cross sections for the 51 V(n,α) 48 Sc reaction in the threshold region, from 5.515 MeV up to 9.567 MeV. Twenty approximately-monoenergetic cross section values were obtained in this experiment. These data points span the energy region at roughly equal intervals. The experimental resolutions were in the range 0.153 to 0.233 MeV (FWHM). The present differential data cover approx. 50% of the total integral response of this reaction for the standard 235 U thermal-neutron-induced-fission neutron spectrum, and approx. 44% of the corresponding response for the standard 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutron spectrum. Over the range 7.6 to 9.5 MeV the present experimental cross sections are noticeably larger (e.g., by approx. 50% at approx. 8.6 MeV) than the corresponding values from the ENDF/B-V evaluation. From approx. 6.7 to 7.5 MeV, the present values are somewhat below those of ENDF/B-V. At still lower energies the agreement is reasonably good considering the uncertainties introduced by energy scale definition very near the effective threshold where the cross section varies rapidly with neutron energy. Calculated integral cross sections based in part on the present work agree reasonably well within errors with reported integral results, provided that the reported data are renormalized to conform with recently-accepted values for appropriate standard reactions. 70 references

  13. Activation cross section of 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong; Yu Weixiang; Yuan Xialin

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical properties of copper during the irradiation with intensive neutron fluence rate are significant for the safe operation of D-T fusion power reactors. The cross sections measured by activation method show a large discrepancy from 36 to 54 mb in 14 MeV region. The cross sections of 69 Cu(n, α) 60 Co reaction were measured by activation method. Two irradiations were carried out at the Cockcroft-wallon and Van de Graaff accelerators of CIAE using T(d, n) 4 He reaction to produce neutrons. The activities of 24 Na and 60 Co γ-rays for monitor and sample foils were determined absolutely by a calibrated Ge(Li) detector system with an accuracy better than 1%. The present results are compared with the others

  14. Activation cross section measurement for the 179Hf(n,2n)178m2Hf reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Weixiang; Lu Hanlin; Zhao Wenrong

    1992-01-01

    As an important data for a fusion reactor there are not any experimental results for the cross section of the 179 Hf(n,2n) 178m2 Hf reaction. So the cross section was measured in this work at neutron energy of 14 MeV. Meanwhile, we also gave the data for the cross section of the 180 Hf(n,2n) 179m2 Hf reaction. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Isomeric cross section ratios in 55Mn(α, n)58m,gCo reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Xianguan; He Fuqing; Peng Xiufen; Liu Mantian

    1989-01-01

    The isomeric cross section ratios in 55 Mn(α, n) 58m,g Co reaction are measured for incident alpha-particle energies ranging from 10.4 to 26.5 MeV by using activation method and stacked-foil technique. The measured values are compared with theoretical calculations performed by using Huizenga and Vandenbosch method and the values of spin cutoff factor are obtained for product nucleus 58 Co

  16. Measurement of Total Reaction Cross-sections with Heavy Ions at the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the measurement of heavy ion total reaction cross-sections in the energy range 40-86 MeV/A with the anti-coincidence beam attenuation technique. A system of 19 @DE scintillation detectors together with a time-of-flight measurement is used for detection of the residual beam. The results will complete measurements at the Grenoble cyclotron and post accelerator over the energy range 10-40 MeV/A.

  17. Bonderenko self-shielded cross sections and multiband parameters derived from the LLL Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library (ENDL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Bonderenko self-shielded cross sections and multiband parameters from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Evaluated-Nuclear-Data Library (ENDL) as of July 4, 1978 are presented. These data include total, elastic, capture, and fission cross sections in the TART 175 group structure. Multiband parameters are listed. Bonderenko self-shielded cross section and the multiband parameters are presented on microfiche

  18. Extracting integrated and differential cross sections in low-energy heavy-ion reactions from backscattering measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, V.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Yerevan State University, Yerevan (Armenia); Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Diaz-Torres, A. [European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas, Villazzano (Italy); Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Instituto de Fisica, Niteroi (Brazil); Lenske, H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik der Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We suggest new methods to extract elastic (quasi-elastic) scattering angular distribution and reaction (capture) cross sections from the experimental elastic (quasi-elastic) backscattering excitation function taken at a single angle. A novel Coulomb scattering relation between angular momentum and centrifugal energy is used. The methodology is developed for addressing complementary reaction observables, improving the description of elastic differential cross section. (orig.)

  19. Determination of the fission-neutron averaged cross sections of some high-energy threshold reactions of interest for reactor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arribere, M.A.; Kestelman, A.J.; Korochinsky, S.; Blostein, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    For three high threshold reactions, we have measured the cross sections averaged over a 235 U fission neutron spectrum. The measured reactions, and corresponding averaged cross sections found, are: 127 I(n,2n) 126 I, (1.36±0.12) mb; 90 Zr(n,2n) 89m Zr, (13.86±0.83) μb; and 58 Ni(n,d+np+pn) 57 Co, (274±15) μb; all referred to the well known standard of (111±3) mb for the 58 Ni(n,p) 58m+g Co averaged cross section. The measured cross sections are of interest in nuclear engineering for the characterization of the fast neutron component in the energy distribution of reactor neutrons. (author)

  20. Studies of combustion reactions at the state-resolved differential cross section level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, P.L.; Suits, A.G.; Bontuyan, L.S.; Whitaker, B.J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved differential reaction cross sections provide perhaps the most detailed information about the mechanism of a chemical reaction, but heretofore they have been extremely difficult to measure. This program explores a new technique for obtaining differential cross sections with product state resolution. The three-dimensional velocity distribution of state-selected reaction products is determined by ionizing the appropriate product, waiting for a delay while it recoils along the trajectory imparted by the reaction, and finally projecting the spatial distribution of ions onto a two dimensional screen using a pulsed electric field. Knowledge of the arrival time allows the ion position to be converted to a velocity, and the density of velocity projections can be inverted mathematically to provide the three-dimensional velocity distribution for the selected product. The main apparatus has been constructed and tested using photodissociations. The authors report here the first test results using crossed beams to investigate collisions between Ar and NO. Future research will both develop further the new technique and employ it to investigate methyl radical, formyl radical, and hydrogen atom reactions which are important in combustion processes. The authors intend specifically to characterize the reactions of CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO; of HCO with O{sub 2}; and of H with CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}.

  1. A program to measure new energetic particle nuclear interaction cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Albergo, S.; Chen, C. X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Flores, I.; Greiner, L.; Jones, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    The Transport Collaboration, consisting of researchers from institutions in France, Germany, Italy, and the USA, has established a program to make new measurements of nuclear interaction cross sections for heavy projectiles (Z greater than or equal to 2) in targets of liquid H2, He and heavier materials. Such cross sections directly affect calculations of galactic and solar cosmic ray transport through matter and are needed for accurate radiation hazard assessment. To date, the collaboration has obtained data using the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac HISS facility with 20 projectiles from He-4 to Ni-58 in the energy range 393-910 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results from the analysis of these data are presented here and compared to other measurements and to cross section prediction formulae.

  2. New approach to analyzing and evaluating cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Orlin, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of substantial systematic discrepancies between the results of different experiments devoted to determining cross sections for partial photoneutron reactions—first of all, (γ, n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) reactions—is a strong motivation for studying the reliability and authenticity of these data and for developing methods for taking into account and removing the discrepancies in question. In order to solve the first problem, we introduce objective absolute criteria involving transitional photoneutron-multiplicity functions F 1 , F 2 , F 3 , …; by definition, their values cannot exceed 1.0, 0.5, 0.33, …, respectively. With the aim of solving the second problem, we propose a new experimental-theoretical approach. In this approach, reaction cross sections are evaluated by simultaneously employing experimental data on the cross section for the total photoneutron yield, σ expt (γ, xn) = σ expt (γ, n) + 2σ expt (γ, 2n) + 3σ expt (γ, 3n) + …, which are free from drawbacks plaguing experimental methods for sorting neutrons in multiplicity, and the results obtained by calculating the functions F theor 1 , F theor 2 , F theor 3 , … on the basis of the modern model of photonuclear reactions. The reliability and authenticity of data on the cross sections for (γ, n), (γ, 2n), and (γ, 3n) partial reactions—σ eval (γ, in) = F i theor σ expt (γ, xn)—were evaluated for the 90 Zr, 115 In, 112,114,116,117,118,119,120,122,124 Sn, 159 Tb, and 197 Au nuclei.

  3. Fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus based on fission reaction models in high energy regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of projects of new generation nuclear power plants requires the solving of material science and technological issues in developing of reactor materials. Melts of heavy metals (Pb, Bi and Pb-Bi due to their nuclear and thermophysical properties, are the candidate coolants for fast reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADS. In this study, α, γ, p, n and 3He induced fission cross section calculations for 209Bi target nucleus at high-energy regions for (α,f, (γ,f, (p,f, (n,f and (3He,f reactions have been investigated using different fission reaction models. Mamdouh Table, Sierk, Rotating Liquid Drop and Fission Path models of theoretical fission barriers of TALYS 1.6 code have been used for the fission cross section calculations. The calculated results have been compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR database. TALYS 1.6 Sierk model calculations exhibit generally good agreement with the experimental measurements for all reactions used in this study.

  4. GNASH: a preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code for calculation of cross sections and emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1977-11-01

    A new multistep Hauser--Feshbach code that includes corrections for preequilibrium effects is described. The code can calculate up to 60 decay reactions (cross sections and energy spectra) in one computation, and thereby provide considerable flexibility for handling processes with complicated reaction chains. Input parameter setup, problem output, and subroutine descriptions are given along with a sample problem calculation. A brief theoretical description is also included. 8 figures, 3 tables

  5. Generation of cross section data of heat pipe working fluids for compact nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slewinski, Anderson; Ribeiro, Guilherme B. [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: anderson_sle@live.com, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    For compact nuclear power plants, such as the nuclear space propulsion proposed by the TERRA project, aspects like mass, size and efficiency are essential drivers that must be managed during the project development. Moreover, for high temperature reactors, the use of liquid metal heat pipes as the heat removal mechanism provides some important advantages as simplicity and reliability. Considering these aforementioned aspects, this paper aims the development of the procedure necessary to calculate the microscopic absorption cross section data of several liquid metal to be used as working fluids with heat pipes; which will be later compared with the given data from JEF Report ⧣14. The information necessary to calculate the cross section data will be obtained from the latest ENDF library version. The NJOY system will be employed with the following modules: RECONR, BROADR, UNRESR and GROUPR, using the same specifications used to calculate the cross section data encountered in the JEF Report ⧣14. This methodology allows a comparison with published values, verifying the procedure developed to calculate the microscopic absorption cross section for selected isotopes using the TERRA reactor spectrum. Liquid metals isotopes of Sodium (Na), Lithium (Li), Thallium (TI) and Mercury (Hg) are part of this study. (author)

  6. Forward Propagation Analysis for determining the 16O(n,α)13C Reaction Cross Section at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Zachary; Lee, Hye Young; Davison, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen is present in many materials and the uncertainties in its nuclear data can have a significant impact on applications. In particular, neutron-absorption reactions reduceavailable neutrons in applications. Thus,high precision in knowledge of this reaction cross sectionis required. To decreasethe systematic uncertainty, we developed a framework that uses Forward Propagation Analysis (FPA) for determining the 16O(n,α)13C reaction cross section from data measured at LANSCE. The Low Energy NZ (LENZ) instrument was used to detectreaction alphas on the Ta2 O5 solid target with silicon strip detectors. The FPA was performed in GEANT4. The geometry, efficiency, and resolution functions of LENZ werevalidated by comparing with the alpha emitting Th-229 source measurement. To reproduce experimental yields in silicon strip detectors, the energy dependent neutron beam flux distribution, the 16O(n,a) reaction differential cross sections, and the 2-body kinematics calculations were implemented in the simulation. We present results from the FPA on LENZ data anddiscuss the improved data analysis [LA-UR-17-26436]. This work has benefited from the use of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, is funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  7. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Herman, M.; Author(s): Chadwick,M.B.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Dunn,M.E.; Danon,Y.; Kahler,A.C.; Smith,D.L.; Pritychenko,B.; Arbanas,G.; Arcilla,R.; Brewer,R.; Brown,D.A.; Capote,R.; Carlson,A.D.; Cho,Y.S.; Derrien,H.; Guber,K.; Hale,G.M.; Hoblit,S.; Holloway,S.: Johnson,T.D.; Kawano,T.; Kiedrowski,B.C.; Kim,H.; Kunieda,S.; Larson,N.M.; Leal,L.; Lestone,J.P.; Little,R.C.; McCutchan,E.A.; MacFarlane,R.E.; MacInnes,M.; Mattoon,C.M.; McKnight,R.D.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Nobre,G.P.A.; Palmiotti,G.; Palumbo,A.; Pigni,M.T.; Pronyaev,V.G.; Sayer,R.O.; Sonzogni,A.A.; Summers,N.C.; Talou,P.; Thompson,I.J.; Trkov,A.; Vogt,R.L.; van der Marck,S.C.; Wallner,A.; White,M.C.; Wiarda,D.; Young,P.G.

    2011-12-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He, Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides {sup 235,238}U and {sup 239}Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es, Fm, and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on {sup 239}Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0

  8. Measurement and calculation of cross section for (p,x) reactions on natural Fe for 650 MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janczyszyn, J.; Pohorecki, W.; Domanska, G.; Loska, L.; Taczanowski, S.; Shvetsov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Cross sections for production of radionuclides in (p,x) reactions on natural iron were measured for protons of 650 ± 4 MeV with the use of HPGe gamma spectrometry and calculated with the MCNPX code. The determined cross section values were compared with the computed and other experimental ones

  9. Measurements of neutron cross sections for advanced nuclear energy systems at n_TOF (CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbagallo M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The n_TOF facility operates at CERN with the aim of addressing the request of high accuracy nuclear data for advanced nuclear energy systems as well as for nuclear astrophysics. Thanks to the features of the neutron beam, important results have been obtained on neutron induced fission and capture cross sections of U, Pu and minor actinides. Recently the construction of another beam line has started; the new line will be complementary to the first one, allowing to further extend the experimental program foreseen for next measurement campaigns.

  10. Cross sections of the reaction Pa-231(d,3n)U-230 for the production of U-230/Th-226 for targeted alpha therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgenstern, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Štursa, Jan; Capote, R.; Sin, M.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Zielinska, B.; Apostolidis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2009), 054612/1-054612/6 ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Pa-231 * U-230 * Th-226 * reaction cross section * targeted alpha therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  11. Isomeric cross sections of neutron induced reactions on Ge and Ir isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlastou, R.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Kokkoris, M.; Perdikakis, G.; Galanopoulos, S.; Patronis, N.; Serris, M.; Perdikakis, G.; Harissopulos, S.; Demetriou, P.

    2008-01-01

    The 72 Ge(n,α) 69m Zn, 74 Ge(n,α) 71m Zn, 76 Ge(n,2n) 75g+m Ge and 191 Ir(n,2n) 190 Ir g+m1 and 191 Ir(n,2n) 190 Ir m2 reaction cross sections were measured from 9.6 to 11.4 MeV relative to the 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na reference reaction via the activation method. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 2 H(d,n) 3 He reaction at the 5 MV VdG Tandem T11/25 accelerator of NCSR 'Demokritos'. Statistical model calculations using the codes STAPRE-F and EMPIRE (version 2.19) and taking into account pre-equilibrium emission were performed on the data measured in this work as well as on data reported in literature. (authors)

  12. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1995-12-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.

  13. Geometrical aspects of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemarsson, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences; Lantz, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). The Svedberg Laboratory

    2003-04-01

    A black-disc model combined with accurate matter densities has been used for an investigation of reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He, {sup 4}He and {sup 12}C projectiles. A simple relation is derived between the energy dependence of the reaction cross sections and the strength of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. A comparison is also made of the reaction cross sections for {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He for six different nuclei {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 58,60}Ni and {sup 208}Pb.

  14. Converting point-wise nuclear cross sections to pole representation using regularized vector fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingjie; Ducru, Pablo; Liu, Shichang; Forget, Benoit; Liang, Jingang; Smith, Kord

    2018-03-01

    Direct Doppler broadening of nuclear cross sections in Monte Carlo codes has been widely sought for coupled reactor simulations. One recent approach proposed analytical broadening using a pole representation of the commonly used resonance models and the introduction of a local windowing scheme to improve performance (Hwang, 1987; Forget et al., 2014; Josey et al., 2015, 2016). This pole representation has been achieved in the past by converting resonance parameters in the evaluation nuclear data library into poles and residues. However, cross sections of some isotopes are only provided as point-wise data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. To convert these isotopes to pole representation, a recent approach has been proposed using the relaxed vector fitting (RVF) algorithm (Gustavsen and Semlyen, 1999; Gustavsen, 2006; Liu et al., 2018). This approach however needs to specify ahead of time the number of poles. This article addresses this issue by adding a poles and residues filtering step to the RVF procedure. This regularized VF (ReV-Fit) algorithm is shown to efficiently converge the poles close to the physical ones, eliminating most of the superfluous poles, and thus enabling the conversion of point-wise nuclear cross sections.

  15. Cross sections for nuclide production in proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb measured using the inverse kinematics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Keita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic production cross sections were measured for proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb by means of the inverse kinematics method at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The measured production cross sections of residual nuclei in the reaction 93Nb + p at 113 MeV/u were compared with previous data measured by the conventional activation method in the proton energy range between 46 and 249 MeV. The present inverse kinematics data of four reaction products (90Mo, 90Nb, 88Y, and 86Y were in good agreement with the data of activation measurement. Also, the model calculations with PHITS describing the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes generally well reproduced the measured isotopic production cross sections.

  16. Compilation and evaluation of 14-MeV neutron-activation cross sections for nuclear technology applications. Set I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evain, B.P.; Smith, D.L.; Lucchese, P.

    1985-04-01

    Available 14-MeV experimental neutron activation cross sections are compiled and evaluated for the following reactions of interest for nuclear-energy technology applications: /sup 27/Al(n,p)/sup 27/Mg, Si(n,X)/sup 28/Al, Ti(n,X)/sup 46/Sc, Ti(n,X)/sup 47/Sc, Ti(n,X)/sup 48/Sc, /sup 51/V(n,p)/sup 51/Ti, /sup 51/V(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 48/Sc, Cr(n,X)/sup 52/V, /sup 55/Mn(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 52/V, /sup 55/Mn(n,2n)/sup 54/Mn, Fe(n,X)/sup 54/Mn, /sup 54/Fe(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 51/Cr, /sup 59/Co(n,p)/sup 59/Fe, /sup 59/Co(n,..cap alpha..)/sup 56/Mn, /sup 59/Co(n,2n)/sup 58/Co, /sup 65/Cu(n,p)/sup 65/Ni, Zn(n,X)/sup 64/Cu, /sup 64/Zn(n,2n)/sup 63/Zn, /sup 113/In(n,n')/sup 113m/In, /sup 115/In(n,n') /sup 115m/In. The compiled values are listed and plotted for reference without adjustments. From these collected results those values for which adequate supplementary information on nuclear constants, standards and experimental errors is provided are selected for use in reaction-by-reaction evaluations. These data are adjusted as needed to account for recent revisions in the nuclear constants and cross section standards. The adjusted results are subsequently transformed to equivalent cross sections at 14.7 MeV for the evaluation process. The evaluations are performed utilizing a least-squares method which considers correlations between the experimental data. 440 refs., 41 figs., 46 tabs.

  17. Determination of Cross-Sections of Fast-Muon-Induced Reactions to Cosmogenic Radionuclides

    CERN Multimedia

    Hagner, T; Heisinger, B; Niedermayer, M; Nolte, E; Oberauer, L; Schonert, S; Kubik, P W

    2002-01-01

    %NA54 %title\\\\ \\\\We propose to measure cross-sections for fast muon-induced production of radionuclides. Firstly to study the contribution of fast-muon-induced reactions to the in-situ production of cosmogenic radionuclides in the lithosphere. Concrete is used to simulate the rock and to generate a secondary particle shower. The reaction channels to be measured are: C to $^{10}$Be, O to $^{10}$Be and $^{14}$C, Si to $^{26}$Al, S to $^{26}$Al, Ca to $^{36}$Cl, Fe to $^{53}$Mn and $^{205}$Tl to $^{205}$Pb. The energy dependent cross-section can be described by one single parameter $\\sigma_0$ and the energy dependence $\\rm\\overline{E}^{0.7}$ on the mean energy $\\rm\\overline{E}$. The irradiations of the targets is done at CERN. The produced radionuclides are measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in Munich and Zurich.\\\\ \\\\Secondly, muon induced signals can be a major source of background in experiments with low event rates located deep underground. We intent to study the produced radioactivity by fast-muon-ind...

  18. α-induced reaction cross sections in the mass range A ≈ 20 ‑ 50: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In a recent review it was shown that the cross sections of α-induced reactions in the A ≈ 20 ‑ 50 mass range follow a general and smooth trend in most cases. For comparison of cross sections of different targets at various energies the method of reduced cross sections σ red and reduced energies E red was used. Four outliers were identified: 36Ar and 40Ar with unusal small cross sections and 23Na and 33S with unusual huge cross sections. New data for 23Na were presented at this NPA-7 conference; contrary to the previous data, these new data fit into the general systematics. In addition, a relation between the most effective energy E 0 for astrophysical reaction rates (the so-called Gamow window) and the reduced energy E red is presented.

  19. Experimental cross section evaluation for innovative 99Mo production via the (α,n) reaction on 96Zr target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pupillo, Gaia; Gambaccini, M.; Esposito, J.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.

    2014-01-01

    The recent crisis of 99 Mo production by nuclear reactors caused an unexpected worldwide 99m Tc shortening, forcing the international scientific community to find alternative production routes for these vital nuclides. One of the possibilities is to replace the current reactor-based method with the accelerator-based one. The aim of this work is the experimental evaluation of the 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction, using the well known stacked foil technique with natural Zr targets, in the energy range 33-8 MeV. The results were compared with the published experimental values, finding good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The results refer to 100% enriched 96 Zr target. The cross section values measured in the different irradiations show excellent agreement and indicate that the ideal energy range for 99 Mo production is 13-25 MeV. In comparison with the literature, there is good agreement in the trend of the cross section but at higher peak value. The 96 Zr(α,n) 99 Mo reaction is an interesting alternative production route of 99 Mo aimed at the realization of 99 Mo/ 99 mTc generators. Using enriched 96 Zr as target, 99 Mo is the only radioactive Mo-isotope produced, while using natural Zr as target, the resulting 99 Mo still has an high radioisotopic purity (only the radioactive 93 Mo is co-produced), but a lower specific activity. In both cases no Tc-nuclides are directly produced in target and the high purity 99m Tc results only from the decay of 99 Mo

  20. Formation cross section of iron-60 with reactor neutrons in 59Fe(n, γ)60Fe reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Suzuki, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ingrowth of 60 Co radioactivity in an iron sample irradiated in a nuclear reactor has been measured for determination of formation cross section of 60 Fe in the 59 Fe(n, γ) 60 Fe reaction with reactor neutrons. After 5 years cooling, the irradiated iron was purified from 60 Co and other radioactive nuclides by an anion exchange separation method and isopropyl ether extraction in hydrochloric acid. The amount of 60 Co ingrowth was measured by γ-spectrometry using a Ge-detector coupled to a multichannel pulse height analyzer 4 years after the purification of iron. Neutron flux of the irradiation position was calculated from the amount of 55 Fe produced. The observed value of 12.5 ± 2.8 barn is slightly greater than reported value for burnup cross section of 59 Fe(n, x)X, where x refers γ, α, d, p and 2n, and X is any nuclide produced by the above reactions. (author) 8 refs.; 2 tabs

  1. ENDF/B-VII.1 Nuclear Data for Science and Technology: Cross Sections, Covariances, Fission Product Yields and Decay Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Herman, Micheal W [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Oblozinsky, Pavel [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Dunn, Michael E [ORNL; Danon, Y. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI); Kahler, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Smith, Donald L. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Pritychenko, B [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Arbanas, Goran [ORNL; Arcilla, r [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Brewer, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brown, D A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Carlson, A. D. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Cho, Y S [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Derrien, Herve [ORNL; Guber, Klaus H [ORNL; Hale, G. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Hoblit, S [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Holloway, Shannon T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Johnson, T D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Kawano, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kiedrowski, B C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kim, H [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute; Kunieda, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larson, Nancy M [ORNL; Leal, Luiz C [ORNL; Lestone, J P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Little, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mccutchan, E A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Macfarlane, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); MacInnes, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Matton, C M [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mcknight, R D [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Mughabghab, S F [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Nobre, G P [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Palmiotti, G [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Palumbo, A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Pigni, Marco T [ORNL; Pronyaev, V. G. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Russia; Sayer, Royce O [ORNL; Sonzogni, A A [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Summers, N C [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Talou, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thompson, I J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia; Vogt, R L [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Van der Marck, S S [Nucl Res & Consultancy Grp, Petten, Netherlands; Wallner, A [University of Vienna, Austria; White, M C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Wiarda, Dorothea [ORNL; Young, P C [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

    2011-01-01

    The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is our latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0. These advances focus on neutron cross sections, covariances, fission product yields and decay data, and represent work by the US Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) in nuclear data evaluation that utilizes developments in nuclear theory, modeling, simulation, and experiment. The principal advances in the new library are: (1) An increase in the breadth of neutron reaction cross section coverage, extending from 393 nuclides to 423 nuclides; (2) Covariance uncertainty data for 190 of the most important nuclides, as documented in companion papers in this edition; (3) R-matrix analyses of neutron reactions on light nuclei, including isotopes of He; Li, and Be; (4) Resonance parameter analyses at lower energies and statistical high energy reactions for isotopes of Cl; K; Ti, V, Mn, Cr, Ni, Zr and W; (5) Modifications to thermal neutron reactions on fission products (isotopes of Mo, Tc, Rh, Ag, Cs, Nd, Sm, Eu) and neutron absorber materials (Cd, Gd); (6) Improved minor actinide evaluations for isotopes of U, Np, Pu, and Am (we are not making changes to the major actinides (235,238)U and (239)Pu at this point, except for delayed neutron data and covariances, and instead we intend to update them after a further period of research in experiment and theory), and our adoption of JENDL-4.0 evaluations for isotopes of Cm, Bk, Cf, Es; Fm; and some other minor actinides; (7) Fission energy release evaluations; (8) Fission product yield advances for fission-spectrum neutrons and 14 MeV neutrons incident on (239)Pu; and (9) A new decay data sublibrary. Integral validation testing of the ENDF/B-VII.1 library is provided for a variety of quantities: For nuclear criticality, the VII.1 library maintains the generally-good performance seen for VII.0 for a wide

  2. Cross sections and reaction rates of d+{sup 8}Li reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbes, M.J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Farrell, M.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Boyd, R.N. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gu, X. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hencheck, M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kalen, J.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mitchell, C.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Kolata, J.J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Lamkin, K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Smith, R. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Tighe, R. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashktorab, K. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, J. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Roberts, D. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Wang, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Humphrey, D. [Department of Physics, University of Western Kentucky, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Vourvopoulos, G. [Department of Physics, University of Western Kentucky, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Islam, M.S. [Department of Physics, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306 (United States)

    1995-02-20

    We have measured angular distributions of the {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li, {sup 7}Li){sup 3}H and {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li, {sup 9}Be)n reactions at E{sub c.m.}=1.5 to 2.8 MeV using an {sup 8}Li-radioactive-beam technique. Astrophysical S-factors and reaction rates were calculated from the measured cross sections. Although the {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li, {sup 9}Be)n cross section is small, it can contribute to {sup 9}Be synthesis. The {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li, {sup 7}Li){sup 3}H reaction has a sufficiently large cross section to destroy {sup 8}Li, which may decrease the synthesis of heavier elements. No products from the {sup 2}H({sup 8}Li, {sup 9}Li)p reaction were detected. We also present the results of calculations using the inhomogeneous model of primordial nucleosynthesis in several regions of parameter space. ((orig.))

  3. Construction of PWR nuclear cross sections for transient calculations. Test of the ANTI program against TWODIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorlaksen, B.

    1981-05-01

    Nuclear cross sections for fuel assemblies of the more recent Westinghouse designs, representing two different PWR reactor cores, are calculated as functions of average fuel temperature, moderator density, and moderator poison concentration. The cross-section functions are verified by referring to Westinghouse power-shape calculations and other analysis. Computations on the side reflector resulted in significantly higher albedo values than used previously for BWR's in similar nodal codes. This led to an investigation of the influence of the internodal coupling coefficients on the power shape. It is concluded that the calculated power shape is strongly dependent, on the choise of coupling coefficients. However, it is shown that ''the correct'' set of coupling coefficients depends mostly on the nodal configuration, and that it is fairly independent of the power condition. (author)

  4. Towards rotationally state-resolved differential cross sections for the hydrogen exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrakking, Marcus Johannes Jacobus [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The hydrogen exchange reaction H + H2 → H2 + H (and its isotopic variants) plays a pivotal role in chemical reaction dynamics. It is the only chemical reaction for which fully converged quantum scattering calculations have been carried out using a potential energy surface which is considered to be chemically accurate. To improve our ability to test the theory, a `perfect experiment`, measuring differential cross sections with complete specification of the reactant and product states, is called for. In this thesis, the design of an experiment is described that aims at achieving this goal for the D + H2 reaction. A crossed molecular beam arrangement is used, in which a photolytic D atom beam is crossed by a pulsed beam of H2 molecules. DH molecules formed in the D + H2 reaction are state-specifically ionized using Doppler-free (2+1) Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and detected using a Position-sensitive microchannel plate detector. This detection technique has an unprecedented single shot detection sensitivity of 6.8 103 molecules/cc. This thesis does not contain experimental results for the D + H2 reaction yet, but progress that has been made towards achieving this goal is reported. In addition, results are reported for a study of the Rydberg spectroscopy of the water molecule.

  5. Towards rotationally state-resolved differential cross sections for the hydrogen exchange reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrakking, M.J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The hydrogen exchange reaction H + H[sub 2] [yields] H[sub 2] + H (and its isotopic variants) plays a pivotal role in chemical reaction dynamics. It is the only chemical reaction for which fully converged quantum scattering calculations have been carried out using a potential energy surface which is considered to be chemically accurate. To improve our ability to test the theory, a 'perfect experiment', measuring differential cross sections with complete specification of the reactant and product states, is called for. In this thesis, the design of an experiment is described that aims at achieving this goal for the D + H[sub 2] reaction. A crossed molecular beam arrangement is used, in which a photolytic D atom beam is crossed by a pulsed beam of H[sub 2] molecules. DH molecules formed in the D + H[sub 2] reaction are state-specifically ionized using Doppler-free (2+1) Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and detected using a Position-sensitive microchannel plate detector. This detection technique has an unprecedented single shot detection sensitivity of 6.8 10[sup 3] molecules/cc. This thesis does not contain experimental results for the D + H[sub 2] reaction yet, but progress that has been made towards achieving this goal is reported. In addition, results are reported for a study of the Rydberg spectroscopy of the water molecule.

  6. Measurement of the ${240}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section

    CERN Multimedia

    Following proposal CERN-INTC-2010-042 / INTC-P-280 (“Measurement of the fission cross-section of $^{240}$Pu and $^{242}$Pu at CERN’s n_TOF Facility”), the parallel measurement of the $^{240}$Pu(n,f) and $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-sections was carried out at n_TOF EAR-1. While the $^{242}$Pu measurement was successful, unexpected sample-induced damage to the detectors caused by the high α-activity of the 240Pu samples resulted in a deterioration of the detector performance over the data taking period of several months, which compromised the measurement. This obstacle can be eliminated by performing the measurement in EAR-2, where the higher neutron flux will allow collecting data in a much shorter time, thus preventing the degradation of the detectors. In addition to this obvious advantage, the measurement would also benefit from the stronger suppression of the sample-induced α-background, due to the shorter times-of-flight involved.

  7. The cross section functions for neutron induced reactions with Rhenium in the energy range 13.0-19.5 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovančević, N.; Daraban, L.; Stroh, H.; Oberstedt, S.; Hult, M.; Bonaldi, C.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Lutter, G.; Marissens, G.; Vidali, M.

