WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear reaction gamma-rays

  1. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Picciotto, A.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014)], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  2. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Giuffrida

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV. Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [Yoon et al. Applied Physics Letters 105, 223507 (2014], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstrate that the use of 10B nuclei can enhance the intensity of the 718 keV gamma-ray peak more than 30 times compared to the solution containing only 11B nuclei. A detailed explanation of the origin of the different prompt gamma-rays, as well as of their application as real-time diagnostics during a potential cancer treatment, is here discussed.

  3. Prompt gamma ray diagnostics and enhanced hadron-therapy using neutron-free nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Giuffrida, L; Cirrone, G A P; Picciotto, A; Korn, G

    2016-01-01

    We propose a series of simulations about the potential use of Boron isotopes to trigger neutron-free (aneutronic) nuclear reactions in cancer cells through the interaction with an incoming energetic proton beam, thus resulting in the emission of characteristic prompt gamma radiation (429 keV, 718 keV and 1435 keV). Furthermore assuming that the Boron isotopes are absorbed in cancer cells, the three alpha-particles produced in each p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions can potentially result in the enhancement of the biological dose absorbed in the tumor region since these multi-MeV alpha-particles are stopped inside the single cancer cell, thus allowing to spare the surrounding tissues. Although a similar approach based on the use of 11B nuclei has been proposed in [1], our work demonstrate, using Monte Carlo simulations, the crucial importance of the use of 10B nuclei (in a solution containing also 11B) for the generation of prompt gamma-rays, which can be applied to medical imaging. In fact, we demonstr...

  4. Nuclear forensics using gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric B

    2016-01-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilizing gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the past several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low- resolution gamma ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  5. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, E. B.

    2016-09-01

    Much of George Dracoulis's research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  6. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  7. Pulsed Photofission Delayed Gamma Ray Detection for Nuclear Material Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kavouras; Xianfei Wen; Daren R. Norman; Dante R. Nakazawa; Haori Yang

    2012-11-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. High-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. After photofission reactions, delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the fission signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. Isotopic composition measurement methods based on delayed gamma ray spectroscopy will be the primary focus of this work.

  8. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  9. Plutonium characterisation with prompt high energy gamma-rays from (n,gamma) reactions for nuclear warhead dismantlement verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postelt, Frederik; Gerald, Kirchner [Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker-Centre for Science and Peace Research, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of neutron induced gammas allow the characterisation of fissile material (i.e. plutonium and uranium), despite self- and additional shielding. Most prompt gamma-rays from radiative neutron capture reactions in fissile material have energies between 3 and 6.5 MeV. Such high energy photons have a high penetrability and therefore minimise shielding and self-absorption effects. They are also isotope specific and therefore well suited to determine the isotopic composition of fissile material. As they are non-destructive, their application in dismantlement verification is desirable. Disadvantages are low detector efficiencies at high gamma energies, as well as a high background of gammas which result from induced fission reactions in the fissile material, as well as delayed gammas from both, (n,f) and(n,gamma) reactions. In this talk, simulations of (n,gamma) measurements and their implications are presented. Their potential for characterising fissile material is assessed and open questions are addressed.

  10. Nuclear gamma rays from 720-MeV alpha-induced reactions on Al-27 and Si-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, B. J.; Plendl, H. S.; Funsten, H. O.; Stronach, C. E.; Lind, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    Prompt gamma rays from the interaction of 720-MeV alpha particles with Al-27 and Si-28 were detected and analyzed to identify residual nuclei and to determine cross sections for production of specific levels. No gamma-ray transitions were detected from nuclei heavier than the target. From Doppler broadening, the momentum of the residual nuclei was estimated. The results are compared with previous results for 140- and 1600-MeV alphas on Al-27 and approximately 200-MeV positive or negative pions on Al-27 and Si-28 and fitted to a spallation-yield formula.

  11. The Science of Nuclear Materials Detection using gamma-ray beams: Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    An atomic nucleus is excited by absorption of incident photons with an energy the same as the excitation energy of the level, and subsequently a gamma-ray is emitted as it de-excites. This phenomenon is called Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and mostly used for studies on Nuclear Physics field. By measuring the NRF gamma-rays, we can identify nuclear species in any materials because the energies of the NRF gamma-rays uniquely depend on the nuclear species. For example, 235U has an excitation level at 1733 keV. If we irradiate a material including 235U with a gamma-ray tuned at this excitation level, the material absorbs the gamma-ray and re-emits another gamma-ray immediately to move back towards the ground state. Therefore we can detect the 235U by measuring the re-emitted (NRF) gamma-rays. Several inspection methods using gamma-rays, which can penetrate a thick shielding have been proposed and examined. Bertozzi and Ledoux have proposed an application of nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) by using bremsstrahlung radiations. However the signal-to-noise (SN) ratio of the NRF measurement with the bremsstrahlung radiation is, in general, low. Only a part of the incident photons makes NRF with a narrow resonant band (meV-eV) whereas most of incident radiation is scattered by atomic processes in which the reaction rate is higher than that of NRF by several orders of magnitudes and causes a background. Thus, the NRF with a gamma-ray quasi-monochromatic radiation beam is proposed. The monochromatic gamma-rays are generated by using laser Compton scattering (LCS) of electrons and intense laser photons by putting a collimator to restrict the gamma-ray divergence downstream. The LCS gamma-ray, which is energy-tunable and monochromatic, is an optimum apparatus for NRF measurements We have been conducted NRF experiment for nuclear research, especially with high linear polarized gamma-ray generated by LCS, to survey the distribution of M1 strength in MeV region in LCS

  12. Nuclear Level Density and Gamma-Ray Strength Function of 43Sc

    CERN Document Server

    Bürger, A; Hilaire, S; Guttormsen, M; Harissopulos, S; Kmiecik, M; Konstantinopoulos, T; Krticka, M; Lagoyannis, A; Lönnroth, T; Mazurek, K; Norrby, M; Nyhus, H T; Perdikakis, G; Siem, S; Spyrou, A; Syed, N U H; 10.1103/PhysRevC.85.064328

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear level density and the gamma-ray strength function have been determined for 43Sc in the energy range up to 2 MeV below the neutron separation energy using the Oslo method with the 46Ti(p,alpha)43Sc reaction. A comparison to 45Sc shows that the level density of 43Sc is smaller by an approximately constant factor of two. This behaviour is well reproduced in a microscopical/combinatorial model calculation. The gamma-ray strength function is showing an increase at low gamma-ray energies, a feature which has been observed in several nuclei but which still awaits theoretical explanation.

  13. A mobile gamma ray spectrometer system for nuclear hazard mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Smethurst, M A

    2000-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Norway has developed a system for mobile gamma ray spectrometer surveying suitable for use in nuclear emergencies where potentially dangerous radioactive materials have been released into the environment. The measuring system has been designed for use with different kinds of transportation platforms. These include fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters and vans. The choice of transportation platform depends on the nature of the nuclear emergency. Widespread fallout from a distant source can be mapped quickly from the air while local sources of radiation can be delineated by a car-borne system. The measuring system processes gamma ray spectra in real time. The operator of the system is therefore able to guide surveying in accordance with meaningful data values and immediately report these values to decision making The operator is presented with a number of different displays suited to different kinds of nuclear emergencies that lead to more efficient surveying. Real time processing of data m...

  14. Thermonuclear breakup reactions of light nuclei. II - Gamma-ray line production and other applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessoum, Nidhal

    1989-01-01

    The main consequence of nuclear breakup reactions in high-temperature plasmas is shown to be to reduce the production of the gamma-ray lines, due to the breakup of these species at high temperature. Results of the emissivities of all the relevant gamma-ray lines are discussed. It is shown that the magnitude of the breakup effect on the line emissivities depends strongly on temperature, but more importantly on the plasma density and on the available time for the ion processes. Other effects considered include the production of neutrons (from the breakup of helium) and its consequences (such as the production of gamma rays from n-capture reactions and dynamical effects in accretion disk plasmas).

  15. Integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitors for nuclear safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlau, Paul E.

    1994-08-01

    Radiation monitoring is one nuclear-safeguards measure used to protect against the theft of special nuclear materials (SNM) by pedestrians departing from SNM access areas. The integrated neutron/gamma-ray portal monitor is an ideal radiation monitor for the task when the SNM is plutonium. It achieves high sensitivity for detecting both bare and shielded plutonium by combining two types of radiation detector. One type is a neutron-chamber detector, comprising a large, hollow, neutron moderator that contains a single thermal-neutron proportional counter. The entrance wall of each chamber is thin to admit slow neutrons from plutonium contained in a moderating shield, while the other walls are thick to moderate fast neutrons from bare or lead-shielded plutonium so that they can be detected. The other type of detector is a plastic scintillator that is primarily for detecting gamma rays from small amounts of unshielded plutonium. The two types of detector are easily integrated by making scintillators part of the thick back wall of each neutron chamber or by inserting them into each chamber void. We compared the influence of the two methods of integration on detecting neutrons and gamma rays, and we examined the effectiveness of other design factors and the methods for signal detection as well.

  16. Special Nuclear Material Gamma-Ray Signatures for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-29

    These are slides on special nuclear material gamma-ray signatures for reachback analysts for an LSS Spectroscopy course. The closing thoughts for this presentation are the following: SNM materials have definite spectral signatures that should be readily recognizable to analysts in both bare and shielded configurations. One can estimate burnup of plutonium using certain pairs of peaks that are a few keV apart. In most cases, one cannot reliably estimate uranium enrichment in an analogous way to the estimation of plutonium burnup. The origin of the most intense peaks from some SNM items may be indirect and from ‘associated nuclides.' Indirect SNM signatures sometimes have commonalities with the natural gamma-ray background.

  17. Neutron and gamma-ray emission double differential cross sections for the nuclear reaction by 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji; Shigyo, Nobuhiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray production double differential cross sections were measured for iron by the use of 1.5 GeV {pi}{sup +} mesons. The measured cross sections were compared with the calculated values by HETC-KFA2. For the neutrons, the calculated results deviate from the experimental data in the neutron energy region below 30 MeV. The calculated values of gamma-ray production agree with the experimental data at gamma-ray energies from 1 to 7 MeV within a factor of three. (author)

  18. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, Dennis R.; Pohl, Bertram A.; Dougan, Arden D.; Bernstein, Adam; Prussin, Stanley G.; Norman, Eric B.

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  19. Development of the NPL gamma-ray spectrometer NANA for traceable nuclear decay and structure studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, G; Shearman, R; Regan, P H; Judge, S M; Bell, S; Collins, S M; Larijani, C; Ivanov, P; Jerome, S M; Keightley, J D; Lalkovski, S; Pearce, A K; Podolyak, Zs

    2016-03-01

    We present a brief report on the progress towards the construction of the National Nuclear Array (NANA), a gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer for discrete-line nuclear structure and decay measurements. The proposed spectrometer will combine a gamma-ray energy resolution of approximately 3% at 1MeV with sub-nanosecond timing discrimination between successive gamma rays in mutually coincident decay cascades. We also review a number of recent measurements using coincidence fast-timing gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies, which have helped to inform the design criteria for the NANA spectrometer.

  20. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions of 145,149,151Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, K. O.; Ozgur, M.; Algin, E.; Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Midtbo, J. E.; Modamio, V.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2016-10-01

    The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions are the key elements for Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations to predict reaction cross sections which have many applications including astrophysics. The nuclear level densities and y-ray strength functions have been determined for 145,149,151Nd isotopes below the neutron separation energies using the Oslo method with the 144,148,150Nd(d,p) reactions. The results from the first measurements as well as planned experiments at OCL will be presented.

  1. Nuclear gamma-ray laser: A comparative analysis of various schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, L. A.; Zadernovsky, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    Four basic schemes for a nuclear gamma-ray laser (NGL) are analyzed using the “NGL-hyper-bola” as a generalized comparative criterion: solid state Mössbauer scheme; stimulated gamma-emission in cooled ensembles of free nuclei with hidden population inversion of nuclear states; nuclear gamma-ray lasing without inversion; and Bose-Einstein condensate as a hypothetical active medium for NGL.

  2. Modeling the Production of Beta-Delayed Gamma Rays for the Detection of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J M; Pruet, J A; Brown, D A; Descalle, M; Hedstrom, G W; Prussin, S G

    2005-02-14

    The objective of this LDRD project was to develop one or more models for the production of {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays following neutron-induced fission of a special nuclear material (SNM) and to define a standardized formatting scheme which will allow them to be incorporated into some of the modern, general-purpose Monte Carlo transport codes currently being used to simulate inspection techniques proposed for detecting fissionable material hidden in sea-going cargo containers. In this report, we will describe a Monte Carlo model for {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray emission following the fission of SNM that can accommodate arbitrary time-dependent fission rates and photon collection histories. The model involves direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and spectral distributions representing photon emission from each fission product and for each decay mode. While computationally intensive, it will be shown that this model can provide reasonably detailed estimates of the spectra that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer and may prove quite useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries and identifying gaps in the libraries. The accuracy of the model will be illustrated by comparing calculated and experimental spectra from the decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general-purpose transport calculations, where a detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may not be necessary, it will be shown that a simple parameterization of the {gamma}-ray source function can be defined which provides high-quality average spectral distributions that should suffice for calculations describing photons being transported through thick attenuating media. Finally, a proposal for ENDF-compatible formats that describe each of the models and

  3. Review of Past Nuclear Accidents: Source Terms and Recorded Gamma-Ray Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Cresswell, A.; Allyson, J.D.; McConville, P.; Department of the Environment: Radioactive Substances Division

    1997-01-01

    Airborne gamma ray spectrometry using high volume scintillation detectors, optionally in conjunction with Ge detectors, has potential for making rapid environmental measurements in response to nuclear accidents. A literature search on past nuclear accidents has been conducted to define the source terms which have been experienced so far. Selected gamma ray spectra recorded after past accidents have also been collated to examine the complexity of observed behaviour.

  4. Measurements of gamma-ray production cross sections for shielding materials of space nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphan, V. J.; John, J.; Hoot, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of secondary gamma ray production from neutron interactions have been made over the entire energy range of interest in shielding applications. The epithermal capture gamma ray yields for both resolved gamma ray lines and continuum have been measured from thermal energies to 100 KeV for natural tungsten and U-238, two important candidate shield materials in SNAP reactor systems. Data are presented to illustrate the variation of epithermal capture gamma ray yields with neutron energy. The gamma ray production cross sections from (n,xy) reactions have been measured for Fe and Al from the threshold energies for inelastic scattering to approximately 16 MeV. Typical Fe and Al cross sections obtained with high-neutron energy resolution and averaged over broad neutron-energy groups are presented.

  5. Superradiant control of gamma-ray propagation by vibrating nuclear arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiwen

    2013-01-01

    The collective nature of light interactions with atomic and nuclear ensembles yields the fascinating phenomena of superradiance and radiation trapping. We study the interaction of gamma rays with a coherently vibrating periodic array of two-level nuclei. Such nuclear motion can be generated, e.g., in ionic crystals illuminated by a strong driving optical laser field. We find that deflection of the incident gamma beam into the Bragg angle can be switched on and off by nuclear vibrations on a superradiant time scale determined by the collective nuclear frequency, which is of the order of terahertz. Namely, if the incident gamma wave is detuned from the nuclear transition by much larger frequency it passes through the static nuclear array. However, if the nuclei vibrate with the frequency of the gamma ray detuning then parametric resonance can yield energy transfer into the Bragg deflected beam on the superradiant time scale, which can be used for fast control of gamma rays.

  6. The gamma-ray spectrometer HORUS and its applications for nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Netterdon, L; Endres, J; Fransen, C; Hennig, A; Mayer, J; Müller-Gatermann, C; Sauerwein, A; Scholz, P; Spieker, M; Zilges, A

    2014-01-01

    A dedicated setup for the in-beam measurement of absolute cross sections of astrophysically relevant charged-particle induced reactions is presented. These, usually very low, cross sections at energies of astrophysical interest are important to improve the modeling of the nucleosynthesis processes of heavy nuclei. Particular emphasis is put on the production of the $p$ nuclei during the astrophysical $\\gamma$ process. The recently developed setup utilizes the high-efficiency $\\gamma$-ray spectrometer HORUS, which is located at the 10 MV FN tandem ion accelerator of the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne. The design of this setup will be presented and results of the recently measured $^{89}$Y(p,$\\gamma$)$^{90}$Zr reaction will be discussed. The excellent agreement with existing data shows, that the HORUS spectrometer is a powerful tool to determine total and partial cross sections using the in-beam method with high-purity germanium detectors.

  7. On evaluated nuclear data for beta-delayed gamma rays following of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mencarini, Leonardo de H.; Caldeira, Alexandre D., E-mail: mencarini@ieav.cta.b, E-mail: alexdc@ieav.cta.b [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/CTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a new type of information available in ENDF is discussed. During a consistency check of the evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0 performed at the Nuclear Data Subdivision of the Institute for Advanced Studies, the size of the files for some materials drew the attention of one of the authors. Almost 94 % of all available information for these special nuclear materials is used to represent the beta-delayed gamma rays following fission. This is the first time this information is included in an ENDF version. (author)

  8. Gamma ray astronomy and the origin of the light nuclei. [cosmic ray and interstellar gas reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, H.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by the collisions of the protons and alphas of the galactic cosmic ray with heavy nuclei of the interstellar gas are responsible for the continuous production of the light elements lithium, beryllium, and boron in the galaxy. To better than one order of magnitude, the observed ratios of these abundances to hydrogen abundance and the nuclidic abundance ratios between themselves are accounted for by simply considering the effect of fast protons and alphas with a flux and an energy spectrum as observed in galactic cosmic rays, for a period comparable with the life of our galaxy. The role of gamma ray astronomy in solving problems that occur when accurate agreement is sought with increasingly accurate data is discussed.

  9. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... information that can be extracted from the gamma-ray emission spectrum of fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening and are of relevance for applications to high performance plasmas of present and next generation devices....

  10. Ultra-sensitive in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear astrophysics at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Caciolli, A; Bemmerer, D; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Confortola, F; Corvisiero, P; Costantini, H; Elekes, Z; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyurky, Gy; Imbriani, G; Junker, M; Laubenstein, M; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Alvarez, C Rossi; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-sensitive in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy studies for nuclear astrophysics are performed at the LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) 400 kV accelerator, deep underground in Italy's Gran Sasso laboratory. By virtue of a specially constructed passive shield, the laboratory gamma-ray background for E_\\gamma < 3 MeV at LUNA has been reduced to levels comparable to those experienced in dedicated offline underground gamma-counting setups. The gamma-ray background induced by an incident alpha-beam has been studied. The data are used to evaluate the feasibility of sensitive in-beam experiments at LUNA and, by extension, at similar proposed facilities.

  11. Advanced Laser-Compton Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Materials Detection, Assay and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, C. P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Highly-collimated, polarized, mono-energetic beams of tunable gamma-rays may be created via the optimized Compton scattering of pulsed lasers off of ultra-bright, relativistic electron beams. Above 2 MeV, the peak brilliance of such sources can exceed that of the world's largest synchrotrons by more than 15 orders of magnitude and can enable for the first time the efficient pursuit of nuclear science and applications with photon beams, i.e. Nuclear Photonics. Potential applications are numerous and include isotope-specific nuclear materials management, element-specific medical radiography and radiology, non-destructive, isotope-specific, material assay and imaging, precision spectroscopy of nuclear resonances and photon-induced fission. This review covers activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory related to the design and optimization of mono-energetic, laser-Compton gamma-ray systems and introduces isotope-specific nuclear materials detection and assay applications enabled by them.

  12. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magne...

  13. Prompt dipole gamma-ray emission in fusionlike heavy-ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierroutsakou, D; Di Pietro, M; Mordente, R; Ordine, A; Romoli, M; De Rosa, A; Inglima, G; La Commara, M; Martin, B; Roca, V; Sandoli, M; Trotta, M; Vardaci, E; Ming, R; Rizzo, F; Soramel, F; Stroe, L

    2003-01-01

    The sup 3 sup 2 S+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo and sup 3 sup 6 S+ sup 9 sup 6 Mo fusionlike reactions were studied at incident energy of E sub l sub a sub b =298 MeV and 320 MeV, respectively, with the aim of probing the influence of the entrance channel charge asymmetry on the dipole gamma-ray emission. The excitation energy and spin distribution of the compound nucleus created in these reactions were identical, the only difference being associated with the unequal charge asymmetry of the two entrance channels. High-energy gamma-rays were detected in an array of 9 seven-pack BaF sub 2 clusters. Coincidence with fusionlike residues detected in four PPAC ensured the selection of central reaction events. By studying the differential gamma-ray multiplicity associated with the two reactions it was shown that the dipole strength excited in the compound nucleus increases with the entrance channel charge asymmetry. From the linearized spectra, the increase of the GDR gamma-ray intensity was found to be propor to 25% for th...

  14. A reduced model for the ICF Gamma-Ray reaction history diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Wilson, D. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Young, C. S.; Evans, S. C.; Cerjan, C. J.; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Munro, D. H.; Dauffy, L. S.; Miller, K. M.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.

    2010-08-01

    An analytic model for the gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic to be fielded on the National Ignition Facility is described. The application of the GRH diagnostic for the measurement of capsule rho-R during burn using 4.4 MeV carbon gamma rays is demonstrated by simulation.

  15. A reduced model for the ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Mark J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wilson, Douglas C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoffman, Nelson M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Langenbrunner, Jamie R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hermann, H W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Y H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Young, C S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Evans, S C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerjan, C J [LLNL; Stoeffl, Wolfgang [LLNL; Munro, D H [LLNL; Dauffy, L S [LLNL; Miller, K M [LIVERMORE; Horsfield, C J [AWE; Rubery, M S [AWE

    2009-01-01

    An analytic model for the gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic to be fielded on the National Ignition Facility is described. The application of the GRH diagnostic for the measurement of capsule rho-R during burn using 4.4 MeV carbon gamma rays is demonstrated by simulation.

  16. News from Cosmic Gamma-ray Line Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays at MeV energies from cosmic radioactivities is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and how they shape objects such as massive stars and supernova explosions. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this same astronomical window, and positrons are often produced from radioactive beta decays. Nuclear gamma-ray telescopes face instrumental challenges from penetrating gamma rays and cosmic-ray induced backgrounds. But the astrophysical benefits of such efforts are underlined by the discoveries of nuclear gamma~rays from the brightest of the expected sources. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivity gamma~rays have been measured in spectral detail, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of origins in deep supernova interiors, from the decay of $^{56}$Ni, $^{56}$Co, and $^{44}$Ti. The diffuse afterglow in gamma rays of radioa...

  17. Gamma ray beams for Nuclear Astrophysics: first results of tests and simulations of the ELISSA array

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Cognata, M.; Anzalone, A.; Balabanski, D.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Crucillà, V.; Filipescu, D. M.; Guardo, G. L.; Gulino, M.; Lattuada, D.; Matei, C.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Taffara, A.; Tesileanu, O.; Tumino, A.; Xu, Y.

    2017-03-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility, under construction in Magurele near Bucharest in Romania, will provide high-intensity and high-resolution gamma ray beams that can be used to address hotly debated problems in nuclear astrophysics. For this purpose, a silicon strip detector array (named ELISSA) will be realized in a common effort by ELI-NP and INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy), in order to measure excitation functions and angular distributions over a wide energy and angular range. A prototype of ELISSA was built and tested at Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) in Catania with the support of ELI-NP. On this occasion, we carried out experiments with alpha sources and with a 11 MeV 7Li beam. Thanks to our approach, the first results of those tests show up a very good energy resolution (better than 1%) and very good position resolution, of the order of 1 mm. Below 1 MeV, a resolution of the order of 6 mm is found, still good enough for the measurement of angular distribution and the kinematical identification of the reactions induced on the target by gamma beams.

  18. On-line. gamma. -ray investigation of the /sup 14/N + /sup 27/Al reaction at 30 Mev/u

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charvet, A.; Beraud, R.; Duffait, R.; Ollivier, T.; Meyer, M.; Kossakowski, R.; Andre, S.; Barneoud, D.; Foin, C.; Genevey, J.

    1985-03-01

    The cross-sections of target-like residues following the /sup 14/N+/sup 27/Al reaction at 30 MeV/u have been measured from in-beam and radioactive ..gamma..-ray spectra. The recoil velocities of some fragments have been estimated from the ..gamma..-ray Doppler broadening.

  19. Fast-ion energy resolution by one-step reaction gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.;

    2016-01-01

    The spectral broadening of γ-rays from fusion plasmas can be measured in high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS). We derive weight functions that determine the observable velocity space and quantify the velocity-space sensitivity of one-step reaction high-resolution GRS measurements in magne...... general formalism using reactions with and without intrinsic broadening of the γ-rays for the GRS diagnostic at JET....

  20. Neutralino Inelastic Scattering with Subsequent Detection of Nuclear Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, J

    2000-01-01

    We consider the potential benefits of searching for supersymmetric dark-matter through its inelastic excitation, via the "scalar current", of low-lying collective nuclear states in a detector. If such states live long enough so that the gamma radiation from their decay can be separated from the signal due to nuclear recoil, then background can be dramatically reduced. We show how the kinematics of neutralino-nucleus scattering is modified when the nucleus is excited and derive expressions for the form factors associated with exciting collective states. We apply these results to two specific cases: 1) the 5/2^+ state at 13 keV in 73Ge, and 2) the rotational and hence very collective state 3/2^+ at 8 keV in 169Tm (even though observing the transition down from that state will be difficult). In both cases we compare the form factors for inelastic scattering with those for elastic scattering. The inelastic cross section is considerably smaller than its elastic counterpart, though perhaps not always prohibitively ...

  1. Nuclear Gamma-Ray Laser of Optical Range

    CERN Document Server

    Tkalya, E V

    2010-01-01

    A possibility of amplification of the 7.6 eV (3.5 eV) $\\gamma$-radiation by the stimulated $\\gamma$-emission of the ensemble of the $^{229m}$Th isomeric nuclei in a host dielectric crystal with a large band gap is proved theoretically. This amplification is a result of the following three factors: 1) the excitation of a great number of the $^{229m}$Th isomers by laser radiation; 2) the creation of the inverse population of nuclear levels in a cooled sample placed in magnetic field; 3) the emissions/absorption of the optical photons by thorium nuclei in the crystal without recoil (the M\\"{o}ssbauer effect in the optical range).

  2. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  3. Addendum to "Determination of $\\gamma$-ray widths in $^{15}$N using nuclear resonance fluorescence''

    CERN Document Server

    Szücs, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    The determination of absolute widths of two observed levels above the proton threshold in $^{15}$N has been improved by a combined analysis of our recent $^{15}$N($\\gamma$,$\\gamma'$)$^{15}$N$^\\ast$ photon scattering data, resonance strengths $\\omega\\gamma$ of the $^{14}$C($p$,$\\gamma$)$^{15}$N reaction, and $\\gamma$-ray branchings $b_{\\gamma,i}$ in $^{15}$N. The revised data are compared to the adopted values, and some inconsistencies in the adopted values are illustrated.

  4. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  5. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich, E-mail: phongphaeth.p@chula.ac.th; Nares, Chankow [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hao, Quang Nguyen [Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Ministry of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-01-22

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  6. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  7. Revealing Type Ia supernova physics with cosmic rates and nuclear gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku

    2010-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) remain mysterious despite their central importance in cosmology and their rapidly increasing discovery rate. The progenitors of SNIa can be probed by the delay time between stellar birth and death. The explosions and progenitors of SNIa can be probed by MeV nuclear gamma rays emitted in the decays of radioactive nickel and cobalt into iron. We compare the cosmic star formation and SNIa rates, finding that their different redshift evolution requires a large fraction of SNIa to have large delay times. A delay time distribution of the form t^{-1.0+/-0.3} provides a good fit, implying 50% of SNIa explode more than ~ 1 Gyr after progenitor birth. The extrapolation of the cosmic SNIa rate to z = 0 agrees with the rate we deduce from catalogs of local SNIa. We investigate prospects for gamma-ray telescopes to exploit the facts that escaping gamma rays directly reveal the power source of SNIa and uniquely provide tomography of the expanding ejecta. We find large improvements relative to earl...

  8. Active Detection and Imaging of Nuclear Materials with High-Brightness Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, C J; Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Anderson, G G; Betts, S M; Berry, R D; Fisher, S E; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P

    2009-02-26

    A Compton scattering {gamma}-ray source, capable of producing photons with energies ranging from 0.1 MeV to 0.9 MeV has been commissioned and characterized, and then used to perform nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) experiments. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and {gamma}-ray results are presented. The key source parameters are the size (0.01 mm{sup 2}), horizontal and vertical divergence (6 x 10 mrad{sup 2}), duration (10 ps), spectrum and intensity (10{sup 5} photons/shot). These parameters are summarized by the peak brightness, 1.5 x 10{sup 15} photons/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/s/0.1% bandwidth, measured at 478 keV. Additional measurements of the flux as a function of the timing difference between the drive laser pulse and the relativistic photo-electron bunch, {gamma}-ray beam profile, and background evaluations are presented. These results are systematically compared to theoretical models and computer simulations. NRF measurements performed on {sup 7}Li in LiH demonstrate the potential of Compton scattering photon sources to accurately detect isotopes in situ.

  9. Li production in alpha-alpha reactions. [relation to gamma ray observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.

    1974-01-01

    The cross section for Li-7 production in alpha-alpha reactions is shown to be increased by about a factor of 2 due to the excitation levels of Li-7 and Be-7 at 478 keV and 431 keV, respectively. The cross section for Li-6 production, however, remains the same as calculated on the basis of the detailed balance principle. The lines at 478 keV and 431 keV may link Li-7 production to feasible gamma-ray observations.

  10. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,..cap alpha..), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,..gamma..) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide.

  11. Applications of LaBr3(Ce) Gamma-ray Spectrometer Arrays for Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radionuclide Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, PH; Shearman, R.; Daniel, T.; Lorusso, G.; Collins, SM; Judge, SM; Bell; Pearce, AK; Gurgi, LA; Rudigier, M.; Podolyák, Zs; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Kisyov, S.

    2016-10-01

    An overview of the use of discrete energy gamma-ray detectors based on cerium- doped LaBr3 scintillators for use in nuclear spectroscopy is presented. This review includes recent applications of such detectors in mixed, 'hybrid' gamma-ray coincidence detection arrays such ROSPHERE at IFIN-HH, Bucharest; EXILL+FATIMA at ILL Grenoble, France; GAMMASPHERE+FATIMA at Argonne National Laboratory, USA; FATIMA + EURICA, at RIKEN, Japan; and the National Nuclear Array (NANA) at the UK's National Physical Laboratory. This conference paper highlights the capabilities and limitations of using these sub-nanosecond 'fast-timing', medium-resolution gamma-ray detectors for both nuclear structure research and radionuclide standardisation. Potential future application of such coincidence scintillator arrays in measurements of civilian nuclear fuel waste evaluation and assay is demonstrated using coincidence spectroscopy of a mixed 134,7Cs source.

  12. Pulse Summing in the gamma-Ray Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gromov, K Ya; Samatov, Zh K; Chumin, V G

    2004-01-01

    It was shown that the peaks formed at the summing of the cascade gamma-rays pulses can be used for the determination of gamma-ray source activity and gamma-ray registration efficency. Possible sources of the determined quantities errors have been investigated. Such a method can be useful at the nuclear reaction cross section measurements, at background analysis in looking for rare decays and so on.

  13. Neutron activation analysis via nuclear decay kinetics using gamma-ray spectroscopy at SFU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Thomas; Chester, Aaron; Starosta, Krzysztof; Williams, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Gamma-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool used in a variety of fields including nuclear and analytical chemistry, environmental science, and health risk management. At SFU, the Germanium detector for Elemental Analysis and Radiation Studies (GEARS), a low-background shielded high-purity germanium gamma-ray detector, has been used recently in all of the above fields. The current project aims to expand upon the number of applications for which GEARS can be used while enhancing its current functionality. A recent addition to the SFU Nuclear Science laboratory is the Thermo Scientific P 385 neutron generator. This device provides a nominal yield of 3 ×108 neutrons/s providing the capacity for neutron activation analysis, opening a major avenue of research at SFU which was previously unavailable. The isotopes created via neutron activation have a wide range of half-lives. To measure and study isotopes with half-lives above a second, a new analogue data acquisition system has been installed on GEARS allowing accurate measurements of decay kinetics. This new functionality enables identification and quantification of the products of neutron activation. Results from the neutron activation analysis of pure metals will be presented.

  14. Signatures of special nuclear material: High-energy gamma rays following fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Shugart, Howard; Browne, Edgardo; Smith, Alan R.; McDonald, Rchard J.; Nitsche, Heino; Gupta, Puja; Frank, Michael I.; Gosnell, Thomas B.

    2003-05-29

    Since September 11, 2001, much effort has been devoted to the development of new and improved means for the detection and prevention of the clandestine transport of special nuclear material (SNM, i.e. {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) and other materials for producing weapons of mass destruction. In a recent Brief Communication, Borozdin et al. showed that cosmic-ray muons could be used to image dense objects inside containers. Here we describe a method for unequivocally identifying SNM in large seagoing containers. Our method is based on the fact that neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu is followed by {beta} decays of short-lived fission fragments during which large numbers of high-energy {gamma} rays (above 3000 keV) are emitted. These {gamma} rays have energies above those of natural {gamma} background, are emitted with significantly greater intensity per fission than {beta}-delayed neutrons, have much higher probabilities of escaping hydrogenous cargo loadings than neutrons, and their energy spectra and time dependencies provide a unique signature of SNM. To demonstrate the main properties of high-energy delayed {gamma} rays, we produced neutrons by bombarding a 1-inch thick water-cooled Be target with 16-MeV deuterons from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Neutrons were moderated using steel and polyethylene. We employed a pneumatic transfer system to shuttle targets from the irradiation location inside the polyethylene moderator to a remote shielded counting station. We irradiated {sup 235}U (93% isotopic content), {sup 239}Pu (95% isotopic content), wood, polyethylene, aluminum, sandstone, and steel targets for 30 seconds (in a thermal-neutron flux of 1.5 x 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}-sec) and acquired 10 sequential {gamma}-ray spectra, each of 3 sec. duration starting 3 sec. after the end of bombardment. We used an 80% relative efficiency coaxial germanium detector and a 30-cm x 30-cm x 10-cm plastic scintillator to detect

  15. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Diehl, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from beta-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured, and complement conventional supernova observations with measurements of their prime energy sources. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massi...

  16. A formula used to subtract the effect of gamma-ray of the others to that of measured reaction in measurement of cross section of nuclear reaction and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract According to the regulation of growing and decay of artificial radioactive nuclide, a formula used to subtract the effect of characteristic γ-ray of the others to that of measured reaction was deduced. And then the cross sections of 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction induced by neutrons around 14 MeV were measured by activation relative to the 93Nb (n, 2n)92mNb. In the process of the cross sections measured to be calculated, it was subtracted that the effect of characteristic γ-ray of 126Te (n, p)126Sb to that of measured 120Te (n, 2n)119mTe reaction using the formula deduced. The experimental results were (689±37) and (750±41) mb at the neutron energies of (13.5±0.3) and (14.6±0.3) MeV, respectively. Measurements were carried out by γ-detection using a coaxial HPGe detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure tellurium powder has been used. The fast neutrons were produced by the T(d, n)4He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements were determined by the method of cross-section ratios between 90Zr (n, 2n) 89m+gZr and 93Nb (n, 2n) 92mNb reactions.

  17. Laue optics for nuclear astrophysics: New detector requirements for focused gamma-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, N. [INAF - IASF Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: nicolas.barriere@iasf-roma.inaf.it; Ballmoos, P. von [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Abrosimov, N.V. [IKZ, Max Born-Str. 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Bastie, P. [LSP UMR 5588, 140 Av. de la physique, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Camus, T. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Courtois, P.; Jentschel, M. [ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Knoedlseder, J. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Natalucci, L. [INAF - IASF Roma, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Roudil, G.; Rousselle, J. [CESR - UMR 5187, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse (France); Wunderer, C.B. [SSL, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States); Kurlov, V.N. [Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-21

    Nuclear astrophysics presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. But in order to take full advantage of this potential, telescopes should be at least an order of magnitude more sensitive than present technologies. Today, Laue lenses have demonstrated their capability of focusing gamma-rays in the 100 keV-1 MeV domain, enabling the possibility of building a new generation of instruments for which sensitive area is decoupled from collecting area. Thus we have now the opportunity of dramatically increase the signal/background ratio and hence improve significantly the sensitivity. With a lens, the best detector is no longer the largest possible within a mission envelope. The point spread function of a Laue lens measures a few centimeters in diameter, but the field of view is limited by the detector size. Requirements for a focal plane instrument are presented in the context of the Gamma-Ray Imager mission (proposed to European Space Agency, ESA in the framework of the first Cosmic Vision AO): a 15-20 cm a side finely pixellated detector capable of Compton events reconstruction seems to be optimal, giving polarization and background rejection capabilities and 30 arcsec of angular resolution within a field of view of 5 arc min.

  18. Gamma-Ray Lenses for Astrophysics-and the Gamma-Ray Imager Mission GRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunderer, C. B.; Ballmoos, P. V.; Barriere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles...... are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. While Fermi will take......, albeit at much more modest sensitivities. There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Lane diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques...

  19. Gamma-rays from Muon Capture in $^{14}$N

    CERN Document Server

    Stocki, T J; Gete, E; Saliba, M A; Moftah, B A; Gorringe, T P

    2001-01-01

    Many new $\\gamma$-rays have been observed, following muon capture on $^{14}$N. One had been reported before, and the low yield is confirmed, indicating that the nuclear structure of $^{14}$N is still not understood. Gamma-rays from $^{13}$C resulting from the reaction $^{14}$N($\\mu^{-}$,$\

  20. U and Pu: some nuclear data by gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jose U.; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Poledna, R.; Almeida, Maria Candida M. de, E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RH (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI); Estrada, Julio J. da S. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The precise knowledge of nuclear parameters like energy and emission probability for uranium and plutonium radionuclides is very important for the correct determination of the isotopic ratio or activity determinations. By means of gamma-ray spectrometry it is possible to obtain these parameters, but in the region below 300 keV it is more critical. The published values for their main decay data exhibit significant differences. A new methodology was developed using a nonlinear regression program to fit the calibration curves in energy, resolution and efficiency of a HPGe detector. The results obtained by means new curve fitting software appear to be consistent in that region for energy, and the uncertainties exhibit improvements compared the published data. Consistent results were also obtained in an energy region extended to 1100 keV. (author)

  1. Nuclear Material Accountability Applications of a Continuous Energy and Direction Gamma Ray Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gerts; Robert Bean; Marc Paff

    2010-07-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has recently developed a detector system based on the principle of a Wilson cloud chamber that gives the original energy and direction to a gamma ray source. This detector has the properties that the energy resolution is continuous and the direction to the source can be resolved to desired fidelity. Furthermore, the detector has low power requirements, is durable, operates in widely varying environments, and is relatively cheap to produce. This detector is expected, however, to require significant time to perform measurements. To mitigate the significant time for measurements, the detector is expected to scale to very large sizes with a linear increase in cost. For example, the proof of principle detector is approximately 30,000 cm3. This work describes the technical results that lead to these assertions. Finally, the applications of this detector are described in the context of nuclear material accountability.

  2. New insights from cosmic gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Diehl

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of gamma rays from cosmic sources at ~MeV energies is one of the key tools for nuclear astrophysics, in its study of nuclear reactions and their impacts on objects and phenomena throughout the universe. Gamma rays trace nuclear processes most directly, as they originate from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. Additionally, the unique gamma-ray signature from the annihilation of positrons falls into this astronomical window and is discussed here: Cosmic positrons are often produced from β-decays, thus also of nuclear physics origins. The nuclear reactions leading to radioactive isotopes occur inside stars and stellar explosions, which therefore constitute the main objects of such studies. In recent years, both thermonuclear and core-collapse supernova radioactivities have been measured though 56Ni, 56Co, and 44Ti lines, and a beginning has thus been made to complement conventional supernova observations with such measurements of the prime energy sources of supernova light created in their deep interiors. The diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in gamma rays is now being exploited towards astrophysical studies on how massive stars feed back their energy and ejecta into interstellar gas, as part of the cosmic cycle of matter through generations of stars enriching the interstellar gas and stars with metals. Large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be the dominating structures where new massive-star ejecta are injected, from 26Al gamma-ray spectroscopy. Also, constraints on the complex interiors of stars derive from the ratio of 60Fe/26Al gamma rays. Finally, the puzzling bulge-dominated intensity distribution of positron annihilation gamma rays is measured in greater detail, but still not understood; a recent microquasar flare provided evidence that such objects may be prime sources for positrons in interstellar space, rather than

  3. Progress in Gamma Ray Measurement Information Barriers for Nuclear Material Transparency Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolford, J.K.; White, G.K.

    2000-07-03

    Negotiations between technical representatives of the US and the Russian Federation in support of several pending nuclear arms and nuclear material control agreements must take account of the need for assurances against the release of sensitive information. Most of these agreements involve storing nuclear material and in some cases nuclear components from stockpile weapons in specially designed containers. Strategies for monitoring the agreements typically include measuring neutron and gamma radiation from the controlled items to verify declared attributes of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. If accurate enough to be useful, these measurements will contain information about the design of the component being monitored, information considered sensitive by one or both parties to the agreement. Safeguards have evolved to prevent disclosure of this information during inspections. These measures combine hardware, software, and procedural measures to contain the sensitive data, presenting only the results needed for verification. Custom features preserve data security and guard against disclosure in case of failure. This paper summarizes the general problem and discusses currently developing solutions for a high resolution gamma ray detection system. It argues for the simplest possible implementation of several key system components.

  4. An airborne gamma-ray spectrometry survey of nuclear sites in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, D C W; Cresswell, A J; Hardeman, F; Debauche, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of a wider study to define the existing background levels in Belgium an airborne gamma-ray survey was conducted in two areas associated with nuclear sites. In the Mol area, the survey zone included areas surrounding the SCK-CEN nuclear research centre, and its associated neighbourhood which includes radioactive waste stores, fuel manufacture and fabrication facilities and an international accelerator laboratory. In the vicinity of Fleurus, the survey included the IRE complex with radiochemical laboratories, irradiation facilities and stores, and isotope production accelerators. The survey was conducted using a twin engined helicopter equipped with a combined scintillation and semiconductor spectrometer. The system was installed and tested in the UK, and then transferred to Belgium for operations. The complete survey was conducted successfully within 1 week. The results provide a comprehensive record of the radiation environment of the nuclear sites at time of survey, and show a range of signals associated with the types of activity present in each area. They confirm that radiation fields are largely confined to the operational sites, and provide a traceable record against which future changes could be assessed. The demonstration of efficient deployment between two European countries, coupled with rapid mapping of many different radiometric signals around these sites confirms the utility of the airborne gamma spectrometry approach for accurate definition of enhanced radiation fields. This has important implications for emergency response.

  5. Offshore nuclear power plant with. gamma. -ray shieldings being separated therefrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, Yoji

    1987-01-13

    Purpose: To greatly decrease the weight of floating structures of offshore type nuclear power plants. Constitution: Offshore type nuclear power plants can overcome the problem of location and enable factory production by standard designs, thereby enabling to reduce the construction period and improve the economical performance and quality. Among various facilities of the power plants, ..gamma..-ray shielding structures, electric equipments or other equipment are located on land within a range not impairing the operation performance of the plants. As a result, the weight of the floating structures amounting as great as 200,000 - 300,000 tons can be reduced to about 10,000 tons. The floating structure similar in the configuration to that of a ship can be constructed in existent ship-building docks and, since it is smaller in the size than those plants of existent type, standarization and rationalization of equipments are easy even in the production by the factories on the land. Further, since they are constructed by excavating a dock, they are free from the effects of waves and tusnamis thereby ensuring high safety. Accordingly, they can contribute much to the reduction of power distribution cost as nuclear power plant disposed near the demand area. High reliability and reduction in the production cost can be attained. (Horiuchi, T.).

  6. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Seipel, Heather [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors

  7. Nondestructive Inspection System for Special Nuclear Material Using Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Neutrons and Laser Compton Scattering Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgaki, H.; Daito, I.; Zen, H.; Kii, T.; Masuda, K.; Misawa, T.; Hajima, R.; Hayakawa, T.; Shizuma, T.; Kando, M.; Fujimoto, S.

    2017-07-01

    A Neutron/Gamma-ray combined inspection system for hidden special nuclear materials (SNMs) in cargo containers has been developed under a program of Japan Science and Technology Agency in Japan. This inspection system consists of an active neutron-detection system for fast screening and a laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray source in coupling with nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method for precise inspection. The inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device has been adopted as a neutron source and two neutron-detection methods, delayed neutron noise analysis method and high-energy neutron-detection method, have been developed to realize the fast screening system. The prototype system has been constructed and tested in the Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University. For the generation of the laser Compton backscattering gamma-ray beam, a race track microtron accelerator has been used to reduce the size of the system. For the NRF measurement, an array of LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors has been adopted to realize a low-cost detection system. The prototype of the gamma-ray system has been demonstrated in the Kansai Photon Science Institute, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology. By using numerical simulations based on the data taken from these prototype systems and the inspection-flow, the system designed by this program can detect 1 kg of highly enriched 235U (HEU) hidden in an empty 20-ft container within several minutes.

  8. Determination of gamma-ray widths in $^{15}$N using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Szücs, T; Caciolli, A; Fülöp, Zs; Massarczyk, R; Michelagnoli, C; Reinhardt, T P; Schwengner, R; Takács, M P; Ur, C A; Wagner, A; Wagner, L

    2015-01-01

    The stable nucleus $^{15}$N is the mirror of $^{15}$O, the bottleneck in the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. Most of the $^{15}$N level widths below the proton emission threshold are known from just one nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement, with limited precision in some cases. A recent experiment with the AGATA demonstrator array determined level lifetimes using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) in $^{15}$O. As a reference and for testing the method, level lifetimes in $^{15}$N have also been determined in the same experiment. The latest compilation of $^{15}$N level properties dates back to 1991. The limited precision in some cases in the compilation calls for a new measurement in order to enable a comparison to the AGATA demonstrator data. The widths of several $^{15}$N levels have been studied with the NRF method. The solid nitrogen compounds enriched in $^{15}$N have been irradiated with bremsstrahlung. The $\\gamma$-rays following the deexcitation of the excited nuclear levels were dete...

  9. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  10. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  11. Dynamical fission life-times deduced from gamma-ray emission observed in the fusion-fission reaction : Ne-20 on Bi-209.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderPloeg, H; Bacelar, JCS; Buda, A; Dioszegi, [No Value; vantHof, G; vanderWoude, A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission spectra between 4 and 20 MeV have been measured for the fusion-fission reactions Ne-20 on Bi-209 --> Np-229* at beam energies 150, 186 and 220 MeV. In addition for the latter experiment the angular dependence of the gamma-ray emission with respect to the spin axis has been

  12. Nuclear Data Resources for Capture gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear reaction data play an important role in nuclear reactor, medical, and fundamental science and national security applications. The wealth of information is stored in internally adopted ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. We present a complete calculation of resonance integrals, Westcott factors, thermal and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections for Z=1-100 using evaluated nuclear reaction data. The addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, and improvements in data processing techniques allows us to calculate nuclear industry and astrophysics parameters, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations will be discussed and an overview of the latest reaction data developments will be given.

  13. Nuclear Data Resources for Capture gamma-Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B.; Pritychenko,B.

    2011-08-18

    Nuclear reaction data play an important role in nuclear reactor, medical, and fundamental science and national security applications. The wealth of information is stored in internally adopted ENDF-6 and EXFOR formats. We present a complete calculation of resonance integrals, Westcott factors, thermal and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections for Z = 1-100 using evaluated nuclear reaction data. The addition of newly-evaluated neutron reaction libraries, and improvements in data processing techniques allows us to calculate nuclear industry and astrophysics parameters, and provide additional insights on all currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations will be discussed and an overview of the latest reaction data developments will be given.

  14. Gamma rays from muon capture in {sup 14}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocki, T.J. E-mail: trevor.stocki@crc.ca; Measday, D.F.; Gete, E.; Saliba, M.A.; Moftah, B.A.; Gorringe, T.P

    2002-01-14

    Many new {gamma}-rays have been observed, following muon capture on {sup 14}N. One had been reported before, and the low yield is confirmed, indicating that the nuclear structure of {sup 14}N is still not understood. Gamma rays from {sup 13}C resulting from the reaction {sup 14}N({mu}{sup -},{nu}n){sup 13}C compare favourably with states observed in the reaction {sup 14}N({gamma}, p){sup 13}C. More precise energies are also given for the 7017 and 6730 keV {gamma}-rays in {sup 14}C.

  15. Cosmic ray nuclei detection in the balloon borne nuclear emulsion gamma ray telescope flight in Australia (GRAINE 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyono, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Saya; Aoki, Shigeki; Hara, Toshio; Kuretsubo, Kenji; Marushima, Toshitsugu; Matsumoto, Haruka; Mizutani, Fukashi; Ozaki, Keita; Shibayama, Emi; Suzuki, Atsumu; Takahashi, Satoru; Tateishi, Yurie; Yabu, Misato; Yamada, Kyohei; Kodama, Koichi; Hamada, Kaname; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Komatsu, Masahiro; Miyanishi, Motoaki; Morishita, Misaki; Morishima, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Naganawa, Naotaka; Nanano, Toshiyuki; Nishio, Akira; Niwa, Kimio; Otsuka, Naoto; Rokujo, Hiroki; Sato, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion plates for studying elementary particle physics as well as cosmic ray physics are very powerful tracking tools with sub-micron spatial resolutions of charged particle trajectories. Even if gamma rays have to be detected, electron-positron pair tracks can provide precise information to reconstruct their direction and energy with high accuracy. Recent developments of emulsion analysis technology can digitally handle almost all tracks recorded in emulsion plates by using the Hyper Track Selector of the OPERA group at NAGOYA University. On the other hand, the potential of time resolutions have been equipped by emulsion multilayer shifter technology in the GRAINE (Gamma Ray Astro-Imager with Nuclear Emulsion) experiments, the aims of which are to detect cosmic gamma rays such as the Vela pulsar stellar object by precise emulsion tracking analysis and to study cosmic ray particle interactions and chemical compositions. In this paper, we focus on the subject of cosmic ray nuclei detection in the GRAINE balloon flight experiments launched at Alice Springs, Australia in May 2015.

  16. Fully encapsulated directional self-powered gamma ray detector for use in in-core nuclear reactor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeVert, F.E.; Cox, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    A study of a fully encapsulated directional self-powered gamma ray detector designed for localized in core measurements in a nuclear reactor was conducted. The detector consisted of a multilayer arrangement of a metal-dielectric-metal-dielectric-metal structure. The dielectric material was made of two plates of unequal thicknesses which were placed on opposite sides of the central metal plate. The direction discrimination exhibited by the detector was attributed to the combined effect of electron ranges, Photo-Compton electron generation rates, and the presence of E-fields in the unequal thicknesses of dielectric material. Results showing the response of the detector when it was placed in a gamma ray field with a known anisotropic component are presented.

  17. Development of the measurement technique for nuclear data with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Shoji; Furutaka, Kazuyoshi; Harada, Hideo [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    To obtain the thermal neutron capture cross sections of radioactive fission product nuclides as the basic data on transmutation study, a measurement technique with prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy was developed. When daughter nuclides after neutron irradiations are stable, measuring the neutron capture cross sections is impossible. Therefore, a new technique was developed to investigate these. With this, the level schemes from the information of the prompt {gamma}-rays emitted during neutron irradiation are constructed, and the cross section is deduced with the emission probabilities of prompt {gamma}-rays. The measurement system for this technique was developed, and was effective. The system enables obtaining information on the cascade {gamma}-rays necessary for constructing the level-scheme. By measuring {sup nat}Pd, the partial level-scheme was constructed, and two new levels at 1906 keV and 2400 keV were identified. By using this technique, the neutron capture cross sections of nuclides that can't be measured by an activation method can be measured. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo Models for the Production of beta-delayed Gamma Rays Following Fission of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruet, J; Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J

    2004-02-03

    A Monte Carlo method for the estimation of {beta}-delayed {gamma}-ray spectra following fission is described that can accommodate an arbitrary time-dependent fission rate and photon collection history. The method invokes direct sampling of the independent fission yield distributions of the fissioning system, the branching ratios for decay of individual fission products and the spectral distributions for photon emission for each decay mode. Though computationally intensive, the method can provide a detailed estimate of the spectrum that would be recorded by an arbitrary spectrometer, and can prove useful in assessing the quality of evaluated data libraries, for identifying gaps in these libraries, etc. The method is illustrated by a first comparison of calculated and experimental spectra from decay of short-lived fission products following the reactions {sup 235}U(n{sub th}, f) and {sup 239}Pu(n{sub th}, f). For general purpose transport calculations, where detailed consideration of the large number of individual {gamma}-ray transitions in a spectrum may be unnecessary, it is shown that an accurate and simple parameterization of a {gamma}-ray source function can be obtained. These parametrizations should provide high-quality average spectral distributions that should prove useful in calculations describing photons escaping from thick attenuating media.

  19. OSIRIS—Gamma-ray spectroscopy software for on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffrey, A.J., E-mail: Gus.Caffrey@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bowyer, T.W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Egger, A.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hall, J.C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, S.M.; Krebs, K.M. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kreek, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Jordan, D.V.; Milbrath, B.D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Padgett, S.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wharton, C.J. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wimer, N.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We have designed and tested software for the acquisition and analysis of high-resolution gamma-ray spectra during on-site inspections under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The On-Site Inspection RadioIsotopic Spectroscopy—OSIRIS—software filters the spectral data to display only radioisotopic information relevant to CTBT on-site inspections, e.g.,{sup 131}I. A set of over 100 fission-product spectra was employed for OSIRIS testing. These spectra were measured where possible, or generated by modeling. The test spectral compositions include non-nuclear-explosion scenarios, e.g., a severe nuclear reactor accident, and nuclear-explosion scenarios such as a vented underground nuclear test. Comparing its computer-based analyses to expert visual analyses of the test spectra, OSIRIS correctly identifies CTBT-relevant fission product isotopes at the 95% level or better.

  20. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Campbell, Luke [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hunt, Alan W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Reedy, Edward T.E. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Seipel, Heather A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  1. Ultra-strong laser pulses: streak-camera for gamma-rays via pair production and quantum radiative reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsagortsyan, K Z; Evers, J; Di Piazza, A; Keitel, C H

    2011-01-01

    We show that a strong laser pulse combined with a strong x-ray pulse can be employed in a detection scheme for characterizing high-energy $\\gamma$-ray pulses down to the zeptosecond timescale. The scheme employs streak imaging technique built upon the high-energy process of electron-positron pair production in vacuum through the collision of a test pulse with intense laser pulses. The role of quantum radiation reaction in multiphoton Compton scattering process and limitations imposed by it on the detection scheme are examined.

  2. Development of Gamma-Ray Nondestructive Detection and Assay Systems for Nuclear Safeguards and Security at JAEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajima, Ryoichi

    2015-10-01

    Nondestructive detection and assay of nuclide is one of the promising applications of energy-tunable gamma-rays from laser Compton scattering. In JAEA, we are developing technologies relevant to the gamma-ray non-destructive assay, which include a high-brightness gamma-ray source based on advanced laser and accelerator technologies and gamma-ray measurement techniques optimized for highly radioactive samples. In this paper, the status of the above R&D's is reviewed.

  3. Nuclear chemistry of returned lunar samples: Nuclide analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okelley, G. D.

    1975-01-01

    Primordial and cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations are determined nondestructively by gamma-ray spectrometry in soil and rock samples from the returned Apollo 17 sample collection from Taurus-Littrow and Descartes. Geochemical evidence in support of field geology speculation concerning layering of the subfloor basalt flows is demonstrated along with a possible correlation of magmatic fractionation of K/U as a function of depth. The pattern of radionuclide concentrations observed in these samples is distinct due to proton bombardment by the intense solar flares of August 4-9, 1972. Such radionuclide determinations are used in determining lunar sample orientation and characterizing solar flare activity.

  4. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

  5. Nuclear Structure of Rhenium-186 Revealed by Neutron-Capture Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    the non-forbidden transition probabilities, are assumed to follow a Porter -Thomas distribution [21] and its center lies on a mean value given by...rectangles are processing steps and the amber diamond is the conditional or decision point. The remainder of this section will briefly elaborate on...C. E. Porter and R. G. Thomas, "Fluctuations of Nuclear Reaction Widths," Phys. Rev., vol. 104, no. 2, p. 483, 1956. [22] S. Hilaire, "Level

  6. Neutron and Gamma-ray Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, Anatoly V.; Sasao, Mamiko; Kaschuck, Yuri A.; Kiptily, Vasily G.; Nishitani, Takeo; Popovichev, Sergey V.; Bertalot, Luciano

    2008-03-01

    Due to high neutron and gamma-ray yields and large size plasmas many future fusion reactor plasma parameters such as fusion power, fusion power density, ion temperature, fuel mixture, fast ion energy and spatial distributions can be well measured by various fusion product diagnostics. Neutron diagnostics provide information on fusion reaction rate, which indicates how close is the plasma to the ultimate goal of nuclear fusion and fusion power distribution in the plasma core, which is crucial for optimization of plasma breakeven and burn. Depending on the plasma conditions neutron and gamma-ray diagnostics can provide important information, namely about dynamics of fast ion energy and spatial distributions during neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating and generated by fast ions MHD instabilities. The influence of the fast particle population on the 2-D neutron source profile was clearly demonstrated in JET experiments. 2-D neutron and gamma-ray source measurements could be important for driven plasma heating profile optimization in fusion reactors. To meat the measurement requirements in ITER the planned set of neutron and gamma ray diagnostics includes radial and vertical neutron and gamma cameras, neutron flux monitors, neutron activation systems and neutron spectrometers. The necessity of using massive radiation shielding strongly influences the diagnostic designs in fusion reactor, determines angular fields of view of neutron and gamma-ray cameras and spectrometers and gives rise to unavoidable difficulties in the absolute calibration. The development, testing in existing tokomaks and a possible engineering integration of neuron and gamma-ray diagnostic systems into ITER are presented.