    2017-09-01

    The technique for measuring neutron activation cross-sections using wide energy neutron beams (NAXSUN) was recently developed at JRC-Geel . This method is based on the detection of the gamma activity induced by the activation of the samples in different but overlapping neutron fields and following an unfolding procedure. In the present work, measurements of the cross-section functions by the NAXSUN technique for the (n,a), (n,2n), (n,p) and (n,3n) reactions on rhenium isotopes 185Re and 187Re were performed. The results are the first experimental data for the mentioned reaction cross-sections in the energy range 13.0-19.5 MeV. The obtained data are of interest for possible applications of Re in nuclear technology and medicine.

  8. Importance of nuclear triaxiality for electromagnetic strength, level density and neutron capture cross sections in heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Eckart; Massarczyk, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections for neutron capture in the range of unresolved resonances are predicted simultaneously to level distances at the neutron threshold for more than 100 spin-0 target nuclei with A >70. Assuming triaxiality in nearly all these nuclei a combined parameterization for both, level density and photon strength is presented. The strength functions used are based on a global fit to IVGDR shapes by the sum of three Lorentzians adding up to the TRK sum rule and theory-based predictions for the A-dependence of pole energies and spreading widths. For the small spins reached by capture level densities are well described by only one free global parameter; a significant collective enhancement due to the deviation from axial symmetry is observed. Reliable predictions for compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability as expected from the derived global parameterization are important for nuclear astrophysics and for the transmutation of nuclear waste.

  9. Curves and tables of neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Asami, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Tadashi

    1990-07-01

    Neutron cross-section curves from the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library version 3, JENDL-3, are presented in both graphical and tabular form for users in a wide range of application areas in the nuclear energy field. The contents cover cross sections for all the main reactions induced by neutrons with an energy below 20 MeV including; total, elastic scattering, capture, and fission, (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,α), (n,p) reactions. The 2200 m/s cross-section values, resonance integrals, and Maxwellian- and fission-spectrum averaged cross sections are also tabulated. (author)

  10. Psychosocial reactions to upper extremity limb salvage: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Lindsay; Yancosek, Kathleen; Lospinoso, Josh; Cancio, Jill

    2017-08-09

    Descriptive cross-sectional survey study. Limb salvage spares an extremity at risk for amputation after a major traumatic injury. Psychosocial recovery for individuals with lower extremity limb salvage has been discussed in the literature. However, to date, psychosocial reactions for individuals with upper extremity (UE) limb salvage have not been examined. To determine which factors may influence psychosocial adaptation to UE limb salvage. Participants (n = 30; 28 males) were adults (mean, 30.13; range, 18-61) who sustained an UE limb salvage from a traumatic event. Adaptation was measured using a modified version of the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory. A linear mixed-effects regression found that worse psychosocial adaptation was associated with having less than a college degree, being less than 6 months post-injury, being older than 23 years, and having more pain. Dominant hand injuries were found to influence poor adaptation on the denial Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory subscale only. The results of this study indicate that there is potential for nonadaptive reactions and psychological distress with certain variables in UE limb salvage. Therapists may use these results to anticipate which clients may be at risk for poor psychosocial outcomes. This study indicates the need for early consideration to factors that affect psychological prognosis for the UE limb salvage population. However, future research is indicated to better understand the unique psychosocial challenges and needs of these individuals. 4. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental determination of proton induced reaction cross sections on {sup nat}Ni near threshold energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, Md. Shuza [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumer [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics; Spellerberg, Stefan; Spahn, Ingo; Qaim, Syed M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Shariff, Md. Asad; Das, Sopan [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka (Bangladesh). Tandem Accelerator Facilities; Rashid, Md. Abdur [Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh). Dept. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    A newly developed facility at the 3 MV Tandem Accelerator at Dhaka for measurement of proton induced reaction cross sections in the energy region below 5 MeV is outlined and tests for the beam characterization are described. The results were validated by comparison with the well-known excitation function of the {sup 64}Ni(p, n){sup 64}Cu reaction. Excitation functions of the reactions {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 60,61}Cu, {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 55,57,58m+g}Co and {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 57}Ni were also measured from threshold to 16 MeV using the stacked-foil technique, whereby irradiations were performed with 5 MeV protons available at the Tandem Accelerator and 16.7 MeV protons at the BC 1710 cyclotron at Juelich, Germany. The radioactivity was measured using HPGe γ-ray detectors. A few results are new, the others strengthen the database. In particular, the results of the reaction {sup nat}Ni(p, x){sup 61}Cu below 3 MeV could serve as beam monitor.

  12. Investigation of total cross sections for reactions induced by {sup 6}He interaction with silicon nuclei at energies between 5 and 50 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdrakhimova, G. D., E-mail: gaukharkd@gmail.com [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Sobolev, Yu. G.; Kuhtina, I. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kuterbekov, K. A. [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Mendibaev, K. O.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Experimental excitation functions in terms of the total cross sections for {sup 6}He + Si nuclear reactions are analyzed in the energy range between 5 and 50 MeV/A, and a brief survey of the procedures used to obtain experimental data is given. Particular attention is given to describing experiments performed in beams of radioactive nuclei from the accelerators of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The experimental data in question are analyzed on the basis of a semimicroscopic optical model.

  13. Adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs in epileptic outpatients: a cross-sectional study in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Soha; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin; Karimzadeh, Iman

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the pattern and possible risk factors of adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in epileptic outpatients in Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional study for a period of 1 year on epileptic outpatients under antiepileptic therapy. All present adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to antiepileptics and their clinical and paraclinical characteristics were recorded. Causality assessment was performed by the Naranjo algorithm. Seriousness of ADRs was assessed by the World Health Organization's definition. Schumock and Thornton questionnaire was applied to determine the preventability of ADRs. Statistical-descriptive analyses were performed. A total of 1055 adverse reactions to AEDs were recorded from 201 epileptic outpatients. Their mean ± SD age was 28.63 ± 15.06 years. The most frequent detected adverse reactions to AEDs were sedation (7.29%) and amnesia (6.35%). According to the Naranjo algorithm, 604 (57.25%) ADRs were possible. The rate of preventable ADRs was 57%. Only 8 (0.76%) ADRs were identified as serious. No statistically significant association was found between the number of ADRs and age, sex, type of epilepsy, and AED generation (P > 0.05). In contrast, polytherapy was associated with more ADRs than monotherapy (P = 0.039). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, females were at a higher risk of experiencing an adverse reaction to AEDs than males (odds ratio, 3.676; 95% confidence interval, 1.198-11.283; P = 0.023). Adverse reactions to AEDs were very common among epileptic outpatients. The female sex was identified as a risk factor for experiencing an ADR.

  14. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  15. Measurements of neutron cross section of the {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Shinohara, Nobuo; Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The effective thermal neutron cross section of {sup 243}Am(n,{gamma}){sup 244}Am reaction was measured by the activation method. Highly-purified {sup 243}Am target was irradiated in an aluminum capsule by using a research reactor JRR-3M. The tentative effective thermal neutron cross sections are 3.92 b, and 84.44 b for the production of {sup 244g}Am and {sup 244m}Am, respectively. (author)

  16. Measurement of fission cross-section of actinides at n_TOF for advanced nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Calviani, Marco; Montagnoli, G; Mastinu, P

    2009-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the determination of high accuracy neutron-induced fission cross-sections of various isotopes - all of which radioactive - of interest for emerging nuclear technologies. The measurements had been performed at the CERN neutron time-of-flight facility n TOF. In particular, in this work, fission cross-sections on 233U, the main fissile isotope of the Th/U fuel cycle, and on the minor actinides 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm have been analyzed. Data on these isotopes are requested for the feasibility study of innovative nuclear systems (ADS and Generation IV reactors) currently being considered for energy production and radioactive waste transmutation. The measurements have been performed with a high performance Fast Ionization Chamber (FIC), in conjunction with an innovative data acquisition system based on Flash-ADCs. The first step in the analysis has been the reconstruction of the digitized signals, in order to extract the information required for the discrimination between fission fragm...

  17. Revised Production Rates for Na-22 and Mn-54 in Meteorites Using Cross Sections Measured for Neutron-induced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, J. M.; Kim, K. J.; Reedy, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    The interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with extraterrestrial bodies produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. The production rates of many relatively short-lived radionuclides, including 2.6-year Na-22 and 312-day Mn-54, have been measured in several meteorites collected very soon after they fell. Theoretical models used to calculate production rates for comparison with the measured values rely on input data containing good cross section measurements for all relevant reactions. Most GCR particles are protons, but secondary neutrons make most cosmogenic nuclides. Calculated production rates using only cross sections for proton-induced reactions do not agree well with measurements. One possible explanation is that the contribution to the production rate from reactions initiated by secondary neutrons produced in primary GCR interactions should be included explicitly. This, however, is difficult to do because so few of the relevant cross sections for neutron-induced reactions have been measured.

  18. Effect of the imaginary part of the optical potential on the reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, G.N.; Avramov, S.; Dobromyslev, M.B.; Kim Yng Phung; Shilov, V.M.

    It has previously been shown that in a complex potential well model of heavy ion reactions, infinitely increasing depth of the imaginary part of the potential W/sub o/ does not lead to total absorption, i.e., the Thomas model. This assertion is examined in more detail. It is first shown, by using the complex square well, that as W/sub o/ goes to infinity no total absorption occurs and the reaction cross section, after peaking at some value of W/sub o/, decreases with further increase of W/sub o/ and vanishes at W/sub o/ = infinity. Moreover, the S matrix approaches unitary limit at small and large values of W/sub o/. The second part of this paper is devoted to the construction of the ion-ion potential by folding. The real part of the ion-ion potential can be obtained in explicit form in the approximation of the constant ion densities. The potential constants can be determined by fitting the experimental binding energies

  19. Measurement of thermal neutron cross section for {sup 241}Am(n,f) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamamoto, Shuji; Fujita, Yoshiaki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Miyoshi, Mitsuharu; Kimura, Itsuro; Kanno, Ikuo; Shinohara, Nobuo

    1997-03-01

    Making use of a standard neutron spectrum field with a pure Maxwellian distribution, the thermal neutron cross section for the {sup 241}Am(n,f) reaction has been measured relative to the reference value of 586.2b for the {sup 235U}(n,f) reaction. For the present measurement, electrodeposited layers of {sup 241}Am and {sup 235}U have been employed as back-to-back type double fission chambers. The present result at neutron energy of 0.0253 eV is 3.15 {+-} 0.097b. The ENDF/B-VI data is in good agreement with the present value, while the JENDL-3.2 data is lower by 4.2%. The evaluated data in JEF-2.2 and by Mughabghab are higher by 0.9% and 1.6%, respectively than the present result. The ratios of the earlier experimental data to the present value are distributed between 0.89 and 1.02. (author)

  20. Baryon exchange reactions in. pi. -p scattering at 4 GeV/c. [Differential cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharre, D.L.

    1977-04-01

    An experiment designed to study baryon exchange reactions in ..pi../sup -/p scattering at 4 GeV/c is discussed. The experiment was performed at the Bevatron and utilized a streamer chamber and a downstream spectrometer which consisted of two scintillation counter hodoscopes and a Cerenkov counter to define the fast proton trigger, and two planes of spark chambers to provide improved resolution on the forward track. Analysis of meson production in the reactions ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. pM/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. p..pi../sup -/M/sup 0/, ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. Lambda/sup 0/M/sup 0/ is discussed for backward production of meson systems M/sup -/ and M/sup 0/. Differential cross sections and decay distributions (where applicable) for ..pi../sup -/, rho/sup -/, rho/sup 0/, f/sup 0/, omega/sup 0/, eta/sup 0/, and K*/sup 0/ production are discussed. Upper limits for A/sup -//sub 1/, A/sup -//sub 2/, and B/sup -/ production are given. Baryon resonance production and limits on exotic meson production are briefly discussed.

  1. Fluctuations of nuclear cross sections in the region of strong overlapping resonances and at large number of open channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the symmetrized Simonius representation of the S matrix statistical properties of its fluctuating component in the presence of direct reactions are investigated. The case is considered where the resonance levels are strongly overlapping and there is a lot of open channels, assuming that compound-nucleus cross sections which couple different channels are equal. It is shown that using the averaged unitarity condition on the real energy axis one can eliminate both resonance-resonance and channel-channel correlations from partial r transition amplitudes. As a result, we derive the basic points of the Epicson fluctuation theory of nuclear cross sections, independently of the relation between the resonance overlapping and the number of open channels, and the validity of the Hauser-Feshbach model is established. If the number of open channels is large, the time of uniform population of compound-nucleus configurations, for an open excited nuclear system, is much smaller than the Poincare time. The life time of compound nucleus is discussed

  2. Vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections for the D + H sub 2 yields DH + H reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continetti, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    In this thesis, crossed-molecular-beams studies of the reaction D + H{sub 2} {yields} DH + H at collision energies of 0.53 and 1.01 eV are reported. Chapter 1 provides a survey of important experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of the hydrogen exchange reaction. Chapter 2 discusses the development of the excimer-laser photolysis D atom beam source that was used in these studies and preliminary experiments on the D + H{sub 2} reaction. In Chapter 3, the differential cross section measurements are presented and compared to recent theoretical predictions. The measured differential cross sections for rotationally excited DH products showed significant deviations from recent quantum scattering calculations, in the first detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical differential cross sections. These results indicate that further work on the H{sub 3} potential energy surface, particularly the bending potential, is in order.

  3. Direct measurement of the 7Be(n, α4 He reaction cross sections for the cosmological Li problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross sections of the 7Be(n, α4He reaction for p-wave neutrons were experimentally determined at Ec.m. = 0.20−0.81 MeV close to the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN energy window for the first time on the basis of the detailed balance principle by measuring the time-reverse reaction. The obtained cross sections are much larger than the cross sections for s-wave neutrons inferred from the recent measurement at the n_TOF facility in CERN, but significantly smaller than the theoretical estimation widely used in the BBN calculations. The present results suggest the 7Be(n, α4 He reaction rate is not large enough to solve the cosmological lithium problem

  4. Comprehensive Amm242 neutron-induced reaction cross sections and resonance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Wimer, N.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2017-06-01

    The 242Am metastable isomer's neutron-induced destruction mechanisms were studied at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter. New Amm242 neutron-capture cross sections were determined from 100 meV to 10 keV, and the absolute scale was set with respect to a concurrent measurement of the well-known Amm242 neutron-induced-fission cross section. The new fission cross section spans an energy range from 100 meV to 1 MeV and was normalized to the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated cross section to set the absolute scale. Our Amm242(n ,f ) cross section agrees well with the cross section of Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. C 29, 2188 (1984)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.29.2188 over this large energy interval. The new neutron-capture cross section measurement complements and agrees well with our recent results reported below 1 eV in Buckner et al. [Phys. Rev. C 95, 024610 (2017)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.95.024610. This new work comprises the most comprehensive study of Amm242(n ,γ ) above thermal energy. Neutron-induced resonance energies and parameters were deduced with the sammy R -matrix code for incident neutron energies up to 45 eV, and the new average Γγ is 13 % higher than the evaluated average γ width.

  5. Isotopic production cross-sections and recoil velocities of spallation-fission fragments in the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+e

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, J; Wlazlo, W; Benlliure, J; Casarejos, E; Armbruster, P; Bernas, M; Enqvist, T; Legrain, R; Leray, S; Rejmund, F; Mustapha, B; Schmidt, K.-H; Stéphan, C; Taïeb, J; Tassan-Got, L; Volant, C; Boudard, A; Czajkowski, S; 10.1103/PhysRevC.75.014602

    2007-01-01

    Fission fragments of 1A GeV 238U nuclei interacting with a deuterium target have been investigatedwith the Fragment Separator (FRS) at GSI (Darmstadt) by measuring their isotopicproduction cross-sections and recoil velocities. The results, along with those obtained recently forspallation-evaporation fragments, provide a comprehensive analysis of the spallation nuclear productionsin the reaction 238U(1A GeV)+d. Details about experiment performance, data reductionand results will be presented.

  6. Measurement of 6Li(n,α)3H reaction cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, C.

    1979-01-01

    The 6 Li(n,α) 3 H reaction cross section was measured at 12 discrete neutron energies between 80 KeV and 470 KeV by using the Oak Ridge Linear Acelerator (ORELA) as a pulsed neutron source. The neutron beam was filtered through 20 cm or 30 cm of Armco iron which produces several monoenergetic energies groups (iron windows) between 20 KeV and 1000 KeV about 2 KeV wide. The (n,α) events were detected by a 1 mm thick Li-glass scintillator and the neutron flux was measured with a NE110 plastic scintillator 6,6 cm thick and 10 cm in diameter. Multiple scattering corrections in the Li-glass and the NE110 scintillator efficiency were determined theoretically by using Monte Carlo technique. The 6 Li content in the Li-glasses was determined by transmission measurements with low energy neutrons. A theoretical fit was applied to the results by the R-matrix theory. (Author) [pt

  7. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  8. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  9. The D(+) + H2 reaction: differential and integral cross sections at low energy and rate constants at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lezana, Tomás; Scribano, Yohann; Honvault, Pascal

    2014-08-21

    The D(+) + H2 reaction is investigated by means of a time independent quantum mechanical (TIQM) and statistical quantum mechanical (SQM) methods. Differential cross sections and product rotational distributions obtained with these two theoretical approaches for collision energies between 1 meV and 0.1 eV are compared to analyze the dynamics of the process. The agreement observed between the TIQM differential cross sections and the SQM predictions as the energy increases revealed the role played by the complex-forming mechanism. The importance of a good description of the asymptotic regions is also investigated by calculating rate constants for the title reaction at low temperature.

  10. Binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron induced binary and tertiary reaction cross-sections have been evaluated for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ta, W, Pt and their isotopes in the 'energy range 0.5 MeV to 20 MeV using the nuclear statistical empirical model. The reactions considered are (n,n'), (n,2n), (n,3n), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He), (n,α), (n,np), (n,nd), (n,nt), (n,n 3 He), (n,nα), (n,pn), (n,2p), (n,ν), (n,αp), (n,dn) and (n,pα). Most of the above mentioned elements are used as structural materials in nuclear reactors and the measured cross-section data for the above listed reactions are seldom available for the radiation damage and safety analysis. With a view to providing these data, this nuclear model based evaluation has been undertaken. The associated uncertainties in the cross-sections and their fission averages have also been evaluated. (author)

  11. Measurement of the $^{242}$Pu(n,f) reaction cross-section at the CERN n_TOF facility

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080481; Kokkoris, Michael; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    The accurate knowledge of relevant nuclear data, such as the neutron-induced fission cross sections of various plutonium isotopes and other minor actinides, is crucial for the design of advanced nuclear systems as well as the development of comprehensive theoretical models of the fission process. The $^{242}$Pu(n,f) cross section was measured at the CERN n_TOF facility taking advantage of the wide energy range and the high instantaneous flux of the neutron beam. In this work, results for the $^{242}$Pu(n,f) measurement are presented along with a detailed description of the experimental setup, Monte-Carlo simulations and the analysis procedure, and a theoretical cross section calculation performed with the EMPIRE code.

  12. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1995-06-01

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10MeV to 1GeV. At energies up to 100MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for neutrons incident for on 238 U, 233-236 U, 238-242 Pu, 237 Np, 232 Th, 241-243 Am and 242-247 Cm. At energies from 100MeV to 1GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 232 Pa, 237 Np, 238 Np, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Am and 242-248 Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was placed upon a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nuclei considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or for other incident particles. Comparisons with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicate that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the measurements data. (author) 82 refs

  13. Calculations of neutron and proton induced reaction cross sections for actinides in the energy region from 10 MeV to 1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Several nuclear model codes were applied to calculations of nuclear data in the energy region from 10 MeV to 1 GeV. At energies up to 100 MeV the nuclear theory code GNASH was used for nuclear data calculation for incident neutrons for 238 U, 233-236 U, 238-242 Pu, 237 Np, 232 Th, 241-243 Am and 242-247 Cm. At energies from 100 MeV to 1 GeV the intranuclear cascade exciton model including the fission process was applied to calculations of protons and neutrons with 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 232 Pa, 237 Np, 238 Np, 239 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Am and 242-248 Cm. Determination of parameter systematics was a major effort in the present work that was aimed at improving the predictive capability of the models used. An emphasis was made on a simultaneous analysis of data for a variety of reaction channels for the nucleus considered, as well as of data that are available for nearby nuclei or other incident particles. Comparison with experimental data available on multiple reaction cross sections, isotope yields, fission cross sections, particle multiplicities, secondary particle spectra, and double differential cross sections indicates that the calculations reproduce the trends, and often the details, of the experimental data. (author)

  14. Application of a gamma spectroscopy system to the measurement of neutron cross sections necessary to the development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deruelle, O.

    2002-09-01

    This work concerns the development of nuclear energy and nuclear waste management in particular. Two parts of this study can be distinguished. In the first part (theoretical), a thorium-plutonium fuel based on MOX and dedicated for PWR was investigated in order to transmute plutonium in a potentially low waste fuel cycle. It was shown that this type of fuel is not regenerative but could be used for a transition to the industrial thorium fuel cycle without building new reactors. Thanks to moderated neutron spectra and high loaded actinide mass in the core, U-233 is quickly created (∼300 kg/y) for a loss of about ∼1200 kg of fissile plutonium. In the second part (experimental), we have developed and built a new reaction chamber to measure neutron cross sections of actinides by alpha-gamma spectroscopy. This experimental device (in principle transportable) was commissioned in the high flux reactor of ILL Grenoble. Neutron flux was measured by gamma spectroscopy of irradiated Al and Co samples and was found to be of the order of 6,0. 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 (4%). By the irradiation of 11μg of Am-243 and Pu-242, corresponding capture cross sections were measured in the thermal neutron flux at 50 deg C. These are the results: 243 Am(n,γ) 244fond. Am = 4,72±1,42b; 243 Am(n,γ) 244total Am = 74,8±3,25b; 242 Pu (n,γ) 243 Pu = 22,7±1,09b. Uncertainties of the measurements are mostly due to the determination of the neutron flux, efficiency of the electronics and ambiguities related to the definition of the area under α-γ spectra. Although our measured cross sections deviate (by 10-30%) from the corresponding values widely used in evaluated data libraries such as ENDF, JEF and JENDL, in this work we have demonstrated the feasibility and principle of our experimental method. Furthermore, the value for the 243-americium capture cross-section is in very good agreement with the last two measurements done in 1975 and 1997. These facts allowed us to think of new experiments

  15. Table of cross section (n,p), (n,{alpha}) and (n, 2n) reactions in steel components and other nuclear materials; Secciones eficaces (n, p), (n,{alpha}) y (n, 2n) de los componentes de los aceros y otros materiales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Jimenez, J.

    1972-07-01

    Reactions (n,p) and (n, {alpha} ) produce in the materials large amount of hydrogen and helium atoms. The presence, specially of helium, changes the physical properties of materials and particularly reduce the ductility of irradiated stainless steel cladding above 500 degree centigree. Cross sections of all isotopes which constitute the S.S. and other clad materials, have been completed. Experimental available data were obtained from BNL (1956, 64 and 68), and the rest, from J.C, ROY and J . J . HAWTON calculations in a fission neutron spectrum (1960). (Author)

  16. Studying the excitation function of the full cross section of a reaction using a modified transmission technique: Initial results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobolev, Yuri, G.; Penionyhkevich, Y. E.; Borcha, K.; Ivanov, M. P.; Kugler, Andrej; Kulko, A. A.; Kroha, Václav; Maslov, V. A.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Negret, A.; Rvenko, R. V.; Savrov, Ya. Yu.; Skobelev, N. K.; Trzaska, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 8 (2012), s. 952-957 ISSN 1062-8738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08002 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross sections * excitation functions * radioactive beams Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  17. Cross sections of 43Sc, 44Sc, 46Sc isotopes formed in the 45Sc + 3He reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skobelev, N. K.; Kulko, A. A.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Voskoboynik, E. I.; Kroha, Václav; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Mrázek, Jaromír; Piskoř, Štěpán; Šimečková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 7 (2013), s. 795-799 ISSN 1062-8738 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross section * HPGe detector * cyclotron U-120M Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  18. Cross sections for production of 43Sc, 44Sc, and 46Sc isotopes in the 45Sc + 3He reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skobelev, N. K.; Kulko, A. A.; Penionzhkevich, Y. E.; Voskoboynik, E. I.; Kroha, Václav; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Mrázek, Jaromír; Piskoř, Štěpán; Šimečková, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 5 (2013), s. 410-414 ISSN 1547-4771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross section * cyclotron U120M * HPGe detector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  19. AVERAGE REACTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR 74-MEV TO 112-MEV ALPHA-PARTICLES ON I-127 AND CS-133

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; WILSCHUT, HW; RULLA, WF; FELDER, GN

    The average reaction cross section for 74- to 112-MeV alpha particles on I-127 and Cs-133 was measured by a new method using a magnetic spectrograph and a CsI scintillation detector. The result, sigma-R = 2220+/-50 mb, is in good agreement with optical model calculations and finite-range microscopic

  20. Validation of Cross Sections with Criticality Experiment and Reaction Rates: the Neptunium Case

    CERN Document Server

    Leong, L S; Audouin, L; Berthier, B; Le Naour, C; Stéphan, C; Paradela, C; Tarrío, D; Duran, I

    2014-01-01

    The Np-237 neutron-induced fission cross section has been recently measured in a large energy range (from eV to GeV) at the n\\_TOF facility at CERN. When compared to previous measurements the n\\_TOF fission cross section appears to be higher by 5-7\\% beyond the fission threshold. To check the relevance of the n\\_TOF data, we considered a criticality experiment performed at Los Alamos with a 6 kg sphere of Np-237, surrounded by uranium highly enriched in U-235 so as to approach criticality with fast neutrons. The multiplication factor k(eff) of the calculation is in better agreement with the experiment when we replace the ENDF/B-VII. 0 evaluation of the Np-237 fission cross section by the n\\_TOF data. We also explored the hypothesis of deficiencies of the inelastic cross section in U-235 which has been invoked by some authors to explain the deviation of 750 pcm. The large modification needed to reduce the deviation seems to be incompatible with existing inelastic cross section measurements. Also we show that t...

  1. Cross-sections of spallation residues produced in 1A GeV 208Pb on proton reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlazlo, W.; Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow; Enqvist, T.; Armbruster, P.

    2000-02-01

    Spallation residues produced in 1 GeV per nucleon 208 Pb on proton reactions have been studied using the fragment separator facility at GSI. Isotopic production cross-sections of elements from 61 Pm to 82 Pb have been measured down to 0.1 mb with a high accuracy. The recoil kinetic energies of the produced fragments were also determined. The obtained cross-sections agree with most of the few existing gamma-spectroscopy data. Data are compared with different intranuclear-cascade and evaporation-fission models. Drastic deviations were found for a standard code used in technical applications. (orig.)

  2. Cross section and analyzing power for quasifree (p,n) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddeucci, T.N.; Byrd, R.C.; Carey, T.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Rybarcyk, L.J.; Sailor, W.C.; Ciskowski, D.E.; Goodman, C.D.; Huang, W.; Gulmez, E.; Marchlenski, D.; Sugarbaker, E.; Prout, D.; Rapaport, J.

    1990-01-01

    Cross sections and analyzing powers have been measured for 12 C(p,n) at 494 MeV and 795 MeV and for Pb(p,n) at 795 MeV. The data span an energy loss range of at least 200 MeV, which is sufficient to clearly reveal the large peak associated with quasifree neutron knockout. The kinematics, cross section, and analyzing power for this peak are compared to the corresponding observables for free nucleon-nucleon scattering and to the observables calculated with a relativistic Fermi-gas model. 15 refs., 3 figs

  3. Calculations of (n,2n) reaction cross sections for Barium isotopes from 5 to 20 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahan, Halide; Sahan, Muhittin; Tel, Eyyup

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the excitation functions of (n,2n) reactions for 30,32,34,35,37,38Ba isotopes are calculated using TALYS 1.6, EMPIRE-3.2.2, and ALICE-GDH codes based on statistical model up to 20 MeV. Moreover, the cross section for each isotope have also been estimated at 14.2 MeV using semi empirical formula developed by four different authors. The calculated and estimated cross-sections are compared with experimental cross-sections from EXFOR and compared with the evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 library. Results are close agreement with the experimental data from literature.

  4. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K{sub eff} > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k{sub eff} + 2{sigma} {le} 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  5. Nuclear data, cross section libraries and their application in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named seminar. The articles deal with evaluated nuclear data libraries, computer codes for neutron transport and reactor calculations using nuclear data libraries, and the application of nuclear data libraries for the calculation of the interaction of neutron beams with materials. (HSI)

  6. Calculations of H+ + Cs→H(2s or 2p) + Cs+ reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, A.; Spiess, G.

    1975-01-01

    The H(2s) and H(2p) atom production cross-sections are calculated and compared with experimental results in the incident proton energy range 250-2400eV. The calculation method used involves a perturbation of the stationary molecular states, these adiabatic potentials being obtained from a pseudo-potential describing the core of cesium [fr

  7. Numerical estimates of multiple reaction corrections in neutron cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, G.

    1979-04-01

    A method to evaluate the effect of secondary neutrons in 14-15 MeV neutron cross-section measurements is presented. The emission spectra of secondary neutrons are calculated by means of the preequilibrium and statistical models. An expression for the collision probability in a homogenous body has been utilized in the calculations. (author)

  8. Neutron cross-section of {sup 34}S(n,{gamma}){sup 35}S reaction preliminary measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Felisberto Alves; Maidana, Nora Lia; Vanin, Vito Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Koskinas, Marina Fallone; Dias, Mauro da Silva [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Roma, Josep Sempau [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The thermal neutron cross-section for {sup 34}S(n,{gamma}){sup 35}S reaction was measured more than one decade ago and the obtained values are discrepant. This time, we irradiated two samples of natural sulfur (with 4.21(8)% of {sup 34}S) simultaneously, along with Au-Al alloy (0.1 % of gold) to monitor the neutron flux, using the well-known cross-section value of the {sup 197}Au(n,{gamma}){sup 198}Au reaction. One pair sample and monitor was irradiated bared and other pair inside cadmium cover about 0.5 mm thickness, to apply the cadmium difference method. The irradiation was performed near the core of the research reactor IEA-R1 IPEN (Nuclear Energy Research Institute in Sao Paulo, Brazil). The flux monitor activities were measured using a High Purity Germanium detector. The residual activity of the {sup 35}S , which is a pure {beta}{sup -} emitter, was measured in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} calibration system, composed of a gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) crystals operating in coincidence. The beta activity of {sup 35}S was determined through the extrapolation method associated with the tracer method, where the irradiated natural sulfur is dissolved in carbon disulfide and mixed with a solution containing the tracer, {sup 60}Co. An amount of the resulting solution was dropped in a substrate of collodion. After the first measurement, both sides of the source were covered with absorbers of collodion or aluminum and new measurements were taken. This process was repeated some times, reducing gradually the {beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting efficiency. The resulting complex behavior of the {beta}, {gamma} and coincidence detection efficiency was simulated by Monte Carlo method using modified penelope subroutines. The {sup 35}S activity was obtained by the extrapolation to 100% {beta} efficiency fitting parameterized simulations results to the experimental data by least squares method. (author)

  9. Cross section measurements of {sup 75}As(α,xn){sup 76,77,78}Br and {sup 75}As(α,x){sup 74}As nuclear reactions using the monitor radionuclides {sup 67}Ga and {sup 66}Ga for beam evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Katharina; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. for Neuroscience and Medicine, INM-5: Nuclear Chemistry; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (VUB) (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.

    2017-08-01

    For the production of the medically interesting radionuclides {sup 76}Br and {sup 77}Br cross sections of α-particle induced reactions on arsenic, leading to the formation of {sup 76,77,78}Br as well as to the non-isotopic impurity {sup 74}As, were measured from their thresholds up to 37 MeV. Sediments of elemental arsenic were used as targets and irradiated, using the established stacked-foil technique. In order to remove discrepancies of the existing literature data, the cross section ratios of the monitor nuclides {sup 67}Ga/{sup 66}Ga were used for determination of the α-particle energies as well as the effective beam current through all the stacks, thus inferring the experimental cross sections. Compared with the available excitation functions the new data indicate slightly divergent curve shapes. In the case of {sup 76}Br the excitation function seems to be shifted to somewhat lower α-particle energies, and also the maximum cross section of the formation of {sup 77}Br tends to be slightly lower compared with the curve recommended to date. In the case of a re-evaluation, these new data should be taken into account, as they may contribute to enhance the accuracy of the excitation functions.