  7. Combined study of the gamma-ray strength function of 114Cd with (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgya T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration on strength function measurements and level density determinations is ongoing between the Budapest Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis and the ELBE Nuclear Physics groups within the framework of EU FP6 EFNUDAT project. The idea is to prove that good theoretical fits to the measured gamma-ray spectra collected in the (n,γ and (γ,γ’ reactions can be carried out using common photon strength and level density functions over a wide spectral energy range from 1 to 10 MeV for the same residual nucleus. Here, preliminary results on the isotope pair of 113,114Cd are presented for which the neutron capture state in 114Cd has 1+ or 0+ spin and parity.

  8. Comparison of two position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on continuous YAP and pixellated NaI(TI) for nuclear medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Ma, Hong-Guang; Ma, Wen-Yan; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Zhao-Min; Xu, Zi-Zhong

    2008-11-01

    Dedicated position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) coupled to scintillation crystals, have been used for the construction of compact gamma-ray imaging systems, suitable for nuclear medical imaging applications such as small animal imaging and single organ imaging and scintimammography. In this work, the performance of two gamma-ray detectors: a continuous YAP scintillation crystal coupled to a Hamamastu R2486 PSPMT and a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal coupled to the same PSPMT, is compared. The results show that the gamma-ray detector based on a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal is a promising candidate for nuclear medical imaging applications, since their performance in terms of position linearity, spatial resolution and effective field of view (FOV) is superior than that of the gamma-ray detector based on a continuous YAP scintillation crystal. However, a better photodetector (Hamamatau H8500 Flat Panel PMT, for example) coupled to the continuous crystal is also likely a good selection for nuclear medicine imaging applications. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (10275063)

  9. Comparison of two position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on continuous YAP and pixellated NaI(TI) for nuclear medical imaging applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dedicated position sensitive gamma-ray detectors based on position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs) coupled to scintillation crystals, have been used for the construction of compact gamma-ray imaging systems, suitable for nuclear medical imaging applications such as small animal imaging and single organ imaging and scintimammography. In this work, the performance of two gamma-ray detectors: a continuous YAP scintillation crystal coupled to a Hamamastu R2486 PSPMT and a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal coupled to the same PSPMT, is compared. The results show that the gamma-ray detector based on a pixellated NaI(TI) scintillation array crystal is a promising candidate for nuclear medical imaging applications,since their performance in terms of position linearity, spatial resolution and effective field of view (FOV) is superior than that of the gamma-ray detector based on a continuous YAP scintillation crystal. However, a better photodetector (Hamamatau H8500 Flat Panel PMT, for example) coupled to the continuous crystal is also likely a good selection for nuclear medicine imaging applications.

  10. A code to simulate nuclear reactor inventories and associated gamma-ray spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, A J; Allyson, J D; Sanderson, D C

    2001-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate the gamma-ray spectra that would be measured by airborne gamma spectrometry (AGS) systems from sources containing short-lived fission products. The code uses simple numerical methods to simulate the production and decay of fission products and generates spectra for sodium iodide (NaI) detectors using Monte Carlo codes. A new Monte Carlo code using a virtual array of detectors to reduce simulation times for airborne geometries is described. Spectra generated for a short irradiation and laboratory geometry have been compared with an experimental data set. The agreement is good. Spectra have also been generated for airborne geometries and longer irradiation periods. The application of this code to generate AGS spectra for accident scenarios and their uses in the development and evaluation of spectral analysis methods for such situations are discussed.

  11. MCNP{trademark} simulations for identifying environmental contaminants using prompt gamma-rays from thermal neutron capture reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, S.C.; Conaway, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The primary purposes of the Multispectral Neutron Logging Project, (MSN Project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy), were to assess the effectiveness of existing neutron- induced spectral gamma-ray logging techniques for identifying environmental contaminants along boreholes, to further improve the technology, and to transfer that technology to industry. Using a pulsed neutron source with a high-resolution gamma-ray detector, spectra from thermal neutron capture reactions may be used to identify contaminants in the borehole environment. Direct borehole measurements such as this complement physical sampling and are useful in environmental restoration projects where characterization of contaminated sites is required and long-term monitoring may be needed for many years following cleanup or stabilization. In the MSN Project, a prototype logging instrument was designed which incorporated a pulsed 14-MeV neutron source and HPGe detector. Experimental measurements to determine minimum detection thresholds with the prototype instrument were conducted in the variable-contaminant test model for Cl, Cd, Sm, Gd, and Hg. We benchmarked an enhanced version of the Monte Carlo N-Particle computer code MCNP{trademark} using experimental data for Cl provide by our collaborators and experimental data from the variable-contaminant test model. MCNP was then used to estimate detection thresholds for the other contaminants used in the variable-contaminant model with the goal of validating the use of MCNP to estimate detection thresholds for many other contaminants that were not measured.

  12. Gamma-ray width measurements in {sup 15}N at the ELBE nuclear resonance fluorescence setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szuecs, Tamas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); MTA ATOMKI, Debrecen/Hungary (Hungary); Bemmerer, Daniel; Schwengner, Ronald [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Massarczyk, Ralph; Takacs, Marcell; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The stable nucleus {sup 15}N is the mirror of the astrophysically important {sup 15}O, compound nucleus of the leading reaction of the Bethe-Weizsaecker cycle of hydrogen burning. Most of the {sup 15}N level widths below the neutron and proton emission thresholds are known from just one nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement published more than 30 years ago, with unsatisfactory precision on some cases. A recent experiment with the AGATA demonstrator array aimed to determine level widths with the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) in {sup 15}O and {sup 15}N populated in {sup 14}N + {sup 2}H reaction. In order to set a benchmark value for the upcoming AGATA demonstrator data, the widths of several {sup 15}N levels are being studied using the bremsstrahlung facility γELBE at the electron accelerator of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). The γELBE experiment and its preliminary results are presented.

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy with PPM resolving power

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, H; Mutti, P

    2002-01-01

    Applications of gamma-ray spectroscopy with ppm resolving power are presented. The extraordinary resolution allows via the Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening (GRID) technique to determine lifetimes of excited nuclear levels. This has contributed to important nuclear structure information. We report on the current status of the technique

  14. Total and partial cross sections of the $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te reaction measured via in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Netterdon, L; Scholz, P; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    An extended database of experimental data is needed to address uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Especially $\\alpha$+nucleus optical model potentials at low energies are not well known. The in-beam technique with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was successfully applied to the measurement of absolute cross sections of an ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reaction on a heavy nucleus at sub-Coulomb energies. The total and partial cross-section values were measured by means of in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Total and partial cross sections were measured at four different $\\alpha$-particle energies from $E_\\alpha = 10.5$ MeV to $E_\\alpha = 12$ MeV. The measured total cross-section values are in excellent agreement with previous results obtained with the activation technique, which proves the validity of the applied method. The experimental data was compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the nuclear reaction code TALYS. A modified version of the...

  15. Particle-gamma and particle-particle correlations in nuclear reactions using Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshback model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Talou, Patrick [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watanabe, Takehito [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chadwick, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations for particle and {gamma}-ray emissions from an excited nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory are performed to obtain correlated information between emitted particles and {gamma}-rays. We calculate neutron induced reactions on {sup 51}V to demonstrate unique advantages of the Monte Carlo method. which are the correlated {gamma}-rays in the neutron radiative capture reaction, the neutron and {gamma}-ray correlation, and the particle-particle correlations at higher energies. It is shown that properties in nuclear reactions that are difficult to study with a deterministic method can be obtained with the Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Evaluation method of nuclear data: half-lives, gamma-ray intensities etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Miyatake, Osamu; Toyama, Masao

    1998-03-01

    The evaluation method has been studied. The basic problem is how to estimate and treat the systematic error. Nuclear decay data were evaluated. Eight practical examples of half-lives are shown in this report. (author)

  17. Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material in low density scrap and waste by segmented passive gamma-Ray scanning

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the transmission-corrected nondestructive assay (NDA) of gamma-ray emitting special nuclear materials (SNMs), most commonly 235U, 239Pu, and 241Am, in low-density scrap or waste, packaged in cylindrical containers. The method can also be applied to NDA of other gamma-emitting nuclides including fission products. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is used to detect and measure the nuclides of interest and to measure and correct for gamma-ray attenuation in a series of horizontal segments (collimated gamma detector views) of the container. Corrections are also made for counting losses occasioned by signal processing limitations (1-3). 1.2 There are currently several systems in use or under development for determining the attenuation corrections for NDA of radioisotopic materials (4-8). A related technique, tomographic gamma-ray scanning (TGS), is not included in this test method (9, 10, 11). 1.2.1 This test method will cover two implementations of the Segmented Gamma Scanning ...

  18. Diagnosing inertial confinement fusion gamma ray physics (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Hoffman, N.; Wilson, D. C.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, M/S E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stoeffl, W.; Dauffy, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Miller, E. K. [Special Technologies Laboratory, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Ali, Z. A. [Livermore Operations, NSTec, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The gamma reaction history (GRH) diagnostic is a multichannel, time-resolved, energy-thresholded {gamma}-ray spectrometer that provides a high-bandwidth, direct-measurement of fusion reaction history in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments. 16.75 MeV deuterium+tritium (DT) fusion {gamma}-rays, with a branching ratio of the order of 10{sup -5}{gamma}/(14 MeV n), are detected to determine fundamental burn parameters, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, critical to achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility. During the tritium/hydrogen/deuterium ignition tuning campaign, an additional {gamma}-ray line at 19.8 MeV, produced by hydrogen+tritium fusion with a branching ratio of unity, will increase the available {gamma}-ray signal and may allow measurement of reacting fuel composition or ion temperature. Ablator areal density measurements with the GRH are also made possible by detection of 4.43 MeV {gamma}-rays produced by inelastic scatter of DT fusion neutrons on {sup 12}C nuclei in the ablating plastic capsule material.

  19. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  20. Determination of gamma-ray widths in $^{15}$N using nuclear resonance fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Szücs, T.; Bemmerer, D.; Caciolli, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Massarczyk, R.; Michelagnoli, C.; Reinhardt, T. P.; Schwengner, R.; Takács, M. P.; Ur, C. A.; Wagner, A.; Wagner, L.

    2015-01-01

    The stable nucleus $^{15}$N is the mirror of $^{15}$O, the bottleneck in the hydrogen burning CNO cycle. Most of the $^{15}$N level widths below the proton emission threshold are known from just one nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) measurement, with limited precision in some cases. A recent experiment with the AGATA demonstrator array determined level lifetimes using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM) in $^{15}$O. As a reference and for testing the method, level lifetimes in $^{1...

  1. Zeptosecond $\\gamma$-ray pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber, Michael; Keitel, Christoph H

    2007-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in the relativistic regime is employed to obtain zeptosecond pulses of $\\gamma$-rays. The harmonics are generated from atomic systems in counterpropagating strong attosecond laser pulse trains of linear polarization. In this setup recollisions of the ionized electrons can be achieved in the highly relativistic regime via a reversal of the commonly deteriorating drift and without instability of the electron dynamics such as in a standing laser wave. As a result, coherent attosecond $\\gamma$-rays in the 10 MeV energy range as well as coherent zeptosecond $\\gamma$-ray pulses of MeV photon energy for time-resolved nuclear spectroscopy become feasible.

  2. Experimental investigation of the gamma-ray quasi-continuum emitted after alpha induced fusion reactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockels, Wubbo Johannes

    1978-01-01

    Various experimental investigations on the γ-ray cascades of the deexcitation after the 160Gd(α,xn)^(164-x)Dy reactions at bombarding energies of Eα=40-110 MeV are presented. Of special interest are the so-called quasi-continuum γ-rays, the first γ-rays emitted before the lower-lying states of the

  3. Gamma ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich actinides after multi-nucleon transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Andreas; Birkenbach, Benedikt; Reiter, Peter; Hess, Herbert; Lewandowski, Lars; Steinbach, Tim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: LNL 11.22-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Excited states in neutron-rich Th and U nuclei were investigated after multi-nucleon transfer reactions employing the AGATA demonstrator and PRISMA setup at LNL (INFN, Italy). A primary {sup 136}Xe beam of 1 GeV hitting a {sup 238}U target was used to produce the nuclei of interest in the actinide region. Beam-like reaction products in the Xe-Ba-region were identified and selected by the PRISMA spectrometer. Kinematic coincidences between the binary reaction products of beam-like and target-like nuclei are detected with an additional MCP detector. Those coincidences allow clean conditions for in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Background contributions from excited fission fragments are successfully discriminated. γ-rays from excited states in beam- and target-like particles were measured with the position sensitive AGATA HPGe detectors. Improved energy resolution after Doppler correction is based on the novel γ-ray tracking technique which was successfully exploited to increase the quality of the γ-spectra. γ-ray spectra of the produced beam-like isotopes in the one-proton and two-proton transfer channels will be presented. Corresponding results from the hard-to-reach neutron-rich isotopes beyond {sup 232}Th will focus on their collective properties and cross section limits for their production.

  4. On-site gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements of fission gas release in irradiated nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsson, I; Grapengiesser, B; Andersson, B

    2007-01-01

    An experimental, non-destructive in-pool, method for measuring fission gas release (FGR) in irradiated nuclear fuel has been developed. Using the method, a significant number of experiments have been performed in-pool at several nuclear power plants of the BWR type. The method utilises the 514 keV gamma-radiation from the gaseous fission product (85)Kr captured in the fuel rod plenum volume. A submergible measuring device (LOKET) consisting of an HPGe-detector and a collimator system was utilised allowing for single rod measurements on virtually all types of BWR fuel. A FGR database covering a wide range of burn-ups (up to average rod burn-up well above 60 MWd/kgU), irradiation history, fuel rod position in cross section and fuel designs has been compiled and used for computer code benchmarking, fuel performance analysis and feedback to reactor operators. Measurements clearly indicate the low FGR in more modern fuel designs in comparison to older fuel types.

  5. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  6. A statistical method for passive gamma ray tomography of nuclear waste vaults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattle, Brian A. [Nexia Solutions Limited, Hinton House, Risley, Warrington WA3 6AS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: brian.a.cattle@nexiasolutions.com; West, Robert M. [Nexia Solutions University Research Alliance, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    This paper demonstrates a parameter identification problem encountered in the assay of intermediate-level nuclear waste vaults. A lumped parameter model of the vault contents is employed in which a likely geometry is assumed so as to reduce the number of unknown quantities in the resulting inverse problem. The inverse problem is tackled using Bayesian statistics, and the statistical distributions are sampled using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. The Bayesian approach affords flexibility in the specification of prior information: i.e. information that is known in advance of recording any measurements. Two parameterizations of the problem are considered: one involving five parameters and the other involving three parameters. It is shown that in order to obtain a satisfactory solution to the five-parameter problem a very specific type of prior information has to be specified, whereas for the three-parameter problem much less specific prior information is required. The inverse problem of identifying the model parameters in both the three-parameter and five-parameter formulations is solved with limited, but quantifiable precision.

  7. In-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of two-step fragmentation reactions at relativistic energies. The case of {sup 36}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doornenbal, P.

    2007-10-23

    A two-step fragmentation experiment has been performed at GSI with the RISING setup. It combines the fragment separator FRS, which allows for the production of radioactive heavy ions at relativistic energies, with a high resolution {gamma}-spectrometer. This combination offers unique possibilities for nuclear structure investigations like the test of shell model predictions far from stability. Within the present work the question if the N=14(16) shell stabilisation in Z=8 oxygen isotopes and the N=20 shell quenching in {sup 32}Mg are symmetric with respect to the isospin projection quantum number Tz has been addressed. New {gamma}-ray decays were found in the neutron deficient {sup 36}Ca and {sup 36}K by impinging a radioactive ion beam of {sup 37}Ca on a secondary {sup 9}Be target. The fragmentation products were selected with the calorimeter telescope CATE and the emitted {gamma}-rays were measured with Ge Cluster, MINIBALL, and BaF{sub 2} HECTOR detectors. For {sup 36}Ca the 2{sub 1}{sup +}{yields}0{sub g.s.}{sup +} transition energy was determined to be 3015(16) keV, which is the heaviest T=2 nucleus from which {gamma}-spectroscopic information has been obtained so far. A comparison between the experimental 2{sub 1}{sup +} energies of {sup 36}Ca and its mirror nucleus {sup 36}S yielded a mirror energy difference of {delta}E{sub M}=-276(16) keV. In order to understand the large {delta}E{sub M} value, the experimental single-particle energies from the A=17, T=1/2 mirror nuclei were taken and applied onto modified isospin symmetric USD interactions in shell model calculations. These calculations were in agreement with the experimental result and showed that the experimental single-particle energies may account empirically for the one body part of Thomas-Ehrman and/or Coulomb effects. A method to extract the lifetime of excited states in fragmentation reactions was investigated. Therefore, the dependence between the lifetime of an excited state and the average de

  8. Gamma-ray fast-timing coincidence measurements from the {sup 18}O+{sup 18}O fusion-evaporation reaction using a mixed LaBr{sub 3}-HPGe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharbi, T., E-mail: t.alharbi@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Almajmaah University, P.O. Box 66, 11952 (Saudi Arabia); Mason, P.J.R.; Regan, P.H.; Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Marginean, N. [Horia Hulubei-National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania); Nakhostin, M.; Bowry, M. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Filipescu, D.; Glodariu, T.; Ghita, D.; Marginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Pascu, S.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L. [Horia Hulubei-National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-07-15

    We report on a gamma-ray coincidence analysis using a mixed array of hyperpure germanium and cerium-doped lanthanum tri-bromide (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) scintillation detectors to study nuclear electromagnetic transition rates in the pico-to-nanosecond time regime in {sup 33,34}P and {sup 33}S following fusion-evaporation reactions between an {sup 18}O beam and an isotopically enriched {sup 18}O implanted tantalum target. Energies from decay gamma-rays associated with the reaction residues were measured in event-by-event coincidence mode, with the measured time difference information between the pairs of gamma-rays in each event also recorded using the ultra-fast coincidence timing technique. The experiment used the good full-energy peak resolution of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors coupled with their excellent timing responses in order to determine the excited state lifetime associated with the lowest lying, cross-shell, I{sup {pi}=}4{sup -} 'intruder' state previously reported in the N=19 isotone {sup 34}P. The extracted lifetime is consistent with a mainly single-particle M2 multipolarity associated with a f{sub 7/2}{yields}d{sub 5/2} single particle transition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Half-life measurements of nuclear states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using fast-timing properties of (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) scintillator detectors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer (LaBr{sub 3}:Ce) scintillation detectors have an excellent timing resolution.

  9. Characterisation of neutron and gamma-ray emission from thick target Be(p,n) reaction for boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzek, J.; Mateva, T.; Tapper, U.A.S. [De Beers Diamond Res. Lab., Southdale (South Africa); McMurray, W.R. [National Accelerator Centre, Van de Graaff Group, P.O. Box 72, Faure 7131 (South Africa); Franklyn, C.B. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1998-04-01

    Low energy accelerator-based neutron sources have promising potential for use in a clinical treatment of cancer with boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and boron neutron capture synovectomy (BNCS). Such sources often utilise a thick target Be(p,n) reaction using incident proton energies from several hundred keV to 1-2 MeV above the reaction threshold of 2.06 MeV. The resulting neutron and gamma-ray beams require considerable moderation and filtration in order to obtain thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes for therapy. The detailed knowledge of neutron and gamma-ray spectra, yield and angular distribution are necessary in order to design effective moderators and filters to be used for the treatment. Thick and thin beryllium target neutron and gamma spectra have been investigated in detail using the time-of-flight (TOF) technique, for incident proton energies from above threshold to 4 MeV. The results show characteristics of neutron and gamma-ray production of importance for the application of this neutron source for BNCT and BNCS. (orig.) 6 refs.

  10. Gamma-ray pulsars: a gold mine

    CERN Document Server

    Grenier, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    The most energetic neutron stars, powered by their rotation, are capable of producing pulsed radiation from the radio up to gamma rays with nearly TeV energies. These pulsars are part of the universe of energetic and powerful particle accelerators, using their uniquely fast rotation and formidable magnetic fields to accelerate particles to ultra-relativistic speed. The extreme properties of these stars provide an excellent testing ground, beyond Earth experience, for nuclear, gravitational, and quantum-electrodynamical physics. A wealth of gamma-ray pulsars has recently been discovered with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The energetic gamma rays enable us to probe the magnetospheres of neutron stars and particle acceleration in this exotic environment. We review the latest developments in this field, beginning with a brief overview of the properties and mysteries of rotation-powered pulsars, and then discussing gamma-ray observations and magnetospheric models in more detail.

  11. What can the 2008/10 broadband flare of PKS 1502+106 tell us? Nuclear opacity, magnetic fields, and the location of gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Karamanavis, V; Angelakis, E; Nestoras, I; Myserlis, I; Krichbaum, T P; Zensus, J A; Ungerechts, H; Sievers, A; Gurwell, M A

    2016-01-01

    Context. The origin of blazar variability, seen from radio up to gamma rays, is still a heavily debated matter and broadband flares offer a unique testbed towards a better understanding of these extreme objects. Such an energetic outburst was detected by Fermi/LAT in 2008 from the blazar PKS 1502+106. The outburst was observed from gamma rays down to radio frequencies. Aims. Through the delay between flare maxima at different radio frequencies, we study the frequency-dependent position of the unit-opacity surface and infer its absolute position with respect to the jet base. This nuclear opacity profile enables the magnetic field tomography of the jet. We also localize the gamma-ray emission region and explore the mechanism producing the flare. Methods. The radio flare of PKS 1502+106 is studied through single-dish flux density measurements at 12 frequencies in the range 2.64 to 226.5 GHz. To quantify it, we employ both a Gaussian process regression and a discrete cross-correlation function analysis. Results. ...

  12. Gamma-ray triangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Lopez-Gehler, Sergio; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new type of gamma-ray spectral feature, which we denominate gamma-ray triangle. This spectral feature arises in scenarios where dark matter self-annihilates via a chiral interaction into two Dirac fermions, which subsequently decay in flight into another fermion and a photon. The r...

  13. NEW GAMMA RAYS FROM DECAY OF 189W

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维凡; 赵之正; 等

    1995-01-01

    Radioactivities of 189W are produced through an 192Os(n,α189W reaction.Gamma ray spectroscopy from chemically separated tungsten sources using HPGe detector has revealed the presence of 22 gamma rays assigned to the decay of 189W,of them,18 gamma rays are new ones unreported until now.

  14. Galactic gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1982-05-01

    During the last decade the exploration of the sky in the light of gamma rays has begun by means of satellite-and balloon-borne instruments. Like in other ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum the Milky Way clearly stands out against the rest of the sphere. Part of the galactic ..gamma..-ray emission is due to discrete sources, part is diffuse in origin and is produced in interstellar space. Some of the discrete ..gamma..-ray sources are radio pulsars, the nature of the other sources is still unknown. The intensity distribution of the diffuse galactic ..gamma..-ray component is consistent with a decrease of the cosmic-ray intensity towards the outer part of the galaxy. The identification of the cosmic-ray sources will be one of the main objectives of the next generation of ..gamma..-ray telescopes.

  15. An optical readout TPC (O-TPC) for studies in nuclear astrophysics with gamma-ray beams at HI{gamma}S{sup 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, M; Zimmerman, W R; Kading, T J; Seo, P-N; Young, A H [LNS at Avery Point, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340-6097 (United States); Ahmed, M W; Stave, S C; Henshaw, S S; Martel, P P; Weller, H R [TUNL, Dept. of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Breskin, A; Chechik, R [Dept. of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Bromberger, B; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Delbar, Th [Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); III, R H France [Georgia College and State University, CBX 82, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); McDonald, J E R, E-mail: moshe.gai@yale.edu [Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We report on the construction, tests, calibrations and commissioning of an Optical Readout Time Projection Chamber (O-TPC) detector operating with a CO{sub 2}(80%) + N{sub 2}(20%) gas mixture at 100 and 150 Torr. It was designed to measure the cross sections of several key nuclear reactions involved in stellar evolution. In particular, a study of the rate of formation of oxygen and carbon during the process of helium burning will be performed by exposing the chamber gas to intense nearly mono-energetic gamma-ray beams at the High Intensity Gamma Source (HI{gamma}S) facility. The O-TPC has a sensitive target-drift volume of 30x30x21 cm{sup 3}. Ionization electrons drift towards a double parallel-grid avalanche multiplier, yielding charge multiplication and light emission. Avalanche-induced photons from N{sub 2} emission are collected, intensified and recorded with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, providing two-dimensional track images. The event's time projection (third coordinate) and the deposited energy are recorded by photomultipliers and by the TPC charge-signal, respectively. A dedicated VME-based data acquisition system and associated data analysis tools were developed to record and analyze these data. The O-TPC has been tested and calibrated with 3.183 MeV alpha-particles emitted by a {sup 148}Gd source placed within its volume with a measured energy resolution of 3.0%. Tracks of alpha and {sup 12}C particles from the dissociation of {sup 16}O and of three alpha-particles from the dissociation of {sup 12}C have been measured during initial in-beam test experiments performed at the HI{gamma}S facility at Duke University. The full detection system and its performance are described and the results of the preliminary in-beam test experiments are reported.

  16. Measurements of high-energy {gamma}-rays with LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciemala, M. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: Michal.Ciemala@ifj.edu.pl; Balabanski, D. [INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Csatlos, M. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Daugas, J.M. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon Cedex (France); Georgiev, G. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM), IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 104-108, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Gulyas, J. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Kmiecik, M. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Krasznahorkay, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Lalkovski, S. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, BG-1164 (Bulgaria); Lefebvre-Schuhl, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM), IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, Bat 104-108, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Lozeva, R. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica (IKS), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Maj, A. [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Vitez, A. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-09-01

    The full-energy peak efficiency calibration and the energy resolution measurements of the 2in.x2in.LaBr{sub 3}{gamma}-ray detector are presented for {gamma}-ray energies in the 700 keV-17.6 MeV range. Measurements were done using a combination of proton-capture nuclear reactions on {sup 27}Al, {sup 23}Na, {sup 39}K, {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B for high-energy {gamma}-rays, and radioactive sources such as {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu for the lowest energies. At high energies, two {gamma}-rays in a cascade from proton resonance capture were employed using Al, Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and LiBO{sub 2} targets. The obtained results were compared to the simulations performed using a GEANT4 code.

  17. Velocity-space observation regions of high-resolution two-step reaction gamma-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C as an e...... given alpha-particle velocity-space region contributes to the measurements in each γ-ray energy bin.......High-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy (GRS) measurements resolve spectral shapes of Dopplerbroadened γ-rays. We calculate weight functions describing velocity-space sensitivities of any two-step reaction GRS measurements in magnetized plasmas using the resonant nuclear reaction 9Be(α, nγ)12C...... as an example. The energy-dependent cross sections of this reaction suggest that GRS is sensitive to alpha particles above about 1.7 MeV and highly sensitive to alpha particles at the resonance energies of the reaction. Here we demonstrate that highresolution two-step reaction GRS measurements are not only...

  18. Public acceptability of the use of gamma rays from spent nuclear fuel as a hazardous waste treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, B.J.; Wells, R.P.; Reilly, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods were used to estimate public reaction to the use of gamma irradiation of hazardous wastes as a hazardous waste treatment process. The gamma source of interest is spent nuclear fuel. The first method is Benefit-Risk Decision Making, where the benefits of the proposed technology are compared to its risks. The second analysis compares the proposed technology to the other, currently used nuclear technologies and estimates public reaction based on that comparison. The third analysis is called Analysis of Public Consent, and is based on the professional methods of the Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. The conclusion of all three methods is that the proposed technology should not result in negative public reaction sufficient to prevent implementation.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (Aikawa+, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, M.; Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Jorissen, A.; Takahashi, K.

    2005-07-01

    The present data is part of the Brussels nuclear reaction rate library (BRUSLIB) for astrophysics applications and concerns nuclear reaction rate predictions calculated within the statistical Hauser-Feshbach approximation and making use of global and coherent microscopic nuclear models for the quantities (nuclear masses, nuclear structure properties, nuclear level densities, gamma-ray strength functions, optical potentials) entering the rate calculations. (4 data files).

  20. Quantification of some elements of nuclear and industrial interest from zircon mineral using neutron activation analysis and passive gamma-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attallah, M F; Hilal, M A; Moussa, S I

    2017-10-01

    A combined of various nuclear and analytical techniques were used for characterization of Egyptian zircon ore. Neutron activation analysis has been used for determination of the major, minor and trace elements from zircon ore. Non-destructive gamma-ray technique is also used for the radiometric analysis of zircon ore to quantify the natural radionuclides such as (238)U, (235)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K. Zircon ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, a significant concentration of U, Th and rare earth elements (REEs) has been reported. The obtained results showed that the average activity concentration of (238)U, (235)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K are 4771±338, 230±17.1, 3588±125, 982±47.7 and 217±48.5Bq/kg, respectively. The results indicated that 297, 318 and 838mg/Kg for U, Th, REEs, respectively, using NAA. These results are consistent with those obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy and/or XRF. It can be concluded that zircon ore is a riche with a valuable nuclear materials such as U, Th, Zr, and Hf. It is also containing a REEs of economic and industrial interest. Also, the different radiation hazardous parameters were found much higher than the permissible values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  2. Polarization measurements of proton capture gamma rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suffert, M.; Endt, P.M.; Hoogenboom, A.M.

    1959-01-01

    The linear polarization has been measured of eight different gamma rays of widely differing energies (Eγ = 0.8 - 8.0 MeV) emitted at resonances in the 24Mg(p, γ)25Al, 30Si(p, γ)31P, and 32S(p, γ)33Cl reactions. The gamma rays emitted at 90° to the proton beam were Compton scattered in a 2″ NaI scint

  3. Measurement of the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction cross section, of relevance to $\\gamma$-ray observation of core collapse supernovae, using reclaimed $^{44}$Ti

    CERN Multimedia

    Despite decades of research, fundamental uncertainties remain in the underlying explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. One of the most direct methods that might help resolve this problem is a comparison of the predicted to the observed flux of $\\gamma$-rays due to decay of $^{44}$Ti produced in the explosion, as it is believed this could reveal the location of the mass cut, a key hydrodynamical property of the explosion. Such a study is at present limited by the uncertainty in the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction rate. In this experiment we propose to measure the cross section for this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies. The single previous measurement of this reaction was limited to higher energies due to low beam intensities. Here, a more intense beam will be employed, generated from $^{44}$Ti reclaimed as part of the ERAWAST project at PSI.

  4. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides.

  5. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1997-01-21

    A gamma ray camera is disclosed for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array. 6 figs.

  6. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  7. SVOM Gamma Ray Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Yongwei; Li, Yanguo; Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    The Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor (SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection, localization and broad-band study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena. The Gamma Ray Monitor (GRM) onboard is designed to observe the GRBs up to 5 MeV. With this instrument one of the key GRB parameter, Epeak, can be easily measured in the hard x-ray band. It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  8. SVOM gamma ray monitor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor(SVOM) mission is dedicated to the detection,localization and broad-band study of gamma-ray bursts(GRBs) and other high-energy transient phenomena.The gamma ray monitor(GRM) onboard is designed to observe GRBs up to 5 MeV.With this instrument,one of the key GRB parameters,Epeak,can be easily measured in the hard X-ray band.It can achieve a detection rate of 100 GRBs per year which ensures the scientific output of SVOM.

  9. A study on nuclear specific material detection technique using nuclear resonance reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. K.; Ha, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Choi, B. H. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    The non-destructive nuclear material detection technique is one of the novel methods under somewhat dangerous environments, for example, high level radiation or landmine areas. Specially, the detection of a landmine is a hot issue on the peaceful use of nuclear technology for human welfare. Generally, the explosives contain specific elements such as {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl. The photo-nuclear resonance gamma-rays are produced by nuclear reaction {sup 13}C(p , {gamma}){sup 14}N or {sup 34}S(p, {gamma}){sup 35}Cl in which target is bombarded by about 2MeV proton beam extracted from the proton accelerator. To avoid other neighboring resonant gamma-rays, we selected a higher resonant energy above 5MeV. The resonance gamma rays produced are absorbed or scattered when they react with {sup 14}N or {sup 35}Cl included in the mines and explosive. We can determine existence and position of mines or explosives by detecting the absorption and scattering gamma-ray signals.

  10. Internal exposure to [gamma]-rays emitted from [sup 137]Cs with a human counter caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeoka, Seiji; Kitagawa, Kazue; Suga, Shinji; Maeda, Naoko; Kumamoto, Kasumi; Endo, Satoru; Tauchi, Hiroshi; Sawada, Shozo (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Hoshi, Masaharu

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate internal exposure dose caused by the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, [sup 137]Cs [gamma] rays for children living in Chernobyl areas were measured with a human counter. No correlation between residential areas and internal exposure dose was found. The internal exposures for one year from only [sup 137]Cs are estimated to be 89.5 [mu]Sv y[sup -1] in maximum. The fatality probability for the [sup 137]Cs internal exposure was calculated at 5x10[sup -6] y[sup -1] based on a coefficient of the recommendation of ICRP, 1990. This probability was much smaller than that for the natural radiation exposure, 1.2x10[sup -4] y[sup -1]. (author).

  11. Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The project has progressed successfully during this period of performance. The highlights of the Gamma Ray Astronomy teams efforts are: (1) Support daily BATSE data operations, including receipt, archival and dissemination of data, quick-look science analysis, rapid gamma-ray burst and transient monitoring and response efforts, instrument state-of-health monitoring, and instrument commanding and configuration; (2) On-going scientific analysis, including production and maintenance of gamma-ray burst, pulsed source and occultation source catalogs, gamma-ray burst spectroscopy, studies of the properties of pulsars and black holes, and long-term monitoring of hard x-ray sources; (3) Maintenance and continuous improvement of BATSE instrument response and calibration data bases; (4) Investigation of the use of solid state detectors for eventual application and instrument to perform all sky monitoring of X-Ray and Gamma sources with high sensitivity; and (5) Support of BATSE outreach activities, including seminars, colloquia and World Wide Web pages. The highlights of this efforts can be summarized in the publications and presentation list.

  12. Nuclear Decay Data for the International Reactor Dosimetry Library for Fission and Fusion (IRDFF: Updated Evaluations of the Half-Lives and Gamma Ray Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chechev Valery P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Updated evaluations of the half-lives and prominent gamma ray intensities have been presented for 20 radionuclides – dosimetry reaction residuals. The new values of these decay characteristics recommended for the IRDFF library were obtained using the approaches and methodology adopted by the working group of the Decay Data Evaluation Project (DDEP cooperation. The experimental data published up to 2014 were taken into account in updated evaluations. The list of radionuclides includes 3H, 18F, 22Na, 24Na, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe, 57Co, 60Co, 57Ni, 64Cu, 88Y, 132Te, 131I, 140Ba, 140La, 141Ce, 182Ta, 198Au.

  13. Gamma rays from Galactic pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gamma rays from young pulsars and milli-second pulsars are expected to contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) at high latitudes. We derive the contribution of the pulsars undetected counterpart by using information from radio to gamma rays and we show that they explain only a small fraction of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background.

  14. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  15. GRIPS - Gamma-Ray Burst Investigation via Polarimetry and Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J

    2008-01-01

    The primary scientific goal of the GRIPS mission is to revolutionize our understanding of the early universe using gamma-ray bursts. We propose a new generation gamma-ray observatory capable of unprecedented spectroscopy over a wide range of gamma-ray energies (200 keV--50 MeV) and of polarimetry (200--1000 keV). Secondary goals achievable by this mission include direct measurements of supernova interiors through gamma-rays from radioactive decays, nuclear astrophysics with massive stars and novae, and studies of particle acceleration near compact stars, interstellar shocks, and clusters of galaxies.

  16. Gamma rays from muon capture in sup 1 sup 4 N

    CERN Document Server

    Stocki, T J; Gete, E; Saliba, M A; Moftah, B A; Gorringe, T P

    2002-01-01

    Many new gamma-rays have been observed, following muon capture on sup 1 sup 4 N. One had been reported before, and the low yield is confirmed, indicating that the nuclear structure of sup 1 sup 4 N is still not understood. Gamma rays from sup 1 sup 3 C resulting from the reaction sup 1 sup 4 N(mu sup - ,nu n) sup 1 sup 3 C compare favourably with states observed in the reaction sup 1 sup 4 N(gamma, p) sup 1 sup 3 C. More precise energies are also given for the 7017 and 6730 keV gamma-rays in sup 1 sup 4 C.

  17. Gamma-Ray Library and Uncertainty Analysis: Passively Emitted Gamma Rays Used in Safeguards Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, W

    2009-09-18

    Non-destructive gamma-ray analysis is a fundamental part of nuclear safeguards, including nuclear energy safeguards technology. Developing safeguards capabilities for nuclear energy will certainly benefit from the advanced use of gamma-ray spectroscopy as well as the ability to model various reactor scenarios. There is currently a wide variety of nuclear data that could be used in computer modeling and gamma-ray spectroscopy analysis. The data can be discrepant (with varying uncertainties), and it may difficult for a modeler or software developer to determine the best nuclear data set for a particular situation. To use gamma-ray spectroscopy to determine the relative isotopic composition of nuclear materials, the gamma-ray energies and the branching ratios or intensities of the gamma-rays emitted from the nuclides in the material must be well known. A variety of computer simulation codes will be used during the development of the nuclear energy safeguards, and, to compare the results of various codes, it will be essential to have all the {gamma}-ray libraries agree. Assessing our nuclear data needs allows us to create a prioritized list of desired measurements, and provides uncertainties for energies and especially for branching intensities. Of interest are actinides, fission products, and activation products, and most particularly mixtures of all of these radioactive isotopes, including mixtures of actinides and other products. Recent work includes the development of new detectors with increased energy resolution, and studies of gamma-rays and their lines used in simulation codes. Because new detectors are being developed, there is an increased need for well known nuclear data for radioactive isotopes of some elements. Safeguards technology should take advantage of all types of gamma-ray detectors, including new super cooled detectors, germanium detectors and cadmium zinc telluride detectors. Mixed isotopes, particularly mixed actinides found in nuclear reactor

  18. Cross Sections for proton induced high energy $\\gamma$-ray emission (PIGE) in reaction $^{19}$F(p,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{16}$O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanelas, P; Fonseca, M; Galaviz, D; Henriques, A; Jesus, A P; Luís, H; Sánchez-Benítez, A; Santos, C; Silva, H; Teubig, P; Velho, P

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction $^{19}$F(p,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{16}$O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF$_2$/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130$^{o}$ with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  19. Gamma ray production cross sections in proton induced reactions on natural Mg, Si and Fe targets over the proton energy range 30 up to 66 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Yahia-Chérif, W; Kiener, J; Tatischeff, V; Lawrie, E; Lawrie, J J; Belhout, A; Benhabiles, H; Bucher, T D; Chafa, A; Damache, S; Debabi, M; Deloncle, I; Easton, J L; Hamadache, C; Hammache, F; Jones, P; Kheswa, B V; Khumalo, N; Lamula, T; Majola, S T H; Negi, D; Ndayishimye, J; Noncolela, S P; Moussa, D; Nchodu, R; Papka, P; de Sereville, N; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Shirinda, O; Wiedeking, M; Wyngaardt, S

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray excitation functions have been measured for 30, 42, 54 and 66 MeV proton beams accelerated onto C + O (Mylar), Mg, Si, and Fe targets of astrophysical interest at the separate-sector cyclotron of iThemba LABS in Somerset West (Cape Town, South Africa). A large solid angle, high energy resolution detection system of the Eurogam type was used to record Gamma-ray energy spectra. Derived preliminary results of Gamma-ray line production cross sections for the Mg, Si and Fe target nuclei are reported and discussed. The current cross section data for known, intense Gamma-ray lines from these nuclei consistently extend to higher proton energies previous experimental data measured up to Ep ~ 25 MeV at the Orsay and Washington tandem accelerators. Data for new Gamma-ray lines observed for the first time in this work are also reported.

  20. Polarized gamma-rays with laser-Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohgaki, H.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S. [Electrotechnical Lab., Ibaraki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Polarized gamma-rays were generated through laser-Compton backscattering (LCS) of a conventional Nd:YAG laser with electrons circulating in the electron storage ring TERAS at Electrotechnical Laboratory. We measured the energy, the energy spread, and the yield of the gamma-rays to characterize our gamma-ray source. The gamma-ray energy can be varied by changing the energy of the electrons circulating the storage ring. In our case, the energy of electrons in the storage ring were varied its energy from 200 to 750 MeV. Consequently, we observed gamma-ray energies of 1 to 10 MeV with 1064 run laser photons. Furthermore, the gamma-ray energy was extended to 20 MeV by using the 2nd harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser. This shows a good agreement with theoretical calculation. The gamma-ray energy spread was also measured to be 1% FWHM for -1 MeV gamma-rays and to be 4% FWHM for 10 MeV gamma-rays with a narrow collimator that defined the scattering cone. The gamma-ray yield was 47.2 photons/mA/W/s. This value is consistent with a rough estimation of 59.5 photons/mA/W/s derived from theory. Furthermore, we tried to use these gamma-rays for a nuclear fluorescence experiment. If we use a polarized laser beam, we can easily obtain polarized gamma-rays. Elastically scattered photons from {sup 208} Pb were clearly measured with the linearly polarized gamma-rays, and we could assign the parity of J=1 states in the nucleus. We should emphasize that the polarized gamma-ray from LCS is quit useful in this field, because we can use highly, almost completely, polarized gamma-rays. We also use the LCS gamma-rays to measure the photon absorption coefficients. In near future, we will try to generate a circular polarized gamma-ray. We also have a plan to use an FEL, because it can produce intense laser photons in the same geometric configuration as the LCS facility.

  1. Development of Monte Carlo code for coincidence prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaogang

    Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) offers a non-destructive, relatively rapid on-line method for determination of elemental composition of bulk and other samples. However, PGNAA has an inherently large background. These backgrounds are primarily due to the presence of the neutron excitation source. It also includes neutron activation of the detector and the prompt gamma rays from the structure materials of PGNAA devices. These large backgrounds limit the sensitivity and accuracy of PGNAA. Since most of the prompt gamma rays from the same element are emitted in coincidence, a possible approach for further improvement is to change the traditional PGNAA measurement technique and introduce the gamma-gamma coincidence technique. It is well known that the coincidence techniques can eliminate most of the interference backgrounds and improve the signal-to-noise ratio. A new Monte Carlo code, CEARCPG has been developed at CEAR to simulate gamma-gamma coincidence spectra in PGNAA experiment. Compared to the other existing Monte Carlo code CEARPGA I and CEARPGA II, a new algorithm of sampling the prompt gamma rays produced from neutron capture reaction and neutron inelastic scattering reaction, is developed in this work. All the prompt gamma rays are taken into account by using this new algorithm. Before this work, the commonly used method is to interpolate the prompt gamma rays from the pre-calculated gamma-ray table. This technique works fine for the single spectrum. However it limits the capability to simulate the coincidence spectrum. The new algorithm samples the prompt gamma rays from the nucleus excitation scheme. The primary nuclear data library used to sample the prompt gamma rays comes from ENSDF library. Three cases are simulated and the simulated results are benchmarked with experiments. The first case is the prototype for ETI PGNAA application. This case is designed to check the capability of CEARCPG for single spectrum simulation. The second

  2. ICF Gamma-Ray measurements on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y.; Hoffman, N. M.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Liebman, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Carpenter, A. C.; Grafil, E. M.; Khater, H. Y.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2013-10-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is to provide bang time and burn width information in order to constrain implosion simulation parameters such as shell velocity and confinement time. This is accomplished by measuring DT fusion gamma-rays with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. Burn-weighted CH ablator areal density is also inferred based on measurement of the 12C(n,n') gammas emitted at 4.44 MeV from DT neutrons inelastically scattering off carbon nuclei as they pass through the plastic ablator. This requires that the four independent GRH gas cells be set to differing Cherenkov thresholds (e.g., 2.9, 4.5, 8 & 10 MeV) in order to be able to unfold the primary spectral components predicted to be in the gamma ray energy spectrum (i.e., DT γ 27Al & 28Si (n,n') γ from the thermo-mechanical package (TMP); and 12C(n,n' γ from the ablator). The GRH response to 12C(n,n') γ is calibrated in-situ by placing a known areal density of carbon in the form of a puck placed ~6 cm from a DT exploding pusher implosion. Comparisons between inferred gamma fluences and simulations based on the nuclear cross sections databases will be presented. Supported by US DOE NNSA.

  3. Gamma-Ray Localization of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    CERN Document Server

    Marisaldi, M; Trois, A; Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Labanti, C; Fuschino, F; Bulgarelli, A; Longo, F; Barbiellini, G; Del Monte, E; Moretti, E; Trifoglio, M; Costa, E; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; D'Ammando, F; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Froysland, T; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mereghetti, S; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Piano, G; Pilia, M; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Antonelli, L A; Colafrancesco, S; Cutini, S; Giommi, P; Lucarelli, F; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.128501

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) are very short bursts of high energy photons and electrons originating in Earth's atmosphere. We present here a localization study of TGFs carried out at gamma-ray energies above 20 MeV based on an innovative event selection method. We use the AGILE satellite Silicon Tracker data that for the first time have been correlated with TGFs detected by the AGILE Mini-Calorimeter. We detect 8 TGFs with gamma-ray photons of energies above 20 MeV localized by the AGILE gamma-ray imager with an accuracy of 5-10 degrees at 50 MeV. Remarkably, all TGF-associated gamma rays are compatible with a terrestrial production site closer to the sub-satellite point than 400 km. Considering that our gamma rays reach the AGILE satellite at 540 km altitude with limited scattering or attenuation, our measurements provide the first precise direct localization of TGFs from space.

  4. Line. gamma. -ray emission following 30 MeV/A /sup 12/C induced reactions on some medium-heavy targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, S.; Barci, V.; Barneoud, D.; El Samman, H.; Genevey, J.; Gizon, A.; Gizon, J.; Kossakowski, R.; Beraud, R.; Charvet, A.

    1982-10-01

    Preliminary results on residual nuclei production in 30 MeV/A /sup 12/C interaction with medium heavy targets are presented. Gamma-ray spectroscopic techniques were used. Evidence for charge and angular momentum transfer is found.

  5. Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on $^{235}$ U: cross sections and ${\\alpha}$ ratios, photon strength functions and prompt ${\\gamma}$-ray from fission

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron-induced capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U using a fission tagging set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4${\\pi}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) with MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors. It has been proven that such a combination of detectors allows distinguishing with very good reliability the electromagnetic cascades from the capture reactions from dominant ${\\gamma}$-ray background coming from the fission reactions. The accurate discrimination of the fission background is the main challenge in the neutron capture cross section measurements of fissile isotopes. The main results from the measurement will be the associated capture cross section and ${\\alpha}$ ratio in the resolved (0.3-2250 eV) and unresolved (2.25-30 keV) resonance regions. According to the international benchmarks and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL), the 235U(n,${\\gamma}$) cross section is of utmost impo...

  6. Is \\gamma-ray emission from novae affected by interference effects in the 18F(p,\\alpha)15O reaction?

    CERN Document Server

    Laird, A M; Murphy, A St J; Wimmer, K; Chen, A A; Deibel, C M; Faestermann, T; Fox, S P; Fulton, B R; Hertenberger, R; Irvine, D; José, J; Longland, R; Mountford, D; Sambrook, B; Seiler, D; Wirth, H -F

    2012-01-01

    The 18F(p,\\alpha)15O reaction rate is crucial for constraining model predictions of the \\gamma-ray observable radioisotope 18F produced in novae. The determination of this rate is challenging due to particular features of the level scheme of the compound nucleus, 19Ne, which result in interference effects potentially playing a significant role. The dominant uncertainty in this rate arises from interference between J\\pi=3/2+ states near the proton threshold (Sp = 6.411 MeV) and a broad J\\pi=3/2+ state at 665 keV above threshold. This unknown interference term results in up to a factor of 40 uncertainty in the astrophysical S-factor at nova temperatures. Here we report a new measurement of states in this energy region using the 19F(3He,t)19Ne reaction. In stark contrast with previous assumptions we find at least 3 resonances between the proton threshold and Ecm=50 keV, all with different angular distributions. None of these are consistent with J\\pi= 3/2+ angular distributions. We find that the main uncertainty ...

  7. Conference on physics from large {gamma}-ray detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The conference on {open_quotes}Physics from Large {gamma}-ray Detector Arrays{close_quotes} is a continuation of the series of conferences that have been organized every two years by the North American Heavy-ion Laboratories. The aim of the conference this year was to encourage discussion of the physics that can be studied with such large arrays. This volume is the collected proceedings from this conference. It discusses properties of nuclear states which can be created in heavy-ion reactions, and which can be observed via such detector systems.

  8. Standard test method for determining the content of cesium-137 in irradiated nuclear fuels by high-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the number of atoms of 137Cs in aqueous solutions of irradiated uranium and plutonium nuclear fuel. When combined with a method for determining the initial number of fissile atoms in the fuel, the results of this analysis allows atom percent fission (burn-up) to be calculated (1). The determination of atom percent fission, uranium and plutonium concentrations, and isotopic abundances are covered in Test Methods E 267 and E 321. 1.2 137Cs is not suitable as a fission monitor for samples that may have lost cesium during reactor operation. For example, a large temperature gradient enhances 137Cs migration from the fuel region to cooler regions such as the radial fuel-clad gap, or, to a lesser extent, towards the axial fuel end. 1.3 A nonuniform 137Cs distribution should alert the analyst to the potential loss of the fission product nuclide. The 137Cs distribution may be ascertained by an axial gamma-ray scan of the fuel element to be assayed. In a mixed-oxide fu...

  9. Measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current interaction cross section by observing nuclear de-excitation $\\gamma$-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Ariga, T; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Bentham, S W; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bertram, I; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Rodríguez, J Caravaca; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dufour, F; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Floetotto, L; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Gaudin, A; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Ives, S J; Iwai, E; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koseki, K; Koshio, Y; Kreslo, I; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kumaratunga, S; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Laihem, K; Lamont, I; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lee, K P; Licciardi, C; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Macaire, M; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Maruyama, T; Marzec, J; Mathie, E L; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Monfregola, L; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nagasaki, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakai, T; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Naples, D; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Pearce, G F; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Guerra, E S Pinzon; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Retiere, F; Robert, A; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smith, R J; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Szeglowski, T; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Taylor, I J; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Ueno, K; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the neutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasi-elastic (NCQE) cross section. It is obtained by observing nuclear de-excitation \\gamma-rays which follow neutrino-oxygen interactions at the Super-Kamiokande water Cherenkov detector. We use T2K data corresponding to $3.01 \\times 10^{20}$ protons on target. By selecting only events during the T2K beam window and with well-reconstructed vertices in the fiducial volume, the large background rate from natural radioactivity is dramatically reduced. We observe 43 events in the 4-30 MeV reconstructed energy window, compared with an expectation of 55.7, which includes an estimated 17.3 background events. The background is primarily non-quasielastic neutral-current interactions and has only 1.2 events from natural radioactivity. The flux-averaged NCQE cross section we measure is $1.35 \\times 10^{-38}$ cm$^2$ with a 68% confidence interval of $(1.06, 1.94) \\times 10^{-38}$ cm$^2$ at a median neutrino energy of 630 MeV, compared with the theor...

  10. Computation of full energy peak efficiency for nuclear power plant radioactive plume using remote scintillation gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdov, D S; Kolotov, V P; Lavrukhin, Yu E

    2016-04-01

    A method of full energy peak efficiency estimation in the space around scintillation detector, including the presence of a collimator, has been developed. It is based on a mathematical convolution of the experimental results with the following data extrapolation. The efficiency data showed the average uncertainty less than 10%. Software to calculate integral efficiency for nuclear power plant plume was elaborated. The paper also provides results of nuclear power plant plume height estimation by analysis of the spectral data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Submillimeter nuclear medical imaging with a Compton Camera using triple coincidences of collinear \\beta+ annihilation photons and \\gamma-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, C.; Habs, D.; Thirolf, P. G.; Zoglauer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern PET systems reach a spatial resolution of 3-10 mm. A disadvantage of this technique is the diffusion of the positron before its decay with a typical range of ca. 1 mm (depending on its energy). This motion and Compton scattering of the 511 keV photons within the patient limit the performance of PET. We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, able to reach submillimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a reduced activity application compared to conventional PET. This 'gamma-...

  12. Partial gamma-ray cross section measurements in 109Ag(n, x n y p gamma) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carroll, James [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We report on absolute partial cross sections for production of discrete γ-rays using 109Ag(n, xnypγ) reactions with x ≤ 7 and y ≤ 1 in a total of 12 reaction channels. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer comprised of 20 high-purity Ge detectors with 20 BGO escape-suppression shields. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s (LANSCE) WNR facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 0.2 to 300 MeV. The time-of- flight technique was used to determine the incident neutron energies. Partial γ-ray cross sections have been measured for a total of 109 transitions and for neutron energies 0.8 MeV< En<300 MeV. An estimate of the population of isomers in the (n, n'), (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) channels was made.

  13. Partial gamma-ray cross section measurements in 109Ag(n, x n y p gamma) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotiadis, Nikolaos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nelson, Ronald Owen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carroll, James [US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, MD (United States)

    2015-06-02

    We report on absolute partial cross sections for production of discrete γ-rays using 109Ag(n, xnypγ) reactions with x ≤ 7 and y ≤ 1 in a total of 12 reaction channels. The data were taken using the GEANIE spectrometer comprised of 20 high-purity Ge detectors with 20 BGO escape-suppression shields. The broad-spectrum pulsed neutron beam of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center’s (LANSCE) WNR facility provided neutrons in the energy range from 0.2 to 300 MeV. The time-of- flight technique was used to determine the incident neutron energies. Partial γ-ray cross sections have been measured for a total of 109 transitions and for neutron energies 0.8 MeV< En<300 MeV. An estimate of the population of isomers in the (n, n'), (n, 2n) and (n, 3n) channels was made.

  14. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components. ...

  15. Submillimeter nuclear medical imaging with a Compton Camera using triple coincidences of collinear \\beta+ annihilation photons and \\gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, C; Thirolf, P G; Zoglauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modern PET systems reach a spatial resolution of 3-10 mm. A disadvantage of this technique is the diffusion of the positron before its decay with a typical range of ca. 1 mm (depending on its energy). This motion and Compton scattering of the 511 keV photons within the patient limit the performance of PET. We present a nuclear medical imaging technique, able to reach submillimeter spatial resolution in 3 dimensions with a reduced activity application compared to conventional PET. This 'gamma-PET' technique draws on specific positron sources simultaneously emitting an additional photon with the \\beta+ decay. Exploiting the triple coincidence between the positron annihilation and the third photon, it is possible to separate the reconstructed 'true' events from background. In order to test the feasibility of this technique, Monte-Carlo simulations and image reconstruction has been performed. The spatial resolution amounts to 0.2 mm (FWHM) in each direction, surpassing the performance of conventional PET by about...

  16. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple

  17. Impact parameter dependence of high-energy gamma-ray production in argon induced reaction at 85 MeV/nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwato Njock, M.; Maurel, M.; Monnand, E.; Perrin, P.; Nifenecker, H.; Pinston, J.A.; Schussler, F.; Shutz, Y.

    1988-11-21

    The double-differential cross sections for high-energy ..gamma..-rays were measured for collisions of /sup 36/Ar on C, Al, Cu, Ag, Tb, and Au at 85 MeV/nucleon. The system /sup 36/Ar+/sup 27/Al has been studied in more detail in an exclusive experiment where the charged-particle multiplicity was measured in coincidence with high-energy ..gamma..-rays. A clear correlation between the hardness of the ..gamma..-spectra and the overlap distance of the two ions is observed. This correlation is interpreted as due to the spatial dependence of the Fermi momentum of the nucleons.

  18. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  19. X-ray and gamma ray astronomy detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decher, Rudolf; Ramsey, Brian D.; Austin, Robert

    1994-01-01

    X-ray and gamma ray astronomy was made possible by the advent of space flight. Discovery and early observations of celestial x-rays and gamma rays, dating back almost 40 years, were first done with high altitude rockets, followed by Earth-orbiting satellites> once it became possible to carry detectors above the Earth's atmosphere, a new view of the universe in the high-energy part of the electromagnetic spectrum evolved. Many of the detector concepts used for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy were derived from radiation measuring instruments used in atomic physics, nuclear physics, and other fields. However, these instruments, when used in x-ray and gamma ray astronomy, have to meet unique and demanding requirements related to their operation in space and the need to detect and measure extremely weak radiation fluxes from celestial x-ray and gamma ray sources. Their design for x-ray and gamma ray astronomy has, therefore, become a rather specialized and rapidly advancing field in which improved sensitivity, higher energy and spatial resolution, wider spectral coverage, and enhanced imaging capabilities are all sought. This text is intended as an introduction to x-ray and gamma ray astronomy instruments. It provides an overview of detector design and technology and is aimed at scientists, engineers, and technical personnel and managers associated with this field. The discussion is limited to basic principles and design concepts and provides examples of applications in past, present, and future space flight missions.

  20. Next Generation Gamma Ray Diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Hans; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A. B.; Young, C. S.; Lopez, F. E.; Griego, J. R.; Fatherley, V. E.; Oertel, J. A.; Jorgenson, H. J.; Barlow, D. B.; Stoeffl, W.; Church, J. A.; Hernandez, J. E.; Carpenter, A.; Rubery, M. S.; Horsfield, C. J.; Gales, S.; Leatherland, A.; Hilsabeck, T.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Malone, R. M.; Moy, K.; Hares, J. D.; Milnes, J.