  10. Measurement of cross-sections for the (p, xn) reactions in natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandaker, M.U.; Uddin, M.S.; Kim, K.S.; Lee, Y.S.; Kim, G.N.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sections for the residual radionuclide productions by proton-induced activation on natural molybdenum were measured up to 40 MeV by using a stacked-foil technique at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). This work has given a new data set for the formation of the investigated radionuclides. The present results for most of the radionuclides showed in general good agreement with the earlier reported data as well as the theoretical data taken from the calculations based on the ALICE-IPPE code. The integral yields for thick targets were also deduced from the measured cross-sections of the produced radionuclides. The optimum production of the 99m Tc radionuclide with minimum impurities can be obtained at the energy ranges from 10 to 23 MeV, where the production yields were obtained as 597.15 MBqμA -1 h -1 at saturation. The measured cross-sections are used for production of medically important radionuclides such as 99m Tc, 94m Tc and 93m,g Tc by using the medium-energy cyclotrons

  11. The cross-section of returns, benchmark model parameters, and idiosyncratic volatility of nuclear energy firms after Fukushima Daiichi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatta, Kerstin; Kaspereit, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes how the stock market returns, the factor loadings from the Carhart (1997) 4-factor model, and the idiosyncratic volatility of shares in energy firms have been affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Unlike existing studies, which provide evidence of a wealth transfer from nuclear to renewable energy firms for specific countries, we use an international sample and investigate whether changes in the regulatory environment and the firm-specific commitment to nuclear and renewable energies correlate with the capital market's reactions to the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Our findings suggest that the more a firm relies on nuclear power, the more its share price declined after the accident. A commitment to renewable energies does not prevent declines in share prices but significantly helps to reduce the increase in market beta that is associated with this event. Nuclear energy firms domiciled in countries with a higher number of regulatory interventions that were triggered by the catastrophe have lower abnormal returns than those that are domiciled elsewhere. However, as a cross-sectional analysis reveals, a stronger commitment to nuclear power is the main driver for negative stock market returns. Furthermore, nuclear energy firms domiciled in countries with stronger regulatory shifts away from nuclear energy experience significant increases in market beta and the book-to-market equity factor loading according to the Carhart (1997) 4-factor model. We conclude that capital market participants are able to differentiate between the affectedness of firms with respect to their product portfolio. Energy firms could prevent increases in market beta due to catastrophes such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident by shifting some of their energy production from nuclear to renewable or other sources. - Highlights: • Abnormal stock returns of nuclear energy firms around Fukushima Daiichi depend on the mix of their energy portfolio. • Higher commitment to

  12. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H.; Ejiri, H. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.

    1997-03-01

    A compact accelerator with high current ion source, low energy beam transport elements and windowless gas target was designed to investigate the thermonuclear reaction cross section. The idea of this project focused on the cross section measurement of the fusion reaction data {sup 3}He+{sup 3}He-{sup 4}He+p+p at 25keV. The system will be installed in Otoh Cosmo Observatory (1270m.w.e.) to get rid of the huge cosmic and environmental background. It consists of NANOGUN ECR ion source, focusing elements made of permanent magnets window less {sup 3}He gas target and/or He{sup 3} plasma target and detector telescopes with low noise and low background. Requirements for these were discussed technically and various ideas were proposed. (author)

  13. EDITAR: a module for reaction rate editing and cross-section averaging within the AUS neutronics code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.S.

    1986-03-01

    The EDITAR module of the AUS neutronics code system edits one and two-dimensional flux data pools produced by other AUS modules to form reaction rates for materials and their constituent nuclides, and to average cross sections over space and energy. The module includes a Bsub(L) flux calculation for application to cell leakage. The STATUS data pool of the AUS system is used to enable the 'unsmearing' of fluxes and nuclide editing with minimal user input. The module distinguishes between neutron and photon groups, and printed reaction rates are formed accordingly. Bilinear weighting may be used to obtain material reactivity worths and to average cross sections. Bilinear weighting is at present restricted to diffusion theory leakage estimates made using mesh-average fluxes

  14. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Nuclear design manual for generation of cross section and heterogeneous formfunction for CASMO-3/MASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Cho, Byung Oh; Song, Jae Seong; Lee, Chung Chan.

    1996-12-01

    A three-dimensional reactor core simulation code, MASTER, has been developed as a part of the ADONIS project in KAERI. CASMO-3 prepares various two-group cross sections for the constituents of a reactor core such as fuel assembly, radial and axial reflectors, control rod and detector for MASTER. This report includes the standard design procedure for generation of two-group cross sections and heterogeneous formfunction by CASMO-3/FORM for MASTER. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Strength function of xenon 127 and cross section of 127I(νe, e-)127Xe reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutostanskij, Yu.S.; Shul'gina, N.B.

    1989-01-01

    The strenght functions S β (E) and the cross section of the reaction ν e + 127 I → e - + 127 Xe were calculated in the framework of the theory of finite Fermi-systems. The results obtained are used to estimate the possibility of using an iodine-xenon detector in the experiments with solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos. The advantages of the iodine-xenon detector over the chlorine-argon one are shown. 13 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  17. Differential cross section measurements for hadron therapy: 50 MeV/nucleon 12C reactions on H, C, O, Al, and natTi targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divay, C.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Finck, Ch.; Karakaya, Y.; Labalme, M.; Rousseau, M.; Salvador, S.; Vanstalle, M.

    2017-04-01

    During a carbon therapy treatment, the beam undergoes inelastic nuclear reactions leading to the production of secondary fragments. These nuclear interactions tend to delocate a part of the dose into healthy tissues and create a mixed radiation field. In order to accurately estimate the dose deposited into the tissues, the production rate of these fragments all along the beam path have to be taken into account. But the double differential carbon fragmentation cross sections are not well known in the energy range needed for a treatment (up to 400 MeV/nucleon). Therefore, a series of experiments aiming to measure the double differential fragmentation cross sections of carbon on thin targets of medical interest has been started by our collaboration. In March 2015 we performed an experiment to study the fragmentation of a 50 MeV/nucleon 12C beam on thin targets at GANIL. During this experiment, energy and angular cross-section distributions on H, C, O, Al, and natTi have been measured. The experimental set-up will be detailed as well as the systematic error study and all the experimental results will be presented.

  18. Study of the cross-section of the reaction D + D → 4He + γ with incident energies below 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degre, A.

    1969-01-01

    The measurement of the cross-section of the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He has been made for getting some information concerning the nuclear structure of 4 He and the existence of the d+d final state in the photo-decay of 4 He. The E1 transition is forbidden because of the selection rules of the isobaric spin which makes this reaction a useful tool for looking for a 2 + , T=0 state. In the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He, the photon is produced in an electrical quadrupolar transition which makes us expect a very low value for the cross-section, certainly in the magnitude order of 0.01 micro-barn (10 -32 cm 2 ) and a very important background noise (chiefly from cosmic origin). The measurement of this cross-section requires a dedicated efficient equipment. The incident deuteron beam is produced by a 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, the beam intensity is about 1 μA and we use a gaseous deuterium target. The gamma detector is based on NaI(Tl) crystal combined with an XP-1031 photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) crystal is surrounded by a scintillating plastic allowing the detection of anti-coincidence events and as a consequence the reduction of the cosmic background. We have measured the value of the differential cross-section at different angles: 0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees (Center of mass frame) for an incident energy of 3.64 MeV. We have added our results to others previously published in the literature, we see that they are complementary and as a whole show the non-existence of fine structure in the excitation curve

  19. $^7Be(n,\\alpha)^4He$ reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: measurement of the cross section in a wide energy range at n_TOF (CERN)

    CERN Document Server

    Barbagallo, M.; Cosentino, L.; Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Mengoni, A.; Dressler, R.; Schumann, D.; Käppeler, F.; Colonna, N.; Finocchiaro, P.; Ayranov, M.; Damone, L.; Kivel, N.; Aberle, O.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barros, S.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cristallo, S.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lerendegui, J.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Pappalardo, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Piscopo, M.; Plompen, A.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vollaire, J.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-01-01

    The energy-dependent cross section of the 7Be(n,alpha)4He reaction, of interest for the so-called Cosmological Lithium Problem in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of 7Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure 7Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha-particles have been recorded in two Si-7Be-Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 60's at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence here reported clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in ...

  20. Experimental test of the non-reproducibility of cross sections in dissipative reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Yu Chuan; Tian Wen Dong; Li Song Lin; Li Zhi Chang; Lu Xiu Qin; Zhao Kui; Fu Chang Bo; Liu Jian Cheng; Jiang Hua; Hu Gui Qing

    2002-01-01

    Two independent measurements of cross sections for the sup 1 sup 9 F + sup 9 sup 3 Nb dissipative heavy ion collisions have been performed at incident energies from 100 to 108 MeV in steps of 250 keV. In the two measurements, two independently prepared targets were used. All other experimental conditions were identical in both experiments. The data indicate that non-reproducibility of the non-self-averaging oscillation is yielded in the two measurements. This supports the recent theoretical predictions of spontaneous coherence, slow phase randomization and extreme sensitivity in highly excited complex quantum systems

  1. Measurement of the proton total reaction cross section for 159Tb, 181Ta and 197Au between 20 and 48 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Birchall, J.; Davison, N.E.; Jong, M.S. de; Ginther, D.L.; Hasell, D.K.; Nasr, T.N.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Carlson, R.F.; Cox, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Proton total reaction cross sections have been measured for the nuclei 159 Tb, 181 Ta and 197 Au at seven proton energies between 20 and 48 MeV using an attenuation technique. The experimentally determined energy dependence of the total reaction cross sections is compared with results obtained for black nucleus and optical model calulations. (Auth.)

  2. A procedure for automatic updating of total cross section libraries of the Mercure IV code for nuclear safeguard applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, C.; Amici, S.

    1991-01-01

    The measuring utilization of Montecarlo codes for the simulation of the measurement techniques used in the field of Nuclear Safeguards and the high performances required (error<1%), needs the implementation of libraries with updated nuclear data. MERCURE IV is a computer code especially developed for the non destructive measurement techniques simulation. In addition to an analysis of the MERCURE IV code features, this work presents an algorithm developed for generating the library of the total gamma cross section used by the code

  3. Total and partial cross sections of the $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te reaction measured via in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Netterdon, L.; Mayer, J.; Scholz, P.; Zilges, A.

    2015-01-01

    An extended database of experimental data is needed to address uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Especially $\\alpha$+nucleus optical model potentials at low energies are not well known. The in-beam technique with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was successfully applied to the measurement of absolute cross sections of an ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reaction on a heavy nucleus at sub-Coulomb energies. The total and partial cross-s...

  4. Sensitivity analysis of the U238 cross sections in fast nuclear systems - Program SENSEAV-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Moura Neto, C. de.

    1980-01-01

    For many performance parameters of reactors the tabulated calculation/experimental ratios indicate that some potential problems exist in the cross sections data or calculation models used to investigate the critical experimental data. A first step toward drawing a more definitive conclusion is to perform a seletive importance analysis by sensitivity profiles and covariance data files for the cross sections data used in the calculation. Many works in the current literature show that some of these uncertainties come from uncertainties in 238 U(n,γ) 238 U(n,f) and 239 Pu(n,f). Perturbation methods were developed to analyse the effects of finite changes in a large number of cross sections and sumarize the investigation by a group dependent sensitivity coefficient. Sensitivies at critical condition were carried out for the few group macroscopic cross section of the U 238 with respect to their 26 group microscopic absorption cross section. The results of this investigation point out that improvements should be done on specific range of energy of 238 U(n,γ). (Author) [pt

  5. Direct cross section measurement for the 18O(p,γ)19F reaction at astrophysical energies at LUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleo, F. R.; Best, A.; Imbriani, G.; Perrino, R.

    2018-01-01

    18O(p, γ)19F plays an important role in the AGB star scenarios. The low energy cross section could be influenced by a hypothetical low energy resonance at 95 keV and by the tails of the higher energy broad states. The 95 keV resonance lies in the energy window corresponding to the relevant stellar temperature range of 40-50 MK. Measurements of the direct cross section were performed at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA), including the unobserved low energy resonance, the higher energy resonances and the non-resonant component, taking advantage of the extremely low environmental background. Here we report on the experimental setup and the status of the analysis.

  6. Study of (n,2n reaction on 191,193Ir isotopes and isomeric cross section ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastou R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section of 191Ir(n,2n190Irg+m1 and 191Ir(n,2n190Irm2 reactions has been measured at 17.1 and 20.9 MeV neutron energies at the 5.5 MV tandem T11/25 Accelerator Laboratory of NCSR “Demokritos”, using the activation method. The neutron beams were produced by means of the 3H(d,n4He reaction at a flux of the order of 2 × 105 n/cm2s. The neutron flux has been deduced implementing the 27Al(n,α reaction, while the flux variation of the neutron beam was monitored by using a BF3 detector. The 193Ir(n,2n192Ir reaction cross section has also been determined, taking into account the contribution from the contaminant 191Ir(n,γ192Ir reaction. The correction method is based on the existing data in ENDF for the contaminant reaction, convoluted with the neutron spectra which have been extensively studied by means of simulations using the NeusDesc and MCNP codes. Statistical model calculations using the code EMPIRE 3.2.2 and taking into account pre-equilibrium emission, have been performed on the data measured in this work as well as on data reported in literature.

  7. Measurements of deuteron-induced reaction cross-sections on natural nickel up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-02-01

    Deuteron-induced cross-sections of the {sup nat}Ni(d,x){sup 55–58,60}Co, {sup 57}Ni, {sup 52g,54}Mn and {sup 61}Cu reactions were measured from the respective threshold energies to 24 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The results were compared with the available experimental data and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2014 library. Present results show a reasonable agreement with the recently reported experimental data while a partial agreement is found with the evaluated data. The results are expected to further enrich the experimental database and to understand the discrepancies among the previous measurements. The {sup nat}Ni(d,x){sup 61}Cu cross-sections recommended by the IAEA overestimate recent experimental ones, and their upgrade has been proposed.

  8. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  9. Improving nuclear data accuracy of 241Am and 237Np capture cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerovnik Gašper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the OECD/NEA WPEC subgroup 41, ways to improve neutron induced capture cross sections for 241Am and 237Np are being sought. Decay data, energy dependent cross section data and neutron spectrum averaged data are important for that purpose and were investigated. New time-of-flight measurements were performed and analyzed, and considerable effort was put into development of methods for analysis of spectrum averaged data and re-analysis of existing experimental data.

  10. Measurement and analysis of the excitation function and isomeric cross section ratios for α-induced reaction on Ir, Au, Re and Ta nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.

    1998-01-01

    Excitation functions and a few isomeric cross section ratios for production of (1) 192 Au, 193 Au, 194 Au, 195 Au and 192 Ir nuclides in α-induced reactions on 191,193 Ir, (2) 197 Tl, 197m Hg, 198m.g Tl, 199 Tl and 200 Tl nuclides in α-induced reaction in 197 Au and (3) 183 Re and 184m.g Re nuclides in α-induced reaction in 181 Ta and 185 Re are obtained from the measurements of the residual activities by the conventional stacked-foils technique from threshold to 50 MeV. The excitation function and isomeric cross section ratios for nuclear reaction 181 Ta (α,n) 184m.g Re are compared with the theoretical calculation using the code Stapre which is based on exciton model for pre-equilibrium phase and Hauser-Feshbach formalism taking angular momentum and parity into account for the equilibrium phase of the nuclear reaction. All other experimental excitation functions are compared with the calculations considering equilibrium as well as pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism according to the geometry dependent hybrid (GDH) model and hybrid model of Blann using the code Alice/91. The high energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism whereas the low energy parts are dominated by equilibrium evaporation with its characteristic peak. The GDH model provides a potentially better description of the physical process (i.e. a higher probability for peripheral collisions to undergo precompound decay than for central collisions) compared to hybrid model. However in the energy range of present measurement most of the excitation functions are fitted reasonably well by both GDH model and hybrid model with initial exciton number N 0 =4 (N n =2, N p =2, N h =0). Barring a few reactions we have found the overall agreement between theory and experiment is reasonably good taking the limitations of the theory into account. (author)

  11. Reaction Cross Section Calculations in Neutron Induced Reactions and GEANT4 Simulation of Hadronic Interactions for the Reactor Moderator Material BeO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli ÇAPALI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BeO is one of the most common moderator material for neutron moderation; due to its high density, neutron capture cross section and physical-chemical properties that provides usage at elevated temperatures. As it’s known, for various applications in the field of reactor design and neutron capture, reaction cross–section data are required. The cross–sections of (n,α, (n,2n, (n,t, (n,EL and (n,TOT reactions for 9Be and 16O nuclei have been calculated by using TALYS 1.6 Two Component Exciton model and EMPIRE 3.2 Exciton model in this study. Hadronic interactions of low energetic neutrons and generated isotopes–particles have been investigated for a situation in which BeO was used as a neutron moderator by using GEANT4, which is a powerful simulation software. In addition, energy deposition along BeO material has been obtained. Results from performed calculations were compared with the experimental nuclear reaction data exist in EXFOR.

  12. Experience in using the covariances of some ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections: proposed improvements and addition of cross-reaction covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent ratio data, with carefully evaluated covariances, were combined with eleven of the ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections using the generalized least-squares method. The purpose was to improve these evaluated cross sections and covariances, as well as to generate values for the cross-reaction covariances. The results represent improved cross sections as well as realistic and usable covariances. The latter are necessary for meaningful intergral-differential comparisons and for spectrum unfolding

  13. Evaluation of the nuclear cross section variance-covariance matrices issued from the nuclear optical model; Evaluation des matrices de variance-covariance des sections efficaces nucleaires issues du modele optique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brassart, M. [Ecole Nationale Superieure Ingenieurs de Bourges, 18 - Bourges (France); Mounier, C. [CEA Saclay, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Service d' Etudes des Reacteurs et de Modelisation Avancee, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Dossantos-Uzarralde, P. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear reaction models play an important role in today's nuclear data evaluations. There are, however, difficulties associated with evaluating data uncertainties, both while performing the experimental measurements as well as constructing them by nuclear models. In this general context, our interest is particularly targeted towards the study of the propagation uncertainties within nuclear models. In this report we discuss two distinct ways of calculating the nuclear cross section variance-covariance matrices and then show these can be applied to the nuclear spherical optical model. (authors)

  14. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilaire, S. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF 91 (France); Koning, A.J. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, PO Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus de la Plaine, CP 226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations. While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  15. Microscopic cross sections: An utopia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.; Goriely, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing need for cross sections far from the valley of stability poses a challenge for nuclear reaction models. So far, predictions of cross sections have relied on more or less phenomenological approaches, depending on parameters adjusted to available experimental data or deduced from systematical relations.While such predictions are expected to be reliable for nuclei not too far from the experimentally known regions, it is clearly preferable to use more fundamental approaches, based on sound physical bases, when dealing with very exotic nuclei. Thanks to the high computer power available today, all major ingredients required to model a nuclear reaction can now be (and have been) microscopically (or semi-microscopically) determined starting from the information provided by a nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. We have implemented all these microscopic ingredients in the TALYS nuclear reaction code, and we are now almost able to perform fully microscopic cross section calculations. The quality of these ingredients and the impact of using them instead of the usually adopted phenomenological parameters will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Verification of dosimetry cross sections above 10 MeV based on measurement of activation reaction rates in fission neutron field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Naoteru; Miura, Toshimasa; Yamaji, Akio.

    1996-01-01

    To validate the dosimetry cross sections in fast neutron energy range, activation reaction rates were measured for 5 types of dosimetry cross sections which have sensitivity in the energy rage above 10 MeV utilizing JRR-4 reactor of JAERI. The measured reaction rates were compared with the calculations reaction rates by a continuous energy monte carlo code MVP. The calculated reaction rates were based on two dosimetry files, JENDL Dosimetry File and IRDF-90.2. (author)

  17. Cross-section and analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,pn)n reaction at 189 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B D; Sowinski, J; Baldwin, A R; Franklin, W; Watson, J W; Wissink, S; Wolanski, M; Yang, G; Glöckle, W; Witala, H

    2000-01-01

    We measured cross sections and analyzing powers for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H and sup 2 H(n,pn)n reactions at 189 MeV at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). These measurements are designed to search for evidence of three-body forces in the nuclear force and have the advantage that the Coulomb force is not involved. The analyzing-power measurements for the sup 2 H(n,n) sup 2 H reaction are in close agreement with those from the analog sup 2 H(p,p) sup 2 H reaction at nearby energies and do not agree quantitatively with available three-body, Faddeev calculations, either with or without three-body forces included. The sup 2 H(n,pn)n measurements are still under analysis.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic feedback model to calculate the neutronic cross-section in PWR reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Daniela Maiolino Norberto

    2011-01-01

    In neutronic codes,it is important to have a thermal-hydraulic feedback module. This module calculates the thermal-hydraulic feedback of the fuel, that feeds the neutronic cross sections. In the neutronic co de developed at PEN / COPPE / UFRJ, the fuel temperature is obtained through an empirical model. This work presents a physical model to calculate this temperature. We used the finite volume technique of discretized the equation of temperature distribution, while calculation the moderator coefficient of heat transfer, was carried out using the ASME table, and using some of their routines to our program. The model allows one to calculate an average radial temperature per node, since the thermal-hydraulic feedback must follow the conditions imposed by the neutronic code. The results were compared with to the empirical model. Our results show that for the fuel elements near periphery, the empirical model overestimates the temperature in the fuel, as compared to our model, which may indicate that the physical model is more appropriate to calculate the thermal-hydraulic feedback temperatures. The proposed model was validated by the neutronic simulator developed in the PEN / COPPE / UFRJ for analysis of PWR reactors. (author)

  19. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  20. Measurement of activation cross-sections for high-energy neutron-induced reactions of Bi and Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo; Shahid, Muhammad [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiochemistry Division, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Lee, Manwoo [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The cross-sections for {sup 209}Bi(n, 4n){sup 206}Bi, {sup 209}Bi(n, 5n){sup 205}Bi, {sup nat}Pb(n,xn){sup 204m}Pb, {sup nat}Pb(n,xn){sup 203}Pb, {sup nat}Pb(n,xn){sup 202m}Pb,{sup nat}Pb(n,xn){sup 201}Pb, {sup nat}Pb(n,xn){sup 200}Pb, {sup nat}Pb(n,αxn){sup 203}Hg and {sup nat}Pb(n, pxn){sup 202}Tl reactions were determined at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Korea in the neutron energy range of 15.2 to 37.2 MeV. The above cross-sections were obtained by using the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The quasi-monoenergetic neutron used for the above reactions are based on the {sup 9}Be(p, n) reaction. Simulations of the spectral flux from the Be target were done using the MCNPX program. The cross-sections were estimated with the TALYS 1.6 code using the default parameter. The data from the present work and literature were compared with the data from the EAF-2010 and the TENDL-2013 libraries, and calculated values of TALYS 1.6 code. It shows that appropriate level density model, the γ-ray strength function, and the spin cut-off parameter are needed to obtain a good agreement between experimental data and theoretical values from TALYS 1.6 code. (orig.)

  1. Papers presented at the IAEA specialists' meeting on the development of an international nuclear decay data and cross-section database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains 20 papers presented at the IAEA meeting on the Development of an International Nuclear Decay Data and Cross-Section Database, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994, covering the following topics: Wall-charts of nuclides, PC systems presenting nuclear data, nuclear decay-data and uncertainties, nuclear spectroscopy, thermal neutron cross-sections and resonance-integrals, reactor-neutron activation analysis, nuclear data standards. (author). Refs, figs and tabs

  2. A measurement of the cross section of the reaction $pp \\rightarrow n\\Delta^{++} (1232)$ at ISR energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, N; Regler, Meinhard; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schubert, Klaus R; Winter, Klaus; Brandt, A; Dibon, Heinz; Flügge, G; Niebergall, F; Schumacher, P E; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Broll, C; Coignet, G; Favier, Jean; Massonnet, Louis; Vivargent, M; Bartl, Walter; Eichinger, H; Gottfried, Christian; Neuhofer, Günther; Kwak, N; Nagy, E; Regler, M; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schubert, K R; Winter, K; Brandt, A no 2; Dibon, H no 2; Fluegge, G no 2; Niebergall, F no 2; Schumacher, P E no 2; Aubert, J J no 3; Broll, C no 3; Coignet, G no 3; Favier, J no 3; Massonnet, L no 3; Vivargent, M no 3; Bartl, W no 4; Eichinger, H no 4; Gottfried, C no 4; Neuhofer, G no 4

    1976-01-01

    A measurement of the cross section of the charge-exchange reaction pp to Delta /sup ++/(1232)n at square root s=23, 31 and 45 GeV at the CERN-ISR is reported. The energy dependences continues to follow a power law p/sub lab//sup -n/ with n=1.94+or-0.03 indicating dominance of one-pion exchange at the lowest ISR energy; there is some evidence for deviation from this at the higher ISR energies. (8 refs).

  3. Analysis of human hair cross sections from two different population groups by Nuclear Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, C.P.U.T, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Eisa, M.E.M., E-mail: memeisa@yahoo.co [Sudan University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan)

    2010-06-15

    Trace element analysis of hair is used as a screening technique to assess body-nutrient levels and/or toxicity due to environmental pollutants. With the aim to compare element content and spatial distribution within scalp hair-shaft cross sections of two distinct human population groups, and to assess possible similarities and/or differences, hair samples from Sudan and South Africa were collected. Proton backscattering and Micro-PIXE were used to determine the matrix composition and content of light and middle transition elements, with beam energies of 1.5 and 3.0 MeV. Mapping analysis showed a relatively similar content distribution for S, Cl, K and Ca within each group. However significant differences, particularly for heavier metals, such as Fe and Zn were also found. Correspondence Analysis of the data showed a clear separation between the two groups when the total content over the hair cross section was considered.

  4. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of U234 in n-TOF at CERN for Generation IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dridi, W.

    2006-11-01

    Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross sections are needed in many research areas, including stellar nucleosynthesis, advanced nuclear fuel cycles, waste transmutation, and other applied programs. In particular, the accurate knowledge of U 234 (n,γ) reaction cross section is required for the design and realization of nuclear power plants based on the thorium fuel cycle. We have measured the neutron capture cross section of U 234 , with a 4π BaF 2 Total Absorption Calorimeter, at the recently constructed neutron time-of-flight facility n-TOF at CERN in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1 MeV. Monte-Carlo simulations with GEANT4 and MCNPX of the detector response have been performed. After the background subtraction and correction with dead time and pile-up, the capture yield from 0.03 eV up to 1.5 keV was derived. The analysis of the capture yield in terms of R-matrix resonance parameters is discussed. We have identified 123 resonances and measured the resonance parameters in the energy range from 0.03 eV to 1.5 keV. The mean radiative width γ > is found to be (38.2 ± 1.5) meV and the mean spacing parameter 0 > is (11.0 ± 0.2) eV, both values agree well with recommended values

  5. Measurements of the proton total reaction cross section for 24Mg, 646668Zn and 140Ce between 17.5 and 48 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, N.E.; Hasell, D.K.; Sourkes, A.M.; Oers, W.T.H. van

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections have been made for the deformed nuclei 24 Mg, 64 66 68 Zn and 140 Ce in the energy range 17.5 to 48 MeV using an attenuation technique. The cross sections are compared with various theoretical predictions and with existing data. (Auth.)

  6. Three years of cross-section measurements of (n,xn threshold reactions at TSL Uppsala and NPI Řež

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerle M.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We use (n,xn threshold reactions in various materials to measure high energy neutron flux from spallation reactions. Unfortunately, no experimental cross-section data exist for reactions with x higher than four and neutron energies over ∼  40  MeV. With the support from EFNUDAT we performed seven successful (n,xn cross-section measurements in two campaigns exploiting the quasi-monoenergetic neutron source at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. Neutron energies from the 7Li(p, n7Be based source were in the region 22 to 94 MeV. We carried out additional four irradiations with neutron energies from 17 up to 34 MeV using the quasi-monoenergetic neutron source of the Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež. We studied Al, Au, Bi, I, In, and Ta materials. Although we used different neutron sources, gamma detectors and foil geometries, we obtained consistent results. We observed good agreement with the data in EXFOR, so we believe we have understood and solved all possible sources of uncertainties.

  7. Catalysis of Nuclear Reactions by Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoglavšek, Matej

    2018-01-01

    Electron screening enhances nuclear reaction cross sections at low energies. We studied the nuclear reaction 1H(19F,αγ)16O in inverse kinematics in different solid hydrogen targets. Measured resonance strengths differed by up to a factor of 10 in different targets. We also studied the 2H(p,γ)3He fusion reaction and observed electrons emitted as reaction products instead of γ rays. In this case electron screening greatly enhances internal conversion probability.

  8. Catalysis of Nuclear Reactions by Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipoglavšek Matej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron screening enhances nuclear reaction cross sections at low energies. We studied the nuclear reaction 1H(19F,αγ16O in inverse kinematics in different solid hydrogen targets. Measured resonance strengths differed by up to a factor of 10 in different targets. We also studied the 2H(p,γ3He fusion reaction and observed electrons emitted as reaction products instead of γ rays. In this case electron screening greatly enhances internal conversion probability.

  9. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Bonomo, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; et al.

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body 6Li(d,pt)α reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process.

  10. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Bonomo, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body 6 Li(d,pt)α reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process

  11. Measurement of cross section and astrophysical factor of the d(d,p)t reaction using the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinollo, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Romano, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Bonomo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Cherubini, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy); Pizzone, R.G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Rolfs, C.; Schuermann, D.; Strieder, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)]|[Dipartimento di Metodologie Chimiche e Fisiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania (Italy)

    2005-07-25

    Knowledge about reactions involving deuterium is required for a correct understanding of stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis processes, and also in planning fusion reactors for energy production. We have studied the d(d,p)t reaction in the energy range from 1.5 MeV down to astrophysical energies by means of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the three-body {sup 6}Li(d,pt){alpha} reaction, at a beam energy of 14 MeV. Protons and tritons have been detected in coincidence and identified. Quasi-free events have been kinematically selected, in order to extract the cross section and the astrophysical factor, and compare them with the values measured for the direct d(d,p)t process.

  12. Wave packet calculation of cross sections, product state distributions and branching ratios for the O(1D)+HCl reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piermarini, V.; Balint-Kurti, G.G.; Gray, S.K.; Gogtas, F.; Lagana, A.; Hernandez, M.

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent quantum mechanical calculations have been carried out to estimate the total reactive cross sections, product branching ratios, and product quantum state distributions for the O( 1 D) + HCl reaction using both reactant and product Jacobi coordinates. The potential energy surface of T. Martinez et al. (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2000, 2, 589) has been used in the calculations. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results and with the results of classical trajectory calculations on the same surface. The comparisons demonstrate the suitability of the potential energy surface and provide useful insights into the reaction mechanism. The calculations using product Jacobi coordinates are the first calculations for this system which permit the prediction of state-to-state reaction probabilities and of product quantum state distributions

  13. Evaluation of cross sections for 197Au(n,3n) and 197Au(n,4n) reactions from threshold to 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Baosheng; Shen Qingbiao; Cai Dunjiu

    1994-01-01

    The measured data of cross sections for 197 Au(n,3n) and 197 Au(n,4n) reactions were collected and analysed. The theoretical calculations of above mentioned reactions were carried out to predict the data in higher energy region. The sets of cross sections for 197 Au(n,3n) and 197 Au(n,4n) reactions from threshold to 50 MeV were recommended on the basis of the experimental and calculated data. (2 figs)

  14. Partial gamma-ray cross section measurements in 109Ag(n, x n y p gamma) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carroll, James [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We report on absolute partial cross sections for production of discrete γ-rays using 109Ag(n, xnypγ) reactions with x ≤ 7 and y ≤ 1 in a total of 12 reaction channels. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer comprised of 20 high-purity Ge detectors with 20 BGO escape-suppression shields. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s (LANSCE) WNR facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 0.2 to 300 MeV. The time-of- flight technique was used to determine the incident neutron energies. Partial γ-ray cross sections have been measured for a total of 109 transitions and for neutron energies 0.8 MeV< En<300 MeV. An estimate of the population of isomers in the (n, n'), (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) channels was made.

  15. Measurement of isotopic cross sections of the fission fragments produced in 500 AMeV 208Pb + p reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Dominguez, B.