    Fusion reaction history and ablator areal density measurements based on gamma ray detection are an essential part of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Capability improvements are being implemented in sensitivity, temporal and spectral response relative to the existing Gamma Reaction History diagnostic (GRH-6m). The ``Super'' Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) will provide 200x more sensitivity, reduce the effective temporal resolution from 100 to 10 ps, and lower the energy threshold from 2.9 to 1.8 MeV, relative to GRH-6m. The Gamma-to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS) - a Compton spectrometer intended to provide true gamma energy resolution (<=5%) for isolation of specific lines such as t(d, γ) , D(n, γ) , 12C(n,n' γ) and energetic charged particle nuclear reactions indicative of ablator/fuel mix

  1. Gamma-ray-selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giommi, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    The gamma-ray band is the most energetic part of the electromagnetic spectrum. As such it is also where selection effects are most severe, as it can only be reached by the most extreme non-thermal AGN. Blazars, with their emission dominated by non-thermal blue-shifted radiation arising in a relativistic jet pointed in the direction of the observer, naturally satisfy this though requirement. For this reason, albeit these sources are intrisically very rare (orders of magnitude less abundant than radio quiet AGN of the same optical magnitude) they almost completely dominate the extragalactic gamma-ray and very high energy sky. I will discuss the emission of different types of blazars and the selection effects that are at play in the gamma-ray band based on recent results from the current generation of gamma-ray astronomy satellites, ground-based Cherenkov telescopes, and Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  3. Gamma ray tracking with the AGATA demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkenbach, Benedikt; Hess, Herbert; Lewandowski, Lars; Reiter, Peter; Steinbach, Tim; Schneiders, David; Vogt, Andreas [IKP, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Collaboration: AGATA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The performance of the AGATA demonstrator will be discussed based on data taken from a multi-nucleon transfer experiment at the AGATA PRISMA setup at LNL (INFN, Italy). A primary {sup 136}Xe beam of 1 GeV hitting a {sup 238}U target was used to produce a multitude of nuclei in the vicinity of {sup 136}Xe and corresponding reaction partners in the actinide region. The obtained results for in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy allow for a critical assessment of the novel gamma ray tracking technique and comparison with standard procedure. High resolution spectroscopy of both reaction products after multi-nucleon transfer reaction in the presence of a high background from excited fission fragments is based on pulse-shape analysis (PSA) and gamma-ray tracking (GRT). The quality of the position information is crucial for the final energy resolution after Doppler correction. The impact of the calculated PSA libraries and the initial detector characterization for the PSA and GRT are summarized. Details of the achieved position and energy resolution, peak-to-background optimization are presented and illustrated with results from the neutron-transfer products in Xe and U-isotopes.

  4. Gamma-ray Pulsar Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Caraveo, Patrizia A

    2013-01-01

    Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) were the first sources identified in the field of high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. At first, in the 70s, there were only two identified sources, the Crab and Vela pulsars. However, although few in number, these objects were crucial in establishing the very concept of a gamma-ray source. Moreover, they opened up significant discovery space both in the theoretical and phenomenological fronts. The need to explain the copious gamma-ray emission of these pulsars led to breakthrough developments in understanding the structure and physics of neutron star magnetospheres. In parallel, the 20-year-long chase to understand the nature of Geminga unveiled the existence of a radio-quiet, gamma-ray-emitting, INS, adding a new dimension to the INS family. Today we are living through an extraordinary time of discovery. The current generation of gamma-ray detectors has vastly increased the population of known of gamma-ray-emitting neutron stars. The 100 mark was crossed in 2011 and we are now appr...

  5. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  6. Time-resolved Neutron-gamma-ray Data Acquisition for in Situ Subsurface Planetary Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarik, Julie G.; Burger, Dan Michael; Burger, A.; Evans, L. G.; Parsons, A. M.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Starr R. D.; Stassun, K. G.

    2013-01-01

    The current gamma-ray/neutron instrumentation development effort at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aims to extend the use of active pulsed neutron interrogation techniques to probe the subsurface elemental composition of planetary bodies in situ. Previous NASA planetary science missions, that used neutron and/or gamma-ray spectroscopy instruments, have relied on neutrons produced from galactic cosmic rays. One of the distinguishing features of this effort is the inclusion of a high intensity 14.1 MeV pulsed neutron generator synchronized with a custom data acquisition system to time each event relative to the pulse. With usually only one opportunity to collect data, it is difficult to set a priori time-gating windows to obtain the best possible results. Acquiring time-tagged, event-by-event data from nuclear induced reactions provides raw data sets containing channel/energy, and event time for each gamma ray or neutron detected. The resulting data set can be plotted as a function of time or energy using optimized analysis windows after the data are acquired. Time windows can now be chosen to produce energy spectra that yield the most statistically significant and accurate elemental composition results that can be derived from the complete data set. The advantages of post-processing gamma-ray time-tagged event-by-event data in experimental tests using our prototype instrument will be demonstrated.

  7. Bremsstrahlung component of the diffuse galactic gamma-ray emission at MeV energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, W.; Schoenfelder, V.

    1984-04-15

    Recently the galactic plane has been resolved at low and medium ..gamma..-ray energies in the directions toward the center and anticenter. Spectral measurements are now available at those energies, where the contribution of ..pi../sup 0/-decay from nuclear reactions of cosmic-ray protons (and heavier nuclei) with interstellar matter can be neglected. Under the assumption that most of the observed ..gamma..-ray flux below 30 MeV is produced by electron bremsstrahlung, restrictions on the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray electrons in interstellar space below 100 MeV are derived. The most accurate bremsstrahlung production cross sections of Koch and Motz and of Blumental and Gould are used in order to derive the bremsstrahlung production spectrum in interstellar space down to 10 keV-photon energies. If the low-energy ..gamma..-ray emission, as seen by most observers, is indeed produced by electron bremsstrahlung, then a high interstellar electron flux at MeV energy results, which-at higher energies-connects to the upper limit derived by Cummings, Stone, and Vogt. Such a high low-energy electron flux would be able to explain the ionization rate of 1 x 10/sup -15/ ion pairs (H-atom/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) in H I regions. Because of uncertainties in the low-energy ..gamma..-ray measurements, however, no definite conclusion is possible yet.

  8. Energy- and time-resolved detection of prompt gamma-rays for proton range verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburg, Joost M; Riley, Kent; Bortfeld, Thomas; Seco, Joao

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we present experimental results of a novel prompt gamma-ray detector for proton beam range verification. The detection system features an actively shielded cerium-doped lanthanum(III) bromide scintillator, coupled to a digital data acquisition system. The acquisition was synchronized to the cyclotron radio frequency to separate the prompt gamma-ray signals from the later-arriving neutron-induced background. We designed the detector to provide a high energy resolution and an effective reduction of background events, enabling discrete proton-induced prompt gamma lines to be resolved. Measuring discrete prompt gamma lines has several benefits for range verification. As the discrete energies correspond to specific nuclear transitions, the magnitudes of the different gamma lines have unique correlations with the proton energy and can be directly related to nuclear reaction cross sections. The quantification of discrete gamma lines also enables elemental analysis of tissue in the beam path, providing a better prediction of prompt gamma-ray yields. We present the results of experiments in which a water phantom was irradiated with proton pencil-beams in a clinical proton therapy gantry. A slit collimator was used to collimate the prompt gamma-rays, and measurements were performed at 27 positions along the path of proton beams with ranges of 9, 16 and 23 g cm(-2) in water. The magnitudes of discrete gamma lines at 4.44, 5.2 and 6.13 MeV were quantified. The prompt gamma lines were found to be clearly resolved in dimensions of energy and time, and had a reproducible correlation with the proton depth-dose curve. We conclude that the measurement of discrete prompt gamma-rays for in vivo range verification of clinical proton beams is feasible, and plan to further study methods and detector designs for clinical use.

  9. The AGATA Spectrometer: next generation gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J.; AGATA Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation gamma-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of gamma-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. The spectrometer will have an unparalleled level of detection power for electromagnetic nuclear radiation. The tracking technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a gamma ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of gamma-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances and the spectrometer is now operational. AGATA has been operated in a series of scientific campaigns at Legnaro National Laboratory in Italy and GSI in Germany and is presently being assembled at GANIL in France. The status of the instrument will be reviewed.

  10. Measurements of 15.11-MeV gamma-ray flux produced in the reactions C-12(p, p')-C-12*(15.11 MeV) and O-16(p, p' alpha)-C-12*(15.11 MeV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapides, J. R.; Crannell, C. J.; Crannell, H.; Hornyak, W. F.; Seltzer, S. M.; Trombka, J. I.; Wall, N. S.

    1978-01-01

    The flux of 15.11 MeV gamma rays relative to the flux of 4.44 MeV gamma rays which are emitted from the corresponding states of C-12 are a sensitive measure of the spectrum of exciting particles in solar flares and other cosmic sources. Emission of 15.11 MeV gamma rays may result not only from the direct excitation of C-12 but also from the interaction O-16 (p,p' alpha) C-12* sup 15.11 MeV. Although the cross sections for the direct reaction was studied extensively, the cross section for the spallation interaction with O-16 is not reported in the literature. Preliminary measurements demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the production of 15.11 MeV gamma rays by proton interactions with O-16 using the University of Maryland cyclotron facility. For both carbon and oxygen targets the flux of 15.11 MeV gamma rays is being measured relative to the flux of 4.44 MeV gamma rays. The gamma ray emission from de-excitation of the giant dipole resonances is being measured.

  11. Gamma-ray emission profile measurements during JET ICRH discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Marcus, F.B.; Sadler, G.; Van Belle, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.

    1994-07-01

    Gamma-ray emission from plasma-impurity reactions caused by minority ICRH accelerating fuel ions to MeV energies has been measured using the JET neutron profile monitor. A successful data analysis technique has been used to isolate the RF-induced gamma-ray emission that was detected, enabling profiles of gamma-ray emission to be obtained. The 2-d gamma-ray emission profiles show that virtually all the radiation originates from the low field side of the RF resonance layer, as expected from RF-induced pitch angle diffusion. The emission profiles indicate the presence of a small population of resonant {sup 3}He ions that possess orbits lying near the passing-trapped boundary. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Delayed Nickel Decay in Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, G C

    2002-01-01

    Recently observed emission lines in the X-ray afterglow of gamma ray bursts suggest that iron group elements are either produced in the gamma ray burst, or are present nearby. If this material is the product of a thermonuclear burn, then such material would be expected to be rich in Nickel-56. If the nickel remains partially ionized, this prevents the electron capture reaction normally associated with the decay of Nickel-56, dramatically increasing the decay timescale. Here we examine the consequences of rapid ejection of a fraction of a solar mass of iron group material from the center of a collapsar/hypernova. The exact rate of decay then depends on the details of the ionization and therefore the ejection process. Future observations of iron, nickel and cobalt lines can be used to diagnose the origin of these elements and to better understand the astrophysical site of gamma ray bursts. In this model, the X-ray lines of these iron-group elements could be detected in suspected hypernovae that did not produce ...

  13. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marisaldi, Martino, E-mail: marisaldi@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, Marco [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Argan, Andrea [INAF, Viale del Parco Mellini 84, 00136 Roma (Italy); Del Monte, Ettore [INAF-IASF Roma, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido [Dipartimento di Fisica Università di Trieste and INFN Trieste, via A. Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Giuliani, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trois, Alessio [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, loc. Poggio dei Pini, strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo [INAF-IASF Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  14. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  15. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  16. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events.

  17. Late Time Emission of Prompt Fission Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Talou, P; Stetcu, I; Lestone, J P; McKigney, E; Chadwick, M B

    2016-01-01

    The emission of prompt fission $\\gamma$ rays within a few nanoseconds to a few microseconds following the scission point is studied in the Hauser-Feshbach formalism applied to the deexcitation of primary excited fission fragments. Neutron and $\\gamma$-ray evaporations from fully accelerated fission fragments are calculated in competition at each stage of the decay, and the role of isomers in the fission products, before $\\beta$-decay, is analyzed. The time evolution of the average total $\\gamma$-ray energy, average total $\\gamma$-ray multiplicity, and fragment-specific $\\gamma$-ray spectra, is presented in the case of neutron-induced fission reactions of $^{235}$U and $^{239}$Pu, as well as spontaneous fission of $^{252}$Cf. The production of specific isomeric states is calculated and compared to available experimental data. About 7% of all prompt fission $\\gamma$ rays are predicted to be emitted between 10 nsec and 5 $\\mu$sec following fission, in the case of $^{235}$U and $^{239}$Pu $(n_{\\rm th},f)$ reactio...

  18. Novae in gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Hernanz, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission (511 keV line and a continuum below this energy, with a cut-off at 20-30 keV). The analysis of gamma-ray spectra and light curves is a potential unique and powerful tool both to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope determining its transparency. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected in some particular novae, in symbiotic binaries, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main ...

  19. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Das Gupta

    2004-10-01

    After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  20. Delayed Gamma-ray Spectroscopy for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozin, Vladimir [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-03

    The delayed gamma-ray assay technique utilizes an external neutron source (D-D, D-T, or electron accelerator-driven), and high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to perform characterization of SNM materials behind shielding and in complex configurations such as a nuclear fuel assembly. High-energy delayed gamma-rays (2.5 MeV and above) observed following the active interrogation, provide a signature for identification of specific fissionable isotopes in a mixed sample, and determine their relative content. Potential safeguards applications of this method are: 1) characterization of fresh and spent nuclear fuel assemblies in wet or dry storage; 2) analysis of uranium enrichment in shielded or non-characterized containers or in the presence of a strong radioactive background and plutonium contamination; 3) characterization of bulk and waste and product streams at SNM processing plants. Extended applications can include warhead confirmation and warhead dismantlement confirmation in the arms control area, as well as SNM diagnostics for the emergency response needs. In FY16 and prior years, the project has demonstrated the delayed gamma-ray measurement technique as a robust SNM assay concept. A series of empirical and modeling studies were conducted to characterize its response sensitivity, develop analysis methodologies, and analyze applications. Extensive experimental tests involving weapons-grade Pu, HEU and depleted uranium samples were completed at the Idaho Accelerator Center and LLNL Dome facilities for various interrogation time regimes and effects of the neutron source parameters. A dedicated delayed gamma-ray response modeling technique was developed and its elements were benchmarked in representative experimental studies, including highresolution gamma-ray measurements of spent fuel at the CLAB facility in Sweden. The objective of the R&D effort in FY17 is to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the delayed gamma-ray interrogation of shielded SNM

  1. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as clusters of galaxies. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance violation derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure in the direction of the center of our Galaxy, and strong constraints on some Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) models for dark matter.

  2. Cosmic Rays: What Gamma Rays Can Say

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We will review the main channels of gamma ray emission due to the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays, discussing the cases of both galactic and extra-galactic cosmic rays and their connection with gamma rays observations.

  3. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  4. Nuclear reactions an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown – mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos – to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction.   The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no ...

  5. Miniature gamma-ray camera for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, J.C.; Olsen, R.W.; James, R.B.; Cross, E. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this LDRD project was to develop technology for a miniature gamma-ray camera for use in nuclear medicine. The camera will meet a need of the medical community for an improved means to image radio-pharmaceuticals in the body. In addition, this technology-with only slight modifications-should prove useful in applications requiring the monitoring and verification of special nuclear materials (SNMs). Utilization of the good energy resolution of mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detectors provides a means for rejecting scattered gamma-rays and improving the isotopic selectivity in gamma-ray images. The first year of this project involved fabrication and testing of a monolithic mercuric iodide and cadmium zinc telluride detector arrays and appropriate collimators/apertures. The second year of the program involved integration of the front-end detector module, pulse processing electronics, computer, software, and display.

  6. Preliminary Study of the Efficacy of Using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence with Quasi-Monoenergetic Gamma-Ray Sources for Nuclear Safeguards Assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P; Hall, J M; Gonzalez, J J

    2011-02-17

    We have studied the efficacy of using nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF)-based techniques to assay spent nuclear fuel for Pu content using quasi-monoenergetic sources. We have developed two techniques to precisely determine the Pu content in a fuel rod/pin. One of our approaches is virtually free of systematic uncertainties. Using analytical models, we have determined the amount of time required to measure the Pu content in spent nuclear fuel rods and spent fuel assemblies to within 1% precision. We note that Pu content can be determined in a fuel assembly about as fast as in a single fuel pin. The performance of NRF-based assay techniques with improved photon sources, which are currently under development, will also estimated. For follow-on research we propose to: (1) Construct research prototype detection systems for both of the NRF-based assay systems proposed in this paper and measure their calibration curves; (2) Determine the systematic errors associated with both assay methods, explore ways to reduce the errors and fold the results into future performance calculations; (3) Develop an algorithm to assay a fuel assembly; (4) Perform validation measurements using a single pin and scaled assemblies; (5) Research and develop current-mode detection and/or threshold detection techniques to improve assay times; (6) Characterize the flux of newly constructed sources and fold the results into the calculations presented here to determine the feasibility of a variety of proposed sources; and (7) Collaborate with others in the safeguards community to build a prototype system and perform an NRF-based assay demonstration on spent fuel.

  7. U and Pu Gamma-Ray Measurements of Spent Fuel Using a Gamma-Ray Mirror Band-Pass Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Alameda, J.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Brejnholt, N.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Decker, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Descalle, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Fernandez-Perea, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Hill, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kisner, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Melin, A.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Patton, B.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Ruz, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Pivovaroff, M.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report on the use of grazing incidence gamma-ray mirrors to serve as a narrow band-pass filter for advanced non-destructive analysis (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the mirrors is to limit the radiation reaching a HPGe detector to narrow spectral bands around characteristic emission lines from fissile isotopes in the fuel. This overcomes the normal rate issues when performing gamma-ray NDA measurements. In a proof-of-concept experiment, a set of simple flat gamma-ray mirrors were used to directly observe the atomic florescence lines from U and Pu from spent fuel pins with the detector located in a shirt-sleeve environment. The mirrors, consisting of highly polished silicon substrates deposited with WC/SiC multilayer coatings, successfully deflected the lines of interest while the intense primary radiation beam from the fuel was blocked by a lead beam stop. The gamma-ray multilayer coatings that make the mirrors work at the gamma-ray energies used here (~ 100 keV) have been experimentally tested at energies as high as 645 keV, indicating that direct observation of nuclear emission lines from 239Pu should be possible with an appropriately designed optic and shielding configuration.

  8. Gamma rays from dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    A leading hypothesis for the nature of the elusive dark matter are thermally produced, weakly interacting massive particles that arise in many theories beyond the standard model of particle physics. Their self-annihilation in astrophysical regions of high density provides a potential means of indirectly detecting dark matter through the annihilation products, which nicely complements direct and collider searches. Here, I review the case of gamma rays which are particularly promising in this respect: distinct and unambiguous spectral signatures would not only allow a clear discrimination from astrophysical backgrounds but also to extract important properties of the dark matter particles; powerful observational facilities like the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope or upcoming large, ground-based Cherenkov telescope arrays will be able to probe a considerable part of the underlying, e.g. supersymmetric, parameter space. I conclude with a more detailed comparison of indirect and direct dark matter searches, showing...

  9. Nuclear reactions in astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Rayet, M. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (BE))

    1990-06-01

    At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects.

  10. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Boggs, S; von Ballmoos, P; Takahashi, T; Gehrels, N; Tueller, J; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Diehl, R; Greiner, J; Grove, E; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Jean, P; Johnson, N; Kanbach, G; Kippen, M; Knödlseder, J; Leising, M; Madejski, G; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Motohide, K; Nakazawa, K; Oberlack, U; Phlips, B; Ryan, J; Skinner, G; Starrfield, S; Tajima, H; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Zych, A

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways: a very long observation of the entire sky, combined with a large collection area for simultaneous observations of Type Ia SNe. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full gamma-ray sky (0.1-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Telescope (LLT) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (0.8-0.9 MeV), collecting gamma-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. Two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the DUAL payloads at the lens' focal distance.

  11. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  12. A new type gamma-ray spectrum monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Jian Bin; Zhang Zhi Ming; Tong Yun Fu

    2002-01-01

    This new radiation monitoring system can be used to monitor the radiation of building materials and the radiation of atmosphere, to explore and evaluate rock for building in the field, and this system can be used to monitor the gamma irradiation near the nuclear establishments in the average situation and in the serious situation of the radiation incident have happened. The control core of this monitoring system is SCM-AT89C52, and gamma-ray sensing head consists of scintillator phi 50 mm x 50 mm NaI(Tl) and PMT GDB44. This system can be used to measure the whole gamma-ray spectrum of 256 channels

  13. Microphysics in the Gamma-Ray Burst Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    We calculate the structure and evolution of a gamma-ray burst central engine where an accreting torus has formed around the newly born black hole. We study the general relativistic, MHD models and we self-consistently incorporate the nuclear equation of state. The latter accounts for the degeneracy of relativistic electrons, protons, and neutrons, and is used in the dynamical simulation, instead of a standard polytropic γ-law. The EOS provides the conditions for the nuclear pressure in the function of density and temperature, which evolve with time according to the conservative MHD scheme. We analyze the structure of the torus and outflowing winds, and compute the neutrino flux emitted through the nuclear reaction balance in the dense and hot matter. We also estimate the rate of transfer of the black-hole rotational energy to the bipolar jets. Finally, we elaborate on the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the accretion flow and the wind, through computations of the thermonuclear reaction network. We discuss the possible signatures of the radioactive element decay in the accretion flow. We suggest that further detailed modeling of the accretion flow in the GRB engine, together with its microphysics, may be a valuable tool to constrain the black-hole mass and spin. It can be complementary to the gravitational wave analysis if the waves are detected with an electromagnetic counterpart.

  14. Microphysics in the gamma ray burst central engine

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the structure and evolution of a gamma ray burst central engine where an accreting torus has formed around the newly born black hole. We study the general relativistic, MHD models and we self-consistently incorporate the nuclear equation of state. The latter accounts for the degeneracy of relativistic electrons, protons, and neutrons, and is used in the dynamical simulation, instead of a standard polytropic $\\gamma$-law. The EOS and provides the conditions for the nuclear pressure in the function of density and temperature, which evolve with time according to the conservative MHD scheme. We analyze the structure of the torus and outflowing winds, and compute the neutrino flux emitted through the nuclear reactions balance in the dense and hot matter. We also estimate the rate of transfer of the black hole rotational energy to the bipolar jets. Finally, we elaborate on the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements in the accretion flow and the wind, through computations of the thermonuclear reaction networ...

  15. Detectors for the Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) Method of Explosives Detection in Cargo: A Comparative Study

    CERN Document Server

    Vartsky, D; Engler, G; Shor, A; Goldschmidt, A; Feldman, G; Bar, D; Orion, I; Wielopolski, L; Vartsky, David; Goldberg, Mark B.; Engler, Gideon; Shor, Asher; Goldschmidt, Aharon; Feldman, Gennady; Bar, Doron; Orion, Itzhak; Wielopolski, Lucian

    2004-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Resonant Absorption (GRA) is an automatic-decision radiographic screening technique that combines high radiation penetration with very good sensitivity and specificity to nitrogenous explosives. The method is particularly well-suited to inspection of large, massive objects (since the incident gamma-ray probe is at 9.17 MeV) such as aviation and marine containers, heavy vehicles and railroad cars. Two kinds of gamma-ray detectors have been employed to date in GRA systems: 1) Resonant-response nitrogen-rich liquid scintillators and 2) BGO detectors. This paper analyses and compares the response of these detector-types to the resonant radiation, in terms of single-pixel figures of merit. The latter are sensitive not only to detector response, but also to accelerator-beam quality, via the properties of the nuclear reaction that produces the resonant gamma-rays. Generally, resonant detectors give rise to much higher nitrogen-contrast sensitivity in the radiographic image than their non-resonant detector ...

  16. The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  17. Energy spectra of secondary gamma rays at different atmospheric depths

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1979-01-01

    The CERN Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) data for p+p to pi /sup 0/+X inclusive reaction have been used to derive the spectrum of secondary gamma rays at the top of the atmosphere. The measured primary nucleon spectrum of the Goddard Space Flight Group has been taken as a nucleon source spectrum. Using the cascade theory, the gamma ray spectra at the atmospheric depths 540, 650, and 735 g cm/sup -2/ have been calculated. The results are approximately in accord with the emulsion chamber data at Mt Chacaltaya, Mt. Norikura, and Mt. Fuji in the spectral range 0.2-4 TeV. (10 refs).

  18. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  19. GAMMA-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF ALPHA-SLOWING IN INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION-TARGETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENDOOVEN, PG; DRAKE, RP; CABLE, MD; Dendooven, Peter

    1993-01-01

    For large inertial confinement fusion deuterium-tritium targets, a way to diagnose alpha slowing might be via capture reaction gamma rays. Calculations are presented for two such methods: one uses the alpha+T direct capture gamma rays, the other is based on a series of resonant alpha-capture reactio

  20. GAMMA-RAY DIAGNOSTICS OF ALPHA-SLOWING IN INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION-TARGETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DENDOOVEN, PG; DRAKE, RP; CABLE, MD; Dendooven, Peter

    1993-01-01

    For large inertial confinement fusion deuterium-tritium targets, a way to diagnose alpha slowing might be via capture reaction gamma rays. Calculations are presented for two such methods: one uses the alpha+T direct capture gamma rays, the other is based on a series of resonant alpha-capture

  1. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang, Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-12-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 1019W/cm2. In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 1019Wcm-2.

  2. High Redshift Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The Swift Observatory has been detecting 100 gamma-ray bursts per year for 7 years and has greatly stimulated the field with new findings. Observations are made of the X-ray and optical afterglow from 1 minute after the burst, continuing for days. GRBs are providing a new tool to study the high redshift universe. Swift has detected several events at z>5 and one at z=9.4 giving information on metallicity, star formation rate and reionization. The talk will present the latest results.

  3. Gamma ray observatory productivity showcase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. L.; Molgaard, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Program has been proclaimed to be the showcase productivity program for NASA and TRW. Among the multiple disciplines of a large-scale program, there is opportunity and need for improved efficiency, effectiveness, and reduction in the cost of doing business. The efforts and tools that will or have been implemented to achieve this end are described. Since the GRO Program is mainly an engineering program with the build of one satellite, the primary emphasis is placed on improving the efficiency and quality of management and engineering.

  4. Heavy ion deep inelastic collisions studied by discrete gamma ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolas, W. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-05-01

    The discrete gamma ray spectroscopy has been used as a tool to investigate the heavy ion collision. It has been shown that such experimental information supplemented by results of additional of-line radioactivity measurements is complete enough to reconstruct distributions of products of very complex nuclear reactions. Three experiments have been performed in which the {sup 208}Pb + {sup 64}Ni, {sup 130}Te + {sup 64}Ni and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 58}Ni systems have been created. The production cross sections of fragment isotopes have been determined and compared with existing model predictions 64 refs, 59 figs, 19 tabs

  5. Gravitational microlensing of gamma-ray blazars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Torres, Diego; E. Romero, Gustavo; F. Eiroa, Ernesto

    2003-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the effects of gravitational microlensing on compact and distant $\\gamma$-ray blazars. These objects have $\\gamma$-ray emitting regions which are small enough as to be affected by microlensing effects produced by stars lying in intermediate galaxies. We analyze...... the temporal evolution of the gamma-ray magnification for sources moving in a caustic pattern field, where the combined effects of thousands of stars are taken into account using a numerical technique. We propose that some of the unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources (particularly some of those lying at high...... galactic latitude whose gamma-ray statistical properties are very similar to detected $\\gamma$-ray blazars) are indeed the result of gravitational lensing magnification of background undetected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)....

  6. T-odd angular correlations in the emission of prompt gamma rays and neutrons in nuclear fission induced by polarized neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilyan, G. V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Klenke, J. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Meier-Leibnitz (FRM II) (Germany); Krakhotin, V. A.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Novitsky, V. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Shatalov, P. B. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    Study of the T-odd three-vector correlation in the emission of prompt neutrons from {sup 235}U fission by polarized cold neutrons has been continued at the facility MEPHISTO of the FRM II reactor (Technical University of Munich). The sought correlation was not found within experimental error of 2.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. The upper limit for the asymmetry coefficient has been set to vertical bar D{sub n} vertical bar < 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} at 99% confidence level, whereas for ternary fission correlation coefficient D{sub {alpha}} = (170{+-}20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. This limit casts doubt on a model that explains the three-vector correlation in ternary fission by the Coriolis mechanism. At the same time, five-vector correlation in the emission of prompt fission neutrons has been measured, which describes the rotation of the fissioning nucleus at the moment it breaks (ROT effect). At the angle 22.5 Degree-Sign to the fission axis, the correlation coefficient was found to be (1.57 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4}, while at the angle of 67.5 Degree-Sign it is zero within the experimental uncertainty. The existence of ROT effect in the emission of prompt fission neutrons can be explained by the anisotropy of neutron emission in the rest frame of the fragment (fission fragments are aligned with respect to the axis of deformation of the fissioning nucleus), similar to the mechanism of ROT effect in the emission of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  7. Gamma ray bursts and their afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.

    2017-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) were among the greatest mysteries in modern astrophysics. They were first observed 50 years ago but it took three decades before optical counterparts could be found and the underlying physical phenomena studied in detail. GRB research represents currently one of the most rapidly growing areas in extragalactic astronomy. This is due in large part to the numerous connections that GRBs have with other disciplines like cosmology, supernovae, stellar evolution, nuclear physics, astroparticle and gravitational wave astronomy. Therefore, their study is of great importance to understand various astrophysical phenomena such as the formation of the first stars, the chemical evolution and the expansion of the Universe. Since gamma radiation can travel along cosmological distances without being affected by any possible intervening absorption, GRBs can be detected from the most distant universe, reaching redshifts up to z = 10 or more.