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this work is the study of the fission fragments produced in the spallation reaction 208 Pb + p at 500 AMeV. The fission fragments from Z=23 up to Z=59 have been detected and identified by using the inverse kinematics technique with the high-resolution spectrometer FRS. The production cross sections and the recoil velocities of 430 nuclei have been measured. The measured data have been compared with previous data. The isotopic distributions show a high precision. However, the absolute value of the fission cross section is higher than expected. From the experimental data the characteristics of the average fissioning system have been reconstructed (Z fis , A fis , E* fis ). In addition, the number of post-fission neutrons emitted from the fission fragments, v post , has been determined by using a new method. The experimental data have been compared to the two-steps models describing the spallation reaction. The impact of the model parameters on the observables has been analysed and the reasons Leading to the observed differences between the codes are also presented. This analyse shows a good agreement with the INCL4+ABLA code. (author)

  16. Evaluation of n + 16 Fe reaction cross section at 14 MeV incident ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, special attention was devoted to the increase in the accuracy of the calculation of nuclear data needed for structural materials. To do this, optical model (OM) scat 2 was ... with literature values within ± 5%. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 15 (November, 2009), pp 171 - 178 ...

  17. Measurement of cross-sections for produced radionuclide in proton induced reactions on natHf up to 45 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo; Naik, Haladhara; Kim, Guinyun

    2014-01-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Hf, Lu, and Ta radioisotopes from proton-induced reaction of nat Hf by using a stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the reported experimental data as well as the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS 1.4 code. The present results in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The present experimental results will play an important role in enrichment of the literature data base for proton-induced reactions on natural hafnium leading to various applications. Some of the investigated radionuclides (e.g. 177g Lu) have remarkable applications in the field of nuclear medicine, a thin layer activation analysis, and a trace element analysis

  18. Comparison of alpha decay and alpha transfer reactions in the lead region. [R matrix theory, absolute alpha widths, cross sections, 93 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Data were taken for five transitions in the lead region allowing a quantitative comparison with corresponding alpha-decay data via R-matrix theory using the same target + alpha nuclear potential. Good agreement between the absolute reduced widths determined from the two sets of data suggests that in transfer reactions, as in alpha decay, an alpha particle in its ground state is transferred in a one-step process. In a separate analysis, elastic and total reaction cross sections for the systems ..cap alpha.. + /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi were analyzed to obtain a limited set of potentials which, in turn, were used to calculate absolute alpha widths. Existing shell model calculations give ..gamma../sub ..cap alpha..//sup 2/ values three orders of magnitude smaller.

  19. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 100}Mo + {sup 116}Cd reaction -- energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In this experiment we tried to measure the evaporation residue cross section over a wide range of beam energies for the {sup 100}Mo + {sup 116}Cd reaction using the FMA. However, because of longer-than-estimated runs needed at each beam energy, and the difficulty of bending evaporation residues at the higher energies in the FMA, data were taken only at beam energies of E{sub beam} = 460, 490, and 521 MeV, which correspond to excitation energies of E{sub exc} = 62, 78, and 95 MeV, respectively. By comparing to results for the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reactions measured recently, we expect to demonstrate a strong entrance channel effect related to the hindrance of complete fusion in near-symmetric heavy systems (a fusion hindrance factor of the order 7-10 is expected on the basis of the Extra-Push Model). The data are being analyzed.

  20. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  1. Measurement of the cross section of charmed hadrons and the nuclear dependence alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, Ernesto Alejandro [Autonomous Univ. of San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2009-12-03

    With data from the SELEX experiment we study charm hadro-production. We report the differential production cross sections as function of the longitudinal and transverse momentum, as well as for two different target materials, of 14 charmed hadron and/or their decay modes. This is the most extensive study to date. SELEX is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab with high forward acceptance; it took data during 1996-1997 with 600 GeV/c Σ- and π-, and 540 GeV/c proton and π+ beams. It used 5 target foils (two copper and three diamond). We use the results to determine α, used in parametrizing the production cross section as ∞ Aα, where A is the mass number of the target nuclei. We found within our statistics that α is independent of the longitudinal momentum fraction xF in the interval 0.1 < xF < 1.0, with α = 0.778 ± 0.014. The average value of α} for charm production by pion beams is α meson = 0.850 ± 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average αbaryon = 0.755 ± 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams (Σ- and protons).

  2. Model for neutron total cross-section at low energies for nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galván Josa, V.M.; Dawidowski, J.; Santisteban, J.R.; Malamud, F.; Oliveira, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    At subthermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a large total cross-section due to small angle scattering processes. In this work, a new methodology to determine pore size distributions through the neutron transmission technique at subthermal energies is proposed and its sensitivity is compared with standard techniques. A simple model based on the form factor for spherical particles, normally used in the Small Angle Neutron Scattering technique, is employed to calculate the contribution of small angle effect to the total scattering cross-section, with the width and center of the radii distributions as free parameters in the model. Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments were performed to compare results as a means to validate the method. The good agreement reached reveals that the neutron transmission technique is a useful tool to explore small angle scattering effects. This fact can be exploited in situations where large samples must be scanned and it is difficult to investigate them with conventional methods. It also opens the possibility to apply this method in energy-resolved neutron imaging. Also, since subthermal neutron transmission experiments are perfectly feasible in small neutron sources, the present findings open new possibilities to the work done in such kind of facilities

  3. Capture cross-section and rate of the C(n,γ) C reaction from the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    life of which (5700±30 years) is longer than the time-scale of Big Bang nucleosynthesis. So, 14C is considered to be a seed nucleus for the production of heavier nuclei with A ≥. 20, where 14C(n, γ)15C competes with alpha, proton and deuteron capture reactions on. 14C [3,4]. Experimental efforts to measure the 14C(n, ...

  4. Differential cross section and recoil polarization measurements for the gamma p to K+ Lambda reaction using CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, Michael E. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We present measurements of the differential cross section and Lambda recoil polarization for the gamma p to K+ Lambda reaction made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. These measurements cover the center-of-mass energy range from 1.62 to 2.84 GeV and a wide range of center-of-mass K+ production angles. Independent analyses were performed using the K+ p pi- and K+ p (missing pi -) final-state topologies; results from these analyses were found to exhibit good agreement. These differential cross section measurements show excellent agreement with previous CLAS and LEPS results and offer increased precision and a 300 MeV increase in energy coverage. The recoil polarization data agree well with previous results and offer a large increase in precision and a 500 MeV extension in energy range. The increased center-of-mass energy range that these data represent will allow for independent study of non-resonant K+ Lambda photoproduction mechanisms at all production angles.

  5. Measurement of Fragment Production Cross Sections in the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{12}$C+$^{197}$Au Reactions at 62 $A$ MeV for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Tropea, S; Agodi, C; Blancato, A A; Bondì, M; Cappuzzello, F; Carbone, D; Cavallaro, M; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Giacoppo, F; Nicolosi, D; Pandola, L; Raciti, G; Rapisarda, E; Romano, F; Sardina, D; Scuderi, V; Sfienti, C

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, there has been a renewed interest in nuclear fragmentation studies for both hadrontherapy applications and space radiation protection. In both fields, fragmentation cross sections are needed to predict the effects of the ions nuclear interactions within the patient’s and the astronaut’s body. Indeed, the Monte Carlo codes used in planning tumor treatments and space missions must be tuned and validated by experimental data. However, only a limited set of fragmentation cross sections are available in literature, especially at Fermi energies. Therefore, we have studied the production of secondary fragments in the 12 C+ 12 C and 12 C+ 197 Au reactions at 62 A MeV. In this work, the measured 4 He cross sections angular distributions at four selected angles are presented and compared.

  6. Measurement and analysis of cross sections for (p,x) reactions on natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challan, M. B.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation functions (EFs) for the reactions n atMo(p,x) 92m Nb, and n atMo(p,x) 94 , 95m , 95g , 96 m, +g , 99m Tc up to 18 MeV from threshold have been measured employing the stacked foil activation technique, and using high resolution HPGe gamma spectrometry. Utilizing the simultaneous measurement of the excitation function of n atCu(p,x) 62 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 63 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 65 Zn, and n atTi(p,x) 48 V monitor reactions. The theoretical analysis of the EFs has been done using both the semi-classical as well as quantum mechanical codes which include compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium (PE) emission into consideration. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data. Effect of various free parameters used in the calculations has also been discussed. A significant contribution of pre-equilibrium component has been observed at these energies

  7. Neutron-induced reaction cross-sections of 93Nb with fast neutron based on 9Be(p,n) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Nadeem, M.; Sahid, M.

    2018-02-01

    The cross-sections of the 93Nb (n , 2 n)92mNb, 93Nb (n , 3 n)91mNb and 93Nb (n , 4 n)90Nb reactions with the average neutron energies of 14.4 to 34.0 MeV have been determined by using an activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The fast neutrons were produced using the 9Be (p , n) reaction with the proton energies of 25-, 35- and 45-MeV from the MC-50 Cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). The neutron flux-weighted average cross-sections of the 93Nb(n , xn ; x = 2- 4) reactions were also obtained from the mono-energetic neutron-induced reaction cross-sections of 93Nb calculated using the TALYS 1.8 code, and the neutron flux spectrum based on the MCNPX 2.6.0 code. The present results for the 93Nb(n , xn ; x = 2- 4) reactions are compared with the calculated neutron flux-weighted average values and found to be in good agreement.

  8. Evaluated activation cross sections of longer-lived radionuclides produced by deuteron induced reactions on natural titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B.; Tarkanyi, F.; Hermanne, A.

    2007-01-01

    Selected charged particle induced reactions are used to monitor the actual parameters of bombarding particle beams. One of these reactions is nat Ti(d,x) 48 V for which recommended cross section data are available in one of the databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.or.at/medical/). This database contains all together 22 monitor reactions for practical applications covering energy up to 100MeV depending on the reactions. In the case of the nat Ti(d,x) 48 V reaction recommended data are given in the 9-50MeV energy interval because at the time of creation not precise enough experimental data were available to recommend values from threshold up to 9MeV. In this work we measured the excitation function in this relevant low energy range, collected new experimental data and suggest high confidence recommended values for the missing low energy part of the monitor excitation function

  9. New calculations of cyclotron production cross sections of some positron emitting radioisotopes in proton induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, E.; Aydin, E.G.; Kaplan, A.; Aydin, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, new calculations on the excitation functions of 13 C(p, n) 13 N, 14 N (p, α) 11 C, 15 N(p, n) 15 O, 16 O(p, α) 13 N, 18 O(p, n) 18 F, 62 Ni(p, n) 62 Cu, 68 Zn(p, n) 68 Ga and 72 Ge(p, n) 72 As reactions have been carried out in the 5-40 MeV incident proton energy range. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve hybrid model, geometry dependent hybrid model, the cascade exciton model and full exciton model. Equilibrium effects were calculated according to Weisskopf-Ewing model. The calculated results have been compared with experimental data taken from literature. (author)

  10. Measurements of cross-sections of the proton-induced activation reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Uddin, M S; Ditrói, F; Hagiwara, M; Tarkanyi, F

    2005-01-01

    Excitation functions for the /sup 89/Y(p, x)/sup 89,88,86/Zr, /sup 89 /Y(p, x)/sup 88,87,87m,86/Y, /sup 89/Y(p, x)/sup 85,83,82/Sr and /sup 89/Y(p, x)/sup 84,83/Rb reactions were measured by a stacked foil activation technique in the energy range 15-80 MeV. The production for the long lived products like /sup 88/Zr, and /sup 88/Y are significantly larger than that of /sup nat/Mo+p, /sup nat/Nb+p and /sup nat/Zr+p processes. The productions of the medical isotopes, /sup 85/Sr and /sup 83/Sr are also effective by Y+p process using 80 MeV beam. The model calculations using ALICE-IPPE code compiled in MENDL-2P have the general trend of the measured results.

  11. Cross section calculations of medical 103Pd radioisotope using α and 3He induced reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir Bayram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular radioisotopes used in the prostate brachytherapy is Palladium-103 (103Pd. The radioactive plaque is sewn onto the eye as to cover the intraocular tumor shadow with a 2-3 mm margin. These plaques are temporary and radiation is continuously delivered over 5 to 7 days. At the end of treatment, the plaque is removed from eye. In this study, production cross–section calculations of 103Pd radionuclide used in brachytherapy produced by 101Ru(α,2n, 100Ru(α,n, 102Ru(3He,2n and 101Ru(3He,n reactions have been investigated in the different incident energy range up to 35 MeV. Twocomponent Exciton model and Generalized Superfluid model of the TALYS 1.6 code used to perform calculations and calculation results were compared with experimental results reported in the literature.

  12. Detection of helicobacter pylori in benign laryngeal lesions by polymerase chain reaction: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izadi Farzad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Helicobacter Pylori (HP was detected in some cases of chronic laryngitis, the results were not confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. By this time, it has not been found in laryngeal lesions by in house PCR, the most sensitive method for detecting the genome tracks. Regarding the previous results and also few numbers of studies about the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions, specifically by PCR, we aimed to investigate the presence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions by in-house PCR. Methods The samples were taken from 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions and frozen in −20°C. One milliliter (ml of lysis buffer was added to 100 mg (mg of each sample and the tube was placed in 56°C overnight. Then DNA extraction was carried out. Results To find HP DNA, in-house PCR was performed that revealed 5 positive results among 55 patients with benign laryngeal lesions. Of them, 3 were polyp, 1 was nodule and 1 was papilloma. Conclusion Although the number of positive results was not a lot in this study, it was in contrast with previous studies which could not find any HP tracks in benign laryngeal lesions by other methods. More studies about the prevalence of HP in benign laryngeal lesions improve judging about the effect of this infection on benign laryngeal lesions.

  13. Encoded physics knowledge in checking codes for nuclear cross section libraries at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. Kent

    2017-09-01

    Checking procedures for processed nuclear data at Los Alamos are described. Both continuous energy and multi-group nuclear data are verified by locally developed checking codes which use basic physics knowledge and common-sense rules. A list of nuclear data problems which have been identified with help of these checking codes is also given.

  14. Evaporation residue cross sections for the {sup 64}Ni + {sup 144,154}Sm reaction -- Energy dissipation in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Davids, C.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The fission hindrance of hot nuclei was deduced recently from an enhanced emission of GDR {gamma} rays, neutrons and charged particles prior to scission of heavy nuclei. In the most recent experiments addressing this topic, namely new measurements of the pre-scission {gamma} rays and evaporation residues from the {sup 32}S + {sup 184}W reaction, a rather sharp transition from negligible to full one-body dissipation occurs over the excitation energy region E{sub exc} = 60-100 MeV. However, the cross section does not appear to level out or start to decline again at the upper end of the energy range as expected in this interpretation. It is therefore clearly desirable to extend the excitation energy range to look for such an effect in order to either corroborate or refute this interpretation.

  15. Neutron capture cross section measurements and theoretical calculation for the {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-abyad, Mogahed; Mohamed, Gehan Y. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Experimental Nuclear Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    Neutron capture cross section (σ{sub 0}) and resonance integral (I{sub 0}) of the reaction {sup 186}W(n,γ){sup 187}W were measured experimentally using the research reactor (ETRR-2) and an Am-Be neutron source, also calculated using TALYS-1.6 code. The present results of σ{sub 0} are (39.08±2.6, 38.75±0.98 and 38.33 barn) and I{sub 0} are (418.5±74, 439.3±36 and 445.5 barn) by using the reactor, neutron source and TALYS-1.6, respectively. The present results are in acceptable agreement with most of the previous experimental and evaluated data as well as the theoretical calculations.

  16. Measurements of thermal neutron cross section and resonance integral for the 237Np(n,γ)238Np reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Katsuhei; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Kimura, Itsuro

    1994-01-01

    Making use of a standard neutron spectrum field with a pure Maxwellian distribution at the heavy water thermal neutron facility of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR), the thermal neutron cross section for the 237 Np(n,γ) 238 Np reaction was measured by the activation method, using a high purity Ge detector. The result is 158 ± 3 b, which is obtained relative to the reference value of 98.65 ± 0.09 b for the 197 Au(n,γ) 198 Au reaction. The present value is lower by about 13% than that of the ENDF/B-VI data. The data given by Mughabghab and obtained from JENDL-3 are larger by 11 to 14% than the present measurement. The resonance integral for the 237 Np(n,γ) 238 Np reaction was measured with a 1/E standard neutron spectrum in the cavity of the central graphite reflector region between the two-divided cores of the Kinki University Reactor (UTR-KINK), relative to the reference value of 1,550 ± 28 b for the 197 Au(n,γ) 198 Au reaction. By defining the Cd cut-off energy as 0.5 eV, the present resonance integral is 652 ± 24 b, which is in good agreement with the JENDL-3, ENDF/B-VI and Mughabghab data. However, most of the old experimental data are, in general, larger by 24 to 38% than the present measurement

  17. Evaluation of covariance for 238U cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Masahiro; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Kanda, Yukinori

    1995-01-01

    Covariances of 238 U are generated using analytic functions for representation of the cross sections. The covariances of the (n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions are derived with a spline function, while the covariances of the total and the inelastic scattering cross section are estimated with a linearized nuclear model calculation. (author)

  18. Description of nuclear structure and cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering on the basis of effective Skyrme forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprikov, V. I.; Pilipenko, V. V.; Soznik, A. P.; Tarasov, V. N.; Shlyakhov, N. A.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of constructing such new versions of effective nucleon-nucleon forces that would make it possible to describe simultaneously the cross sections for nucleon-nucleus scattering and quantities characterizing nuclear matter and the structure of finite even-even nuclei is investigated on the basis of a microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potential that is calculated by using effective Skyrme interaction. A procedure for optimizing the parameters of Skyrme forces by employing fits to specific angular distributions for neutron-nucleus scattering and by simultaneously testing the features of nuclear matter, the binding energy of the target nucleus, and its proton root-mean-square radius is proposed. A number of versions of modified Skyrme forces that ensure a reasonable description of both nucleon-nucleus scattering and the properties of nuclear structure are found on the basis of this procedure.

  19. Reprint of: A supersonic jet target for the cross section measurement of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction with the recoil mass separator ERNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapagnani, D.; Buompane, R.; Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Busso, M.; De Cesare, M.; De Stefano, G.; Duarte, J. G.; Gasques, L. R.; Morales Gallegos, L.; Palmerini, S.; Romoli, M.; Tufariello, F.

    2018-01-01

    12C(α, γ)16O cross section plays a key-role in the stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis of massive stars. Hence, it must be determined with the precision of about 10% at the relevant Gamow energy of 300 keV. The ERNA (European Recoil mass separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) collaboration measured, for the first time, the total cross section of 12C(α, γ)16O by means of the direct detection of the 16O ions produced in the reaction down to an energy of Ecm = 1.9 MeV. To extend the measurement at lower energy, it is necessary to limit the extension of the He gas target. This can be achieved using a supersonic jet, where the oblique shock waves and expansion fans formed at its boundaries confine the gas, which can be efficiently collected using a catcher. A test version of such a system has been designed, constructed and experimentally characterized as a bench mark for a full numerical simulation using FV (Finite Volume) methods. The results of the commissioning of the jet test version and the design of the new system that will be used in combination with ERNA are presented and discussed.

  20. Photo-neutron reaction cross-section for 93Nb in the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12–16 and 45–70 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, H.; Kim, G.N.; Schwengner, R.; Kim, K.; Zaman, M.; Tatari, M.; Sahid, M.; Yang, S.C.; John, R.; Massarczyk, R.; Junghans, A.; Shin, S.G.; Key, Y.; Wagner, A.; Lee, M.W.; Goswami, A.; Cho, M.-H.

    2013-01-01

    The photo-neutron cross-sections of 93 Nb at the end-point bremsstrahlung energies of 12, 14 and 16 MeV as well as 45, 50, 55, 60 and 70 MeV have been determined by the activation and the off-line γ-ray spectrometric techniques using the 20 MeV electron linac (ELBE) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden, Germany, and 100 MeV electron linac at Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL), Pohang, Korea. The 93 Nb(γ, xn, x=1–4) reaction cross-sections as a function of photon energy were also calculated using computer code TALYS 1.4. The flux-weighted average values were obtained from the experimental and the theoretical (TALYS) values based on mono-energetic photons. The experimental values of present work are in good agreement with the flux-weighted theoretical values of TALYS 1.4 but are slightly higher than the flux-weighted experimental data of mono-energetic photons. It was also found that the theoretical and the experimental values of present work and literature data for the 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections increase from the threshold values to a certain energy, where other reaction channels opens. However, the increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections are sharper compared to 93 Nb(γ, 3n) and 93 Nb(γ, 4n) reaction cross-sections. The sharp increase of 93 Nb(γ, n) and 93 Nb(γ, 2n) reaction cross-sections from the threshold value up to 17–22 MeV is due to the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) effect besides the role of excitation energy. After a certain values, the individual 93 Nb(γ, xn) reaction cross-sections decrease with increase of bremsstrahlung energy due to opening of other reaction channels

  1. Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Section of Uranium, Americium and Curium Isotopes. Progress report - Research Contract 14485, Coordinated Research Project on Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.A.; Bergman, A.A.; Berlev, A.I.; Koptelov, E.A.; Samylin, B.F.; Trufanov, A.M.; Fursov, B.I.; Shorin, V.S.

    2009-12-01

    This report contains brief description of the Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer and results of measurements of neutron-induced fission cross sections for 236 U, 242m Am, 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm and 246 Cm done at this spectrometer. The work was partially supported through the IAEA research contract RC-14485-RD in the framework of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project 'Minor Actinide Neutron Reaction Data (MANREAD)'. The detailed description of the experimental set up, measurements procedure and data treatment can be found in the JIA-1182 (2007) and JIA-1212 (2009) reports from the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Science published in Russian. Part 1 contains the first year report of the research contract and part 2 the second year report. (author)

  2. A facility for measurements of nuclear cross sections for fast neutron cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dangtip, S.; Atac, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N. E-mail: nils.olsson@tsl.uu.se; Carlsson, G. Alm; Soederberg, J.; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Brun, C. Le; Lecolley, F.-R.; Lecolley, J.-F.; Varignon, C.; Eudes, Ph.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C

    2000-10-01

    A facility for measurements of neutron-induced double-differential light-ion production cross-sections, for application within, e.g., fast neutron cancer therapy, is described. The central detection elements are three-detector telescopes consisting of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Use of {delta}E-{delta}E-E techniques allows good particle identification for p, d, t, {sup 3}He and alpha particles over an energy range from a few MeV up to 100 MeV. Active plastic scintillator collimators are used to define the telescope solid angle. Measurements can be performed using up to eight telescopes at 20 deg. intervals simultaneously, thus covering a wide angular range. The performance of the equipment is illustrated using experimental data taken with a carbon target at E{sub n}=95 MeV. Distortions of the measured charged-particle spectra due to energy and particle losses in the target are corrected using a newly developed computer code. Results from such correction calculations are presented.

  3. A facility for measurements of nuclear cross sections for fast neutron cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangtip, S.; Ataç, A.; Bergenwall, B.; Blomgren, J.; Elmgren, K.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Carlsson, G. A.; Söderberg, J.; Jonsson, O.; Nilsson, L.; Renberg, P.-U.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Brun, C. L.; Lecolley, F.-R.; Lecolley, J.-F.; Varignon, C.; Eudes, P.; Haddad, F.; Kerveno, M.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.

    2000-10-01

    A facility for measurements of neutron-induced double-differential light-ion production cross-sections, for application within, e.g., fast neutron cancer therapy, is described. The central detection elements are three-detector telescopes consisting of two silicon detectors and a CsI crystal. Use of /ΔE-ΔE-E techniques allows good particle identification for p, d, t, 3He and alpha particles over an energy range from a few MeV up to 100 MeV. Active plastic scintillator collimators are used to define the telescope solid angle. Measurements can be performed using up to eight telescopes at /20° intervals simultaneously, thus covering a wide angular range. The performance of the equipment is illustrated using experimental data taken with a carbon target at En=95 MeV. Distortions of the measured charged-particle spectra due to energy and particle losses in the target are corrected using a newly developed computer code. Results from such correction calculations are presented.

  4. SOLVING THE LARGE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN INCLUSIVE AND EXCLUSIVE MEASUREMENTS OF THE 8Li + 4He → 11B + n REACTION CROSS SECTION AT ASTROPHYSICAL ENERGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cognata, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Cherubini, S.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.; Colonna, N.; Rolfs, C.

    2009-01-01

    A solution of the large discrepancy existing between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the 8 Li + 4 He → 11 B + n reaction cross section at E cm 8 Li + 4 He → 11 B + n cross section data is carried out, setting up a consistent picture in which all the inclusive measurements provide the reliable value of the cross section. New unambiguous signatures of the strong branch pattern non-uniformities, near the threshold of higher 11 B excited levels, are presented and their possible origin, in terms of the cluster structure of the involved excited states of 11 B and 12 Bnuclei, is discussed.

  5. Systematic study of (n, p) reaction cross sections from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalremruata, B.; Otuka, N.; Tambave, G. J.; Mulik, V. K.; Patil, B. J.; Dhole, S. D.; Saxena, A.; Ganesan, S.; Bhoraskar, V. N.

    2012-01-01

    The cross sections of Cr-nat(n, x)V-52, Cr-52(n, p)V-52, Cr-nat(n, x)V-53, Cr-53(n, p)V-53, Zn-nat(n, x)Cu-66, Zn-66(n, p)Cu-66, Zn-nat(n, x)Cu-68(m), Zn-68(n, p)Cu-68(m), Mo-nat(n, x)Nb-97(g), Mo-97(n, p)Nb-97(g), Mo-nat(n, x)Nb-97(m), Mo-97(n, p)Nb-97(m), Sn-nat(n, x)In-116(m1+m2), Sn-116(n,

  6. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  7. Cross-sections and the analysing power of the production reaction p+p→π++d between 516 and 582 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, P.; Favier, B.; Foroughi, F.; Piffaretti, J.; Nussbaum, C.; Hoftiezer, J.; Weddigen, C.; Jaccard, S.

    1982-01-01

    The differential cross section of the reaction p+p→π + +d at 7 energies from 516 to 582 MeV has been measured. The incident protons were from the PM1 line at SIN. The π and d were detected in coincidence by scintillation counters. The measurement was monitored by the elastic diffusion pp, giving an absolute precision of 1.5% for the cross section. Graphs of results are presented. (G.F.F.)

  8. A proposed direct measurement of cross section at Gamow window for key reaction 19F(p,α) 16O in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars with a planned accelerator in CJPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, JianJun; Xu, ShiWei; Ma, ShaoBo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, LiYong; Fu, ChangBo; Zhang, NingTao; Lian, Gang; Su, Jun; Li, YunJu; Yan, ShengQuan; Shen, YangPing; Hou, SuQing; Jia, BaoLu; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, XiaoPeng; Guo, Bing; Kubono, Shigeru; Liu, WeiPing

    2016-05-01

    In 2014, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) approved the Jinping Underground Nuclear Astrophysics laboratory (JUNA) project, which aims at direct cross-section measurements of four key stellar nuclear reactions right down to the Gamow windows. In order to solve the observed fluorine overabundances in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, measuring the key 19F(p,α)16O reaction at effective burning energies (i.e., at Gamow window) is established as one of the scientific research sub-projects. The present paper describes this sub-project in details, including motivation, status, experimental setup, yield and background estimation, aboveground test, as well as other relevant reactions.

  9. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  10. GEANT4 simulation and evaluation of a time-of-flight spectrometer for nuclear cross section measurements in particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenwald, Oxana

    2011-06-08

    In 2007 a new project has been launched in a cooperation between the RWTH Aachen Physics Department, the University Hospital Aachen and the Philips Research Laboratories. The project aim is to validate and improve GEANT4 nuclear interaction models for use in proton and ion therapy. The method chosen here is the measurement of nuclear reaction cross sections which will not only provide a comparison to the simulation but will also allow to improve some of the parameters in the nuclear models. In the first phase of the project 200 MeV protons are used as a projectile in combination with a thin graphite target. For use in particle therapy the excitation functions of the most frequently produced isotopes need to be measured with an accuracy of 10% or less. For this purpose a dedicated detector system has been designed and implemented in GEANT4. The detection of target fragments produced by protons in graphite is achieved via time-of-flight spectrometry. In the setup presented here the primary beam first hits the Start detector and initiates the time-of-flight measurement before it passes through the apertures of two Veto detectors and impinges on the target. Successively, the secondary particles emanating from the target travel a short distance of 70/80 cm through vacuum (0.1 mbar) before they hit one of the 20 Stop detectors which end the time-of-flight measurement and record the energy deposited by the particle. The dissertation at hand describes the underlying detector concept and presents a detailed GEANT4 simulation of the setup which allows to evaluate the detector performance with respect to target fragment identification at a projectile energy of 200 MeV. At first, correlations of time-of-flight and energy deposition are built from simulated data and are subsequently used to reconstruct mass spectra of the detected fragments. Such influences on the detection performance as the target thickness, the residual pressure within the detector chamber, the Veto system

  11. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  12. Systematic effects on cross section data derived from reaction rates in reactor spectra and a re-analysis of 241Am reactor activation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Schillebeeckx, Peter; Becker, Björn; Fiorito, Luca; Harada, Hideo; Kopecky, Stefan; Radulović, Vladimir; Sano, Tadafumi

    2018-01-01

    Methodologies to derive cross section data from spectrum integrated reaction rates were studied. The Westcott convention and some of its approximations were considered. Mostly measurements without and with transmission filter are combined to determine the reaction cross section at thermal energy together with the resonance integral. The accuracy of the results strongly depends on the assumptions that are made about the neutron energy distribution, which is mostly parameterised as a sum of a thermal and an epi-thermal component. Resonance integrals derived from such data can be strongly biased and should only be used in case no other data are available. The cross section at thermal energy can be biased for reaction cross sections which are dominated by low energy resonances. The amplitude of the effect is related to the lower energy limit that is used for the epi-thermal component of the neutron energy distribution. It is less affected by the assumptions on the shape of the energy distribution. When the energy dependence of the cross section is known and information about the neutron energy distribution is available, a method to correct for a bias on the cross section at thermal energy is proposed. Reactor activation measurements to determine the thermal 241Am(n, γ) cross section reported in the literature were reviewed. In case enough information was available, the results were corrected to account for possible biases and included in a least squares fit. These data combined with results of time-of-flight measurements give a capture cross section 720 (14) b for 241Am(n, γ) at thermal energy.

  13. Fission cross-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission in request for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambsch, F.-J.; Salvador-Castiñeira, P.; Oberstedt, S.; Göök, A.; Billnert, R.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission cross-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL) of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA) and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC). Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray emission is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray emission probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission cross section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray emission for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.

  14. Fission cross-sections, prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission in request for nuclear applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hambsch F.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years JRC-IRMM has been investigating fission cross-sections of 240,242Pu in the fast-neutron energy range relevant for innovative reactor systems and requested in the High Priority Request List (HPRL of the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA. In addition to that, prompt neutron multiplicities are being investigated for the major isotopes 235U, 239Pu in the neutron-resonance region using a newly developed scintillation detector array (SCINTIA and an innovative modification of the Frisch-grid ionisation chamber for fission-fragment detection. These data are highly relevant for improved neutron data evaluation and requested by the OECD/Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC. Thirdly, also prompt fission γ-ray emission is investigated using highly efficient lanthanide-halide detectors with superior timing resolution. Again, those data are requested in the HPRL for major actinides to solve open questions on an under-prediction of decay heat in nuclear reactors. The information on prompt fission neutron and γ-ray emission is crucial for benchmarking nuclear models to study the de-excitation process of neutron-rich fission fragments. Information on γ-ray emission probabilities is also useful in decommissioning exercises on damaged nuclear power plants like Fukushima Daiichi to which JRC-IRMM is contributing. The results on the 240,242Pu fission cross section, 235U prompt neutron multiplicity in the resonance region and correlations with fission fragments and prompt γ-ray emission for several isotopes will be presented and put into perspective.

  15. Cross-section measurements for the reactions vp → μ-π+p and vp → μ-K+p at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.; Berge, J.P.; Bogert, D.V.; Cence, R.J.; Coffin, C.T.; Diamond, R.N.; DiBianca, F.A.; Endorf, R.; French, H.T.; Hanft, R.; Harris, F.A.; Jones, M.; Kochowski, C.; Louis, W.C.; Lynch, G.R.; Malko, J.A.; Marriner, J.P.; Moffatt, G.I.; Nezrick, F.A.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Roe, B.P.; Ross, R.T.; Scott, W.G.; Seidl, A.A.; Smart, W.; Stenger, V.J.; Stevenson, M.L.; Velde, J.C.V.; Wang, E.

    1978-01-01

    We present results for the reactions vp → μ - π + p and vp → μ - K + p at energies above 5 GeV. The average cross section for the first reaction between 15 ad 40 GeV is (0.80 +- 0.12) x 10 -38 cm 2 and for events with M/sub π/+p-italic -33 cm 2 . The ratio of the cross section for the second reaction to that for the first is 0.017 +- 0.010

  16. Remarks concerning the accurate measurement of differential cross sections for threshold reactions used in fast-neutron dosimetry for fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-12-01

    Some remarks are submitted concerning the measurement of differential cross sections for threshold reactions which are used in fast-neutron dosimetry for fission reactors. The objective is to familiarize the reader with some of the problems associated with these measurements and, in the process, to explain why the existence of large discrepancies in the data sets for many of these reactions is not surprising. Limits to the accuracy which can be expected for these cross sections in the near future--using current technology and available resources--are examined in a general way and recommendations for improving the accuracy of the differential data base for dosimetry reactions are presented.

  17. Cross sections for the reactions 54Fe(n,α)51Cr, 54Fe(n,p)54Mn, and 56Fe(n,p)56Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulsen, A.; Widera, R.; Arnotte, F.; Liskien, H.

    1979-01-01

    Ratios of cross sections for the reactions 54 Fe(n,α) 51 Cr, 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn, and 56 Fe(n,p) 56 Mn were measured by the activation technique. In the 6- to 10-MeV energy range, quasi-monoenergetic neutrons produced by the D(d,n) source reaction were used, while additional data were obtained between 12 and 17 MeV by use of the T(d,n) source reaction. The cross-section ratios have accuracies between 1.5 and 4.5%. 1 figure, 3 tables

  18. Measurements and systematics studies of the (n,p), (n,α) and (n,2n) reactions cross-sections at 14.5 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Khalda

    2000-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the cross-sections for fast neutron-induced reactions utilizing the D-T reaction is important not only because of the wide spread of data observed in the literature, but also because of the world wide demand and requests for such data, in view of the increasing interest in the fusion reactor technology, which is based on the same reactions. Cross-sections are needed also for various practical purposes, including neutron activation analysis and dosimetry. In this work the (n.p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions cross-sections were measured at 14.5 MeV for isotopes of the elements: Cr, Ti, Ni, Co, Zr, and Mo using the activation method. The measured cross-sections were compared with recently published data. Good agreement was observed for most of the measurements. The discrepancies observed were attributed to difficulties related to the long half-life of the product nuclei and small abundances of the target isotopes. Attempts were also made to study the dependence of the (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions cross-sections on the on the asymmetry parameter (N-Z)/A. The results confirmed the trend theoretically suggested by Levkovskii and experimentally realized by Qaim and co-workers. The isotopic dependence of (n,p) reaction cross-sections and the variation of the ration σ n ,p/σ n ,α with Z-number of the target isotopes were also studied in this work and the results obtained were found to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. In this work studies carried out for the systematics of the (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions cross-sections at 14 MeV neutrons and formula based on the statistical model presented, with the aim of improving the systematics of these cross-sections. Comparison of present proposed systematics were for the (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,α) reactions cross-sections with the cross-section values measured in this work was made. Good agreement was generally noted, but some discrepancies were also observed. These discrepancies were

  19. Calculation and evaluation of the activation cross sections for 187Re(n,2n)186m,gRe reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Lu Hanlin; Zhou Chunmei

    1998-01-01

    The activation cross sections for 187 Re(n,2n) 186m,g Re reactions are calculated using UNF code. The calculations are in good agreement with the re-evaluated measured data. Finally the excitation function for 187 Re(n,2n) 186m,g Re reactions are evaluated and recommended based on present calculations and evaluated decay data

  20. Measurement of cross sections for the scattering of neutrons in the energy range from 2 MeV to 4 MeV with the 15N(p,n) reaction as neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    In future nuclear facilities, the materials lead and bismuth can play a more important role than in today's nuclear reactors. Reliable cross section data are required for the design of those facilities. In particular the neutron transport in the lead spallation target of an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor strongly depends on the inelastic neutron scattering cross sections in the energy region from 0.5 MeV to 6 MeV. In the recent 20 years, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured with high precision for a variety of elements at the PTB time-of-flight spectrometer. The D(d,n) reaction was primarily used for the production of neutrons. Because of the Q value of the reaction and the available deuteron energies, neutrons in the energy range from 6 MeV to 16 MeV can be produced. For the cross section measurement at lower energies, however, another neutron producing reaction is required. The 15 N(p,n) 15 O reaction was chosen, as it allows the production of monoenergetic neutrons with up to 5.7MeV energy. In this work, the 15 N(p,n) reaction was studied with focus on the suitability as a source for monoenergetic neutrons in scattering experiments. This includes the measurement of differential cross sections for the neutron producing reaction and the choice of optimum target conditions. Differential elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections were measured for lead at four energies in the region from 2 MeV to 4 MeV incident neutron energy using the time-of-flight technique. A lead sample with natural isotopic composition was used. NE213 liquid scintillation detectors with well-known detection efficiencies were used for the detection of the scattered neutrons. Angle-integrated cross sections were determined by a Legendre polynomial expansion using least-squares methods. Additionally, measurements were carried out for isotopically pure 209 Bi and 181 Ta samples at 4 MeV incident neutron energy. Results are compared with other

  1. High precision analysis of isotopic composition for samples used for nuclear cross-section measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibahara Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For the accuracy improvement of nuclear data of minor actinides and long-lived fission products in the project of “Research and development for Accuracy Improvement of neutron nuclear data on Minor Actinides”, the isotopic compositions of two Am samples (241Am sample and 243Am sample were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Only the peak of 241Am was observed in the analysis of 241Am sample, and level of isotopic impurities were improved from 0.1% to 0.0004%. In the analysis of 243Am sample, the peak of unreported isotope of 242mAm was observed in addition to the peaks of 243Am and 241Am. The mass spectrometry also showed that 243Am sample has other unreported impurities such as 239Pu and 240Pu.

  2. Measurement of (n,Xn) reaction cross sections at 96 MeV; Measure des sections efficaces (n,Xn) a 96 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagrado Garcia, Melle Inmaculada C. [Ecole Doctorale: SINEM, U.F.R. de Sciences, Universite de Caen/Basse-Normandie, Esplanade Paix14000 Caen (France)

    2006-10-15

    Nucleon induced reactions in the 20-200 MeV energy range are intensively studied since a long time. The evaporation and the pre-equilibrium processes correspond to an important contribution of the production cross section in these reactions. Several theoretical approaches have been proposed and their predictions must be tested. The experimental results shown in this work are the only complete set of data for the (n,Xn) reactions in this energy range. Neutron double differential cross section measurements using lead and iron targets for an incident neutron beam at 96 MeV were carried out at TSL Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. The measurements have been performed for the first time with an energy threshold of 2 MeV and for a wide angular range (15 angle - 98 angle). Neutrons have been detected using two independent setups, DECOI and DEMON and CLODIA and SCANDAL, in order to cover the whole energy range (2-100) MeV. The angular distributions, the differential cross sections and the total inelastic production cross sections have been calculated using the double differential cross sections. The comparison between the experimental data and the predictions given by two of the most popular simulation codes, GEANT3 and MCNPX, have been performed, as well as the comparison with the predictions of the microscopic simulation model DYWAN, selected for its treatment of nucleon-nucleon reactions. (author)

  3. N/Z effect on reaction mechanisms cross sections in the 78Kr + 40Ca and 86Kr + 48Ca collisions at 10A MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnoffo, B.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear reactions between medium-mass nuclei at low bombarding energy are characterized by the competition between binary and evaporation processes in the compound nucleus decay. A study of the influence of the neutron richness of the entrance channel on the decay paths of the compound nuclei formed in the 78 Kr + 40 Ca and 86 Kr + 48 Ca at 10MeV/A is presented. The experiment has been performed at ?Laboratori Nazionali del Sud? by using the CHIMERA 4π multidetector for charged particles. The kinematical characteristics of the two reactions support the conclusion of a production of the IMFs via long-lived system and the global features suggest a different competition among the various reaction channels. The cross sections of the mechanisms responsible for the fragments production have been extracted. Besides the results relative to the n-poor system are compared to those obtained at GANIL, performed at 5.5AMeV, in order to study the energy influence on the mechanisms.

  4. N/Z effect on reaction mechanisms cross sections in the 78Kr + 40Ca and 86Kr + 48Ca collisions at 10A MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, B.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; La Commara, M.; Wieleczko, J. P.; De Filippo, E.; Russotto, P.; Trimarchi, M.; Vigilante, M.; Ademard, G.; Auditore, L.; Beck, C.; Bercenau, I.; Bonnet, E.; Borderie, B.; Cardella, G.; Chibihi, A.; Colonna, M.; De Luca, S.; Dell'Aquila, D.; D'Onofrio, A.; Frankland, J. D.; Lanzalone, G.; Lautesse, P.; Lebhertz, D.; Le Neidre, N.; Lombardo, I.; Martorana, N. S.; Mazurek, N.; Norella, S.; Pagano, A.; Pagano, E. V.; Papa, M.; Piasecki, E.; Porto, F.; Quattrocchi, L.; Rizzo, F.; Spadaccini, G.; Trifirò, A.; Verde, G.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear reactions between medium-mass nuclei at low bombarding energy are characterized by the competition between binary and evaporation processes in the compound nucleus decay. A study of the influence of the neutron richness of the entrance channel on the decay paths of the compound nuclei formed in the 78Kr + 40Ca and 86Kr + 48Ca at 10MeV/A is presented. The experiment has been performed at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud by using the CHIMERA 4 π multidetector for charged particles. The kinematical characteristics of the two reactions support the conclusion of a production of the IMFs via long-lived system and the global features suggest a different competition among the various reaction channels. The cross sections of the mechanisms responsible for the fragments production have been extracted. Besides the results relative to the n-poor system are compared to those obtained at GANIL, performed at 5.5A MeV, in order to study the energy influence on the mechanisms.

  5. 26Al(n,p)26Mg reaction: Comparison between the Hauser-Feshbach formula and the exact random-matrix result for the cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Zirnbauer, M.R.; Langanke, K.

    1986-01-01

    We have calculated the 26 Al(n,p) 26 Mg reaction rate using an exact expression for the compound-nucleus cross section derived recently by Verbaarschot et al. This reaction is astrophysically important, and it happens to fall in a kinematic regime where the exact expression is expected to yield large deviations from the standard Hauser-Feshbach formula. We find that the exact statistical cross section is 20% lower at energies greater than 300 keV, and drops to 40% lower at 0 energy but still does not describe the available data. These deviations are quite similar to those predicted by the formula of Tepel et al

  6. Summary report of the technical meeting on intermediate-term nuclear data needs for medical applications: cross sections and decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Alan L.; Qaim, Syed M.; Noy, Roberto Capote

    2011-09-01

    A summary is given of a Technical Meeting on 'Intermediate-term Nuclear Data Needs for Medical Applications: Cross Sections and Decay Data'. Participants assessed and reviewed cross-section and decay data for an extensive number of radionuclides deemed as potentially suitable for application in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with comprehensive listings and detailed recommendations for future work. Recommendations focused on cross-section studies for a reasonably wide range of targets and projectiles, along with decay data measurements for specific radionuclides. Cross-section and decay-data evaluations are also merited to ensure the necessary quality and consistency of the data to be assembled in an appropriate IAEA-NDS database. (author)

  7. The Influence of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Structure in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, K. E.

    2017-11-01

    Nuclear reactions play an important role for the energy production and the nucleosynthesis in stars. New facilities, able to accelerate radioactive nuclei or high-intensity stable beams have allowed us to measure in the laboratory reactions involving short-lived nuclei or processes with very small cross sections, which are crucial for stellar nucleosynthesis. I will discuss some of the recent experiments studying fusion and transfer reactions with radioactive beams which play a critical role in various quiescent and explosive stellar environments.

  8. Table of nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive dacays induced by 14-MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, Kineo

    1977-09-01

    Compilation of the data on nuclear reactions and subsequent radioactive decays induced by 14-MeV neutrons is presented in tabular form for most of the isotopes available in nature and for some of the artificially-produced isotopes, including the following items: Nuclide (isotopic abundance), type of nuclear reaction, reaction Q-value, reaction product, type of decay, decay Q-value, half-life of reaction product, decay product, maximum reaction cross section, neutron energy for maximum cross section, reaction cross section for 14 MeV neutrons, saturated radioactivity induced by irradiation of a neutron flux of 1 n/cm 2 sec for a mol of atoms, and reference for the cross section. The mass number dependence of (n, γ), (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, d), (n, t), (n, 3 He) and (n, α) reaction cross sections for 14-MeV neutrons is given in figures to show general trends of the cross sections

  9. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  10. Total Reaction Cross Sections for the $^{4,6}$ He+$^{28}$Si Reactions at 10-28 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, I V; Ivanov, M P; Kalpakchieva, R; Kugler, A; Kukhtina, I N; Kushniruk, V F; Maslov, V A; Mikhailov, L V; Negoita, F; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Poroshin, O N; Skobelev, N K; Sobolev, Yu G; Ugryumov, V Yu

    2001-01-01

    New results have been obtained for the energy dependence of the total reaction cross section \\sigma_R of ^{6}He on ^{28}Si in the energy range 10-28 MeV/A. The cross sections of formation of alpha-particles in the interaction of ^{6}He with ^{28}Si were also measured. The secondary ^{6}He beams, with an intensity of up to 5\\cdot10^{4} pps, were produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with a primary ^{7}Li-beam of \\sim32 MeV/A. In the energy region below 17 MeV/A a strong rise in the values of \\sigma_R has been observed. The experimental data on \\sigma_R are compared with calculations, where for the analysis of \\sigma_R the double-folding potential in the frame of the optical model is used. The different energy dependence of \\sigma_R for ^{6}He compared to that of some neighbouring nuclei may be due to peculiarities in its structure. The energy spectra of the alpha-particles, produced in the ^{28}Si(^{6}He,^{4}He)X reaction, show that they may be the result of a transfer and breakup reaction mechanisms...

  11. Calculation of the evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of the superheavy element Z=119 via the 50Ti+249Bk hot fusion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Hua; Bao, Jing-Dong

    2011-09-01

    The evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for 3n and 4n evaporation channels in the 50Ti + 249Bk reaction leading the formation of 296119 and 295119 isotopes are evaluated by means of a modified fusion-by-diffusion model. In the model, the dynamic evolution from dinucleus to mononucleus is taken into account with the two-dimensional coupled Langenvin equations. The calculated maximum ER cross sections in 3n and 4n evaporation channels of the 50Ti + 249Bk reaction are 0.17 and 0.57 pb, respectively. The cross section of 0.57 pb is close to the present experimental limit for the registration of the evaporation residual nuclei. Therefore, superheavy element 119 may be the most hopeful new element with Z>118 to be synthesized under somehow improved experimental conditions in the near future.

  12. Solving the Large Discrepancy Between Inclusive and Exclusive Measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n Reaction Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Cherubini, S.; Colonna, N.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.

    2009-12-01

    A solution of the large discrepancy existing between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n reaction cross section at E cm < 3 MeV is evaluated. This problem has profound astrophysical relevance for this reaction is of great interest in big bang and r-process nucleosynthesis. By means of a novel technique, a comprehensive study of all existing 8Li + 4He → 11B + n cross section data is carried out, setting up a consistent picture in which all the inclusive measurements provide the reliable value of the cross section. New unambiguous signatures of the strong branch pattern non-uniformities, near the threshold of higher 11B excited levels, are presented and their possible origin, in terms of the cluster structure of the involved excited states of 11B and 12Bnuclei, is discussed.

  13. On the magnitude of the 8Li + 4He →11B + n reaction cross section at the Big-Bang temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; Musumarra, A.; Alba, R.; Cherubini, S.; Colonna, N.; Cosentino, L.; Crucillà, V.; di Pietro, A.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2008-06-01

    The 8Li + 4He →11B + n reaction at E<2 MeV is a process of relevant astrophysical interest for which a remarkable experimental discrepancy between inclusive and exclusive cross-section measurements exists. In this Letter, a new inclusive neutron measurement at E=1.05±0.16 MeV is given. The radioactive 8Li beam was delivered by the EXCYT facility. The cross section was determined by a low-background measurement of the time correlation between the 8Li projectile arrival to the target and the following neutron capture in a threshold-less 4π thermalization counter. This new data strengthens the reliability of the previous inclusive reaction cross-section data and altogether are consistent with a significant population of 11B levels at high excitation energy.

  14. On the magnitude of the {sup 8}Li + {sup 4}He {yields}{sup 11}B + n reaction cross section at the Big-Bang temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cognata, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy)], E-mail: delzoppo@lns.infn.it; Figuera, P. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Musumarra, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Alba, R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Cherubini, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Colonna, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I70126 Bari (Italy); Cosentino, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Crucilla, V. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Di Pietro, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Gulino, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Pellegriti, M.G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Pizzone, R.G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Puglia, S.M.R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-06-19

    The {sup 8}Li + {sup 4}He {yields}{sup 11}B + n reaction at E{sub cm}<2 MeV is a process of relevant astrophysical interest for which a remarkable experimental discrepancy between inclusive and exclusive cross-section measurements exists. In this Letter, a new inclusive neutron measurement at E{sub cm}=1.05{+-}0.16 MeV is given. The radioactive {sup 8}Li beam was delivered by the EXCYT facility. The cross section was determined by a low-background measurement of the time correlation between the {sup 8}Li projectile arrival to the target and the following neutron capture in a threshold-less 4{pi} thermalization counter. This new data strengthens the reliability of the previous inclusive reaction cross-section data and altogether are consistent with a significant population of {sup 11}B levels at high excitation energy.

  15. Measurement of the cross section of the 8Li(d,α)6He reaction of possible relevance to big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, L.; Boyd, R.N.; Cole, A.L.; Famiano, M.; Gueray, R.T.; Murphy, A. St.J.; Oezkan, N.; Kolata, J.J.; Guimaraes, V.; Hencheck, M.

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of the cross section of the 8 Li(d,α) 6 He reaction in the energy range E c.m. =2.3-3.5 MeV using a 8 Li-radioactive beam on a CD 2 foil. The astrophysical S factor and reaction rate were calculated from the measured cross section. The 6 He nuclei produced in the reaction were detected in solid-state detector telescopes. This reaction might have affected the primordial abundance of 6 Li in big bang nucleosynthesis, since 6 He beta decays to 6 Li. However, several big bang nucleosynthesis network calculations were found to be insensitive to this reaction, suggesting that the 8 Li(d,α) 6 He reaction does not affect 6 Li primordial production

  16. Au, Bi, Co and Nb cross-section measured by quasimonoenergetic neutrons from p + Li-7 reaction in the energy range of 18-36 MeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majerle, Mitja; Bém, Pavel; Novák, Jan; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 953, SEP (2016), s. 139-157 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Quasi-monoenergetic neutron * cross-section Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  17. A kinematically complete, interdisciplinary, and co-institutional measurement of the 19F(α,n) cross section for nuclear safeguards science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, W. A.; Smith, M. S.; Pittman, S.; Thompson, S. J.; Clement, R. R. C.; Cizewski, J. A.; Pain, S. D.; Febbraro, M.; Chipps, K. A.; Burcher, S.; Manning, B.; Reingold, C.; Avetisyan, R.; Battaglia, A.; Chen, Y.; Long, A.; Lyons, S.; Marley, S. T.; Seymour, C.; Siegl, K. T.; Smith, M. K.; Strauss, S.; Talwar, R.; Bardayan, D. W.; Gyurjinyan, A.; Smith, K.; Thornsberry, C.; Thompson, P.; Madurga, M.; Stech, E.; Tan, W. P.; Wiescher, M.; Ilyushkin, S.; Tully, Z.; Grinder, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha particles emitted from the decay of uranium in a UF 6 matrix can interact with fluorine and generate neutrons via the 19 F(α,n) 22 Na reaction. These neutrons can be used to determine the uranium content in a UF 6 storage cylinder. The accuracy of this self-interrogating, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique is, however, limited by the uncertainty of the 19 F(α,n) 22 Na cross section. We have performed complementary measurements of the 19 F(α,n) 22 Na reaction with both 4 He and 19 F beams to improve the precision of the 19 F(α,n) 22 Na cross section over the alpha energy range that encompasses common actinide alpha decay needed for NDA studies. We have determined an absolute cross section for the 19 F(α,n) 22 Na reaction to an average precision of 7.6% over the alpha energy range of 3.9 - 6.7 MeV. We utilized this cross section in a simulation of a 100 g spherical UF 6 assembly and obtained a change in neutron emission rate values of approximately 10-12%, and a significant (factor of 3.6) decrease in the neutron emission rate uncertainty (from 50-51% to 13-14%), compared to simulations using the old cross section. Our new absolute cross section enables improved interpretations of NDAs of containers of arbitrary size and configuration.

  18. Measurement of cross-sections for produced radionuclide in proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Hf up to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Naik, Haladhara [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    We measured production cross-sections of Hf, Lu, and Ta radioisotopes from proton-induced reaction of {sup nat}Hf by using a stacked-foil activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the MC-50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The results were compared with the reported experimental data as well as the theoretical calculations based on the TALYS 1.4 code. The present results in the energy region from the threshold energy to 45 MeV are in general good agreement with the other experimental data and calculated results. The present experimental results will play an important role in enrichment of the literature data base for proton-induced reactions on natural hafnium leading to various applications. Some of the investigated radionuclides (e.g. {sup 177g}Lu) have remarkable applications in the field of nuclear medicine, a thin layer activation analysis, and a trace element analysis.

  19. Development of an international nuclear decay data and cross-section database. Summary report of an IAEA specialists' meeting, Vienna, 24-28 October 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1994-12-01

    An IAEA Specialists' Meeting proposes procedures describing how an internationally accepted database of high-priority nuclear decay data and thermal neutron cross-sections can be developed through a network of experts coordinated by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. (author)

  20. Cross section measurement of residues produced in proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on 93Zr at 105 MeV/u using the inverse kinematics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawase Shoichiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic production cross sections in the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions on 93Zr at an energy of 105 MeV/u were measured in inverse kinematics conditions for the development of realistic nuclear transmutation processes for long-lived fission products (LLFPs with neutron and light-ion beams. The experimental results were compared to the PHITS calculations describing the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes. Although an overall agreement was obtained, a large overestimation of the production cross sections for the removal of a few nucleons was seen. A clear shell effect associated with the neutron magic number N = 50 was observed in the measured isotopic production yields of Zr and Y isotopes, which can be reproduced reasonably by the PHITS calculation.

  1. Measurement of the thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral of the {sup 109}Ag(n,{gamma}){sup 110m}Ag reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S.; Wada, H.; Furutaka, K.; Harada, H.; Katoh, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section ({sigma}{sub 0}) and the resonance integral (I{sub 0}) of the {sup 109}Ag(n,{gamma}) reaction were measured by the activation and {gamma}-ray spectroscopic methods to develop a neutron flux monitor for the long irradiation. (author)

  2. Measurement of the thermal neutron capture cross section and the resonance integral of the 109Ag(n,γ)110mAg reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.; Wada, H.; Furutaka, K.; Harada, H.; Katoh, T.

    2001-01-01

    The thermal neutron capture cross section (σ 0 ) and the resonance integral (I 0 ) of the 109 Ag(n,γ) reaction were measured by the activation and γ-ray spectroscopic methods to develop a neutron flux monitor for the long irradiation. (author)

  3. Total reaction cross section of silicon induced by 4He in the energy range 3-10 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumov, V.Yu.; Kuznetsov, I.V.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for α-particles on nat Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that σ R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The σ R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions

  4. Total Reaction Cross Section of Silicon Induced by ^{4}He in the Energy Range 3-10 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Ugryumov, V Yu; Basybekov, K B; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Duysebaev, A D; Duysebaev, B A; Zholdybaev, T K; Ismailov, K M; Kadyrzhanov, K K; Kalpakchieva, R; Kugler, A; Kukhtina, I N; Kushniruk, V F; Kuterbekov, K A; Mukhambetzhan, A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Sadykov, B M; Skwirczynska, I; Sobolev, Yu G

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for alpha-particles on ^{nat}Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that sigma_R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The sigma_R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions.

  5. Reaction cross sections for protons on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at energies between 80 and 180 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auce, A.; Ingemarsson, A.; Johansson, R. [and others

    2005-04-01

    Results of reaction cross section measurements on {sup 12}C, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 90}Zr and {sup 208}Pb at incident proton energies between 80 and 180 MeV and for {sup 58}Ni at 81 MeV are presented. The experimental procedure is described and the results are compared with earlier measurements and predictions using macroscopic and microscopic models.

  6. BNL325 - Nuclear reaction data display program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    A computer code for the graphical display of nuclear reaction data is described. The code, which works on a computer with VMS operating system, can overlay experimental data from an EXFOR/CSISRS table-computation format with evaluated data from ENDF formatted data libraries. Originally, this code has been used at the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center to produce the well-known neutron cross-section atlas published as report BNL-325. (author). 3 tabs

  7. Nuclear Landau-Zener phenomena and the fusion cross sections in the system 13C + 16O → 12C + 17O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1990-07-01

    Reaction mechanism of the system 13 C+ 16 O- 12 C+ 17 O is investigated with the use of the nucleon molecular-orbital model in the framework of the orthogonalized coupled-reaction-channel (OCRC) theory. The adiabatic potentials obtained are quite different from the diagonal potentials of the original OCRC basis. The Landau-Zener radial coupling explains the backward enhancement of measured differential cross sections of the transfer reaction 13 C( 16 O, 17 O) 12 C. In the OCRC calculation the fusion cross sections of the channel 13 C+ 16 O is enhanced at low bombarding energies, in agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  8. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); D`Aquila, D.M. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  9. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; D'Aquila, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k eff including 2σ of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25

  10. The shell structure effects in neutron cross section calculation by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the shell structure properties of the nucleus in the calculation of neutron-induced reaction cross-section data based on nuclear reaction theory has been investigated. In this investigation, measured, evaluated and calculated (n.p) reaction cross-section data on la spherical nucleus (i.e. 112Sn) and a deformed ...

  11. Separation of the Longitudinal and Transverse Cross Sections in the p(e,e(prime)K+)Λ and p(e,e(prime)K+)Σ0 Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohring, R.M.; David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Amatuni, T.A.; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Tatiana Angelescu; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Ketevi Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Kevin Beard; Beedoe, S.; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Chang, C.; Nicholas Chant; Evaristo Cisbani; Glenn Collins; William Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; Raffaele De Leo; Fraser Duncan; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Eden, T.; Rolf Ent; Laurent Eyraud; Lars Ewell; John Finn; Terry Fortune, H.; Valera Frolov; Salvatore Frullani; Christophe Furget; Franco Garibaldi; David Gaskell; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Jens-ole Hansen; Mark Harvey; Wendy Hinton; Ed Hungerford; Mauro Iodice; Jackson, C.; Cynthia Keppel; Wooyoung Kim; Kouichi Kino; Douglas Koltenuk; Serge Kox; Laird Kramer; Antonio Leone; Allison Lung; David Mack; Richard Madey; Maeda, M.; Stanislaw Majewski; Pete Markowitz; MART, T.; Martoff, C.J.; David Meekins; Mihul, A.; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Sekazi Mtingwa; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Perrino, R.; David Potterveld; John Price; Brian Raue; Jean-Sebastien Real; Joerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Teijiro Saito; Geoff Savage; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Samuel Stepanyan; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Liliana Teodorescu; Tatsuo Terasawa; Hiroaki Tsubota; Guido Urciuoli; Jochen Volmer; William Vulcan; Welch, T.; Robert Williams; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Benjamin Zeidman

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of cross sections for the reaction p(e,e(prime)K + )Y, for both the Lambda and Sigma 0 hyperon states, at an invariant mass of W = 1.84 GeV and four-momentum transfers 0.5 2 2 . Data were taken for three values of virtual photon polarization, allowing the decomposition of the cross sections into longitudinal and transverse components. The Lambda data is a revised analysis of prior work, whereas the Sigma 0 results have not been previously reported

  12. Cross section for the 103Rh(n,n')103Rhm reaction in the energy range 5.7 endash 12 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M.M.; Strohmaier, B.; Vonach, H.; Mannhart, W.; Schmidt, D.

    1996-01-01

    The 103 Rh(n,n ' ) 103 Rh m cross section was measured by the activation method in the neutron energy range 5.7 endash 12 MeV with an uncertainty of ≅5%. Monoenergetic neutrons produced by the D(d,n) 3 He reaction were used to irradiate metallic Rh samples at 0 degree relative to the deuteron beam. The K x rays from 103 Rh m were measured with a calibrated Si detector, and the neutron fluence was determined by means of a 238 U fission chamber. The measured cross sections resolve the discrepancies in previous data and agree with the results of recent statistical model calculations of the fast-neutron cross sections of rhodium. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Measurement of the differential and total cross sections of the γ d →K0Λ (p ) reaction within the resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, N.; Taylor, C. E.; Hicks, K.; Cole, P.; Zachariou, N.; Ilieva, Y.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Klempt, E.; Nikonov, V. A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adhikari, S.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Camp, M.; Cao, Frank Thanh; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Gavalian, G.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the first measurement of differential and total cross sections for the γ d →K0Λ (p ) reaction, using data from the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Data collected during two separate experimental runs were studied with photon-energy coverage 0.8-3.6 GeV and 0.5- 2.6 GeV, respectively. The two measurements are consistent giving confidence in the method and determination of systematic uncertainties. The cross sections are compared with predictions from the KAON-MAID theoretical model (without kaon exchange), which deviate from the data at higher W and at forward kaon angles. These data, along with previously published cross sections for K+Λ photoproduction, provide essential constraints on the nucleon resonance spectrum. A first partial wave analysis was performed that describes the data without the introduction of new resonances.

  14. Cross sections for (p,n) and (d,2n) reactions on /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I: An evaluation of literature and model calculated results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanier, R.G.; Mustafa, M.G.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1989-02-01

    We have evaluated (p,n) and (d,2n) cross sections on /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I, and made these cross sections available for test diagnostics. We believe that these interim cross sections are of reasonable accuracy and should be used for diagnostic interpretations until more precise measurements can be made. Our evaluation consisted of a literature search and an examination of the available experimental data. These data were supplemented by statistical model calculations using both the STAPRE and ALICE codes. We found reasonably good measured data (from threshold to the peak of the excitation function) for the (p,n) reaction on both /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I. The literature data for the (d,2n) reaction on /sup 127/I are questionable and no data were found for the (d,2n) reaction on /sup 79/Br. We have, therefore, relied completely on calculations for the (d,2n) cross sections for both /sup 79/Br and /sup 127/I. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Requirements for design of accelerator, beam transport, and target in a study of thermonuclear reaction cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itahashi, T.; Takahisa, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Komori, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Toki, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The process of pp-de{sup +}{nu} is the basic fusion reaction for hydrogen burning in the sun and the prime reaction in chain producing photons and neutrinos. There are many works of the theoretical estimation of the reaction rate in the reaction chain in the sun. The precise measurement of the nutrinos from the sun is one of the most important current physics issues. The rate of the pp-de{sup +}{nu} is too small to be measured in laboratories. The construction of a compact ion accelerator facility with high current, low energy transport and plasma target is planned at the underground laboratory in Otoh Cosmo Observatory of Research Center for Nuclear Physics. The plasma target by using the EBIS type synthesized plasma was proposed as a bare {sup 3}He target. The production of helium ions of each charge state was tested by using the present NEOMAFIOS ECR ion source, and the obtained current is shown. For noncontaminated, high current beam transport, the strong focusing system was introduced. The design of windowless gas target, plasma target, the detection of the energetic reaction particles of protons, digital calorimeter, the couple of ECR ion source and plasma target, and the underground laboratory are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Measurement of the thermal cross section of the reaction 64Zn(n,γ)65Zn in a mixed neutron flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, E. L; Arribere, M. A; Ribeiro Guevara, S

    2006-01-01

    Zinc is an element that is present in a great variety of biological and geological samples.For its determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, the reaction 64 Z n(n,γ) 6 5Zn is used, due to the long half life of the reaction product, the target's bigger isotopic abundance, and an easily measurable 1115 keV main gamma line.In a recent evaluation of thermal cross sections and resonance integrals, a thermal cross section value that is 44.7% bigger than the previous evaluation has been published by the same reference.This difference is not within reported uncertainties.Besides, the relative uncertainty of the new evaluation is much bigger than the one corresponding to the previous evaluation.The adoption of the thermal cross section corresponding to different evaluations may imply, in the case of an irradiation in the peripheral I 6 position at the R A-6 reactor, discrepancies of about 43% in the calculated concentrations.These inconsistencies were evident during the irradiation of certified standard materials.This motivated the measurement of the thermal cross section for the reaction 64 Z n(n,γ) 6 5Zn in the I 6 position at the R A-6 reactor.For the analysis of results, a code was written in order to calculate correction factors from an accurate characterization of the neutron spectrum.The thermal cross section value of the reaction 64 Z n(n,γ) 6 5Zn measured is (0.76± 0.03) b [es

  17. Quantum mechanical calculations of state-to-state cross sections and rate constants for the F + DCl → Cl + DF reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Roncero, Octavio

    2015-06-07

    We present accurate state-to-state quantum wave packet calculations of integral cross sections and rate constants for the title reaction. Calculations are carried out on the best available ground 1(2)A' global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged state-to-state reaction cross sections have been calculated for collision energies up to 0.5 eV and different initial rotational and vibrational excitations, DCl(v = 0, j = 0 - 1; v = 1, j = 0). Also, initial-state resolved rate constants of the title reaction have been calculated in a temperature range of 100-400 K. It is found that the initial rotational excitation of the DCl molecule does not enhance reactivity, in contract to the reaction with the isotopologue HCl in which initial rotational excitation produces an important enhancement. These differences between the isotopologue reactions are analyzed in detail and attributed to the presence of resonances for HCl(v = 0, j), absent in the case of DCl(v = 0, j). For vibrational excited DCl(v = 1, j), however, the reaction cross section increases noticeably, what is also explained by another resonance.