  8. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  9. Magnetars and Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Bucciantini, N

    2012-01-01

    In the last few years, evidences for a long-lived and sustained engine in Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have increased the attention to the so called millisecond-magnetar model, as a competitive alternative to the standard collapsar scenario. I will review here the key aspects of the {\\it millisecond magnetar} model for Long Duration Gamma Ray Bursts (LGRBs). I will briefly describe what constraints, present observations put on any engine model, both in term of energetic, outflow properties, and the relation with the associated Supernova (SN). For each of these I will show how the millisecond magnetar model satisfies the requirements, what are the limits of the model, how can it be further tested, and what observations might be used to discriminate against it. I will also discuss numerical results that show the importance of the confinement by the progenitor star in explaining the formation of a collimated outflow, how a detailed model for the evolution of the central engine can be built, and show that a wide varie...

  10. Gamma-ray burst models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  11. Nuclear reaction excitation functions in the interaction of protons with silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A.V.; Kondratyev, S.N.; Lobach, Yo.N.; Sklyarenko, V.D.; Tokarevsky, V.V.; Vysotsky, O.N. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1993-12-01

    Nuclear reaction excitation functions have been investigated which result in radioactive and stable nuclide formation following the proton bombardment of silicon with proton energies up to 100 MeV. Summarized experimental data and excitation function calculations have been performed regarding the mechanisms of pre-equilibrium emission and evaporation from compound nuclides based on the ALICE LIVERMORE code. With the aim of nuclear doping, transmutation coefficients for Al, Mg and Na have been calculated as well as the [gamma]-ray activities of the doped material. (Author).

  12. Origin of $\\gamma$ Ray Bursters

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, P

    1999-01-01

    The successful discovery of X-ray, optical and radio afterglows of GRB hasmade possible the identification of host galaxies at cosmological distances.The energy release inferred in these outbursts place them among the mostenergetic and violent events in the Universe. They are thought to be theoutcome of a cataclysmic stellar collapse or compact stellar merger, leading toa relativistically expanding fireball, in which particles are accelerated atshocks and produce nonthermal radiation. The substantial agreement betweenobservations and the theoretical predictions of the fireball shock modelprovide confirmation of the basic aspects of this scenario. Among recent issuesare the collimation of the outflow and its implications for the energetics, theproduction of prompt bright flashes at wavelenghts much longer than gamma-rays,the time structure of the afterglow, its dependence on the central engine orprogenitor system behavior, and the role of the environment on the afterglow.

  13. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  14. GAMMA-400 gamma-ray observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Topchiev, N P; Bonvicini, V; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bakaldin, A V; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Cumani, P; Dalkarov, O D; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Finetti, N; Gascon, D; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Martinez, M; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Paredes, J M; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Yu I; Suchkov, S I; Taraskin, A A; Tavani, M; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Ward, J E; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    The GAMMA-400 gamma-ray telescope with excellent angular and energy resolutions is designed to search for signatures of dark matter in the fluxes of gamma-ray emission and electrons + positrons. Precision investigations of gamma-ray emission from Galactic Center, Crab, Vela, Cygnus, Geminga, and other regions will be performed, as well as diffuse gamma-ray emission, along with measurements of high-energy electron + positron and nuclei fluxes. Furthermore, it will study gamma-ray bursts and gamma-ray emission from the Sun during periods of solar activity. The energy range of GAMMA-400 is expected to be from ~20 MeV up to TeV energies for gamma rays, up to 20 TeV for electrons + positrons, and up to 10E15 eV for cosmic-ray nuclei. For high-energy gamma rays with energy from 10 to 100 GeV, the GAMMA-400 angular resolution improves from 0.1{\\deg} to ~0.01{\\deg} and energy resolution from 3% to ~1%; the proton rejection factor is ~5x10E5. GAMMA-400 will be installed onboard the Russian space observatory.

  15. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  16. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy.

  17. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  18. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  19. The Most Remote Gamma-Ray Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    future gamma-ray burst, soon after the detection and while it is still sufficiently bright. It would for instance be possible to observe a gamma-ray burst like GRB 000131 with the UVES spectrograph at VLT KUEYEN at the moment of maximum brightness (that may have been about magnitude 16). An example of chemical studies of clouds at intermediate distance by means of a more nearby quasar is shown in ESO PR Photo 09h/00. Attempts are therefore now made to shorten considerably the various steps needed to perform such observations. This concerns especially the time needed to identify the counterpart of a gamma-ray burst and - to a lesser extent - the necessary reaction time at the VLT to point UVES towards the object (in theory, a matter of minutes only). The launch of the HETE-2 (High Energy Transient Explorer 2) gamma-ray burst satellite on October 9, 2000, is a major step in this direction. Under optimal conditions, a relative accurate sky position of a gamma-ray burst may henceforth reach the astronomy community within only 10-20 seconds of the first detection by this satellite. More information The research described in this press release is the subject of a scientific article by the team, entitled "VLT Identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z = 4.50" ; it will appear in a special VLT-issue (Letters to the Editor) of the European journal Astronomy & Astrophysics (December 1, 2000). The results are being presented today (October 18) at the joint CNR/ESO meeting on "Gamma-Ray Burst in the Afterglow Era" in Rome, Italy. Note also the related article in the ESO Messenger (No. 100, p. 32, June 2000). Notes [1]: The team consists of Michael Andersen (University of Oulu, Finland), Holger Pedersen, Jens Hjorth, Brian Lindgren Jensen, Lisbeth Fogh Olsen, Lise Christensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Leslie Hunt (Centro per l'Astronomia Infrarossa e lo Studio del Mezzo, Florence, Italy), Javier Gorosabel (Danish Space Research Institute

  20. Instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, David L.; Fichtel, Carl E.; Trombka, Jacob I.

    1988-01-01

    The current status of gamma-ray-telescope technology for ground, airborne, and space observations is surveyed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs and tables of typical data. For the low- and medium-energy ranges, consideration is given to detectors and detector cooling systems, background-rejection methods, radiation damage, large-area detectors, gamma-ray imaging, data analysis, and the Compton-interaction region. Also discussed are the gamma-ray interaction process at high energies; multilevel automated spark-chamber gamma-ray telescopes; the Soviet Gamma-1 telescope; the EGRET instrument for the NASA Gamma-Ray Observatory; and Cerenkov, air-shower, and particle-detector instruments for the TeV and PeV ranges. Significant improvements in resolution and sensitivity are predicted for the near future.

  1. Gamma-ray decay of levels in /sup 53/Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J.K.; Larson, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    Gamma-ray decay of levels in the stable isotope /sup 53/Cr has been studied using /sup 53/Cr(n,n'..gamma..) reactions for incident neutron energies between threshold and 10 MeV. Of the 65 gamma rays or gamma-ray groups observed for neutron interactions with /sup 53/Cr, 50 have been placed or tentatively placed among 34 levels in /sup 53/Cr up to an excitation energy of 4.36 MeV. Deduced branching ratios are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements except for decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level. For the decay of the E/sub x/ = 1537-keV level we are unable to explain variations in the branching ratios of the transition gamma rays as a function of incident neutron energy within the framework of the presently known level structure of /sup 53/Cr and suggest the possibility of a second energy level at E/sub x/ = 1537 keV. 59 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Modeling gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxham, Amanda

    Discovered serendipitously in the late 1960s, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are huge explosions of energy that happen at cosmological distances. They provide a grand physical playground to those who study them, from relativistic effects such as beaming, jets, shocks and blastwaves to radiation mechanisms such as synchrotron radiation to galatic and stellar populations and history. Through the Swift and Fermi space telescopes dedicated to observing GRBs over a wide range of energies (from keV to GeV), combined with accurate pinpointing that allows ground based follow-up observations in the optical, infrared and radio, a rich tapestry of GRB observations has emerged. The general picture is of a mysterious central engine (CE) probably composed of a black hole or neutron star that ejects relativistic shells of matter into intense magnetic fields. These shells collide and combine, releasing energy in "internal shocks" accounting for the prompt emission and flaring we see and the "external shock" or plowing of the first blastwave into the ambient surrounding medium has well-explained the afterglow radiation. We have developed a shell model code to address the question of how X-ray flares are produced within the framework of the internal shock model. The shell model creates randomized GRB explosions from a central engine with multiple shells and follows those shells as they collide, merge and spread, producing prompt emission and X-ray flares. We have also included a blastwave model, which can constrain X-ray flares and explain the origin of high energy (GeV) emission seen by the Fermi telescope. Evidence suggests that gamma-ray prompt emission and X-ray flares share a common origin and that at least some flares can only be explained by long-lasting central engine activity. We pay special attention to the time history of central engine activity, internal shocks, and observed flares. We calculate the gamma-ray (Swift/BAT band) and X-ray (Swift/XRT band) lightcurves for arbitrary

  3. Method and apparatus for nuclear logging making use of lithium detectors and equipment for gamma ray stripping; Fremgangsmaate og apparat til nuklear logging med bruk av litiummontasjer og anordning for gammastraalestripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, C.A.; Daigle, G.A.; Bruck, W.D. [and others

    1998-05-11

    The patent deals with a borehole logging tool where a pair of spaced-apart lithium detectors is lowered into a borehole traversing a sursurface formation. The formation is irradiated with bursts of neutrons, and the neutrons returning to the borehole are detected by thermal neutron detectors. The dieaway gamma ray spectra provide information on the formation porosity. A MWD system includes a programmable gain amplifier and gamma ray stripping means. 30 figs.

  4. Landmine detection method combined with backscattering neutrons and capture {gamma}-rays from hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: ytaka@rri.kyoto-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashiro-nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokashou, Uji-shi, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    The usefulness of the measurements of the backscattering neutron and 2.22 MeV capture {gamma}-ray from hydrogen in the landmine detection method is described in this paper. When the soil moisture content is increased, the reaction rates of both the neutron scattering reaction and capture reaction are increased. However, the backscattering neutrons are more influenced than the capture {gamma}-rays by the soil moisture before the reaction with the detector. The facts that the backscattering neutron method is useful in the dry soil case and that the capture {gamma}-ray method is effective in well-wet soil case are confirmed by the experiments and the calculations. The landmine detection efficiency is improved in various soil moisture conditions by combining the backscattering neutron method together with the capture {gamma}-ray method. The effectiveness of the pulse mode operation was confirmed numerically.

  5. Development and characterization of the integrated fiber-optic radiation sensor for the simultaneous detection of neutrons and gamma rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyoung Won; Lee, Bong Soo; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-04-01

    Sometimes, detection of thermal neutrons in the presence of gamma rays is required. This study developed and characterized an integrated fiber-optic radiation sensor for the simultaneous detection of thermal neutrons and gamma rays in a mixed radiation field. The performance of the integrated sensor was verified by measuring the distributions of thermal neutrons and gamma rays released from a nuclear fuel rod at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly. The experimental results show that the integrated sensor produced similar distribution patterns to those of thermal neutrons and gamma rays released from a fuel rod.

  6. Development of a Reference Database for Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Chiari, M.; Goncharov, A.; Jesus, A. P.; Kakuee, O.; Kiss, A. Z.; Lagoyannis, A.; Räisänen, J.; Strivay, D.; Zucchiatti, A.

    2016-03-01

    Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the composition and structure of the surface regions of solids by measurement of characteristic prompt γ rays. The potential for depth profiling of this technique has long been recognized, however, the implementation has been limited owing to insufficient knowledge of the physical data and lack of suitable user-friendly computer codes for the applications. Although a considerable body of published data exists in the nuclear physics literature for nuclear reaction cross sections with γ rays in the exit channel, there is no up-to-date, comprehensive compilation specifically dedicated to IBA applications. A number of PIGE cross-section data had already been uploaded to the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL)

  7. Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Briceño, Raúl A; Luu, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three- nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice QCD provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low- energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between lattice QCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from Lattice QCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path ...

  8. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasty, R.L. [Exploranium, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Hovgaard, J. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkerod (Germany); Multala, J. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  9. The 235U(n,2n(gamma)) Yrast Partial Gamma-Ray Cross Sections: A Report on the 1998 -- 1999 GEANIE Data and Analysis Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garret, P E; McGrath, C A; McNabb, D P; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Johns, G D

    2000-09-01

    Measurements of partial {sup 235}U(n,2n{gamma}) {gamma}-ray cross sections have been carried out as a function of incident neutron energy using the GEANIE spectrometer at LANSCE/WNR. The yields of {gamma} rays resulting from the population of discrete levels in the residual nucleus {sup 234}U have been measured at incident neutron energies in the 1-20-MeV range. These data provide, with the aid of nuclear reaction modeling, a measurement of the {sup 235}U(n,2n) reaction cross section and serve as a proof of principle of the y-ray technique for the parallel 23gPu(n,2n) measurement [l]. This paper presents the analysis of the {gamma}-ray data and the extraction of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections as a function of incident neutron energy. Uncertainties associated with the spectroscopic analysis of the data and validation of the results are discussed in detail.

  10. Gamma-Ray Burst Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew; Crowther, Paul; de Grijs, Richard; Langer, Norbert; Xu, Dong; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2016-12-01

    We review our current understanding of the progenitors of both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Constraints can be derived from multiple directions, and we use three distinct strands; (i) direct observations of GRBs and their host galaxies, (ii) parameters derived from modelling, both via population synthesis and direct numerical simulation and (iii) our understanding of plausible analog progenitor systems observed in the local Universe. From these joint constraints, we describe the likely routes that can drive massive stars to the creation of long GRBs, and our best estimates of the scenarios that can create compact object binaries which will ultimately form short GRBs, as well as the associated rates of both long and short GRBs. We further discuss how different the progenitors may be in the case of black hole engine or millisecond-magnetar models for the production of GRBs, and how central engines may provide a unifying theme between many classes of extremely luminous transient, from luminous and super-luminous supernovae to long and short GRBs.

  11. Gamma-ray burst progenitors

    CERN Document Server

    Levan, Andrew; de Grijs, Richard; Langer, Norbert; Xu, Dong; Yoon, Sung-Chul

    2016-01-01

    We review our current understanding of the progenitors of both long and short duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Constraints can be derived from multiple directions, and we use three distinct strands; i) direct observations of GRBs and their host galaxies, ii) parameters derived from modeling, both via population synthesis and direct numerical simulation and iii) our understanding of plausible analog progenitor systems observed in the local Universe. From these joint constraints, we describe the likely routes that can drive massive stars to the creation of long GRBs, and our best estimates of the scenarios that can create compact object binaries which will ultimately form short GRBs, as well as the associated rates of both long and short GRBs. We further discuss how different the progenitors may be in the case of black hole engine or millisecond-magnetar models for the production of GRBs, and how central engines may provide a unifying theme between many classes of extremely luminous transient, from luminous an...

  12. Gamma-ray Burst Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y; Liang, E W

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, which emit up to $8.8\\times10^{54}$ erg isotropic equivalent energy in the hard X-ray band. The high luminosity makes them detectable out to the largest distances yet explored in the Universe. GRBs, as bright beacons in the deep Universe, would be the ideal tool to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. In this article, we review the luminosity correlations of GRBs, and implications for constraining the cosmological parameters and dark energy. Observations show that the progenitors of long GRBs are massive stars. So it is expected that long GRBs are tracers of star formation rate. We also review the high-redshift star formation rate derived from GRBs, and implications for the cosmic reionization history. The afterglows of GRBs generally have broken power-law spectra, so it...

  13. Gamma-Ray Burst Early Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, B

    2005-01-01

    The successful launch and operation of NASA's Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Explorer open a new era for the multi-wavelength study of the very early afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GRB early afterglow information is essential to explore the unknown physical composition of GRB jets, the link between the prompt gamma-ray emission and the afterglow emission, the GRB central engine activity, as well as the immediate GRB environment. Here I review some of the recent theoretical efforts to address these problems and describe how the latest Swift data give answers to these outstanding questions.

  14. Atmospheric Cherenkov Gamma-ray Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Holder, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    The stereoscopic imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique, developed in the 1980s and 1990s, is now used by a number of existing and planned gamma-ray observatories around the world. It provides the most sensitive view of the very high energy gamma-ray sky (above 30 GeV), coupled with relatively good angular and spectral resolution over a wide field-of-view. This Chapter summarizes the details of the technique, including descriptions of the telescope optical systems and cameras, as well as the most common approaches to data analysis and gamma-ray reconstruction.

  15. 桶装核废物层析γ扫描技术研究%The Study of Tomographic Gamma Ray Scanning for Nuclear Waste Drums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳刚; 庹先国; 程智

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic Gamma Scanning is the main analytical method of nuclear waste in drum Non-Destruc-tive-Assay.It can accurately measure the nuclides of the non-uniform nuclear waste with middle or high den-sity in the drum.This paper reviews the research status of Tomographic Gamma Scanning of nuclear waste in drum at home and abroad, summaries the domestic researches at the existing basis and the progresses made, and gives a brief analysis of Tomographic Gamma Scanning′s development trend.Research and development di-rection of Tomographic Gamma Scanning and the domestic problems faced by Tomographic Gamma Scanning of nuclear waste in drum are summarized, and solutions to these problems are briefly offered.%层析γ扫描技术是桶装中低放核废物无损分析技术的主要分析方法,能够准确测量桶装容器内中、高密度非均匀核废物中的核素及其含量。本文综述了国内外桶装核废物层析γ扫描技术研究现状,简述国内现有研究基础和研究进展,并对层析γ扫描技术的发展趋势作了简要分析。提出了层析γ扫描技术研究发展方向和我国桶装核废物层析γ扫描技术面临的问题,并对所面临问题提出了相应的对策。

  16. OVERVIEW OF MONO-ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY SOURCES & APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, F V; Albert, F; Anderson, G G; Anderson, S G; Bayramian, A J; Betts, S M; Chu, T S; Cross, R R; Ebbers, C A; Fisher, S E; Gibson, D J; Ladran, A S; Marsh, R A; Messerly, M J; O' Neill, K L; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P; Vlieks, A E; Jongewaard, E N; Tantawi, S G; Raubenheimer, T O

    2010-05-18

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGa-ray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence. In conclusion, we have optimized the design of a high brightness Compton scattering gamma-ray source, specifically designed for NRF applications. Two different parameters sets have been considered: one where the number of photons scattered in a single shot reaches approximately 7.5 x 10{sup 8}, with a focal spot size around 8 {micro}m; in the second set, the spectral brightness is optimized by using a 20 {micro}m spot size, with 0.2% relative bandwidth.

  17. Measurements of keV-neutron capture {gamma} rays of fission products. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashira, Masayuki [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors

    1997-03-01

    {gamma} rays from the keV-neutron capture reactions by {sup 143,145}Nd and {sup 153}Eu have been measured in a neutron energy region of 10 to 80 keV, using a large anti-Compton NaI(Tl) {gamma}-ray spectrometer and the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be pulsed neutron source with a 3-MV Pelletron accelerator. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections and {gamma}-ray spectra of those nuclei are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. GAMMA-RAY AND X-RAY EMISSION FROM GAMMA-RAY-LOUD BLAZARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XIONG; ZHAO GANG; XIE GUANG-ZHONG; ZHENG GUANG-SHENG; ZHANG LI

    2001-01-01

    We present a strong correlation of the gamma-ray (above 100 MeV) mean spectral indices aγ and X-ray (1 keV)mean spectral indices cX for 34 gamma-ray-loud blazars (16 BL Lac objects and 18 flat spectrum radio quasars). Astrong correlation is also found between the gamma-ray flux densities F-γ and X-ray flux densities Fx in the low state for 47 blazars (17 BL Lac and 30 flat spectrum radio quasars). Possible correlation on the gamma-ray emission mechanism is discussed. We suggest that the main gamma-ray radiation mechanism is probably the synchrotron process. The gamma-ray emission may be somewhat different from that of BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars.

  19. Supernova remnants and gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F; Dame, T M; Combi, J A; Butt, Y M; Torres, Diego F.; Romero, Gustavo E.; Dame, Thomas M.; Combi, Jorge A.; Butt, Yousaf M.

    2003-01-01

    A review of the possible relationship between $\\gamma$-ray sources and supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of the observational status of the problem of cosmic ray acceleration at SNR shock fronts. All positional coincidences between SNRs and unidentified $\\gamma$-ray sources listed in the Third EGRET Catalog at low Galactic latitudes are discussed on a case by case basis. For several coincidences of particular interest, new CO(J=1-0) and radio continuum maps are shown, and the mass content of the SNR surroundings is determined. The contribution to the $\\gamma$-ray flux observed that might come from cosmic ray particles (particularly nuclei) locally accelerated at the SNR shock fronts is evaluated. We discuss the prospects for future research in this field and remark on the possibilities for observations with forthcoming $\\gamma$-ray instruments.

  20. Zapping Mars Rocks with Gamma Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-12-01

    Because we do not know what deadly microorganisms might be lurking inside samples returned from Mars, the samples will either have to be sterilized before release or kept in isolation until biological studies declare them safe. One way to execute microorganisms is with radiation, such as gamma rays. Although quite effective in snuffing out bacteria and viruses, gamma rays might also affect the mineralogical, chemical, and isotopic compositions of the zapped rocks and soils. Carl Allen (Lockheed Martin Space Operations, Houston) and a team of 18 other analysts tested the effect of gamma rays on rock and mineral samples like those we expect on Mars. Except for some darkening of some minerals, high doses of gamma rays had no significant effect on the rocks, making gamma radiation a feasible option for sterilizing samples returned from Mars.

  1. Gamma-Ray Astrophysics NSSTC Fermi GBM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is not a pointed or imaging instrument. To determine fluxes for known sources, we measure the change in the count rate...

  2. ARIES segmented gamma-ray scanner user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddle, R.S.; Sheppard, G.A.; Schneider, C.M.

    1998-04-16

    The segmented gamma-ray scatter (SGS) designated as Win{_}SGS at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility has been installed and is intended for use in quantifying the radioisotope content of DOE-STD-3013-96 equivalent containers. The SGS features new software written in C and a new user interface that runs under Microsoft Windows{trademark}. The operation of the ARIES Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner is documented in this manual. It covers user instructions as well as hardware and software details. Additional information is found in the documentation for the commercially available components and modules that compose the SGS. The objective of the ARIES project is to demonstrate technology to dismantle plutonium pits from excess nuclear weapons, convert the plutonium to a metal ingot or an oxide powder, package the metal or oxide, and verify the contents of the package by nondestructive assay.

  3. Soft gamma rays from heavy WIMPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Manuel Ernst; Opferkuch, Toby; Staub, Florian; Winkler, Martin Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    We propose an explanation of the galactic center gamma ray excess by supersymmetric WIMPs as heavy as 500 GeV. The lightest neutralino annihilates into vector-like leptons or quarks which cascade decay through intermediate Higgs bosons. Due to the long decay chains, the gamma ray spectrum is much softer than naively expected and peaks at GeV energies. The model predicts correlated diboson and dijet signatures to be tested at the LHC.

  4. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Sensitivity to Steady and Transient Sources of Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory is designed to record air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Because of its large field of view and high livetime, HAWC is well-suited to measure gamma rays from extended sources, diffuse emission, and transient sources. We describe the sensitivity of HAWC to emission from the extended Cygnus region as well as other types of galactic diffuse emission; searches for flares from gamma-ray bursts and active galactic nuclei; and the first measurement of the Crab Nebula with HAWC-30.

  5. Lunar radiation environment: a study by using Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Hayatsu, Kanako; Uchihori, Yukio; Hareyama, Makoto; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Fujibayashi, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We have continued to improve the estimation of radiation dose on the Moon based on observation by remote sensing and calculation of the transportation of cosmic-ray particles in the lunar materials in order to provide basic data for a future manned lunar exploration. On the lunar surface, the dose of primary galactic cosmic rays (pGCR) is the most significant and the contributions of neutrons and gamma rays are relatively small and are approximately 10% and 1% of that of pGCR, respectively. However, these percentages are changed by use of thick shieldings and also geographical feature of the lunar surface, such as margin of a huge boulder, bottom of a pit, inside of a possible lava tube. In this case, the dose by pGCRs is moderated and the contributions of neutrons and gamma rays relatively increase. Here, we show the recent estimation of spatial variation of the lunar dose due to gamma ray and neutrons measured by Kaguya gamma-ray spectrometer. The energy spectrum of gamma rays from the lunar surface are precisely measured by a germanium (Ge) gamma-ray spectrometer onboard the Japanese lunar orbiter (Kaguya/SELENE). The flux of fast neutrons from the lunar surface was also measured by detecting the characteristic gamma rays due to the neutron inelastic reaction with the Ge of the spectrometer, that is 72Ge(n, n'g)72Ge. The estimation of radiation dose on the Moon based on Monte Carlo simulation will also be presented.

  6. On microscopic theory of radiative nuclear reaction characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Kamerdzhiev, Sergei; Avdeenkov, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    A survey of some results in the modern microscopic theory of properties of nuclear reactions with gamma-rays is given. First of all, we discuss the impact of phonon coupling (PC) on the photon strength function (PSF) because it represents the most natural physical source of additional strength found for Sn isotopes in recent experiments that could not be explained within the stan- dard HFB+QRPA approach. The self-consistent version of the Extended Theory of Finite Fermi Systems in the Quasiparticle Time Blocking Approximation, or simply QTBA, is applied. It uses the HFB mean field and includes both the QRPA and PC effects on the basis of the SLy4 Skyrme force. With our microscopic E1 PSFs, the following properties have been calculated for many stable and unstable even-even semi-magic Sn and Ni isotopes as well as for double-magic 132Sn and 208Pb using the reaction codes EMPIRE and TALYS with several nuclear level density (NLD) models: 1) the neutron capture cross sections, 2) the corresponding neutron capture...

  7. Radiocesium contaminations of 20 wood species and the corresponding gamma-ray dose rates around the canopies at 5 months after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumura, Hideyuki; Hashida, Shin-nosuke; Nagaoka, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) deposition from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was measured in 20 woody plants (12 evergreen and 8 deciduous species) grown in Abiko (approximately 200 km SSW from the NPP). Leaves (needles) and twigs were sampled from each of three foliar positions (top, middle, and bottom) in the plant canopy in early August 2011. At the time, soils around the plants were also sampled, and gamma radiation dose rates were measured at each sampling position. The average radiocesium activity in the observed leaves of the evergreen species was 7.7 times that in the leaves of the deciduous species. Among the observed evergreen coniferous species, the activity in pre-fallout-expanded leaves was 2.4 times that in the post-fallout-expanded leaves. Notably, a distinct variation in the activity among the evergreen coniferous species could be observed for the post-fallout-expanded leaves but not for the pre-fallout-expanded leaves. Although these differences depend on whether the leaves had expanded at the time of the fallout, it is probable that a considerable amount of radiocesium was translocated to newly developed leaves at a species-specific rate. In addition, it was demonstrated that dose rates around woody plants were not consistent with the prevailing prediction that general dose rates correspondingly decrease with monitoring height from the ground. Thus, the dose rates in the top foliar layer of the deciduous species decreased more than predicted, whereas those in the top foliar layer of the coniferous species did not decrease. This may be due to differences in the balance between the attenuation resulting from a shielding effect of the plant bodies and the higher radiocesium accumulation in the leaves.

  8. Supernovae and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Panagia, Nino; Sahu, Kailash

    2001-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Gamma-ray burst-supernova relation B. Paczynski; Observations of gamma-ray bursts G. Fishman; Fireballs T. Piran; Gamma-ray mechanisms M. Rees; Prompt optical emission from gamma-ray bursts R. Kehoe, C. Akerlof, R. Balsano, S. Barthelmy, J. Bloch, P. Butterworth, D. Casperson, T. Cline, S. Fletcher, F. Frontera, G. Gisler, J. Heise, J. Hills, K. Hurley, B. Lee, S. Marshall, T. McKay, A. Pawl, L. Piro, B. Priedhorsky, J. Szymanski and J. Wren; X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts L. Piro; The first year of optical-IR observations of SN1998bw I. Danziger, T. Augusteijn, J. Brewer, E. Cappellaro, V. Doublier, T. Galama, J. Gonzalez, O. Hainaut, B. Leibundgut, C. Lidman, P. Mazzali, K. Nomoto, F. Patat, J. Spyromilio, M. Turatto, J. Van Paradijs, P. Vreeswijk and J. Walsh; X-ray emission of Supernova 1998bw in the error box of GRB980425 E. Pian; Direct analysis of spectra of type Ic supernovae D. Branch; The interaction of supernovae and gamma-ray bursts with their surroundings R. Chevalier; Magnetars, soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts A. Harding; Super-luminous supernova remnants Y. -H. Chu, C. -H. Chen and S. -P. Lai; The properties of hypernovae: SNe Ic 1998bw, 1997ef, and SN IIn 1997cy K. Nomoto, P. Mazzali, T. Nakamura, K. Iwanmoto, K. Maeda, T. Suzuki, M. Turatto, I. Danziger and F. Patat; Collapsars, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and Supernovae S. Woosley, A. MacFadyen and A. Heger; Pre-supernova evolution of massive stars N. Panagia and G. Bono; Radio supernovae and GRB 980425 K. Weiler, N. Panagia, R. Sramek, S. Van Dyk, M. Montes and C. Lacey; Models for Ia supernovae and evolutionary effects P. Hoflich and I. Dominguez; Deflagration to detonation A. Khokhlov; Universality in SN Iae and the Phillips relation D. Arnett; Abundances from supernovae F. -K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, C. Freiburghaus, S. Rosswog, K. Iwamoto, T. Nakamura, K. Nomoto, H. Umeda, K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo, D. Dean, W. Hix and M. Strayer; Sne, GRBs, and the

  9. Recent results with a combined gamma-ray and neutron imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundara-Pandian, L.; Whitney, C. M.; Johnson, E. B.; Vinci, R.; Glodo, J.; Christian, J. F.; Gervais, J.; Vogel, Sam; Nagarkar, E.; Robertson, F.; Squillante, M. S.; Waer, P.; Squillante, M. R.