  18. Barriers to reporting of adverse drugs reactions: a cross sectional study among community pharmacists in United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheema E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs are a major public health problem. Prompt reporting of suspected ADRs is fundamental in the post-marketing surveillance of medicines and helps in ensuring medicine safety. However, fewer ADRs are reported in general and in particular by community pharmacists. There is limited knowledge about the factors which are preventing community pharmacists in the UK from reporting an ADR. Objectives: To identify the barriers to ADR reporting among community pharmacists practicing in the UK. Methods: A cross sectional study using a 25-items questionnaire (both online and paper based including 10 barriers to ADR reporting was conducted from 1st April 2012 to September 2012. Community pharmacists practicing in the West Midlands, UK, were approached for the participation in this study. Chi-Square and regression were applied to identify covariates for the barriers to ADR reporting. A significant value of 0.05 was assigned for analysis. Results: Of the 230 invited community pharmacists, 138 pharmacists responded (response rate 60%. The median age of respondents was 31 years. All pharmacists reported that they would report both serious and mild ADRs from drugs with black triangle among children as well as adults. About 95% (n=131 of the pharmacists were familiar with the paper based ADR reporting system. Store-based pharmacists were more likely to be more confident about which ADRs to report [0.680, 95% Confidence Interval 0.43-3.59]. Lack of time 46.4% (n=64, and pharmacists perception that ADR is not serious enough to report (65.2%; n=90 were identified as barriers to ADR reporting. Majority 63.0% (n=87 of the pharmacists identified training and information about what to report and access to Information Technology (IT (For example access to internet connection 61.6% (n=85 as facilitators to ADR reporting process. Conclusion: Lack of time and ADRs considered not serious enough by pharmacists to report were barriers to ADR

  19. Effect of U-238 and U-235 cross sections on nuclear characteristics of fast and thermal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akie, Hiroshi; Takano, Hideki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kaneko, Kunio

    1997-03-01

    Benchmark calculation has been made for fast and thermal reactors by using ENDF/B-VI release 2(ENDF/B-VI.2) and JENDL-3.2 nuclear data. Effective multiplication factors (k{sub eff}s) calculated for fast reactors calculated with ENDF/B-VI.2 becomes about 1% larger than the results with JENDL-3.2. The difference in k{sub eff} is caused mainly from the difference in inelastic scattering cross section of U-238. In all thermal benchmark cores, ENDF/B-VI.2 gives smaller multiplication factors than JENDL-3.2. In U-235 cores, the difference is about 0.3%dk and it becomes about 0.6% in TCA U cores. The difference in U-238 data is also important in thermal reactors, while there are found 0.1-0.3% different v values of U isotopes in thermal energy between ENDF/B-VI.2 and JENDL-3.2. (author)

  20. Sigma: Web Retrieval Interface for Nuclear Reaction Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present Sigma, a Web-rich application which provides user-friendly access in processing and plotting of the evaluated and experimental nuclear reaction data stored in the ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. The main interface includes browsing using a periodic table and a directory tree, basic and advanced search capabilities, interactive plots of cross sections, angular distributions and spectra, comparisons between evaluated and experimental data, computations between different cross section sets. Interactive energy-angle, neutron cross section uncertainties plots and visualization of covariance matrices are under development. Sigma is publicly available at the National Nuclear Data Center website at www.nndc.bnl.gov/sigma

  1. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  2. Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on $^{235}$ U: cross sections and ${\\alpha}$ ratios, photon strength functions and prompt ${\\gamma}$-ray from fission

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron-induced capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U using a fission tagging set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4${\\pi}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) with MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors. It has been proven that such a combination of detectors allows distinguishing with very good reliability the electromagnetic cascades from the capture reactions from dominant ${\\gamma}$-ray background coming from the fission reactions. The accurate discrimination of the fission background is the main challenge in the neutron capture cross section measurements of fissile isotopes. The main results from the measurement will be the associated capture cross section and ${\\alpha}$ ratio in the resolved (0.3-2250 eV) and unresolved (2.25-30 keV) resonance regions. According to the international benchmarks and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL), the 235U(n,${\\gamma}$) cross section is of utmost impo...

  3. Update of the evaluation of the cross section of the neutron dosimetry reaction 103Rh(n,n')103mRh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, A.; Miah, M.M.H.; Strohmaier, B.; Vonach, H.

    1995-10-01

    On the occasion of a new measurement of the excitation function of the reaction 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh in the energy range between 5.69 and 12.0 MeV performed at the present institute in collaboration wit the PTB Braunschweig, the cross section of this reaction, which is part of the International Reactor Dosimetry Field (IRDF-90), was re-evaluated. Whereas the energy range of the evaluation, namely from threshold to 20 MeV, was kept unchanged with respect to IRDF-90, the underlying data base was extended by the experiment mentioned as well as by another measurement, and revised with regard to judgement and normalization of older data in the light of recent information. Based on the experimental data upgraded in this way, new model calculations were carried out, which in the energy region 14 - 20 MeV served to supplement the experimental cross sections for this evaluation. The cross sections and their uncertainties were evaluated in energy groups with widths of 0.2 to 1.0 MeV, and the relative correlation matrix of the evaluated cross sections at the different energies was calculated. The results presented here supersede the corresponding values published in Physics Data 13-5 and included to the IRDF-90. (author). 26 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  4. Study of fragmentation cross-sections for 12C+12C reaction at 95 MeV/u and 400 MeV/u for hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliani, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The hadron-therapy is a radiotherapy method using ions (carbon ions here) instead of the more conventional X-rays for cancer treatment. Deep radioresistant tumour areas, as brain carcinoma for example, can be treated thanks to the specific dose deposition at the end of the ion path. This is an additional method to older classic ones (surgery, X-rays, chemotherapy). Two hadron-therapy centres for treatment and research are planned in France from 2018 (ARCHADE) in order to benefit from the newest progress and to keep improving this method. Carbon ions energy loss in the matter follows the Bethe-Bloch law. The maximum of energy depth is located in a limited area called 'Bragg peak'. By adjusting the beam position and energy, the whole volume of the tumor can be irradiated. Nevertheless, nuclear reactions of carbon ion in tissues generate the production of lighter fragments (H, He, Li etc.) that deposit their energy beyond the Bragg peak. Models implemented in hadron-therapy simulation codes (FLUKA, GEANT4 etc.) cannot reproduce angular distributions of the lighter fragments and energy distributions at the same time. These poor estimations affect the treatment planning systems accuracy that are clinically used. Indeed, a bad estimation of fragmentation process induces a bias in the dose calculation concerning healthy cells beyond the Bragg peak. In order to better constraint models, two experiments based on fragmentation cross-sections measurements have been performed. The first one in may 2011 with a beam at 95 MeV/u (GANIL) in collaboration with the LPC Caen and the second one in august 2011 with a beam at 400 MeV/u (GSI) with the FIRST collaboration. E600 experiment is devoted to the study of carbon ions fragmentation at 95 MeV/u in several thin targets (Au, C, , Ti etc.) corresponding to the basic building blocks of human body. Five telescopes are designed for the fragments detection. Each one is a three-stage detector (2 silicon detectors and one CsI scintillator

  5. The differential cross section of the 12C(p,p)12C reaction near the resonance at energy 1.726 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvanov, S.M.; Kobzev, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    New experimental results on the differential cross section of the 12 C(p,p) 12 C reaction near the separate resonance at 1726 keV were obtained for the 170 deg scattering angle. The cross section measured with a thin target has been used for computer simulation of the spectra measured for a defined initial proton energy for two thick targets. The precision measurements of the proton energies have been carried out using the resonance of 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si reaction at 1726.0 keV. The energy scale of the excitation function of the 12 C(p,p) 12 C reaction near the resonance at 1726 keV has been defined more exactly. It will improve the precision of depth profiling of carbon in solids. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Measurement of (n, p) reaction cross sections for short-lived products (T1/2=0.6-13.8 s) by 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Yoshimi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Activation cross sections of the (n, p) reactions at 14 MeV for short-lived products were measured by using the D-T neutrons source, FNS (Fusion Neutronics Source) at JAERI. Measured reactions were 11 B(n, p) 11 Be(T 1/2 =13.8 s), 18 O(n, p) 18 N(0.63 s), 26 Mg(n, p) 26 Na(1.07 s), 30 Si(n, p) 30 Al(3.60 s) and 34 S(n, p) 34 S(12.4 s). Using the present results, systematic trend of the (n, p) reaction cross sections for light-mass-targets was discussed. (author)

  7. Highly accurate nuclear and electronic stopping cross sections derived using Monte Carlo simulations to reproduce measured range data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmaack, Klaus; Mutzke, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We have examined and confirmed the previously unexplored concept of using Monte Carlo calculations in combination with measured projected ranges of ions implanted in solids to derive a quantitative description of nuclear interaction and electronic stopping. The study involved 98 ranges of 11B in Si between 1 keV and 8 MeV, contained in 12 sets of 10 different groups. Systematic errors by up to ±8% were removed to establish a refined data base with 93 ranges featuring only statistical uncertainties (±1.8%). The Monte Carlo calculations could be set up to reproduce the refined ranges with a mean ratio 1.002 ± 1.7%. The input parameters required for this very high level of agreement are as follows. Nuclear interaction is best described by the Kr-C potential, but in obligatory combination with the Lindhard-Scharff (LS) screening length. Up to 300 keV, the electronic stopping cross section is proportional to the projectile velocity, Se = kSe,LS, with k = 1.46 ± 0.01. At higher energies, Se falls progressively short of kSe,LS. Around the Bragg peak, i.e., between 0.8 and 10 MeV, Se is modeled by an adjustable function serving to tailor the peak shape properly. Calculated and measured isotope effects for ranges of 10B and 11B in Si agree within the experimental uncertainty (±0.25%). The range-based Se,R(E) reported here predicts the scarce experimental data derived from the energy loss in projectile transmission through thin Si foils to within 2% or better. By contrast, Se(E) data of available stopping power tables exhibit deviations from Se,R(E) between -40% and +14%.

  8. ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagallo, M; Musumarra, A; Cosentino, L; Maugeri, E; Heinitz, S; Mengoni, A; Dressler, R; Schumann, D; Käppeler, F; Colonna, N; Finocchiaro, P; Ayranov, M; Damone, L; Kivel, N; Aberle, O; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Bacak, M; Balibrea-Correa, J; Barros, S; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Beinrucker, C; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Caamaño, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cardella, R; Casanovas, A; Castelluccio, D M; Cerutti, F; Chen, Y H; Chiaveri, E; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Cristallo, S; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dupont, E; Duran, I; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Furman, W; Ganesan, S; García-Rios, A; Gawlik, A; Glodariu, T; Göbel, K; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Harada, H; Heftrich, T; Heyse, J; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Katabuchi, T; Kavrigin, P; Kimura, A; Kokkoris, M; Krtička, M; Leal-Cidoncha, E; Lerendegui, J; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Lo Meo, S; Lonsdale, S J; Losito, R; Macina, D; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mastromarco, M; Mazzone, A; Mendoza, E; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Montesano, S; Nolte, R; Oprea, A; Pappalardo, A; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Piscopo, M; Plompen, A; Porras, I; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rajeev, K; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego-Perez, A; Rout, P; Rubbia, C; Ryan, J; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Sedyshev, P; Smith, A G; Stamatopoulos, A; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Vollaire, J; Wallner, A; Warren, S; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wolf, C; Woods, P J; Wright, T; Žugec, P

    2016-10-07

    The energy-dependent cross section of the ^{7}Be(n,α)^{4}He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of ^{7}Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure ^{7}Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si-^{7}Be-Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  9. High energy neutron cross-sections and kerma values of biomedical interest calculated with a nuclear model applicable to light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A model has been developed for calculating fast neutron cross sections (E > 14 MeV) for light nuclei of biomedical interest. The model explicitly includes experimental nuclear structure information. Some calculations for 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O are presented

  10. Towards an activation cross section measurement of the 17O(p,γ)18F reaction in a wide energy range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Oláh, Cs. M.; Fülöp, Zs.; Rajta, I.; Vajda, I.

    2018-01-01

    The CNO cycles are fusion processes in stars that convert hydrogen to helium. These hydrogen burning processes occur in several sites and stages of stellar evolution, such as red giants, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, massive stars, and classical novae. One of the important reactions in the CNO-III and CNO-IV cycles is 17O(p,γ)18F [1]. The only available total cross section measurement in a wide energy range for this reaction dates back to several decades ago [2] which makes the theoretical extrapolation to astrophysical energies more difficult and introduces uncertainty. The aim of the present work is to provide precise total cross section data in the energy range between about 500 keV and the 2MeV using the activation method. The experimental campaign at the new tandetron accelerator of Atomki is in progress.

  11. Production cross sections of products in the proton induced reactions on {sup nat}Nd in the energy region up to 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sung-Chul [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangsoo [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Tae-Yung; Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Guinyun, E-mail: gnkim@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    The production cross sections of {sup 141,143,144,146,148m,148g,149,150}Pm, {sup 139m,147,149}Nd, {sup 138m,142g}Pr, and {sup 139g}Ce in the {sup nat}Nd(p,x) reactions were determined by a stacked-foil activation technique for the proton energy range up to 45 MeV using the MC-50 cyclotron of Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The measured cross sections were compared with literature data as well as data from the TENDL-2014 library based on TALYS 1.6. The production cross sections of the above radionuclides are slightly higher than the literature data but are in general agreement with values in TENDL-2014 library except for {sup 148m}Pm, {sup 148g}Pm, {sup 139m}Nd, and {sup 142g}Pr. The thick target integral yields of the produced radionuclides were also deducted from the measured cross sections.

  12. ORYX-E: ORIGEN yields and cross sections, nuclear transmutation and decay data from ENDF/B. [In FORTRAN IV for IBM 360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    ORYX-E increases the versatility of CCC-217/ORIGEN, the isotope generation and depletion code package, by providing basic cross section and decay information for light element, fission-product, and actinide nuclides. This data library package results from data compiled for ORNL Chemical Technology Division's work with ORIGEN and from a 2-year effort of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Fission Product Task Force. The data are generated from ENDF/B-IV, and are formated for input to the ORIGEN (CCC-217) code. Applications include calculations for waste projection, decay heat, nuclear safeguards, and fuel cycle economics. (RWR)

  13. Summary Report of Consultants' Meeting on Accuracy of Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Cross-Section Data for Ion Beam Analysis and Benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, Daniel; Dimitriou, Paraskevi; Gurbich, Alexander F.

    2013-11-01

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting assembled to assess the accuracy of experimental and theoretical nuclear cross-section data for Ion Beam Analysis and the role of benchmarking experiments. The participants discussed the different approaches to assigning uncertainties to evaluated data, and presented results of benchmark experiments performed in their laboratories. They concluded that priority should be given to the validation of cross- section data by benchmark experiments, and recommended that an experts meeting be held to prepare the guidelines, methodology and work program of a future coordinated project on benchmarking.

  14. Hadron Cancer Therapy: Role of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M. B.

    2000-06-20

    Recently it has become feasible to calculate energy deposition and particle transport in the body by proton and neutron radiotherapy beams, using Monte Carlo transport methods. A number of advances have made this possible, including dramatic increases in computer speeds, a better understanding of the microscopic nuclear reaction cross sections, and the development of methods to model the characteristics of the radiation emerging from the accelerator treatment unit. This paper describes the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved, and how the cross sections have been evaluated from theory and experiment, for use in computer simulations of radiation therapy. The simulations will allow the dose delivered to a tumor to be optimized, whilst minimizing the dos given to nearby organs at risk.

  15. A kinematically complete, interdisciplinary, and co-institutional measurement of the 19F(α,n) cross section for nuclear safeguards science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, W. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, M. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pittman, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, S. J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Clement, R. R. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Pain, S. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Febbraro, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chipps, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burcher, S. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Manning, B. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Reingold, C. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Avetisyan, R. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Battaglia, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Chen, Y. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Long, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Lyons, S. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Marley, S. T. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Seymour, C. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Siegl, K. T. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Smith, M. K. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Strauss, S. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Talwar, R. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bardayan, D. W. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Gyurjinyan, A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Smith, K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Thornsberry, C.; Thompson, P.; Madurga, M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stech, E. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Tan, W. P. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Wiescher, M. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Ilyushkin, S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Tully, Z. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Grinder, M. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Alpha particles emitted from the decay of uranium in a UF6 matrix can interact with fluorine and generate neutrons via the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction. These neutrons can be used to determine the uranium content in a UF6 storage cylinder. The accuracy of this self-interrogating, non-destructive assay (NDA) technique is, however, limited by the uncertainty of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section. We have performed complementary measurements of the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction with both 4He and 19F beams to improve the precision of the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section over the alpha energy range that encompasses common actinide alpha decay needed for NDA studies. We have determined an absolute cross section for the 19F(α,n)22Na reaction to an average precision of 7.6% over the alpha energy range of 3.9 – 6.7 MeV. We utilized this cross section in a simulation of a 100 g spherical UF6 assembly and obtained a change in neutron emission rate values of approximately 10-12%, and a significant (factor of 3.6) decrease in the neutron emission rate uncertainty (from 50-51% to 13-14%), compared to simulations using the old cross section. Our new absolute cross section enables improved interpretations of NDAs of containers of arbitrary size and configuration.

  16. Production cross sections and isomeric ratios for sup(110m)In/sup(110g)In formed in Cd (d,xn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros Usher, Oscar; Maceiras de Jefimowicz, Elena; De la Vega Vedoya, Mario; Jorge Nassiff, Sonia

    1980-01-01

    Excitation functions and isomeric cross sections ratios have been measured for the 110 Cd (d,2n) and 111 Cd (d,3n) reactions in which the isomeric pair sup(110m)In/sup(110g)In is produced. Activation method was employed and the irradiations were performed at the synchrocyclotron of the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Argentina, with an incident energy of 27.MeV. (author) [es

  17. Plots of the experimental and evaluated photoneutron cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Nasyrova, S.M.

    1991-08-01

    Graphical plots of experimental data of photon induced nuclear reaction cross-sections are given for many elements and isotopes. The numerical data were taken from the international EXFOR data library which is available from the nuclear data centers. For selected nuclides evaluated data have been included in the plots. (author). Refs, 3 tabs

  18. Measurement of (n,xn) reaction cross-sections using prompt {gamma} spectroscopy at neutron beams with high instantaneous flux; Mesure de sections efficaces de reaction (n,xn) par spectroscopie {gamma} prompte aupres d'un faisceau a tres haut flux instantane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukic, S

    2004-10-15

    The work presented in this thesis is situated in the context of the GEDEON program of neutron cross-section measurements. This program is motivated by the perspectives recently opened by projects of nuclear waste treatment and energy production. There is an obvious lack of experimental data on (n,xn) reactions in the databases, especially in the case of very radioactive isotopes. An important technique to measure cross-sections of these reactions is the prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at white pulsed neutron beams with very high instantaneous flux. In this work, inelastic scattering and (n,xn) reactions cross-section measurements were performed on a lead sample from threshold to 20 MeV by prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy at the white neutron beam generated by GELINA facility in Geel, Belgium. Digital methods were developed to treat HPGe CLOVER detector signals and separate {gamma}-rays induced by the fastest neutrons from those belonging to the flash. Partial cross-sections for the production of several transitions in natural lead were measured and analyzed using theoretical calculations in order to separate the contributions of different reactions leading to the same residual isotope. Total cross-sections of the reactions in question were estimated. The results were compared to the TALYSS code theoretical calculations, as well as to other experimental results. This experiment has served to validate the method and it opens the way to measure (n,xn) reactions cross-sections with high instantaneous neutron flux on actinides, particularly the U{sup 233}(n,2n) reaction which is important for the thorium cycle. (author)

  19. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  20. Evaluated activation cross-sections and intercomparison of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For all isotopes and incident particles, the same methodology is applied to obtain the cross-section ... data library with mutually consistent reactions and covariance information for all isotopes. [24]. 2.3 EMPIRE ..... Medical Applications Statistical Theory of Nuclear Reactions, 30 September–4 October, 2013. [38] H Feshbach ...

  1. GNASH: a preequilibrium, statistical nuclear-model code for calculation of cross sections and emission spectra. [In FORTRAN for CDC 7600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1977-11-01

    A new multistep Hauser--Feshbach code that includes corrections for preequilibrium effects is described. The code can calculate up to 60 decay reactions (cross sections and energy spectra) in one computation, and thereby provide considerable flexibility for handling processes with complicated reaction chains. Input parameter setup, problem output, and subroutine descriptions are given along with a sample problem calculation. A brief theoretical description is also included. 8 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Experimental constraints on the γ-ray strength function in 90Zr using partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Netterdon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Partial cross sections of the Y89(p,γZr90 reaction have been measured to investigate the γ-ray strength function in the neutron–magic nucleus 90Zr. For five proton energies between Ep=3.65 MeV and Ep=4.70 MeV, partial cross sections for the population of seven discrete states in 90Zr have been determined by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Since these γ-ray transitions are dominantly of E1 character, the present measurement allows an access to the low-lying dipole strength in 90Zr. A γ-ray strength function based on the experimental data could be extracted, which is used to describe the total and partial cross sections of this reaction by Hauser–Feshbach calculations successfully. Significant differences with respect to previously measured strength functions from photoabsorption data point towards deviations from the Brink–Axel hypothesis relating the photo-excitation and de-excitation strength functions.

  3. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs

  4. ENEA-Bologna production and testing of Jeff-3.1 multi-group cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescarini, M.; Orsi, R.; Sinitsa, V.

    2008-01-01

    The ENEA-Bologna Nuclear Data Group produced the JEFF-3.1 VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31. BOLIB fine-group coupled neutron and photon (199 n + 42 γ) cross section libraries for nuclear fission applications, respectively in AMPX and MATXS format, with the same specifications and energy group structure of the Endf/B-VI-3 VITAMIN-B6 American library. Each library, containing 181 nuclide cross section files, was generated from the same set of cross section data files in GENDF format, obtained through the Bondarenko (f-factor) method, with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the GROUPR module of the NJOY-99.160 system. Collapsed working libraries of self-shielded cross sections in FIDO-ANISN format, used by the deterministic transport codes of the DANTSYS and DOORS systems, can be generated from VITJEFF31.BOLIB and MATJEFF31.BOLIB through, respectively, further data processing with an ENEA-Bologna revised version of the SCAMPI system and with the TRANSX code. This paper describes the methodology and specifications of the data processing performed and presents some results of the VITJEFF31.BOLIB validation. (authors)

  5. Neutron cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Donald J; Dunworth, J V

    1957-01-01

    Neutron Cross Sections presents the principles of cross-section measurement and use, as well as sufficient theory so that the general behavior of cross sections is made understandable. This compilation is a direct result of experiences connected with the collection and evaluation of cross-section data during the past eight years at """"Sigma Centre"""", Brookhaven National Laboratory. Here, experimental results received from laboratories throughout the world are carefully evaluated and compiled in the curves and tables of the large volume Neutron Cross Sections, The most recent version of the

  6. Measurement of double differential charged-particle emission cross sections for reactions induced by 26 MeV protons and FKK model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Aoto, A.; Kashimoto, H.

    1994-01-01

    Double differential charged-particle emission cross sections of proton-induced reactions have been measured for nat C, 27 Al, nat Si, 98 Mo, 106 Pd, 159 Tb and 181 Ta at energies around 26 MeV. Several (p,p') and (p,n) data for 98 Mo and 106 Pd in the incident energy range from 12 to 26 MeV are analysed in terms of the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model, in order to study preequilibrium nucleon emission from nucleon-induced reactions

  7. Measurement of gamma-ray production cross sections in neutron-induced reactions for Al and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, A.; Vonach, H.; Hitzenberger, H.

    1995-01-01

    The prompt gamma-radiation from the interaction of fast neutrons with aluminum and lead was measured using the white neutron beam of the WNR facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The samples (Al and isotopically enriched 207 Pb and 208 Pb) were positioned at about 20 m or 41 m distance from the neutron production target. The spectra of the emitted gamma-rays were measured with a high-resolution HPGe detector. The incident neutron energy was determined by the time-of-flight method and the neutron fluence was measured with a U fission chamber. From the aluminum gamma-ray spectra excitation functions for prominent gamma-transitions in various residual nuclei (in the range from O to Al) were derived for neutron energies from 3 MeV to 400 MeV. For lead (n,xnγ) reactions were studied for neutron energies up to 200 MeV by analyzing prominent gamma-transitions in the residual nuclei 200,202,204,206,207,208 Pb. The experimental results were compared with nuclear model calculations using the code GNASH. A good overall agreement was obtained without special parameter adjustments

  8. Feasibility Study for the Measurement of Nuclear Fragmentation Cross Sections with NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Aduszkiewicz, A

    2017-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the fragmentation cross sections of intermediate mass nuclei is of paramount importance to understand the propagation of cosmic rays in our Galaxy and to evaluate the background for dark matter searches with space-based cosmic-ray experiments such as AMS. Therefore, we suggest a one-week test run in 2018 with secondary ions to establish the capabilities of NA61/SHINE to measure fragmentation cross sections at isotope level. No major modifications to the experimental setup of NA61/SHINE are needed to perform this feasibility study. The experience gained during the test run will be used to formulate a comprehensive measurement campaign for cosmic-ray related fragmentation cross sections for the possible extension of the NA61/SHINE physics program beyond 2020. The test data on carbon-proton and oxygen-proton interactions at 13A GeV/c that we intend to collect during the proposed test run have already the potential to reduce the current cross section uncertainties.

  9. Cross section of α-induced reactions on iridium isotopes obtained from thick target yield measurement for the astrophysical γ process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Rauscher, T.

    2018-01-01

    The stellar reaction rates of radiative α-capture reactions on heavy isotopes are of crucial importance for the γ process network calculations. These rates are usually derived from statistical model calculations, which need to be validated, but the experimental database is very scarce. This paper presents the results of α-induced reaction cross section measurements on iridium isotopes carried out at first close to the astrophysically relevant energy region. Thick target yields of 191Ir(α,γ)195Au, 191Ir(α,n)194Au, 193Ir(α,n)196mAu, 193Ir(α,n)196Au reactions have been measured with the activation technique between Eα = 13.4 MeV and 17 MeV. For the first time the thick target yield was determined with X-ray counting. This led to a previously unprecedented sensitivity. From the measured thick target yields, reaction cross sections are derived and compared with statistical model calculations. The recently suggested energy-dependent modification of the α + nucleus optical potential gives a good description of the experimental data.

  10. Cross section of α-induced reactions on iridium isotopes obtained from thick target yield measurement for the astrophysical γ process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Szücs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The stellar reaction rates of radiative α-capture reactions on heavy isotopes are of crucial importance for the γ process network calculations. These rates are usually derived from statistical model calculations, which need to be validated, but the experimental database is very scarce. This paper presents the results of α-induced reaction cross section measurements on iridium isotopes carried out at first close to the astrophysically relevant energy region. Thick target yields of 191Ir(α,γ195Au, 191Ir(α,n194Au, 193Ir(α,n196mAu, 193Ir(α,n196Au reactions have been measured with the activation technique between Eα=13.4 MeV and 17 MeV. For the first time the thick target yield was determined with X-ray counting. This led to a previously unprecedented sensitivity. From the measured thick target yields, reaction cross sections are derived and compared with statistical model calculations. The recently suggested energy-dependent modification of the α+nucleus optical potential gives a good description of the experimental data.

  11. Comparative study of Monte Carlo particle transport code PHITS and nuclear data processing code NJOY for recoil cross section spectra under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto.yosuke@jaea.go.jp; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2017-04-01

    Because primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) create point defects and clusters in materials that are irradiated with neutrons, it is important to validate the calculations of recoil cross section spectra that are used to estimate radiation damage in materials. Here, the recoil cross section spectra of fission- and fusion-relevant materials were calculated using the Event Generator Mode (EGM) of the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) and also using the data processing code NJOY2012 with the nuclear data libraries TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JEFF3.2. The heating number, which is the integral of the recoil cross section spectra, was also calculated using PHITS-EGM and compared with data extracted from the ACE files of TENDL2015, ENDF/BVII.1, and JENDL4.0. In general, only a small difference was found between the PKA spectra of PHITS + TENDL2015 and NJOY + TENDL2015. From analyzing the recoil cross section spectra extracted from the nuclear data libraries using NJOY2012, we found that the recoil cross section spectra were incorrect for {sup 72}Ge, {sup 75}As, {sup 89}Y, and {sup 109}Ag in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library, and for {sup 90}Zr and {sup 55}Mn in the JEFF3.2 library. From analyzing the heating number, we found that the data extracted from the ACE file of TENDL2015 for all nuclides were problematic in the neutron capture region because of incorrect data regarding the emitted gamma energy. However, PHITS + TENDL2015 can calculate PKA spectra and heating numbers correctly.

  12. Requirements for charged-particle reaction cross sections in the d-d, d-t, t-t, and d-3He fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarmie, N.

    1986-12-01

    This paper reviews the status of experimental data and data evaluations for charged-particle reactions of interest in fusion-reactor design. In particular, the 2 H(t,α)n, 2 H(d,p) 3 H, 2 H(d, 3 He)n, 3 H(t,α)nn and 3 He(d,p) 4 He reactions at low energies are studied. Other secondary reactions are considered. The conclusion is that such cross sections are well known for the near and medium term, and that no crucial experimental lack exists. There is a serious lack of standard evaluations of these reactions, which should be in an internationally acceptable format and easily accessible. Support for generating such evaluations should be given serious consideration

  13. Nuclear inelastic scattering cross sections for the transitions to L = 4 and L = 5 states in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasmin Rahman, S.; Haque, Sangita; Rahman, A.Md.

    2004-07-01

    The generalized scattering amplitudes of the adiabatic distorted waves theory have been developed by Austem and Blair, connecting the inelastic scattering amplitudes in terms of the elastic scattering amplitudes. Potgieter and Frahn obtained simple, closed and explicit expressions for the inelastic scattering amplitudes, again in the adiabatic approximation, under strong absorption condition. These are analogous to the strong absorption model formulae for elastic scattering. In a previous communication, inelastic scattering cross section leading to the population of L = 2 and L = 3 states in nuclei are derived by us, using the general formulations due to Potgieter and Fahn. We derive here closed expressions for the cross sections for the inelastic scattering, transiting to L = 4 and L = 5 states in nuclei in the same line as before and satisfactory and simultaneous fits to the elastic as well as inelastic angular distributions are obtained. (author)

  14. Data Analysis of Minima Total Cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 on JENDL-3.2Nuclear Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Pandiangan, Tumpal; Ferhat-Aziz

    2000-01-01

    The integral tests of neutron cross-section for shielding material suchas nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file have been performed. Analysis ofthe calculation for nitrogen-14 was based on the MAEKER's ORNL-BroomstickExperiment at ORNL-USA. For the data comparison, the calculation analysiswith JENDL-3.1 file, ENDF/B-IV file, ENDF/B-VI file and JEF2.2 have also beencarried out. The overall calculation results by using JENDL-3.2 evaluationshowed good agreement with the experimental data, as well as those with theENDF/B-VI evaluation. In particular, the JENDL-3.2 evaluation gave betterresults than JENDL-3.1 evaluation and ENDF/B-IV. It was been concluded thatthe total cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file is invery good agreement with the experimental results, although the totalcross-section in the energy range between 0.5 MeV and 0.9 MeV on fileJENDL-3.2 was small (about 4% lower), and minima of total cross-sections wasdeeper. (author)

  15. Measurement of the Ir-191,193(n,2n)Ir-190,192 Reaction Cross Section Between 9.0 and 16.5 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenhain, Elizabeth; Finch, Sean; Tornow, Werner; Krishichayan, F.

    2017-09-01

    Iridium is one of the elements prioritized by Nonproliferation and Homeland Security agencies. In addition, Ir-192 is being used in various medical treatments. Improved data and corresponding evaluations of neutron-induced reactions on the iridium isotopes are required to meet the demands of several applications of societal interest. This study measured the cross section of the Ir-191,193(n, 2n)Ir-190,192 reactions at energies from 9.0 to 16.5 MeV using the activation technique. Natural Ir samples [Ir-191 37.3%, Ir-193 62.7%] were sandwiched between Au-197 monitor foils and irradiated with monoenergetic neutron beams at the tandem facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL). Gamma rays from the irradiated samples were counted in TUNL's low background facility using high-efficient HPGe detectors. Measured cross-section data are compared to previous data and to predictions from nuclear data libraries (e.g. ENDF). Research at TUNL funded by the NSF.

  16. Extracting the cross section angular distributions for 15C high-energy resonance excited via the (18O,16O two-neutron transfer reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The 13C(18O,16O15C reaction has been studied at 84 MeV incident energy. The ejectiles have been momentum analized by the MAGNEX spectrometer and 15C excitation energy spectra have been obtained up to about 20 MeV. In the region above the two-neutron separation energy, a bump has been observed at 13.7 MeV. The extracted cross section angular distribution for this structure, obtained by using different models for background, displays a clear oscillating pattern, typical of resonant state of the residual nucleus.

  17. Measurement of the helicity-dependent total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields} p {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The helicity dependence of the total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields}p{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 450 to 800MeV. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Both the measured unpolarized and the helicity-dependent observables are not well described by the existing theoretical models. (orig.)

  18. Determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... ... some of these reactions have been used as tools to serve as surrogates of neutron-induced compound nuclear fission cross-sections involving unstable targets. In this paper, we report some of the recent results on the determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable actinides present ...

  19. The cross-section of the 10B(n,α)7Li reaction measured in the MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorginis, Georgios; Khryachkov, Vitali

    2006-01-01

    The excitation function of the 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction was measured between 1.5 and 5.6 MeV within the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Improvement of the Standard Cross Sections for Light Elements'. An ionisation chamber and signal digitisation were used for the spectrometry of the reaction products, which were forwards emitted by bombarding a thin boron target with neutrons produced at the IRMM Van de Graaff accelerator. The neutron flux was determined by measuring the backwards emitted fission fragments from a 238 U sample mounted in a back-to-back geometry relative to the boron target. The highlight of this study was the discovery of the kinematic effect of particle leaking, which is very important for the accurate determination of the number of the boron reaction events. The experiment is described and the results are discussed and compared with evaluations and experimental data of other groups

  20. Measurement of the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction cross section, of relevance to $\\gamma$-ray observation of core collapse supernovae, using reclaimed $^{44}$Ti

    CERN Multimedia

    Despite decades of research, fundamental uncertainties remain in the underlying explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. One of the most direct methods that might help resolve this problem is a comparison of the predicted to the observed flux of $\\gamma$-rays due to decay of $^{44}$Ti produced in the explosion, as it is believed this could reveal the location of the mass cut, a key hydrodynamical property of the explosion. Such a study is at present limited by the uncertainty in the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction rate. In this experiment we propose to measure the cross section for this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies. The single previous measurement of this reaction was limited to higher energies due to low beam intensities. Here, a more intense beam will be employed, generated from $^{44}$Ti reclaimed as part of the ERAWAST project at PSI.

  1. Evaluation of FP cross sections for JENDL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation work of cross sections of fission product nuclides for JENDL-3 is in progress as an activity in JNDC FPND sub-working group. Compared to JENDL-2, the number of FP nuclides is extended to 172 by adding As, Se, Br, Sn and Te isotopes and short lived nuclides. Threshold reaction cross sections are also newly contained in the scope of genearal applications. Resonance parameters are evaluated by taking account of recent experimental data up to 1987. The nuclear model parameters are determined for calculating neutron cross sections with the spherical optical model and the statistical theory. The (n,2n), (n,p), (n,α), (n,np) and (n,nα) cross sections are evaluated for all FP nuclides by using the simple evaporation and preequilibrium model. In this paper, evaluation scope and its present status are described. (author)

  2. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  3. Benchmark experiment for the cross section of the {sup 100}Mo(p,2n){sup 99m}Tc and {sup 100}Mo(p,pn){sup 99}Mo reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takács, S., E-mail: stakacs@atomki.hu [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ditrói, F. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Aikawa, M. [Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Haba, H. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, N. [Nuclear Data Section, IAEA, Wien A-1400 (Austria)

    2016-05-15

    As nuclear medicine community has shown an increasing interest in accelerator produced {sup 99m}Tc radionuclide, the possible alternative direct production routes for producing {sup 99m}Tc were investigated intensively. One of these accelerator production routes is based on the {sup 100}Mo(p,2n){sup 99m}Tc reaction. The cross section of this nuclear reaction was studied by several laboratories earlier but the available data-sets are not in good agreement. For large scale accelerator production of {sup 99m}Tc based on the {sup 100}Mo(p,2n){sup 99m}Tc reaction, a well-defined excitation function is required to optimise the production process effectively. One of our recent publications pointed out that most of the available experimental excitation functions for the {sup 100}Mo(p,2n){sup 99m}Tc reaction have the same general shape while their amplitudes are different. To confirm the proper amplitude of the excitation function, results of three independent experiments were presented (Takács et al., 2015). In this work we present results of a thick target count rate measurement of the E{sub γ} = 140.5 keV gamma-line from molybdenum irradiated by E{sub p} = 17.9 MeV proton beam, as an integral benchmark experiment, to prove the cross section data reported for the {sup 100}Mo(p,2n){sup 99m}Tc and {sup 100}Mo(p,pn){sup 99}Mo reactions in Takács et al. (2015).

  4. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  5. Measurement of the total reaction cross section for interactions between heavy ions (application to the system 12C+12C at 112MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkaoui-Tadili, R.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross-section σsub(R) for interactions between heavy ions is predicted to decrease rapidly with the energy of the incident projectile over the energy range 10 MeV/A - 100 MeV/A. We present here an experimental met σsub(R) to test the model based predictions. The method consists in counting the number of all incoming projectiles and the number of out going projectiles that did not interact with the target. The difference between these two numbers corresponds to the number of particles that reacted with the target nuclei and is therefore proportional to σsub(R). Values of σsub(R) have been measured for the system 12 C + 12 C at two incident energies of 112 MeV and 996 MeV. The results of 1444 +- 70 (112 MeV) and 994 +- 50 (996 MeV) show a total reaction cross-section decreasing with energy as predicted from the Glauber model and optical model fits to elastic scattering [fr

  6. The Determination of Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Section Data on Even-Even, Magic- Number Nuclide Chromium 52 Using EXIFON Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    The EXIFON code version 2.0 is a calculational tool, which is based on both many-body theory and random matrix physics. In this work, it has been used to calculate neutron induced reaction cross section data from 0 to 20 MeV on an even-even, magic number nuclide 52 Cr with neutron number, N=28. Specifically, the (n,p), (n,α) and (n,2n) reaction cross section data were calculated as functions of incident energy of neutrons. Data obtained from the experimental data in the IAEA, EXFOR data Library and recommended data libraries around the globe, JENDL, ENDF and JEFF were used to validate the calculated data. The data indicate that the calculated data without shell corrections are in good agreement with experimental data as well as the recommended data from the evaluated data libraries. The calculated results could provide useful insight into the choice of some input parameters near closed shells using the EXIFON code.

  7. Measurement of total reaction sup 4 sup , sup 6 He + sup 2 sup 8 Si cross section at 10-28 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, I V; Kalpakchieva, R

    2002-01-01

    New results have been obtained for the energy dependence of the total reaction cross section sigma sub R of sup 6 He on sup 2 sup 8 Si in the energy range 10-28 MeV/A. The cross sections of formation of alpha-particles in the interaction of sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 6 He + sup 4 He)X were also measured. The secondary sup 6 He beams, with an intensity of up to 5 x 10 sup 4 pps, were produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with a primary sup 7 Li beam of approx 32 MeV/A. In the energy region below 17 MeV/A a strong rise in the values of sigma sub R has been observed. The experimental data on sigma sub R are compared with calculations, where for the analysis of sigma sub R the double-folding potential in the frame of the optical model is used. The different energy dependence of sigma sub R for sup 6 He compared to that of some neighbouring nuclei may be due to peculiarities in its structure. The energy spectra of the alpha-particles, produced in the sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 6 He + sup 4 He) reaction, show that they...

  8. Charged particle cross-section data and their systematization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassif, S.

    1982-07-01

    The reaction cross-sections and the thick target yields of (α,αxn) and (α,xn), induced by the alpha particles from the Buenos Aires 60 inch synchrocyclotron for Cu, Y, Zr, Rh, Te, Ta, Au and Pb were obtained. The ''stocked foil'' method was applied. The ''nuclear spin density'' parameter was determined using a phenomenological approximation from the cross section data for 181 Ta(α,n) reaction producing isomeric pairs of sup(184m)Re and sup(184g)Re. The systematic behaviour of the present result and the results of other authors were demonstrated

  9. Inelastic cross sections from gamma-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-06

    Measurements of gamma rays following neutron induced reactions have been studied with the Germanium Array for Neutron-induced Excitations (GEANIE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) for many years. Gamma-ray excitation functions and coincidence studies provide insight into nuclear reaction mechanisms as well as expanding our knowledge of energy levels and gamma-rays. Samples studied with Ge detectors at LANSCE range from Be to Pu. Fe, Cr and Ti have been considered for use as reference cross sections. An overview of the measurements and efforts to create a reliable neutron-induced gamma-ray reference cross section will be presented.

  10. Department of Nuclear Reactions - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzanowski, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The year 1998 can be considered as very successful both in harvesting important results from the existing collaborations as well as establishing new ones. In the frame of the COSY-11 collaboration cross section for η' production in p-p collision close to the threshold has been measured. In the region of excess energy between 1.5 and 4.1 MeV the η' cross sections are much lower than those of the π 0 and η production. There seems to be no indication that N * resonance doorway-like state governs the reaction mechanisms. The determined coupling constant g η'pp appears to be consistent with the prediction of the simple quark model. Results were published in Phys. Rev. Letters. Using the GEM detector, investigations of the isospin symmetry breaking were performed. Two reactions channels 3 Heπ 0 and 3 Hπ + from the reaction at proton momenta 700, 767, and 825 MeV/c were measured. Data analysis is in progress. The model of the meson cloud in the nucleon which is a speciality of our department has been successfully applied to explain the leading proton and neutron cross sections from the e + or e - proton collisions at the HERA ring. General formulas to calculate polarization of the particles with spin transmitted through the barrier in the presence of strong magnetic fields were obtained. New collaboration between our laboratory and the Institute for Nuclear Research in Kiev has been established. One PhD thesis was completed in the frame of this collaboration. We joined the new collaboration with Lund University concerning studies of hot nuclear matter properties using heavy ions from CELSIUS ring. First test of the phoswich detector for the forward wall was performed in Uppsala. Isoscalar giant dipole resonance strength distribution 3 ℎω has been evaluated in 208 Pb in the space of 1p1h and 2p2h excitation. The centroid energy of this state can directly be related to the nuclear incompressibility module. Our result indicates rather large values of

  11. Thermal neutron absorption cross-section measured on rock samples and brines in the Institute of Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Drozdowicz, K.; Krynicka-Drozdowicz, E.; Igielski, A.; Woznicka, U.

    1983-01-01

    In consecutive measurements the rock sample (having a fixed and well known shape -in our case it is a sphere or a cylinder and the sample is powdered or liquid) is enveloped in shells of a plexiglass moderator (the neutron parameters of which are known) of variable thickness and irradiated with the pulsed beam of fast neutrons. The die-away rate of thermal neutrons escaping from the whole system is measured. The absorption cross-section of the sample is found as the intersection of the experimental curve (i.e. die -away rate vs thickness of the moderator) with the theoretical one. The theoretical curve is calculated for a given moderator under the assumption of a constant value of the neutron flux inside the sample. This method is independent of the value of the transport cross-section of the sample. It has been checked on artificial materials with a well known elemental composition (liquid or solid) and on the natural brines and rock samples (basalts and dolomite). A special method of calculation of the variance of the measurement has been established. It is based on the multiple computer simulations of all experimental data used in the computation. The one standard deviation of our methods is of the order of 1 up to 3 capture units (1 c.u. = 10 -3 cm -1 ). The volume of the sample needed is of the order of 500ccm. (author)

  12. Energy dependence of the total cross section for the reaction of He-4 ions with silicon nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ugryumov, V. Yu.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kugler, Andrej

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2005), s. 16-20 ISSN 1063-7788 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : MeV alpha-particles * scattering Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.914, year: 2005

  13. Measurement of activation cross sections of the {sup 27}Al(n,α){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg reactions with quasi-monoenergetic neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, Muhammad; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Kwangsoo [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Naik, Haladhara [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Lee, Young-Ouk; Cho, Young-Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear Data Center; Lee, Man Woo; Kang, Yeong-Rok [Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, Busan (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    2017-10-01

    The cross sections of the {sup 27}Al(n,α){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg reactions with the average neutron energies of 15.2, 26.4, and 37.2 MeV were measured using the activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique at the Korean Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS), Korea. Quasi-monoenergetic neutrons produced via the {sup 9}Be(p,n) reaction with the proton beam energies of 25, 35, and 45 MeV from the MC50 cyclotron of KIRAMS were used. The present measured values were compared with those from the evaluated nuclear data libraries ENDF/B-VII, TENDL-2015, TALYS 1.8, and from literature. In general, a close agreement with the literature data as well as the evaluated data was found.

  14. Dynamics of alkali ions-neutral molecules reactions: Radio frequency-guided beam experimental cross-sections and direct quasiclassical trajectory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.; Andres, J. de; Lucas, J. M.; Alberti, M.; Huarte-Larranaga, F.; Bassi, D.; Aguilar, A. [Departament de Quimica Fisica, Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trento, 38123 Povo-Trento (Italy); Departament de Quimica Fisica, Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-11-27

    Different reactive processes taking place in collisions between alkali ions and neutral i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}Cl molecules in the low (center of mass frame) energy range have been studied using an octopole radiofrequency guided-ion-beam apparatus developed in our laboratory. Cross-section energy dependences for all these reactions have been obtained in absolute units. Ab initio electronic structure calculations for those colliding systems evolving on the ground single potential surface have given relevant information on the main topological features of the surfaces. For some of the reactions a dynamic study by 'on the fly' trajectories has complemented the available experimental and electronic structure information.

  15. Native-Like and Denatured Cytochrome c Ions Yield Cation-to-Anion Proton Transfer Reaction Products with Similar Collision Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Kenneth J.; Buckner, John H.; Munger, Eleanor B.; Bush, Matthew F.

    2017-07-01

    The relationship between structures of protein ions, their charge states, and their original structures prior to ionization remains challenging to decouple. Here, we use cation-to-anion proton transfer reactions (CAPTR) to reduce the charge states of cytochrome c ions in the gas phase, and ion mobility to probe their structures. Ions were formed using a new temperature-controlled nanoelectrospray ionization source at 25 °C. Characterization of this source demonstrates that the temperature of the liquid sample is decoupled from that of the atmospheric pressure interface, which is heated during CAPTR experiments. Ionization from denaturing conditions yields 18+ to 8+ ions, which were each isolated and reacted with monoanions to generate all CAPTR products with charge states of at least 3+. The highest, intermediate, and lowest charge-state products exhibit collision cross-section distributions that are unimodal, multimodal, and unimodal, respectively. These distributions depend strongly on the charge state of the product, although those for the intermediate charge-state products also depend on that of the precursor. The distributions of the 3+ products are all similar, with averages that are less than half that of the 18+ precursor ions. Ionization of cytochrome c from native-like conditions yields 7+ and 6+ ions. The 3+ CAPTR products from these precursors have slightly more compact collision cross-section distributions that are indistinguishable from those for the 3+ CAPTR products from denaturing conditions. More broadly, these results indicate that the collision cross-sections of ions of this single domain protein depend strongly on charge state for charge states greater than 4.

  16. Time-Dependent Quantum Wave Packet Study of the Si + OH → SiO + H Reaction: Cross Sections and Rate Constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice

    2017-03-02

    The dynamics of the Si( 3 P) + OH(X 2 Π) → SiO(X 1 Σ + ) + H( 2 S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X 2 A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.

  17. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  18. Differential cross-sections measurements for hadrontherapy: 50 MeV/A 12C reactions on H, C, O, Al and natTi targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divay, C.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Finck, Ch.; Karakaya, Y.; Labalme, M.; Rousseau, M.; Salvador, S.; Vanstalle, M.

    2017-09-01

    In order to keep the benefits of a carbon treatment, the dose and biological effects induced by secondary fragments must be taken into account when simulating the treatment plan. These Monte-Carlo simulations codes are done using nuclear models that are constrained by experimental data. It is hence necessary to have precise measurements of the production rates of these fragments all along the beam path and for its whole energy range. In this context, a series of experiments aiming to measure the double differential fragmentation cross-sections of carbon on thin targets of medical interest has been started by our collaboration. In March 2015, an experiment was performed with a 50 MeV/nucleon 12C beam at GANIL. During this experiment, energy and angular differential cross-section distributions on H, C, O, Al and natTi have been measured. In the following, the experimental set-up and analysis process are briefly described and some experimental results are presented. Comparisons between several exit channel models from Phits and Geant4 show great discrepancies with the experimental data. Finally, the homemade Sliipie model is briefly presented and preliminary results are compared to the data with a promising outcome.

  19. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  20. Cross-section measurement for the reaction 115In(n,n')/sup 115m/In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liskien, H.; Arnotte, F.; Widera, R.; Paulsen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The excitation function for the reaction 115 In(n,n')/sup 115m/In was measured by the activation technique from threshold up to 4.1 MeV in 0.1-MeV steps. The absolute normalization of this excitation junction was performed at 2.1 MeV and is based on n-p scattering. The total uncertainty of the results is typically +- 6% above 1 MeV. The results are in good agreement with recently published data. 2 figures, 3 tables

  1. Cross-sections for (p,x) reactions on natural chromium for the production of (52,52m,54)Mn radioisotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, A Lake; Lewis, Benjamin C; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-02-01

    The production of positron-emitting isotopes of manganese is potentially important for developing contrast agents for dual-modality positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging, as well as for in vivo imaging of the biodistribution and toxicity of manganese. The decay properties of (52)Mn make it an excellent candidate for these applications, and it can easily be produced by bombardment of a chromium target with protons or deuterons from a low-energy biomedical cyclotron. Several parameters that are essential to this mode of production—target thickness, beam energy, beam current, and bombardment time—depend heavily on the availability of reliable, reproducible cross-section data. This work contributes to the routine production of (52g)Mn for biomedical research by contributing experimental cross-sections for natural chromium ((nat)Cr) targets for the (nat)Cr(p,x)(52g)Mn reaction, as well as for the production of the radiocontaminants (52m,54)Mn. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Limit power of nuclear fuel cells with biconcave cross sections; Potencia limite de celulas de combustivel nuclear cilindricas de secao biconcava

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Thiago Antonini; Pelegrini, Marcelo Ferreira; Woiski, Emanuel Rocha; Maia, Cassio Roberto Macedo [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: antonini@dem.feis.unesp.br; woiski@dem.feis.unesp.br; cassio@dem.feis.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    Diffusive media with distributed sources, such as the case of nuclear fuel cells, represent a major role in engineering. Due to the nuclear fission of the chemical element, fuel cells are capable of releasing an enormous amount of thermal energy in spite of their reduced dimensions, in such a way that the maximum power of the reactor is closely related to the fusion temperature of the fuel, and consequently to the maximum temperature in the cell. The cell maximum temperature is, therefore, a chief parameter in nuclear reactor design. Limiting power, of course, depends not only of the fuel thermo physical properties, but also of the cell shape and dimensions. The present work purports the study of the effects of some parameters of cell geometry on the limiting power, especially for cell with biconcave cross sections. Given the large temperature gradients in the cell, the thermal conductivity must be assumed as a generic function of temperature. Therefore, the problem has been modeled as a nonlinear 2 D Poisson-like PDE, with a nontrivial geometry of the boundary. For the analytical solution, Kirchhoff transform has been employed to turn the equation into a linear Poisson equation, a conformal transform brought it to a rectangular domain and Generalized Integral Transform method applied in order to solve the resulting equation. For the numerical solution of the linearized equation, a program has been developed in Python, reusing classes of Ellipt2d, an open-source elliptic solver. The domain has been divided into linear triangular finite elements, and the system of equations resulting of Galerkin method application has been solved, for each parameter set. The trend in critical power has been discussed, as well as the numerical results compared to the analytical solutions and to the literature. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.I.; Buleeva, N.N.; Manokhin, V.N.; Mikhajlyukova, M.V.; Nasyrova, S.M.; Skripova, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,α) and (n,nα) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides 39 Ar, 42 Ar, 41 Ca, 53 Mn, 60 Fe, 60 Co, 59 Ni and 63 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data. (author)

  4. The Structure of Nuclei Joint Analysis of Elastic, Inelastic Scattering and Total Reactions Cross-Sections for ^{90,94}Zr-Particles Data

    CERN Document Server

    Duysebaev, A D; Kuchtina, I N; Sadykov, B M; Slusarenko, L I; Tokarevsky, V V; Fayans, S A

    2001-01-01

    A complex analysis of experimental data of elastic, inelastic scattering and total reactions cross-sections of alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei is performed. Values of the deformation lengths and neutron-proton multipole matrix elements relations for 2_{1}^{+}- and 3_{1}^{+}-states of ^{90,92,94,96}Zr nuclei for different types of particles are obtained. A comparative analysis is made. Experimental data for inelastic scattering of 35.4, 40.0, 50.1 and 65.0 MeV alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei are analysed for understanding the phase shifts in frames of the unified approach.

  5. Evaluation of the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during irradiation of steels by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Mikhajlyukova, M V; Nasyrova, S M; Skripova, M V

    2001-01-01

    The present paper analyses and evaluates the cross-sections of threshold reactions leading to the production of long-lived radionuclides during the irradiation, by thermonuclear spectrum neutrons, of steels containing V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni. On the basis of empirical systematics. a new evaluation of the (n,2n), (n,p), (n,np), (n,alpha) and (n,n alpha) excitation functions is made for all isotopes of V, Ti, Cr, Fe and Ni and for intermediate isotopes produced in the chain from irradiated isotopes up to production of the long-lived radionuclides sup 3 sup 9 Ar, sup 4 sup 2 Ar, sup 4 sup 1 Ca, sup 5 sup 3 Mn, sup 6 sup 0 Fe, sup 6 sup 0 Co, sup 5 sup 9 Ni and sup 6 sup 3 Ni. A comparison is made with the experimental and other evaluated data.

  6. Radiative neutron capture cross section from 236U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baramsai, B.; Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Roman, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Walker, C. L.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Kawano, T.

    2017-08-01

    The 236U(n ,γ ) reaction cross section has been measured for the incident neutron energy range from 10 eV to 800 keV by using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) γ -ray calorimeter at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The cross section was determined with the ratio method, which is a technique that uses the 235U(n ,f ) reaction as a reference. The results of the experiment are reported in the resolved and unresolved resonance energy regions. Individual neutron resonance parameters were obtained below 1 keV incident energy by using the R -matrix code sammy. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is determined with improved experimental uncertainty. It agrees with both ENDF/B-VII.1 and JEFF-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results above 10 keV agree better with the JEFF-3.2 library.

  7. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V Peter C; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J; Underwood, S Richard; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-07-07

    To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing 'best practices' worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March-April 2013. Eight 'best practices' relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more 'best practices' had lower EDs. Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  9. Measurement of cross sections for alpha-induced reactions on 197Auand thick-target yields for the (alpha,gamma) process on 64Zn and63Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basunia, M.S.; Shugart, H.A.; Smith, A.R.; Norman, E.B.

    2006-08-07

    We have measured the cross sections for the197Au(alpha,gamma)201Tl and 197Au(alpha,2n)199Tl reactions in the 17.9-to 23.9-MeV energy range, and 197Au(alpha,n)200Tl reaction in the 13.4-to 23.9-MeV energy range using an activation technique. Thick-targetyields for the 64Zn(alpha,gamma)68Ge (7- to 14-MeV) and63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga (7-MeV) reactions were measured. For allmeasurements, natural elements were bombarded with He+ beams from the88-inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL).Irradiated samples were counted using a gamma-spectrometry system at LBNLs Low Background Facility. Measured 197Au(alpha,gamma)201Tlcross-sections were compared with the NON-SMOKER theoretical values. Thethick-target yields for the 64Zn(alpha,gamma)68Ge and63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga reactions are also compared with the theoreticalyield, calculated numerically using the energy dependent NON-SMOKER crosssection data. In both cases, measured values are found to follow a trendof overlapping the predicted value near the alpha nucleus barrier heightand fall below with a slowly widening difference between them in the subbarrier energy points.

  10. Study of the role of complete fusion in the reaction of /sup 48/Ca and /sup 56/Fe with cerium and terbium. [Cross sections, yield curves, tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1978-05-01

    /sup 48/Ca and /sup 56/Fe beams from the Super HILAC accelerator were used to irradiate thick metal foils of cerium and terbium. Product gamma ray activities were detected offline and individual products were identified by half-life, gamma ray energy and gamma ray abundances. The production cross sections were iteratively fit to charge and mass dispersions to allow correction for parent decay and calculation of mass yields. From the mass yield curves contributions from quasielastic transfer, deep inelastic transfer and complete fusion reaction mechanisms were interred. Complete fusion was made up on contributions from both evaporation residue and fusion-fission products for the /sup 48/Ca induced reactions. However, only fusion-fission products were detected in the /sup 56/Fe induced reactions. Critical angular momenta for fusion were found to be 82 +- 8 h for /sup 48/Ca + /sup 159/Tb and 34 +- 5 h for /sup 56/Fe + /sup 140/Ce, which can be compared with 53 +- 8 h for /sup 12/C + /sup 197/Au (Natowitz, 1970) and 86 +- 5 h for /sup 40/Ar + /sup 165/Ho (Hanappe, 1973). All of these reactions lead to essentially the same compound nucleus and seem to show the dramatic decline in complete fusion for heavy ions larger than /sup 40/Ar. The prediction of this decline was found to be beyond the model calculations of Bass and the critical distance approach of Glas and Mosel.

  11. Nuclear halo and its related reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huanqiao

    2005-01-01

    In order to search proton halo, the reaction cross sections of 27,28 P, 29 S and the corresponding isotones on Si target were measured at intermediate energies. The measured reaction cross sections of the N=12 and 13 isotones show an abrupt increase at Z=15. The experimental results for the isotones with Z=14 as well as 28 P can be well described by the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit approach. The enhancement of the reaction cross sections for 28 P could be explained in the modified Glauber theory with an enlarged core. Theoretical analysis with the modified Glauber theory of the optical limit and few-body approaches underpredicted the experimental data of 27 P. Our theoretical analysis shows that an enlarged core together with proton halo is probably the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of the cross sections for the reaction of 27 P+ 28 Si. In addition, we find from the experimental results that 29 S may have a moderate proton halo structure. Except the nuclei near or at drop-lines, halo may appear in the excited states of stable nuclei. By means of the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC's) extracted from transfer reactions of 11 B(d, p) 12 B, 12 C(d, p) 13 C, and H( 6 He, n) 6 Li, we have verified that the second ( Jπ = 2 - ) and third (Jπ = 1 - ) excited states in 12 B and the first (Jπ =1/2 + ) excited state in 13 C are the neutron halo states, while the second excited state (3.56 MeV, Jπ = 0 + ) in 6 Li is a proton-neutron halo state. We have proposed a procedure to extract the probability for valence particle being out of the binding potential from the measured nuclear asymptotic normalization coefficients. With this procedure, available data regarding the nuclear halo candidates are systematically analyzed and a number of halo nuclei are confirmed. Based on these results we have got a much relaxed condition for nuclear halo occurrence. Furthermore, we have presented the scaling laws for the dimensionless quantity 2 >/R 2 of

  12. Measurement of charged jet production cross sections and nuclear modification in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\rm{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aimo, Ilaria; Aiola, Salvatore; Ajaz, Muhammad; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto Perez, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, Fernando; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Zhang, Chunhui; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Eschweiler, Dominic; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gulkanyan, Hrant; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harris, John William; Hartmann, Helvi; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Ionita, Costin; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Kamal; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Legrand, Iosif; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera Renee; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Masui, Hiroshi; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pajares Vales, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Pant, Divyash; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reicher, Martijn; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rivetti, Angelo; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salgado Lopez, Carlos Alberto; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Santagati, Gianluca; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Seeder, Karin Soraya; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Seo, Jeewon; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Steinpreis, Matthew Donald; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Symons, Timothy; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Takahashi, Jun; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarantola Peloni, Attilio; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2015-07-24

    Charged jet production cross sections in p-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}} = 5.02$ TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC are presented. Using the anti-$k_{\\rm T}$ algorithm, jets have been reconstructed in the central rapidity region from charged particles with resolution parameters $R = 0.2$ and $R = 0.4$. The reconstructed jets have been corrected for detector effects and the underlying event background. To calculate the nuclear modification factor, $R_{\\rm pPb}$, of charged jets in p-Pb collisions, a pp reference was constructed by scaling previously measured charged jet spectra at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV. In the transverse momentum range $20 \\le p_{\\rm T,ch\\ jet} \\le 120$ GeV/$c$, $R_{\\rm pPb}$ is found to be consistent with unity, indicating the absence of strong nuclear matter effects on jet production. Major modifications to the radial jet structure are probed via the ratio of jet production cross sections reconstructed with the two different resolution parameters. This ratio is found to be si...

  13. Measurement of charged jet production cross sections and nuclear modification in p–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Charged jet production cross sections in p–Pb collisions at sNN=5.02 TeV measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC are presented. Using the anti-kT algorithm, jets have been reconstructed in the central rapidity region from charged particles with resolution parameters R=0.2 and R=0.4. The reconstructed jets have been corrected for detector effects and the underlying event background. To calculate the nuclear modification factor, RpPb, of charged jets in p–Pb collisions, a pp reference was constructed by scaling previously measured charged jet spectra at s=7 TeV. In the transverse momentum range 20≤pT,chjet≤120 GeV/c, RpPb is found to be consistent with unity, indicating the absence of strong nuclear matter effects on jet production. Major modifications to the radial jet structure are probed via the ratio of jet production cross sections reconstructed with the two different resolution parameters. This ratio is found to be similar to the measurement in pp collisions at s=7 TeV and to the expectations from PYTHIA pp simulations and NLO pQCD calculations at sNN=5.02 TeV.

  14. Activation cross-section data for -particle-induced nuclear reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B M ALI

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... (PET). It can facilitate in vivo studies that utilise man- ganese as a radiotracer for antibodies, nanoparticles, etc. or as a means to image the biodistribution of manganese cations [1]. The longer-lived 54Mn (T1/2 = 312.2 d) decays for 100% EC through a single γ-line of 834.8. keV energy to the stable 54Cr.