    2014-09-01

    Numerous instruments have been developed for performing gamma-ray imaging and neutron imaging for research, nondestructive testing, medicine and national security. However, none are capable of imaging gamma-rays and neutrons simultaneously while also discriminating gamma-rays from the neutron. This paper will describe recent experimental results obtained using a gamma/neutron camera based on Cs2LiYCl6:Ce (CLYC) scintillation crystals, which can discriminate gamma-rays from neutrons. The ability to do this while also having good energy resolution provides a powerful capability for detecting and identifying shielded special nuclear materials for security applications. Also discussed are results obtained using a LaBr3 scintillation crystal.

  10. Removal cross sections and total mass attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma rays for steel

    CERN Document Server

    Elsayed, A A

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties and determination of the cross sections of fast neutrons and gamma rays for structure steel used in different applications in nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors and different radiation attenuation fields. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of steel (rho=7.87 gem sup - sup 3) of different thicknesses. A reactor collimated beam and neutron - gamma spectrometer with stiblbene scintillator were used for measurements. The pluse shape disriminate technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma ray pulses. Effective removal cross-section (sigma sub R) and total mass attenuation coefficient (mu) of neureons and gamma rays have been achieved using the attenuation relations. Microscopic removal cross sections sigma sup 9 sup 8 and mass removal cross sections sigma sub R sub / subrho of fast ne...

  11. Helios-2 Vela-Ariel-5 gamma-ray burst source position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T. L.; Trainor, J. H.; Desai, U. D.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Ricketts, M.; Heluken, H.

    1979-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst of 28 January 1976, one of 18 events thus far detected in interplanetary space with Helios-2, was also observed with the Vela-5A, -6A and the Ariel-5 satellites. A small source field is obtained from the intersection of the region derived from the observed time delays between Helios-2 and Vela-5A and -6A with the source region independently found with the Ariel-5 X-ray detector. This area contains neither any steady X-ray source as scanned by HEAO-A nor any previously catalogued X-ray, radio or infrared sources, X-ray transients, quasars, seyferts, globular clusters, flare stars, pulsars, white dwarfs or high energy gamma-ray sources. The region is however, within the source field of a gamma-ray transient observed in 1974, which exhibited nuclear gamma-ray line structure.

  12. Inverse Compton gamma-ray models for remnants of Galactic type Ia supernovae?

    CERN Document Server

    Völk, H J; Berezhko, E G

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically and phenomenologically investigate the question whether the gamma-ray emission from the remnants of the type Ia supernovae SN 1006, Tycho's SN and Kepler's SN can be the result of electron acceleration alone. The observed synchrotron spectra of the three remnants are used to determine the average momentum distribution of nonthermal electrons as a function of the assumed magnetic field strength. Then the inverse Compton emission spectrum in the Cosmic Microwave Background photon field is calculated and compared with the existing upper limits for the very high energy gamma-ray flux from these sources. It is shown that the expected interstellar magnetic fields substantially overpredict even these gamma-ray upper limits. Only rather strongly amplified magnetic fields could be compatible with such low gamma-ray fluxes. However this would require a strong component of accelerated nuclear particles whose energy density substantially exceeds that of the synchrotron electrons, compatible with existing...

  13. Studies of weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via coincidence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, C; Champagne, A E; Dummer, A K; Fitzgerald, R; Harley, E C T; Mosher, J; Runkle, R

    2002-01-01

    A method for measuring weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via gamma gamma-coincidence counting techniques is described. The coincidence apparatus consisted of a large-volume germanium detector and an annular NaI(Tl) crystal. The setup was tested by measuring the weak E sub R =227 keV resonance in sup 2 sup 6 Mg(p,gamma) sup 2 sup 7 Al. Absolute germanium and NaI(Tl) counting efficiencies for a range of gamma-ray energies and for different detector-target geometries are presented. Studies of the gamma-ray background in our spectra are described. Compared to previous work, our method improves the detection sensitivity for weak capture-gamma-ray resonances by a factor of approx 100. The usefulness of the present technique for investigations of interest to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  14. Efficiency Calibration Measurement And Geant Simulation Of The Dragon Bgo Gamma Ray Array At Triumf

    CERN Document Server

    Gigliotti, D G

    2005-01-01

    A gamma ray array to detect the characteristic gammas emitted from astrophysically significant, radiative proton and alpha capture reactions, was built as part of the Detector of Recoils And Gammas Of Nuclear reactions (DRAGON) spectrometer at ISAC/TRIUMF. The DRAGON array consists of a collection of 30 hexagonal BGO detectors measuring 7.62 cm long by 5.58 cm across the face. A simulation was built with the particle-tracking program GEANT v3.21. The efficiency of the array was measured using calibrated sources of various gamma energies and compared to simulated results. For the cases where the activity of the source was not well known the sources were calibrated using a standard NaI detector of known efficiency. The agreement between simulation and measured differences is more than adequate for proposed DRAGON experiments. The analysis and results of the comparison between measured and simulated efficiency will be discussed in this thesis.

  15. Gamma ray transport simulations using SGaRD code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SGaRD (Spectroscopy, Gamma rays, Rapid, Deterministic code is used for the fast calculation of the gamma-ray spectrum, produced by a spherical shielded source and measured by a detector. The photon source lines originate from the radioactive decay of the unstable isotopes. The leakage spectrum is separated in two parts: the uncollided component is transported by ray tracing, and the scattered component is calculated using a multigroup discrete ordinates method. The pulse height spectrum is then simulated by folding the leakage spectrum with the detector response function, which is precalculated for each considered detector type. An application to the simulation of the gamma spectrum produced by a natural uranium ball coated with plexiglass and measured using a NaI detector is presented. The SGaRD code is also used to infer the dimensions of a one-dimensional model of a shielded gamma ray source. The method is based on the simulation of the uncollided leakage current of discrete gamma lines that are produced by nuclear decay. The material thicknesses are computed with SGaRD using a fast ray-tracing algorithm embedded in a nonlinear multidimensional iterative optimization procedure that minimizes the error metric between calculated and measured signatures.

  16. On the difference between gamma-ray-detected and non-gamma-ray-detected pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Rookyard, Simon C; Johnston, Simon; Kerr, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    We compare radio profile widths of young, energetic gamma-ray-detected and non-gamma-ray-detected pulsars. We find that the latter typically have wider radio profiles, with the boundary between the two samples exhibiting a dependence on the rate of rotational energy loss. We also find that within the sample of gamma-ray-detected pulsars, radio profile width is correlated with both the separation of the main gamma-ray peaks and the presence of narrow gamma-ray components. These findings lead us to propose that these pulsars form a single population where the main factors determining gamma ray detectability are the rate of rotational energy loss and the proximity of the line of sight to the rotation axis. The expected magnetic inclination angle distribution will be different for radio pulsars with and without detectable gamma rays, naturally leading to the observed differences. Our results also suggest that the geometry of existing radio and outer-magnetosphere gamma-ray emission models are at least qualitative...

  17. Thick-target neutron, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production for protons below 12 MeV on nickel and carbon beam-stops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear model calculations using the GNASH code are described for protons below 12 MeV incident on nickel and carbon isotopes, for beam stop design in the Los Alamos Accelerator Production of Tritium Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) project. The GNASH calculations apply Hauser-Feshbach and preequilibrium reaction theories and can make use of pre-calculated direct reaction cross sections to low-lying residual nucleus states. From calculated thin target cross sections, thick target 6.7 MeV and 12 MeV proton-induced production of neutrons, gamma rays, and radionuclides are determined. Emission spectra of the secondary neutrons and gamma rays are also determined. The model calculations are validated through comparisons with experimental thin- and thick-target measurements. The results of this work are being utilized as source terms in MCNP analyses for LEDA.

  18. The Infrared-Gamma-Ray Connection: A WISE View of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Massaro, F

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the WISE all-sky survey we discovered that the non-thermal infrared (IR) emission of blazars, the largest known population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources, has peculiar spectral properties. In this work, we confirm and strengthen our previous analyses using the latest available releases of both the WISE and the Fermi source catalogs. We also show that there is a tight correlation between the mid-IR colors and the gamma-ray spectral index of Fermi blazars. We name this correlation "the infrared--gamma-ray connection". We discuss how this connection links both the emitted powers and the spectral shapes of particles accelerated in jets arising from blazars over ten decades in energy. Based on this evidence, we argue that the infrared--gamma-ray connection is stronger than the well known radio--gamma-ray connection.

  19. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Expected in the Outer Gap Model of Gamma-Ray Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力; 吴杰; 姜泽军; 梅冬成

    2003-01-01

    We study the possibility of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the known 1130 radio pulsars based on the outer gap model of high-energy emission from pulsars. We estimate the fractional size of outer gap, the integrated flux, the gamma-ray luminosity for each known radio pulsar, and find that only 14% of the known radio pulsars are gamma-ray emitters according to the outer gap model. In the sample of possible 156 gamma-ray pulsars, our statistical analysis indicates that the distributions of the spin-down powers and the ages of these pulsars concentrate mainly on 1033.5-1039 erg/s and 103-107 y, respectively. The predictions of gamma-ray pulsars detected by the AGILE and GLAST missions are given.

  20. Nuclear reactions from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Raúl A.; Davoudi, Zohreh; Luu, Thomas C.

    2015-02-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is to rigorously compute properties of hadronic systems directly from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics (QCD). In particular, the hope is to perform reliable calculations of nuclear reactions which will impact our understanding of environments that occur during big bang nucleosynthesis, the evolution of stars and supernovae, and within nuclear reactors and high energy/density facilities. Such calculations, being truly ab initio, would include all two-nucleon and three-nucleon (and higher) interactions in a consistent manner. Currently, lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) provides the only reliable option for performing calculations of some of the low-energy hadronic observables. With the aim of bridging the gap between LQCD and nuclear many-body physics, the Institute for Nuclear Theory held a workshop on Nuclear Reactions from LQCD on March 2013. In this review article, we report on the topics discussed in this workshop and the path planned to move forward in the upcoming years.

  1. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  2. Gamma-Ray Astronomy from the Ground

    CERN Document Server

    Horns, D

    2016-01-01

    The observation of cosmic gamma-rays from the ground is based upon the detection of gamma-ray initiated air showers. At energies between approximately $10^{11}$ eV and $10^{13}$ eV, the imaging air Cherenkov technique is a particularly successful approach to observe gamma-ray sources with energy fluxes as low as $\\approx 10^{-13}$ erg\\,cm$^{-2}\\,$s$^{-1}$. The observations of gamma-rays in this energy band probe particle acceleration in astrophysical plasma conditions and are sensitive to high energy phenomena beyond the standard model of particle physics (e.g., self-annihilating or decaying dark matter, violation of Lorentz invariance, mixing of photons with light pseudo-scalars). The current standing of the field and its major instruments are summarised briefly by presenting selected highlights. A new generation of ground based gamma-ray instruments is currently under development. The perspectives and opportunities of these future facilities will be discussed.

  3. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ < z < $6, using deep survey galaxy observations from Spitzer, Hubble and GALEX and have consequently predicted spectral absorption features for extragalactic gamma-ray sources. This procedure can also be reversed. Determining the cutoff energies of gamma-ray sources with known redshifts using the recently launched Fermi gamma-ray space telescope may enable a more precise determination of the IBL photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  4. Gamma-ray limits on neutrino lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Weniger, Christoph [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik,Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam, Netherland (Netherlands)

    2016-05-23

    Monochromatic neutrinos from dark matter annihilations (χχ→νν-bar) are always produced in association with a gamma-ray spectrum generated by electroweak bremsstrahlung. Consequently, these neutrino lines can be searched for not only with neutrino detectors but also indirectly with gamma-ray telescopes. Here, we derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section into neutrinos based on recent Fermi-LAT and HESS data. We find that, for dark matter masses above 200 GeV, gamma-ray data actually set the most stringent constraints on neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation and, therefore, an upper bound on the dark matter total annihilation cross section. In addition, we point out that gamma-ray telescopes, unlike neutrino detectors, have the potential to distinguish the flavor of the final state neutrino. Our results indicate that we have already entered into a new era where gamma-ray telescopes are more sensitive than neutrino detectors to neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation.

  5. An Overview of the XGAM Code and Related Software for Gamma-ray Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    The XGAM spectrum-fitting code and associated software were developed specifically to analyze the complex gamma-ray spectra that can result from neutron-induced reactions. The XGAM code is designed to fit a spectrum over the entire available gamma-ray energy range as a single entity, in contrast to the more traditional piecewise approaches. This global-fit philosophy enforces background continuity as well as consistency between local and global behavior throughout the spectrum, and in a natural way. This report presents XGAM and the suite of programs built around it with an emphasis on how they fit into an overall analysis methodology for complex gamma-ray data. An application to the analysis of time-dependent delayed gamma-ray yields from 235U fission is shown in order to showcase the codes and how they interact.

  6. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Radhey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5 to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  7. On the bizarre gamma-ray spectrum of SS 433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, H. L.; Savedoff, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Lamb et al. (1983) have announced the discovery of a pair of gamma-ray lines interpretable as emission of the 1.368 MeV line of Mg-24 in the two oppositely directed relativistic jets of SS 433. The mass loss rate related to the Mg-24 and the kinetic energy flux of the Mg-24 are considered. In the present investigation, it is shown that the mass loss flux must be well in excess of 0.00001 solar mass per yr, while the abundance of the gamma-emitting nucleus is extremely high. Attention is given to the calculation of the gamma-ray production efficiency factor, the size of the emitting region, reaction processes, and X-ray luminosity. It is concluded that for plasma beam models, there must be a substantial overabundance, by a factor of 100 to approximately 1000, of the gamma-line producing nucleus. The association of the gamma-ray lines with Mg-24 is reasonable but not secure.

  8. TeV Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Ribó, M

    2008-01-01

    The window of TeV Gamma-Ray Astrophysics was opened less than two decades ago, when the Crab Nebula was detected for the first time. After several years of development, the technique used by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes like HESS, MAGIC or VERITAS, is now allowing to conduct sensitive observations in the TeV regime. Water Cherenkov instruments like Milagro are also providing the first results after years of integration time. Different types of extragalactic and galactic sources have been detected, showing a variety of interesting phenomena that are boosting theory in very high energy gamma-ray astrophysics. Here I review some of the most interesting results obtained up to now, making special emphasis in the field of X-ray/gamma-ray binaries.

  9. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  10. Gamma-Ray Imaging for Explosives Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    deNolfo, G. A.; Hunter, S. D.; Barbier, L. M.; Link, J. T.; Son, S.; Floyd, S. R.; Guardala, N.; Skopec, M.; Stark, B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a gamma-ray imaging camera (GIC) for active interrogation of explosives being developed by NASA/GSFC and NSWCICarderock. The GIC is based on the Three-dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology developed at GSFC for gamma-ray astrophysics. The 3-DTI, a large volume time-projection chamber, provides accurate, approx.0.4 mm resolution, 3-D tracking of charged particles. The incident direction of gamma rays, E, > 6 MeV, are reconstructed from the momenta and energies of the electron-positron pair resulting from interactions in the 3-DTI volume. The optimization of the 3-DTI technology for this specific application and the performance of the GIC from laboratory tests is presented.

  11. Proton-induced cross-sections of nuclear reactions on lead up to 37 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A

    2014-01-01

    Excitation function of proton induced nuclear reactions on lead for production of $^{206,205,204,203,202,201g}$Bi, $^{203cum,202m,201cum}$Pb and $^{202cum,201cum,200cum,199cum}$Tl radionuclides were measured up to 36 MeV by using activation method, stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry. The new experimental data were compared with the few earlier experimental results and with the predictions of the EMPIRE3.1, ALICE-IPPE (MENDL2p) and TALYS (TENDL-2012) theoretical reaction codes.

  12. Design of a Multi-Channel Ultra-High Resolution Superconducting Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S; Terracol, S F; Miyazaki, T; Drury, O B; Ali, Z A; Cunningham, M F; Niedermayr, T R; Barbee Jr., T W; Batteux, J D; Labov, S E

    2004-11-29

    Superconducting Gamma-ray microcalorimeters operated at temperatures around {approx}0.1 K offer an order of magnitude improvement in energy resolution over conventional high-purity Germanium spectrometers. The calorimeters consist of a {approx}1 mm{sup 3} superconducting or insulating absorber and a sensitive thermistor, which are weakly coupled to a cold bath. Gamma-ray capture increases the absorber temperature in proportion to the Gamma-ray energy, this is measured by the thermistor, and both subsequently cool back down to the base temperature through the weak link. We are developing ultra-high-resolution Gamma-ray spectrometers based on Sn absorbers and superconducting Mo/Cu multilayer thermistors for nuclear non-proliferation applications. They have achieved an energy resolution between 60 and 90 eV for Gamma-rays up to 100 keV. We also build two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators for user-friendly detector operation at 0.1 K. We present recent results on the performance of single pixel Gamma-ray spectrometers, and discuss the design of a large detector array for increased sensitivity.

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  14. Status of the Milagro $\\gamma$ Ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, R; Berley, D; Chen, M L; Coyne, D G; Delay, R S; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Evans, D; Falcone, A D; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hoffman, C M; Hugenberger, S; Kelley, L A; Leonor, I; Macri, J R; McConnell, M; McCullough, J F; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Ryan, J M; Schneider, M; Shen, B; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Thompson, T N; Tümer, T O; Wang, K; Wascko, M O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B

    2001-01-01

    The Milagro Gamma Ray Observatory is the world's first large-area water Cherenkov detector capable of continuously monitoring the sky at TeV energies. Located in northern New Mexico, Milagro will perform an all sky survey of the Northern Hemisphere at energies between ~250 GeV and 50 TeV. With a high duty cycle, large detector area (~5000 square meters), and a wide field-of-view (~1 sr), Milagro is uniquely capable of searching for transient and DC sources of high-energy gamma-ray emission. Milagro has been operating since February, 1999. The current status of the Milagro Observatory and initial results will be discussed.

  15. Gamma Ray Bursts in the HAWC Era

    CERN Document Server

    Mészáros, Peter; Murase, Kohta; Fox, Derek; Gao, He; Senno, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts are the most energetic explosions in the Universe, and are among the most promising for detecting multiple non-electromagnetic signals, including cosmic rays, high energy neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-GeV to TeV gamma-ray range of GRB could have significant contributions from hadronic interactions, mixed with more conventional leptonic contributions. This energy range is important for probing the source physics, including overall energetics, the shock parameters and the Lorentz factor. We discuss some of the latest observational and theoretical developments in the field.

  16. Determination of sulphur and copper depth distribution in patina layers using nuclear reaction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalliabakos, G.; Kossionides, S.; Misailides, P.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Vlastou, R. E-mail: vlastou@central.ntua.gr

    2000-10-01

    A method for Cu and S profiling in patina layers was developed by applying a combination of nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). The copper profiling was performed by using the 1327 keV {gamma}-ray deexciting the third excited state to the ground state of {sup 63}Cu produced by the reaction {sup 63}Cu(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 63}Cu. For the determination of sulphur the 2230 keV {gamma}-ray was used deexciting the first excited state to the ground state of {sup 32}S formed through the reaction {sup 32}S(p,p{sup '}{gamma}){sup 32}S, which exhibits three sharp resonances at projectile energies 3.094, 3.195 and 3.379 MeV. The relevant cross-sections were measured in the energy range between 3.0 and 3.7 MeV in steps of 20 keV at 125 deg. to the incident proton beam direction. The technique was tested using artificially produced and natural copper patina layers. Supporting information on the depth distribution of the constituent elements of the patina samples was obtained by p-RBS (E{sub p}: 1.5 MeV, {theta}: 160 deg.)

  17. Experimental study of the excitation functions of proton induced nuclear reactions on (167)Er for production of medically relevant (167)Tm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Hermanne, A; Takács, S; Király, B; Spahn, I; Ignatyuk, A V

    2010-02-01

    (167)Tm (T(1/2)=9.25d) is a candidate radioisotope for medical therapy and diagnostics due to its Auger-electron and low-energy X- and gamma-ray emission. Excitation functions of the (167)Er(p,n)(167)Tm reaction and (168)Er(p,n)(168)Tm, (167)Er(p,2n)(166)Tm, (166)Er(p,2n)(165)Tm disturbing reactions were measured up to 15MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured excitation functions agree well with the results of ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS nuclear reaction model codes. The thick target yield of (167)Tm in the 15-8MeV energy range is 6.9MBq/microAh. A short comparison of charged particle production routes of (167)Tm is given. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Airborne Gamma-ray Measurements in the Chernobyl Plume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grasty, R. L.; Hovgaard, Jens; Multala, J.

    1997-01-01

    On 29 April 1986, the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF) survey aircraft with a gamma ray spectrometer flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The aircraft became contaminated and the gamma spectrometer measured radioactivity in the plume as well as radioactivity...... on the aircraft. By using simple assumptions on the build-up of contamination it has been possible to separate the signals from contamination and from plume. The analysis further showed that even a detector/spectrometer with low energy resolution is able to identify a contamination with iodine....

  19. Gamma-Rays from Heavy Nuclei Accelerated in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, D; Amato, E

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the theoretical and observational implications of the acceleration of protons and heavier nuclei in supernova remnants (SNRs). By adopting a semi-analytical technique, we study the non-linear interplay among particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and shock dynamics, outlining a self-consistent scenario for the origin of the spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays as produced in this class of sources. Moreover, the inferred chemical abundances suggest nuclei heavier than Hydrogen to be relevant not only in the shock dynamics but also in the calculation of the gamma-ray emission from SNRs due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear interactions.

  20. Relativistic feedback models of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and gamma-ray glows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Relativistic feedback discharges, also known as dark lightning, are capable of explaining many of the observed properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and gamma-ray glows, both created within thunderstorms. During relativistic feedback discharges, the generation of energetic electrons is self-sustained via the production of backward propagating positrons and back-scattered x-rays, resulting in very larges fluxes of energetic radiation. In addition, ionization produces large electric currents that generate LF/VLF radio emissions and eventually discharge the electric field, terminating the gamma-ray production. In this presentation, new relativistic feedback model results will be presented and compared to recent observations.

  1. Development of a Cerium bromide gamma ray spectrometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, D. K.; Banerjee, D.; Goyal, S. K.; Patel, A. R.; Shukla, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    We present the development of a CeBr3 gamma ray spectrometer with the primary objective of determining the abundance and distribution of Th, U, K, Fe, Al and Si by measuring gamma ray signals produced by radioactive decay, neutron inelastic scattering and neutron capture reactions in the energy region 0.03-8 MeV. The energy resolution of the CeBr3 gamma ray spectrometer developed in-house has been measured at 662 and 1274 keV to be 4.0% and 2.8% respectively. The intrinsic activity count-rate for the 1″ × 1″ CeBr3 gamma ray spectrometer is ∼0.03 counts s-1 for the 40K energy window (1400-1520 keV), and ∼0.001 counts s-1 for the 232Th (2550-2700 keV) energy window. The U concentration of a sample (3A) from a granite rock was estimated to be ∼2.1 ppm and agrees with the 2.04 ppm value determined using a HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. The K concentration of sample 3A was estimated to be 3.8%, and is consistent with the 3.7% value determined independently using a HPGe gamma ray spectrometer.

  2. Nuclear reaction studies: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, R.M.

    1986-11-19

    A principal focus of recent research has been the three-body problem. A great deal of effort has been devoted to the creation of a computer program to calculate physical observables in the three body problem below 1 GeV. Successful results have been obtained for the triton. Additional work concerns scattering of K/sup +/ mesons from nuclei, antinucleon physics, relativistic nuclear physics and inclusive reactions. (DWL)

  3. Gamma-ray production cross sections from neutron interactions with iron.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R. O. (Ronald O.); Laymon, C. M. (Charles M.); Wender, S. A. (Stephen A.); Drake, D. M. (Darrell M.); Drosg, Manfred; Bobias, S. G. (S. George); McGrath, C. A. (Christopher A.)

    2002-01-01

    The initial purpose of this experiment was to provide a consistent data base of neutron-induced gamma-ray production cross sections over a large energy range for use in estimating elemental composition of the martian surface by observing gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions on the planet's surface [Bo02]. However, these data should be useful for other projects such as oil-well logging, accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste, shielding calculations, gamma-ray heating for nuclear reactors and verification of nuclear model calculations and databases. The goal of the measurements was to collect data on the strongest gamma rays from many samples of interest. Because of the available beam time this meant that many of the measurcments were rather short. Despite the short running time the large samples used and the good beam intensity resulted in very satisfactory results. The samples, chosen mainly as common constituents of rock and soil and measured in the same few week period, include: B&, BN, C, Al, Mg, Si, S, Cay Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe. Be was also used as a neutron scatterer that only produces one gamma ray (478 keV from 7Li) with appreciable intensity. Thus Be can serve as a measure of neutron-induced backgrounds. In this first paper we present results for Fe.

  4. Nuclear Reactions for Astrophysics and Other Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Scielzo, N D; Ressler, J J

    2011-03-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions are required for many applications. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  5. Inference of total DT fusion neutron yield from prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D.

    2014-10-01

    Prompt D-T fusion gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) have been used recently to infer the total DT fusion neutron yield of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. DT fusion produces energetic gamma-rays (16.75 MeV) with a small branching ratio of approximately (4.2 +/- 2.0)e-5 γ/n. While the large error bar precludes use of the branching ratio for an accurate yield determination, the gamma-rays themselves provide the most unperturbed measure of fusion burn and can be used for such a purpose. A cross-calibration for the DT fusion gamma-ray to neutron signal is obtained via low areal density exploding pusher implosions which have mostly unperturbed neutron and gamma-ray signals. The calibration is then used to infer total DT neutron yield from gamma-ray measurements on high areal-density, cryogenically layered implosions in which neutrons are heavily down-scattered (up to 30%). Furthermore, the difference between the gamma-ray inferred total DT yield and the primary neutron yield (unscattered neutrons) can be used to estimate the total down-scatter fraction. Error analysis and comparison of yield values will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-657694.

  6. New shield for gamma-ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, S. S.; Gustafson, P. F.; Nelson, D. M.

    1969-01-01

    Gamma-ray shield that can be evacuated, refilled with a clean gas, and pressurized for exclusion of airborne radioactive contaminants effectively lowers background noise. Under working conditions, repeated evacuation and filling procedures have not adversely affected the sensitivity and resolution of the crystal detector.

  7. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M.J. Wijers

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive stars

  8. Gamma Rays From Rotation-Powered Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2002-01-01

    The seven known gamma-ray pulsars represent a very small fraction of the more than 1000 presently known radio pulsars, yet they can give us valuable information about pulsar particle acceleration and energetics. Although the theory of acceleration and high-energy emission in pulsars has been studied for over 25 years, the origin of the pulsed gamma rays is a question that remains unanswered. Characteristics of the pulsars detected by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory could not clearly distinguish between an emission site at the magnetic poles (polar cap models) and emission from the outer magnetosphere (outer gap models). There are also a number of theoretical issues in both type of model which have yet to be resolved. The two types of models make contrasting predictions for the numbers of radio-loud and radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsars and of their spectral characteristics. GLAST will probably detect at least 50 radio-selected pulsars and possibly many more radio-quiet pulsars. With this large sample, it will b...

  9. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  10. Gamma-Rays from Intergalactic Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Keshet, U; Loeb, A; Springel, V; Hernquist, L E; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli; Loeb, Abraham; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2003-01-01

    Structure formation in the intergalactic medium (IGM) produces large-scale, collisionless shock waves, where electrons can be accelerated to highly relativistic energies. Such electrons can Compton scatter cosmic microwave background photons up to gamma-ray energies. We study the radiation emitted in this process using a hydrodynamic cosmological simulation of a LCDM universe. The resulting radiation, extending beyond TeV energies, has roughly constant energy flux per decade in photon energy, in agreement with the predictions of Loeb & Waxman (2000). Assuming that a fraction \\xi_e=0.05 of the shock energy is transferred to the relativistic electrons, as inferred from collisionless non-relativistic shocks in the interstellar medium, we find that the radiation energy flux, e^2 (dJ/de) ~ 50-160 eV cm^{-2} s^{-1} sr^{-1}, constitutes ~10% of the extragalactic gamma-ray background flux. The associated gamma-ray point-sources are too faint to account for the ~60 unidentified EGRET gamma-ray sources, but GLAST s...