  15. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Tolstenkov, A.N.; Yushchenko, O.P.; Baldini, A.; Cobal, M.; Flaminio, V.; Capiluppi, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Rossi, A.M.; Serra, P.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1987-01-01

    This is the fourth volume in our series of data compilations on integrated cross-sections for weak, electromagnetic, and strong interaction processes. This volume covers data on reactions induced by photons, neutrinos, hyperons, and K L 0 . It contains all data published up to June 1986. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  16. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of integral cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. (orig.)

  17. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  18. A cross-sectional study of cutaneous drug reactions in a private dental college and government medical college in eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, C; Chakrabarti, N

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous drug reactions are a common impediment in therapy, the incidence ranging from 2% to 8%. This cross-sectional study was designed to compare different trends of cutaneous drug reaction in two different socio-economic groups of patients in the same region. The aim was to evaluate common drugs implicated in causing reactions, describe the adverse cutaneous drug reactions, study the characteristics of patients presenting with the reactions. This is an observational study of cross-sectional type. The study was carried out in the department of Oral and Maxillofacial surgery in a Private dental College and department of General Medicine in a Medical College only on outdoor basis for 3 years. Out of 2000 patients observed in each college for their necessary treatment 75 patients in the dental College and 200 patients in the Medical College were reported to have various types of cutaneous drug reactions. Diagnosis was based on detailed history including temporal correlation between drug intake and onset of rash and thorough clinical examination Apart from history of drug intake, information regarding associated other allergy, comorbidity and severity (whether hospitalization was required or not) was recorded. Rechallenge with the drug was not possible due to ethical problem. Out of 2000 patients observed in each college 75 patients in dental College and 200 patients in Medical College were documented to have different kinds of cutaneous drug reactions. A total of 30 were male and 45 female in dental college whereas 90 male and 110 female patients were enrolled in Medical College. The age group of the patients in both the colleges ranged from 18 to 75 years. Common culprits observed in this study were antibiotics and NSAIDs. They had contributed 53% and 40% of the total skin reactions respectively in dental college and 47.5% and 45% in Medical College. We encountered 6 patients of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 20 patients with allergic rhinitis and 12 patients

  19. High accuracy measurement of the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction cross-section in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range

    CERN Multimedia

    The analysis of the neutron flux of n_TOF (in EAR1) revealed an anomaly in the 10-30 keV neutron energy range. While the flux extracted on the basis of the $^{6}$Li(n,t)$^{4}$He and $^{10}$B(n,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Li reactions mostly agreed with each other and with the results of FLUKA simulations of the neutron beam, the one based on the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction was found to be systematically lower, independently of the detection system used. A possible explanation is that the $^{235}$U(n,f) crosssection in that energy region, where in principle should be known with an uncertainty of 1%, may be systematically overestimated. Such a finding, which has a negligible influence on thermal reactors, would be important for future fast critical or subcritical reactors. Furthermore, its interest is more general, since the $^{235}$U(n,f) reaction is often used at that energy to determine the neutron flux, or as reference in measurements of fission cross section of other actinides. We propose to perform a high-accuracy, high-r...

  20. $^{12}$C nuclear reaction measurements for hadrontherapy.

    CERN Document Server

    B. Braunn, B; G. Ban, G; J.Colin, J; D. Cussol, D; J.M. Fontbonne, J M; F.R.. Lecolley, F R; C. Pautard, C; Haas, F; Lebhertz, D; Rousseau, M; Stuttge, L; Chevallier, M; Dauvergne, D; Le Foulher, F; Ray, C; Testa, E; Testa, M; Salsac, M D

    2010-01-01

    Hadrontherapy treatments require a very high precision on the dose deposition ( 2.5% and 1-2mm) in order to keep the benefits of the precise ions’ ballistic. The largest uncertainty on the physical dose deposition is due to ion fragmentation. Up to now, the simulation codes are not able to reproduce the fragmentation process with the required precision. To constraint the nuclear models and complete fragmentation cross sections databases; our collaboration has performed an experiment on May 2008 at GANIL with a 95 MeV/u 12C beam. We have measured the fluence, energy and angular distributions of charged fragments and neutrons coming from nuclear reactions of incident 12C on thick water-like PMMA targets. Preliminary comparisons between GEANT4 (G4BinaryLightIonReaction) simulations and experimental data show huge discrepancies.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reaction reporting among Dental Students in a Teaching Hospital, Jodhpur, India: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Kumar G; Sharma, Ashish; Chhabra, Chaya; Reddy, J Jyothirmai; Deolia, Shravani G; Mittal, Yogesh

    2017-10-01

    This is a cross-sectional knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAPs) study on pharmacovigilance (PV) and adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among dental students in a teaching hospital in India. The aim of this study was to assess the KAP of dental students regarding PV, ADR reporting, and barriers toward the same. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered, investigator-developed, close-ended questionnaire was conducted in an academic dental hospital in India. All prescribers including third year students, final year students, and house surgeons of the same institute were included for assessment of KAP regarding PV using 16, 8, and 8 items respectively. Data regarding barriers toward ADR reporting and demographics were also collected. Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied followed by post hoc test. A total of 241 of 275 respondents participated in the study with a response rate of 87.5%. Overall, 64% reported that they had no idea about the term PV. Age was significantly associated with knowledge (p = 0.045) and attitude (p = 0.016). Barriers contributing to underreporting were difficulty in deciding whether or not an ADR has occurred (52.0%), concerns that the report may be wrong (37%), lack of confidence to discuss ADR with colleagues (29%), and almost no financial benefits (24%). Participants had a comparatively favorable attitude toward PV, but their knowledge and practice need considerable improvements. This study highlights the need for appropriate dental curriculum changes and further multicentric studies to shed more light on important issues of PV among dentists in India. This study explores dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding PV, which could help to improve patient's safety and care. The favorable attitude of dentists is an indication that PV could be added in depth in the curriculum and in general practice. Information on barriers for reporting the ADRs could help to find possible solutions for removing the

  2. Damage cross-section library DAMSIG81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.; Nolthenius, H.J.; Rieffe, H.Ch.

    1981-11-01

    The damage cross-section library DAMSIG81 is an updated and extended version of the damage cross-section library (DAMSIG77). The library contains energy dependent group cross section data for a number of materials to facilitate the calculations of damage production (based on displacements of atoms), the calculation of probable zones and the calculation of gas production due to (n,α) and (n,p) reactions. The group cross-section data are given for a fine group structure of the SAND-II type with 640 groups. This library contains for some materials more than one cross-section set originating from different evaluations. Cross section data sets for the activation reactions 54 Fe(n,p), 58 Ni(n,p), and 63 Cu(n,α), which reactions are commonly used to determine thermal and fast neutron fluences, have been included also. Moreover also some artificial cross-sections are incorporated in this library which can be used to calculate values for some physical quantities characterizing neutron spectra, such as mean lethargy , mean energy . Also cross-sections for B, Al, and Cd are included; these are required to reach compatibility with other libraries in the SAND-II format

  3. SUSY Production cross sections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E. L.; Harris, B.; Klasen, M.; Tait, T.

    1999-03-19

    We summarize the status of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) calculations of the cross sections for the production of squarks, gluinos, neutralinos, charginos, and sleptons as a function of the produced particle masses in proton-antiproton collisions at the hadronic center-of-mass energy 2 TeV.

  4. 23Na(p,γ)24Mg Cross Section Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeltzig, Axel; Best, Andreas; deBoer, Richard J.; DiLeva, Antonino; Imbriani, Gianluca; Junker, Matthias; Wiescher, Michael

    2018-01-01

    As a link between the NeNa and MgAl cycles in stellar burning, the reaction 23Na(p,γ)24Mg is of interest for various astrophysical scenarios, such as AGB stars. A combined effort at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) and the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL) at the University of Notre Dame aims at a cross section determination for the this reaction, to constrain the astrophysical reaction rate by improving the knowledge of the resonance strengths and the non-resonant component. Experiments at LUNA benefit from the underground location at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory which allows for the measurement of resonances at low energies with high sensitivity in a low background environment. Measurements at the University of Notre Dame pursue a determination of the non-resonant cross section at higher energies. We present the two experiments and the status of the data analysis.

  5. Measurement of double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reaction at 62.7 MeV on lead target; Mesures des sections efficaces doublement differentielles de production de particules chargees legeres lors de reactions induites par neutrons de 62.7 MeV sur cible de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerveno, M

    2000-09-27

    In order to develop new options for nuclear waste management, studies are carrying out on the perfecting of hybrid systems (sub-critical reactor driven by accelerator). This thesis work takes place more precisely in the framework of nuclear data linked to hybrid systems development. Increasing the upper limit energy value (from 20 to 150 MeV) of data bases supposes that theoretical codes could have sufficient predictive power in this energy range. Thus it's necessary to measure new cross sections to constrain these codes. The experiment, performed at Louvain-la-Neuve Cyclotron, aims to determine the double differential cross sections for light charged particles production in neutron induced reactions at 62.7 MeV on natural lead target. The detection device consists of 6 NE102-CsI telescopes. Time of flight measurements are used to reconstruct the neutron energy spectra. The general framework (hybrid systems and associated nuclear data problematic) in which this work takes place is presented in a first part. The experimental set up used for our measurements is described in a second part. The three following parts are dedicated to the data analysis and double differential cross sections extraction. The particle discrimination, the energy calibration of detectors as the different corrections applied to the experimental spectra are related in details. And finally a comparative study between our experimental results and some theoretical predictions is presented. (author)

  6. Determinants of intention to leave among non-medical employees after a nuclear disaster: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Saeka; Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Kudo, Takashi; Takamura, Noboru

    2016-07-19

    To conduct a survey among non-medical employees working at the time of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, in order to determine the factors associated with their intentions to leave their jobs during the nuclear disaster. We asked 287 employees (166 men and 121 women) in the study. We asked about their intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. We also asked about relevant factors, including the participants' demographic factors, living situations and working environments. We found that in employees younger than 40 (OR=4.73, 95% CI 1.74 to 12.85, p=0.002), being married (OR=3.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 9.79, p=0.044), measurements of the ambient dose rates in their homes after the accident (OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.65 to 17.14, p=0.005), anxiety about their relationships with their colleagues after the accident (OR=3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 10.16, p=0.005) and the influence of radiation on the workplace (OR=0.33, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.80, p=0.014) were independently associated with the non-medical employees' intentions to leave their jobs after the nuclear disaster. Our results suggest the need for continuous risk communication regarding such factors and the provision of information about the health effects of radiation exposure to non-medical employees after nuclear disasters. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Coupled-channel calculation for cross section of fusion and barrier distribution of {}^{16,17,18}O + {}^{16}O reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidonnejad, R.; Sadeghi, H.; Ghambari, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the effect of multi-phonon excitation on heavy-ion fusion reactions has been studied and fusion barrier distributions of energy intervals near and below the Coulomb barrier have been studied for 16,17,18O + 16O reactions. The structure and deformation of nuclear projectiles have been studied. Given the adaptation of computations to experimental data, our calculations predict the behavior of reactions in intervals of energy in which experimental measurements are not available. In addition the S-factor for these reactions has been calculated. The results showed that the structure and deformation of a nuclear projectile are important factors. The S-factor, obtained in the coupled-channel calculations for the {}^{16}O + {}^{16}O, {}^{17}O +{}^{16}O and {}^{18}O +{}^{16}O reactions, showed good agreement with the experimental data and had a maximum value at an energy near 5, 4.5 and 4 MeV, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of activation cross section for (n,2a) and (n,γ) reactions on 63,65,NatCu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Gonggui

    1999-01-01

    The cross sections of (n,2n) and (n,γ) for 63,65,Nat Cu are recommended based on the latest experimentally measured data and theoretically calculated results from threshold up to 20 MeV. The evaluated cross sections are given with experimental data and compared with other evaluated data. The present work was done for CENDL-3

  9. 238U(n, γ reaction cross section measurement with C6D6 detectors at the n_TOF CERN facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrone F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The radiative capture cross section of 238U is very important for the developing of new reactor technologies and the safety of existing ones. Here the preliminary results of the 238U(n,γ cross section measurement performed at n_TOF with C6D6 scintillation detectors are presented, paying particular attention to data reduction and background subtraction.

  10. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  11. "Human immunodeficiency virus serostatus disclosure-Rate, reactions, and discrimination": A cross-sectional study at a rural tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh S Joge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: From the moment scientists identified Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma, and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Aims: To assess the rate of disclosure of HIV serostatus, reactions by the HIV/AIDS patients and their spouse, and discrimination faced by the patients. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted at Antiretroviral Therapy (ART center of a rural tertiary care hospital, situated in Marathawada region of Maharashtra state from November 2008 to October 2010. Totally, 801 HIV-positive patients coming to ART center for treatment were included after ensuring confidentiality and taking informed consent. A preformed questionnaire was used to enquire about reaction after diagnosis, disclosure, and discrimination faced by the patients. The data analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. Results: The most common immediate reaction by the HIV patients after getting diagnosed as seropositive was fear (593, 74.03% followed by depression (385, 48.06% and suicidal thoughts (98, 12.25%. Out of 801 patients, 769 (96% had spouse and of these maximum number of patients (653, 84.92% had disclosed HIV status to their spouses. Most common immediate reaction by spouse after disclosure was crime (324, 42.13% followed by horror (294, 38.23% and anger (237, 36.29%. Maximum number of patients were discriminated by friends (120, 71.01% followed by discrimination at workplace (49, 67.12%, by neighbors (32, 56.14%, and by relatives (53, 43.80%. Conclusion: Male positives were granted greater acceptance, care, and support by their spouses. More percentage of females discriminated by neighbors, relatives, and friends and at workplace which might be due to factors like customs, morals, and taboos.

  12. Calculation of cross sections for heavy isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caner, M.

    1976-04-01

    In the present work an integrated system of codes for basic neutron data evaluation were assembled and built. Complete evaluations for the isotopes 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu and 238 Pu were performed. The following cross sections: total, elastic, radiative capture, fission, total inelastic, partial inelastic, (n,2n), (n,3n) and differential elastic were evaluated as well as the average number of neutrons per neutron-induced fission and the average elastic scattering cosine in the lab system.The data for the plutonium isotopes were incorporated into the German KEDAK file. A method was developed for calculating the energy distributions of the second and third secondary neutrons from the A(n,2n) and (n,3n) reactions in the framework of the compound nucleus theory, and utilizing the nuclear data of the nuclei A, A-1, A-2. This method was used to generate the 238 U secondary neutron energy distributions in the incident neutron energy range of 6 to 15 MeV. A nuclear data evaluation for 237 U in the resolved inelastic scattering range (10-700 keV) was performed. The compound elastic and partial inelastic scattering cross sections were used in the 238 U secondary neutron energy distribution calculations. (B.G.)

  13. Measurement of multinucleon transfer cross-sections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ni(C, ), Fe(C, ), =C, C, B, B, Be, Be, Be, Be, Li, Li; = 60 MeV; measured reaction cross-section; elastic scattering angular distribution; deduced transfer probabilities and enhancement factors.

  14. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)

  15. Compilation of cross-sections. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaminio, V.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Rivoire, N.

    1984-01-01

    A compilation of integrated cross-sections for hadronic reactions is presented. This is an updated version of CERN/HERA 79-1, 79-2, 79-3. It contains all data published up to the beginning of 1982, but some more recent data, particularly those from the CERN Collider, have also been included. Plots of the cross-sections versus incident laboratory momentum are also given. This volume III contains cross-sections for p and anti p induced reactions. (orig.)

  16. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  17. NUCLEAR CROSS-SECTION CALCULATIONS IN THE 1 MEV TO 5 GEV RANGE WITH COMBINED SEMI-CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, F.B.

    2002-03-07

    In this work we describe neutron and proton induced reaction cross-sections for iron produced by the codes TNG and CEM95 in the 5 to 300 MeV energy range. TNG calculations cover the 5-90 MeV range, while CEM95 covers the 50-300 MeV high energy range. The two codes show some disagreements in the overlap energy range, both among themselves and with the experimental data, which are presently being addressed. The experimental data used are from NNDC and/or from LA150 NSE references. We also describe some developments for combining TNG and CEM95 into a new code called CETNG (Cascade Exciton TNG).

  18. Coincidence: Fortran code for calculation of (e, e'x) differential cross-sections, nuclear structure functions and polarization asymmetry in self-consistent random phase approximation with Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavinato, M.; Marangoni, M.; Saruis, A.M.

    1990-10-01

    This report describes the COINCIDENCE code written for the IBM 3090/300E computer in Fortran 77 language. The output data of this code are the (e, e'x) threefold differential cross-sections, the nuclear structure functions, the polarization asymmetry and the angular correlation coefficients. In the real photon limit, the output data are the angular distributions for plane polarized incident photons. The code reads from tape the transition matrix elements previously calculated, by in continuum self-consistent RPA (random phase approximation) theory with Skyrme interactions. This code has been used to perform a numerical analysis of coincidence (e, e'x) reactions with polarized electrons on the /sup 16/O nucleous.

  19. Further direct approaches to the nuclear reactions in the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greife, U. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 3; Arpesella, C.; Bellotti, E.; Brand, K.; Broggini, C.; Campajola, L.; Corvisiero, P.; D`Onofrio, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fubini, A.; Gervino, G.; Gialanella, L.; Gustavino, C.; Huttel, E.; Junker, M.; Kavanagh, R.W.; Kubat, R.; Lambert, J.; Oliviero, G.; Prati, P.; Rebel, H.; Roca, V.; Rodney, W.S.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, M.; Romoli, M.; Schmidt, S.; Schulte, W.H.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Zahnow, D.; Zavatarelli, S.

    1997-08-04

    Nuclear fusion reactions play a key role in the understanding of energy production, neutrino emission and nucleosynthesis of the elements in stars. The direct measurement of the cross section of these reactions at the relevant energies is usually hampered by cosmic radiation, beam induced background and/or the radioactivity of the nuclei involved. This contribution presents the work of the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) and the NABONA (Napoli Bochum Nuclear Astrophysics) collaborations on new solutions applied to these old problems. (orig.).

  20. Cross sections of proton-induced reactions on {sup 152}Gd, {sup 155}Gd and {sup 159}Tb with emphasis on the production of selected Tb radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steyn, G.F., E-mail: deon@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Vermeulen, C. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Szelecsényi, F.; Kovács, Z. [Cyclotron Application Department, ATOMKI, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Hohn, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Meulen, N.P. van der [Laboratory of Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Center of Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Schibli, R. [Center of Radiopharmaceutical Science, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Walt, T.N. van der [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, P.O. Box 1906, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2014-01-15

    Cross sections are presented for various Dy, Tb and Gd radionuclides produced in the proton bombardment of {sup 159}Tb as well as for the reactions {sup 152}Gd(p,4n){sup 149}Tb and {sup 155}Gd(p,4n){sup 152}Tb up to 66 MeV. The experimental excitation functions are compared with theoretical predictions by means of the geometry-dependent hybrid (GDH) model as implemented in the code ALICE/ASH, as well as with values from the TENDL-2012 library and previous literature experimental data, where available. Physical yields have been derived for the production of some of the medically important radioterbiums, namely {sup 149}Tb (radionuclide therapy), {sup 152}Tb (PET) and {sup 155}Tb (SPECT). The indirect production of high-purity {sup 155}Tb via the decay of its precursor {sup 155}Dy is reported. The possibility of a large-scale production facility based on a commercial 70 MeV cyclotron is also discussed.

  1. Cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress and adiposity: cross-sectional and prospective associations in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anna C; Roseboom, Tessa J; Carroll, Douglas; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2012-09-01

    In recent analyses of data from a large community sample, negative cross-sectional and prospective associations between cardiac stress reactivity and obesity were observed. The present study reexamined the association between cardiovascular reactivity and adiposity in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort, with the additional aim of examining the association between cortisol reactivity and adiposity. Blood pressure, heart rate, and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to standard laboratory stress tasks in 725 adults. Height, weight, waist-and-hip circumference, and skinfold thickness were measured. Between 4 to 7 years later, 460 participants reported current height and weight. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or higher. Those with a greater body mass index (β = -0.39 beats per minute (bpm)), waist-to-hip ratio (β = -0.15 bpm), and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses (β = -1.0 and -1.8 bpm) or who were categorized as obese (-3.9 bpm) displayed smaller cardiac reactions to acute stress (all p stress reactivity that is related to adiposity.

  2. Differential cross section for the 16O( t, p)18O reaction and determination of the size of the two-neutron periphery in the 18O nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanina, L. I.; Zelenskaya, N. S.

    2017-09-01

    Within the theoretical formalism that combines a four-body problem with themultiparticle shell model, it is shown that the cross section for the dineuteron-stripping mechanism is consistent with the experimental angular distribution of protons from the 16O( t, p)18O reaction. This makes it possible to find the wave function for the relative motion of the dineutron and 16O and to obtain thereby the probability density W( r) for the dineutron in 18O, the nn-16O interaction potential, and the root-mean-square distance 〈 L〉 nn between the dineutron and 16O. The respective calculations reveal that, at r ≈ 8 fm, the dineutron probability density and a rather deep nn-16O potential become negligible, which leads to the absence of a dineuntron periphery in 18O. It seems that one can explain this fact by a rather large value (12.19 MeV) of the dineutron binding energy in this nucleus. Thus, the 18O nucleus is quite compact an object, despite the excess of two neutrons, and has a neutron skin rather than a periphery.

  3. Reaction and fission cross-sections of 750AMeV 238U ions on Pb, Cu and AI-targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Aumann, T.; Czajkowski, S.; Dessagne, P.; Hanelt, E.; Kozhuharov, C.; Miehe, C.; Pfuetzner, M.; Roehl, C.; Schwab, W.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.

    1995-09-01

    Charge-loss and fission cross-sections of 238 U at 750 A.MeV were measured on Al, Cu and Pb targets. The charge-loss rate was obtained by the attenuation method. Fission was selected by detecting the pair of highly ionizing fragments. Since the neutron-loss cross sections were measured in a parallel experiment for the same projectiles, all cross sections contributing to 238 U collisions on nuclei are available now as function of the target mass number and can be compared with current models. (orig.)

  4. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdt, J. A.; Brown, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  5. Evaporation residue cross sections and average neutron multiplicities in the /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr and /sup 12/C+/sup 144/Sm reactions leading to /sup 156/Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Holzmann, R.; Henning, W.; Khoo, T.L.; Lesko, K.T.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Radford, D.C.; Van den Berg, A.M.; Kuehn, W.; Ronningen, R.M.

    1986-11-27

    Evaporation residue cross sections and neutron multiplicity distributions have been measured for the /sup 12/C+/sup 144/Sm and /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr reactions leading to the same compound nucleous /sup 156/Er. Statistical model calculations can account for the data in the /sup 12/C-induced reaction. In contrast, the inhibition of neutron emission with respect to statistical model predictions seen in /sup 64/Ni+/sup 92/Zr cannot be explained even with the inclusion of the broad angular momentum distributions required to describe the fusion cross section data.

  6. View-CXS neutron and photon cross-sections viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbaiah, K.V.; Sunil Sunny, C.

    2004-01-01

    A graphical user-friendly interface is developed in Visual Basic (VB)-6 to view the variation of neutron and photon interaction cross-sections of different isotopes as a function of energy. VB subroutines developed read the binary data files of cross-sections created in MCNP-ACE (Briesmeister, J.F., 1993. MCNP - a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport code. Version 4A. LANL, USA), ANISN-DLC (Engle W.W. Jr., 1967, A User's Manual for ANISN, K-1693; ORNL, 1974. 100 group neutron cross section data based on ENDF/B-III. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) and KENO-AMPX (Petrie, L.M., Landers, N.F., 1984 KENO-Va- An Improved Monte Carlo Criticality Program with Super Grouping. RSICC-CCC-548, USA) formats using LAHEY-77 Fortran Compiler. The information on isotopes present in each library will be displayed with the help of database files prepared using Micro-Soft ACESS. The cross-section data can be viewed in different presentation styles namely, line graphs, bar graphs, histograms etc., with different color and symbol options. The cross-section plots generated can be saved as Bit-Map file to embed in any other text files. This software enables inter comparison of cross-sections from different type of libraries for isotopes as well as mixtures. Provision is made to view the cross-sections for nuclear reactions such as (n,γ), (n,f), (n,α), etc. The software can be obtained from Radiation Safety Information and Computational Centre (RSICC), ORNL, USA with the code package identification number PSR-514. The software package needs a hard disk space of about 80 MB when installed and works in WINDOWS-95/98/2000 operating systems

  7. Simultaneous Evaluation of Fission Cross Sections for Cm Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Y.-O.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fission Cross Sections for a complete set of Cm-isotopes, 240-250Cm, have been calculated in the incident energy range from above resonance region to 20 MeV. This work aims at providing the fission cross sections with consistent set of model parameters for Cm isotopes, as a part of a complete evaluation including covariance files for several minor actinides which play a great role in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC design and applications as well as the design of new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN-IV. This was accomplished by means of computational analyses carried out with the nuclear model code EMPIRE-2.19 which is the modular system of nuclear reaction codes. A Fission model of this work took into account transmission derived in the WKB approximation within an optical model through a double-humped fission barrier.

  8. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  9. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  10. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  11. Nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.

    1975-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the A approximately 18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q/sub 2p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q/sub 2p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close argument is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  12. Reanalysis of Rate Data for the Reaction CH3 + CH3 → C2H6 Using Revised Cross Sections and a Linearized Second-Order Master Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitz, M A; Green, N J B; Shannon, R J; Pilling, M J; Seakins, P W; Western, C M; Robertson, S H

    2015-07-16

    Rate coefficients for the CH3 + CH3 reaction, over the temperature range 300-900 K, have been corrected for errors in the absorption coefficients used in the original publication ( Slagle et al., J. Phys. Chem. 1988 , 92 , 2455 - 2462 ). These corrections necessitated the development of a detailed model of the B̃(2)A1' (3s)-X̃(2)A2″ transition in CH3 and its validation against both low temperature and high temperature experimental absorption cross sections. A master equation (ME) model was developed, using a local linearization of the second-order decay, which allows the use of standard matrix diagonalization methods for the determination of the rate coefficients for CH3 + CH3. The ME model utilized inverse Laplace transformation to link the microcanonical rate constants for dissociation of C2H6 to the limiting high pressure rate coefficient for association, k∞(T); it was used to fit the experimental rate coefficients using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to minimize χ(2) calculated from the differences between experimental and calculated rate coefficients. Parameters for both k∞(T) and for energy transfer ⟨ΔE⟩down(T) were varied and optimized in the fitting procedure. A wide range of experimental data were fitted, covering the temperature range 300-2000 K. A high pressure limit of k∞(T) = 5.76 × 10(-11)(T/298 K)(-0.34) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) was obtained, which agrees well with the best available theoretical expression.

  13. Novel Role of Superfluidity in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magierski, Piotr; Sekizawa, Kazuyuki; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2017-07-28

    We demonstrate, within symmetry unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, the existence of new effects in low-energy nuclear reactions which originate from superfluidity. The dynamics of the pairing field induces solitonic excitations in the colliding nuclear systems, leading to qualitative changes in the reaction dynamics. The solitonic excitation prevents collective energy dissipation and effectively suppresses the fusion cross section. We demonstrate how the variations of the total kinetic energy of the fragments can be traced back to the energy stored in the superfluid junction of colliding nuclei. Both contact time and scattering angle in noncentral collisions are significantly affected. The modification of the fusion cross section and possibilities for its experimental detection are discussed.

  14. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  15. Evaluation and calculation of neutron transactinide cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konshin, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art of nuclear theory and its application to the evaluation and calculation of neutron reaction cross sections of transactinium isotopes. In particular, the paper describes the current evaluation of the total files of neutron reaction data for 240 Pu and 241 Pu in the energy range between 10 -5 eV and 15 MeV based on a thorough analysis of available experimental data and on the use of modern theoretical concepts, and the work in progress on the evaluation of the total neutron reaction data file for 242 Pu and 241 Am. (author)

  16. Assessing the near threshold cross section of the O-17(n, alpha)C-14 reaction by means of the Trojan horse method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guardo, G. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Tang, X.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Notani, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 025807. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11001; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear reactions * C-14 * Trojan Horse Method Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  17. Time reversal symmetry breaking effects in resonant nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Kerman, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    We incorporate time reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) effects into the theory of compound nuclear reactions. We show that the only meaningful test of TRSB in the overlapping resonances regime is through the study of cross-section correlations. The effect is channel-dependent. In the isolated resonance regime, we employ K-matrix theory to show the impact of TRSB using the fact that when only one eigen-channel participates in populating and depopulating the compound resonance. (orig.)

  18. Separation of the longitudinal and transverse cross sections in the 1H(e,e(prime) K+)Λ and 1H(e,e(prime) K+)Σ0 reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohring, R.M.; Abbott, David; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Amatuni, Thomas; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Tatiana Angelescu; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Ketevi Assamagan; Steven Avery; Kevin Bailey; Kevin Beard; S Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; C. Chang; Nicholas Chant; Evaristo Cisbani; Glenn Collins; William Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; Raffaele De Leo; Fraser Duncan; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; T Eden; Rolf Ent; Laurent Eyraud; Lars Ewell; John Finn; H. Terry Fortune; Valera Frolov; Salvatore Frullani; Christophe Furget; Franco Garibaldi; David Gaskell; Donald Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Jens-Ole Hansen; Mark Harvey; Wendy Hinton; Ed Hungerford; Mauro Iodice; Ceasar Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Wooyoung Kim; Kouichi Kino; Douglas Koltenuk; Serge Kox; Laird Kramer; Antonio Leone; Allison Lung; David Mack; Richard Madey; M Maeda; Stanislaw Majewski; Pete Markowitz; T Mart; C Martoff; David Meekins; A. Mihul; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Sekazi Mtingwa; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; R. Perrino; David Potterveld; John Price; Brian Raue; Jean Sebastien Real; Joerg Reinhold; Philip Roos; Teijiro Saito; Geoff Savage; Reyad Sawafta; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; Paul Stoler; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Liliana Teodorescu; Tatsuo Terasawa; Hiroaki Tsubota; Guido Urciuoli; Jochen Volmer; William Vulcan; T. Welch; Robert Williams; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Benjamin Zeidman

    2003-01-01

    We report measurements of cross sections for the reaction 1 H(e,e(prime) K + )Y, for both the Λ and Σ 0 hyperon states, at an invariant mass of W = 1.84 GeV and four-momentum transfers 0.5 2 2 . Data were taken for three values of virtual photon polarization ε, allowing the decomposition of the cross sections into longitudinal and transverse components. The Λ data are a revised analysis of prior work, whereas the Σ 0 results have not been previously reported

  19. Production cross-sections of long-lived radionuclides in deuteron-induced reactions on natural zinc up to 23 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-03-01

    Production cross-sections of long-lived radionuclides {sup 66,67}Ga, {sup 64,67}Cu, {sup 65,69m}Zn, and {sup 58m+g}Co via a deuteron irradiation on a natural zinc target were measured up to 23 MeV using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The present results showed partial agreements with the earlier experimental cross-sections and also with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yields of the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections, and they found agreements with the directly measured ones in the literatures except for those reported by Dmitriev et al. for {sup 65}Zn. Optimal production pathways of the medically important {sup 67}Ga radionuclide using a low energy cyclotron are discussed.

  20. Measurement of {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198g}Au reaction cross-section at the neutron energies of 1.12, 2.12, 3.12 and 4.12 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vansola, Vibha [M.S. Univ., Baroda (India). Dept. of Physics; Ghosh, Reetuparna; Badwar, Sylvia [North Eastern Hill Univ., Meghalaya (India). Dept. of Physics; and others

    2015-07-01

    The {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction cross-sections at the neutron energies of 1.12, 2.12, 3.12 and 4.12 MeV were determined by using activation and off-line γ-ray spectrometric technique. The mono-energetic neutron energies of 1.12-4.12 MeV were generated from the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction by using the proton energies of 3 and 4 MeV from the folded tandem ion beam accelerator (FOTIA) at BARC as well as 5 and 6 MeV from the Pelletron facility at TIFR, Mumbai. The {sup 115}In(n,γ){sup 116m}In reaction cross-section was used as the neutron flux monitor. The {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction cross-section at the neutron energies of 3.12 and 4.12 MeV are reported for the first time. The {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au reaction cross-sections at 1.12 and 2.12 MeV are close to the literature data of in between neutron energies. The {sup 197}Au(n,γ){sup 198}Au cross-section was also calculated theoretically by using the computer code TALYS 1.6 and found to be higher than the experimental data of present work and literature data within the neutron energies of 0.8 to 4 MeV.