  11. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  12. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  13. Gamma-ray emission from nova outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernanz, M

    2013-01-01

    Classical novae produce radioactive nuclei which are emitters of gamma-rays in the MeV range. Some examples are the lines at 478 and 1275 keV (from 7Be and 22Na) and the positron-electron annihilation emission, with the 511 keV line and a continuum. Gamma-ray spectra and light curves are potential unique tools to trace the corresponding isotopes and to give insights on the properties of the expanding envelope. Another possible origin of gamma-rays is the acceleration of particles up to very high energies, so that either neutral pions or inverse Compton processes produce gamma-rays of energies larger than 100 MeV. MeV photons during nova explosions have not been detected yet, although several attempts have been made in the last decades; on the other hand, GeV photons from novae have been detected with the Fermi satellite in V407 Cyg, a nova in a symbiotic binary, where the companion is a red giant with a wind, instead of a main sequence star as in the cataclysmic variables hosting classical novae. Two more nov...

  14. HAWC observatory catches first gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías Villegas, Gabriela

    2013-06-01

    The world's largest and most modern gamma-ray observatory has carried out its first successful observations. Located inside the Pico de Orizaba national park in the Mexican state of Puebla, the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC) is a collaboration between 26 Mexican and US institutions.

  15. Gamma-ray Novae: Rare or Nearby?

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Paul J; Brown, Anthony M; Chadwick, Paula M

    2016-01-01

    Classical Novae were revealed as a surprise source of gamma-rays in Fermi LAT observations. During the first 8 years since the LAT was launched, 6 novae in total have been detected to > 5 sigma in gamma-rays, in contrast to the 69 discovered optically in the same period. We attempt to resolve this discrepancy by assuming all novae are gamma-ray emitters, and assigning peak one-day fluxes based on a flat distribution of the known emitters to a simulated population. To determine optical parameters, the spatial distribution and magnitudes of bulge and disc novae in M31 are scaled to the Milky Way, which we approximate as a disc with a 20 kpc radius and elliptical bulge with semi major axis 3 kpc and axis ratios 2:1 in the xy plane. We approximate Galactic reddening using a double exponential disc with vertical and radial scale heights of r_d = 5 kpc and z_d = 0.2 kpc, and demonstrate that even such a rudimentary model can easily reproduce the observed fraction of gamma-ray novae, implying that these apparently r...

  16. Chandra Imaging of Gamma-Ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G

    2013-01-01

    We review the multiwavelength properties of the few known gamma-ray binaries, focusing on extended emission recently resolved with Chandra. We discuss the implications of these findings for the nature of compact objects and for physical processes operating in these systems.

  17. Effects of Shielding on Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-13

    The interaction of gamma rays with matter results in an effect we call attenuation (i.e. ‘shielding’). Attenuation can dramatically alter the appearance of a spectrum. Attenuating materials may actually create features in a spectrum via x-ray fluorescence

  18. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive stars

  19. ESA's X-ray space telescope proves supernovae can cause mysterious gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    original event. If XMM-Newton astronomers had reacted five hours later it would have been too late; but they were lucky and were able to study the afterglow when it was still 7 million times brighter (in X-rays) than a whole galaxy. This was the third time that XMM-Newton had tried to pinpoint a gamma-ray burst afterglow - the results of the previous two observations were inconclusive. On this occasion the observations revealed two important facts: first, the material in the source was moving quickly towards Earth, at a tenth % of the speed of light; and second, chemical analysis of this material showed that it had to be the remnant of a supernova explosion. "We were seeing a spherical shell of material ejected from a very recent supernova, heated by the gamma-ray burst. The fact that the material was coming in our direction means that the sphere was expanding," explains Schartel. Silicon, sulphur, argon and calcium XMM-Newton detected large amounts of magnesium, silicon, sulphur, argon and calcium, but very little iron. This is the kind of material a massive star would produce during its latest stages of evolution, just before exploding as a supernova. Nuclear reactions in the star's core fuse light chemical elements into heavier ones, a process that generates the energy needed by the star to shine; different elements are synthesised at each stage of the star's evolution. The supernova explosion would have ejected this material into the surrounding environment, producing the sphere subsequently illuminated by the gamma-ray burst afterglow seen by XMM-Newton. Astronomers were even able to measure the size of the sphere: 10 thousand million kilometres in radius. With that in hand, and knowing the velocity of the material, they also estimated that the supernova explosion had occurred a few days earlier. Such a timescale is consistent with the low amounts of iron detected, because this element forms in the material ejected by the supernova only about two months after the

  20. Systematic Study of Gamma-ray bright Blazars with Optical Polarization and Gamma-ray Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T; Kawabata, Koji S; Madejski, Grzegorz M; Schinzel, Frank K; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Miho; Moritani, Yuki; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Ohsugi, Takashi; Sasada, Mahito; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei which emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between Jul. 2008 and Dec. 2014 to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), thi...

  1. $\\gamma$-Ray Absorption at High Redshifts and the $\\gamma$-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1997-01-01

    We present results of a calculation of absorption of 10-500 GeV gamma-rays at high redshifts. This calculation requires the determination of the high- redshift evolution of the full spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic photon field. For this, we have primarily followed the recent analysis of Fall, Charlot and Pei. We give our results for the gamma-ray opacity as a function of redshift out to a redshift of 3. We then give predicted gamma-ray spectra for selected blazars and also extend our results on the background from unresolved blazars to an energy of 500 GeV. Absorption effects are predicted to significantly steepen the background spectrum above 20 GeV. Our absorption calculations can be used to place limits on the redshifts of gamma-ray bursts. Our background calculations can be used to determine the observability of multi-GeV lines from dark matter neutralino particles.

  2. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics: Solar gamma ray astronomy on solar maximum mission. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The SMM gamma ray experiment and the important scientific capabilities of the instrument are discussed. The flare size detectable as a function of spectrum integration time was studied. A preliminary estimate indicates that a solar gamma ray line at 4.4 MeV one-fifth the intensity of that believed to have been emitted on 4 August 1972 can be detected in approximately 1000 sec with a confidence level of 99%.

  3. Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from the X-shaped Bulge of the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Macias, Oscar; Crocker, Roland M; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    An anomalous signal has been found in Fermi Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope data covering the center of the Galaxy. Given its morphological and spectral characteristics, this "Galactic Center Excess" is ascribable to self-annihilation of dark matter particles. We report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modeling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic $\\gamma$-ray emission. Our improved analysis reveals that the excess $\\gamma$-rays are spatially correlated with both the X-shaped stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge. Given these correlations, we argue that the excess is not a dark matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the X-bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  4. Study of silicon PIN diode responses to low energy gamma-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Jeon, H. B.; Kang, K. H.; Park, H.

    2016-11-01

    Low energy gamma-ray detectors play an important role in diagnosis in nuclear medicine, in detection of gamma-ray bursts for gravitational wave research and in detection of underground nuclear tests. The silicon positive-intrinsic-negative (PIN) diode detector is useful for detection of low energy gamma radiation without using a scintillator because it generates a high signal in a small active volume, has a fast response time and has good intrinsic energy resolution. We measured the detector responses, energy resolutions and signal-to-noise ratios for various gamma energies by using manufactured silicon PIN diode and photodiodes. Radioactive gamma sources, 241Am, 133Ba, and 57Co, providing gamma-rays with energies between 14.4 keV and 136.5 keV are used for the measurements. The energy resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio for 14.4 keV gamma-ray are measured to be 17.1 % and 12.8 for a 500 μm thick silicon diode. The energy resolutions measured at the FWHM for 59.5 keV and 122.1 keV gamma-rays by using the silicon diode are better by up to two times compared to those obtained using the NaI:Tl or the BGO scintillator with a photomultiplier tube. The dependence of detection speeds of the signals on the diode's thickness is also measured.

  5. Use of microcontroller in gamma-ray spectrometer construction using NaI(Tl) sensor, with emphasis in multichannel analyzer, to applications in nuclear and environmental geophysics; Uso de microcontrolador na construcao de espectrometro gama com sensor de NaI(Tl), com enfase em analisador multicanal, para aplicacao em geofisica nuclear e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nilton

    2005-07-01

    In this work of nuclear geophysical instrumentation the main purpose was the development of a gamma-ray spectrometer prototype with multi channel analyzer, since the spectroscopic amplifier until your firmware. The heart of the digital part was an ATMEL 8 bits microcontroller (AT89S8252). All circuits were made and assembled in the Laboratory of Applied Geophysical Instrumentation (LIGA) of IAG-USP. A microcontroller software was completely developed in C ANSI language using the Small Device C Compiler version 2.4.8, that is a free software distributed under General Public License (GPL). At first, microcontroller was used to change all digital circuit of one classic SCINTREX GAD-6 differential gamma-ray spectrometer. Measurement times with order of 2 days became possible, and it could work in non climate ambient. Then, after this stage, had been started the development of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) working in pulse height analyzer mode with 4096 channels capacity, to use in many kinds of nuclear detection. Besides it, was developed an automatic gain system for photopeak stabilization, by the use of one radioactive source ({sup 133}Ba). This automatic gain system is very important in the case of NaI(Tl) scintillometric detectors, due PMT sensitivity with temperature and aging of some laboratory electronic circuits. Two power supplies with high stability, using pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques were developed, in order to all system became free of electrical line break off. One PWM power polarizes a photo multiplier tube (PMT) with high voltage and another supplies remaining developed circuits. Calibration in energy using standards sources {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co showed that gamma detector developed has a good linearity and low thermal drift, even working in absent of air-conditioned. Concentrations measurements of K, U and Th were made in samples of soils, vegetables, etc. (author)'

  6. BL Lacertae Objects and the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Fan

    2011-01-01

    A tight correlation between gamma-ray and radio emission is found for a sample of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) and the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET). The gamma-ray emission of BL Lac objects exhibits strong variability, and the detection rate of gamma-ray BL Lac objects is low, which may be related to the gamma-ray duty cycle of BL Lac objects. We estimate the gamma-ray duty cycle ~ 0.11, for BL Lac objects detected by EGRET and Fermi. Using the empirical relation of gamma-ray emission with radio emission and the estimated gamma-ray duty cycle, we derive the gamma-ray luminosity function (LF) of BL Lac objects from their radio LF. Our derived gamma-ray LF of BL Lac objects can almost reproduce that calculated with the recently released Fermi bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) sample. We find that about 45% of the extragalactic diffuse gamma-ray background (EGRB) is contributed by BL Lac objects. Combining the estimate of the quasar contri...

  7. Gamma-Ray Telescopes: 400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The last half-century has seen dramatic developments in gamma-ray telescopes, from their initial conception and development through to their blossoming into full maturity as a potent research tool in astronomy. Gamma-ray telescopes are leading research in diverse areas such as gamma-ray bursts, blazars, Galactic transients, and the Galactic distribution of Al-26.

  8. High Energy Gamma-rays from FR I Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, Marek

    2003-07-22

    Thanks to Hubble and Chandra telescopes, some of the large scale jets in extragalactic radio sources are now being observed at optical and X-ray frequencies. For the FR I objects the synchrotron nature of this emission is surely established, although a lot of uncertainties--connected for example with the particle acceleration processes involved--remain. In this paper we study production of high energy {gamma}-rays in FR I kiloparsec-scale jets by inverse-Compton emission of the synchrotron-emitting electrons. We consider different origin of seed photons contributing to the inverse-Compton scattering, including nuclear jet radiation as well as ambient, stellar and circumstellar emission of the host galaxies. We discuss how future detections or non-detections of the evaluated {gamma}-ray fluxes can provide constraints on the unknown large scale jet parameters, i.e. the magnetic field intensity and the jet Doppler factor. For the nearby sources Centaurus A and M 87, we find measurable fluxes of TeV photons resulting from synchrotron self-Compton process and from comptonization of the galactic photon fields, respectively. In the case of Centaurus A, we also find a relatively strong emission component due to comptonization of the nuclear blazar photons, which could be easily observed by GLAST at energy {approx} 10 GeV, providing important test for the unification of FR I sources with BL Lac objects.

  9. Photo nuclear reactions by QMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Niita, Koji; Chiba, Satoshi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    QMD (Quantum Molecular Dynamics) was applied to photo nuclear reaction. Advantages of QMD were explained. The cross section of (Cr, pX) at 375 MeV/c was simulated. The results showed three peaks, the peak in the lowest momentum indicated contribution of statistics decay and the middle one, the largest peak, was contribution of quasi-free process (QF) which consisted of two-step process. Then, the total cross section of {pi} photoproduction for three target nuclei (C, Al and Cu) was simulated by QMD. The obtained values were larger than the experimental values, so that the present QMD calculation showed small {pi} adsorption. (S.Y.)

  10. NEUTRON CAPTURE GAMMA RAY FIELD WITH ENERGY TO 10 MeV FOR METROLOGICAL SUPPORT OF RADIATION PROTECTION DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Komar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical, and technological linear particle accelerators, and nuclear reactors are vastly widespread worldwide today. These facility generate fields of secondary gamma radiation with energy to 10 MeV. Therefore, we have a need to calibrate spectrometric and dosimetric ionization measurement instruments for the energies to 10 MeV. The aim of this work is to determine possibility to use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for this. Below 3 MeV we use a set of point gamma standard spectrometry sources OSGI. We can acquire gamma rays with energies above 3 MeV using radioactive thermal neutron capture on target, i.e. (n, γ-nuclear reaction. We can use neutron capture gamma-ray from titanium target (to 7 MeV or nickel target (to 10 MeV situated in thermal neutron field for calibration. We can use thermal neutron collimator of АТ140 Neutron Calibration Facility with 238Pu-Be fast neutron source (IBN-8-6 for slowing down neutrons from radionuclide fast neutron sources to thermal energies in polyethylene. Thermal neutron collimator forms a beam from radionuclide source with a significant amount of neutrons with thermal energies. We placed Ti and Ni targets in collimator’s canal. We got experimental spectral data on detection unit BDKG-19M NaI(Tl 63 × 160 mm with nonlinear channel-energy conversion characteristic in range to 10 MeV. For additional filtration we proposed to use polyethylene neutron reflector and lead discs. We experimentally determined that placement of lead discs in collimator in front of the target allows to filter all spectrum while insignificantly weakening target’s emission. Using theoretical and experimental data we proved the ability to calibrate gamma-ray spectrometers in the range to 10 MeV. 

  11. Gamma-ray array physics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-05-25

    In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear.

  12. Analysis of concrete material through gamma ray computerized tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Junior, J.M. de [Universidade de Sorocaba - UNISO, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Martins, A.C.G.; Milito, J.A. de [Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba - FACENS, SP (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    Computerized Tomography (CT) refers to the cross sectional imaging of an object from both transmission or reflection data collected by illuminating the object from many different directions. The most important contribution of CT is to greatly improve abilities to distinguish regions with different gamma ray transmittance and to separate over-lying structures. The mathematical problem of the CT imaging is that of estimating an image from its projections. These projections can represent, for example, the linear attenuation coefficient of {gamma}-rays along the path of the ray. In this work we will present some new results obtained by using tomographic techniques to analyze column samples of concrete to check the distribution of various materials and structural problems. These concrete samples were made using different proportions of stone, sand and cement. Another set of samples with different proportions of sand and cement were also used to verify the outcome from the CT analysis and the differences between them. Those samples were prepared at the Material Laboratory of Faculdade de Engenharia de Sorocaba, following the same procedures used in real case of concrete tests. The projections used in this work was obtained by Mini Computerized Tomograph of Uniso (MTCU), located at the Experimental Nuclear Physics Laboratory at University of Sorocaba. This tomograph operates with a gamma ray source of {sup 241}Am (photons of 60 keV and 100 mCi of intensity) and a NaI(Tl) solid state detector. The system features translation and rotation scanning modes, a 100 mm effective field of view, and 1 mm spatial resolution. The image reconstruction problem is solved using Discrete Filtered Backprojection (FBP). (author)

  13. Discovery of Giant Gamma-ray Bubbles in the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng

    Based on data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, we have discovered two gigantic gamma-ray emitting bubble structures in our Milky Way (known as the Fermi bubbles), extending ˜50 degrees above and below the Galactic center with a width of ˜40 degrees in longitude. The gamma-ray emission associated with these bubbles has a significantly harder spectrum (dN/dE ˜ E-2) than the inverse Compton emission from known cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk, or the gamma-rays produced by decay of pions from proton-ISM collisions. There is no significant difference in the spectrum or gamma-ray luminosity between the north and south bubbles. The bubbles are spatially correlated with the hard-spectrum microwave excess known as the WMAP haze; we also found features in the ROSAT soft X-ray maps at 1.5 -- 2 keV which line up with the edges of the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles are most likely created by some large episode of energy injection in the Galactic center, such as past accretion events onto the central massive black hole, or a nuclear starburst in the last ˜ 10 Myr. Study of the origin and evolution of the bubbles also has the potential to improve our understanding of recent energetic events in the inner Galaxy and the high-latitude cosmic ray population. Furthermore, we have recently identified a gamma-ray cocoon feature within the southern bubble, with a jet-like feature along the cocoon's axis of symmetry, and another directly opposite the Galactic center in the north. If confirmed, these jets are the first resolved gamma-ray jets ever seen.

  14. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium up to 70 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), 4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)], E-mail: kiralyb@atomki.hu; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-01

    Cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on ytterbium were measured up to 70 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross sections and derived integral yields are reported for the first time for the {sup nat}Yb(p,xn){sup 173,172mg,171mg,170,167}Lu, {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 175cum,166cum}Yb and {sup nat}Yb(p,x){sup 173ind,172ind,168,167cum,165cum}Tm reactions. No earlier experimental cross section data were found in the literature. The experimental data were compared to and analyzed with the results of the theoretical model code ALICE-IPPE. Production routes of medical radioisotope {sup 167}Tm are discussed.

  15. Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium up to 80 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Csikai, J; Hermanne, A; Uddin, S; Baba, M

    2016-01-01

    Activation cross sections of proton induced nuclear reactions on palladium were measured up to 80 MeV by using the stacked foil irradiation technique and gamma ray spectrometry. The beam intensity, the incident energy and the energy degradation were controlled by a method based on flux constancy via normalization to the excitation functions of monitor reactions measured in parallel. Excitation functions for direct and cumulative cross-sections were measured for the production of ${}^{104m,104g,105}$${}^{g,106m,110m}$Ag, ${}^{100,101}$Pd, ${}^{99m,99g,100,}$${}^{101m}$${}^{,101g,102m,102g,105}$Rh and ${}^{103,}$${}^{97}$Ru radioisotopes. The cross section data were compared with the theoretical predictions of TENDL-2014 and -2015 libraries. For practical applications thick target yields were derived from the measured excitation functions. Application in the field of medical radionuclide production is shortly discussed.

  16. TeV Gamma Ray Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play to advance this young but exciting field.

  17. Physics of gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, D. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the accumulating evidence for the view that gamma-ray bursts come from strongly magnetic neutron stars, discussing the physical properties of the emission region and the radiation processes expected in strong magnetic fields, and emphasizing that the observed burst spectra require that the emission region be optically thin. This entails that the energy of the emitting plasma and/or the plasma itself be continuously replenished during a burst, and that the cooling time scale of the emitting plasma be much shorter than the observed duration of the bursts. This characteristic of the cooling time scale implies that the burst intensity and spectrum can vary on extremely short time scales, and that the burst duration must have a separate explanation. It is emphasized that synchrotron emission is favored as the gamma-ray production mechanism; it is the only mechanism capable of satisfying the optical thinness constraint while producing the observed luminosity.

  18. Stellar Photon Archaeology with Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing deep surveys of galaxy luminosity distribution functions, spectral energy distributions and backwards evolution models of star formation rates can be used to calculate the past history of intergalactic photon densities and, from them, the present and past optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays from pair production interactions with these photons. The energy-redshift dependence of the optical depth of the Universe to gamma-rays has become known as the Fazio-Stecker relation (Fazio & Stecker 1970). Stecker, Malkan & Scully have calculated the densities of intergalactic background light (IBL) photons of energies from 0.03 eV to the Lyman limit at 13.6 eV and for 0$ photon densities in the past, i.e., the "archaeo-IBL.", and therefore allow a better measure of the past history of the total star formation rate, including that from galaxies too faint to be observed.

  19. Are gamma-ray bursts cosmological?

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, I

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst sources are distributed with a high level of isotropy, which is compatible with either a cosmological origin or an extended Galactic halo origin. The brightness distribution is another indicator used to characterize the spatial distribution in distance. In this paper the author discusses detailed fits of the BATSE gamma-ray burst peak-flux distributions with Friedmann models taking into account possible density evolution and standard candle luminosity functions. A chi-square analysis is used to estimate the goodness of the fits and the author derives the significance level of limits on the density evolution and luminosity function parameters. Cosmological models provide a good fit over a range of parameter space which is physically reasonable

  20. Stirling Colgate and Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Donald

    2014-10-01

    Even before the discovery of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), Stirling Colgate proposed that bursts of x rays and gamma rays might be produced by a relativistic shock created in the supernova explosion of a massive star. We trace the scientific story of GRBs from their detection to the present, highlighting along the way Stirling's interest in them and his efforts to understand them. We summarize our current understanding that short, soft, repeating bursts are produced by magnetic neutron stars; short, hard bursts are produced by the mergers of neutron star-neutron star binaries; and long, hard bursts are produced by the core collapse of massive stars that have lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes. We then discuss some important open questions about GRBs and how they might be answered. We conclude by describing the recent serendipitous discovery of an x-ray burst of exactly the kind he proposed, and the insights into core collapse supernovae and GRBs that it provided.

  1. Measuring cosmology with Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Z.G.; Xu, D.; Liang, W. [Nanjing Univ., Nanjing (Switzerland). Department of Astronomy

    2005-07-15

    Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) are becoming more and more standardizable candles. Different methods have been proposed to measure cosmology with the relation between the {gamma}-ray energy E{sub {gamma}} of a GRB jet and the peak energy E{sub p} of the {nu}F{nu} spectrum in the burst frame. We compare the procedures and results of these methods. Using the present sample of 17 GRBs, we obtain a constraint on the mass density {omega}M 0.22{sub -0.07}{sup +0.42} (1{sigma}) for a flat ACDM universe with the median circumburst density n {approx_equal} 3.0 cm{sup -3}. Theoretical investigations of the E{sub {gamma}} {alpha} E{sub p}{sup a} relation reach a {approx} 1.5. A larger sample in the Swift era is expected to provide further constraints on the GRB cosmography.

  2. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Cui

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this re-view, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field.

  3. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  4. The future of gamma-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Knödlseder, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The field of gamma-ray astronomy has experienced impressive progress over the last decade. Thanks to the advent of a new generation of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and thanks to the launch of the Fermi-LAT satellite, several thousand gamma-ray sources are known today, revealing an unexpected ubiquity of particle acceleration processes in the Universe. Major scientific challenges are still ahead, such as the identification of the nature of Dark Matter, the discovery and understanding of the sources of cosmic rays, or the comprehension of the particle acceleration processes that are at work in the various objects. This paper presents some of the instruments and mission concepts that will address these challenges over the next decades.

  5. The future of gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödlseder, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    The field of gamma-ray astronomy has experienced impressive progress over the last decade. Thanks to the advent of a new generation of imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS) and thanks to the launch of the Fermi-LAT satellite, several thousand gamma-ray sources are known today, revealing an unexpected ubiquity of particle acceleration processes in the Universe. Major scientific challenges are still ahead, such as the identification of the nature of Dark Matter, the discovery and understanding of the sources of cosmic rays, or the comprehension of the particle acceleration processes that are at work in the various objects. This paper presents some of the instruments and mission concepts that will address these challenges over the next decades. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Future astrophysics space missions in gamma ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik)

    1990-04-01

    An overview about presently approved space missions in gamma ray astronomy is given. Special emphasis is devoted to the Gamma Ray Observatory GRO of NASA - a multi-instrument observatory which covers more than 5 orders of magnitude in photon energy from about 100 keV to 30 GeV. Significant progress in the exploration and understanding of the gamma ray sky can be expected in the very near future. The next generation of gamma ray missions will have to focus on high resolution spectroscopy, on high resolution imaging and on broad band studies of gamma ray burst sources. (orig.).

  7. Do Gamma-Ray Burst Sources Repeat?

    OpenAIRE

    Meegan, Charles A.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Brainerd, J. J.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Fishman, Gerald; Blumenthal, George; Brock, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The demonstration of repeated gamma-ray bursts from an individual source would severely constrain burst source models. Recent reports (Quashnock and Lamb 1993; Wang and Lingenfelter 1993) of evidence for repetition in the first BATSE burst catalog have generated renewed interest in this issue. Here, we analyze the angular distribution of 585 bursts of the second BATSE catalog (Meegan et al. 1994). We search for evidence of burst recurrence using the nearest and farthest neighbor statistic and...

  8. GAMMA-RAY BURSTS, NEW COSMOLOGICAL BEACONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Avila-Reese

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs are the brightest electromagnetic explosions in the Universe, associated to the death of massive stars. As such, GRBs are potential tracers of the evolution of the cosmic massive star formation, metallicity, and Initial Mass Function. GRBs also proved to be appealing cosmological distance indicators. This opens a unique opportunity to constrain the cosmic expansion history up to redshifts 5-6. A brief review on both subjects is presented here.

  9. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  10. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Harrison, R. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Melandri, A., E-mail: D.Kopac@ljmu.ac.uk [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

    2015-06-20

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  11. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Models and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Harding, A K

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. N...

  12. Bremsstrahlung gamma rays from light Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Cirelli, Marco; Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the often-neglected role of bremsstrahlung processes on the interstellar gas in computing indirect signatures of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in the Galaxy, particularly for light DM candidates in the phenomenologically interesting O(10) GeV mass range. Especially from directions close to the Galactic Plane, the expected gamma-ray spectrum is altered via two effects: directly, by the photons emitted in the bremsstrahlung process on the interstellar gas by energetic electrons which are among the DM annihilation byproducts; indirectly, by the modification of the same electron spectrum, due to the additional energy loss process in the diffusion-loss equation (e.g. the resulting inverse Compton emission is altered). We quantify the importance of the bremsstrahlung emission in the GeV energy range, showing that it is the dominant component of the gamma-ray spectrum for some cases. We also find that, in regions in which bremsstrahlung dominates energy losses, the related gamma-ray emission is only moder...

  13. Gamma Ray Bursts Cook Book I: Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2008-01-01

    Since the suggestion of relativistic shocks as the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in early 90's, the mathematical formulation of this process has stayed at phenomenological level. One of the reasons for the slow development of theoretical works in this domain has been the simple power-law behaviour of the afterglows hours or days after the prompt gamma-ray emission. Nowadays with the launch of the Swift satellite, gamma-ray bursts can be observed in multi-wavelength from a few tens of seconds after trigger onward. These observations have leaded to the discovery of features unexplainable by the simple formulation of the shocks and emission processes used up to now. But "devil is in details" and some of these features may be explained with a more detailed formulation of phenomena and without adhoc addition of new processes. Such a formulation is the goal of this work. We present a consistent formulation of the collision between two spherical relativistic shells. The model can be applied to both internal and ...

  14. Afterglow Radiation from Gamma Ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmond, Hugh; /Leuven U. /SLAC

    2006-08-28

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRB) are huge fluxes of gamma rays that appear randomly in the sky about once a day. It is now commonly accepted that GRBs are caused by a stellar object shooting off a powerful plasma jet along its rotation axis. After the initial outburst of gamma rays, a lower intensity radiation remains, called the afterglow. Using the data from a hydrodynamical numerical simulation that models the dynamics of the jet, we calculated the expected light curve of the afterglow radiation that would be observed on earth. We calculated the light curve and spectrum and compared them to the light curves and spectra predicted by two analytical models of the expansion of the jet (which are based on the Blandford and McKee solution of a relativistic isotropic expansion; see Sari's model [1] and Granot's model [2]). We found that the light curve did not decay as fast as predicted by Sari; the predictions by Granot were largely corroborated. Some results, however, did not match Granot's predictions, and more research is needed to explain these discrepancies.

  15. Hadronic Gamma Rays from Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalenko, I V; Malkov, M A; Diamond, P H

    2007-01-01

    A gas cloud near a supernova remnant (SNR) provides a target for pp-collisions leading to subsequent gamma-ray emission through neutral pion decay. The assumption of a power-law ambient spectrum of accelerated particles with index near -2 is usually built into models predicting the spectra of very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from SNRs. However, if the gas cloud is located at some distance from the SNR shock, this assumption is not necessarily correct. In this case, the particles which interact with the cloud are those leaking from the shock and their spectrum is approximately monoenergetic with the injection energy gradually decreasing as the SNR ages. The gamma-ray spectrum resulting from particle interactions with the gas cloud will be flatter than expected, with the cutoff defined by the pion momentum distribution in the laboratory frame. We evaluate the flux of particles escaping from a SNR shock and apply the results to the VHE diffuse emission detected by the HESS at the Galactic centre.

  16. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  17. The use of TI-208 gamma rays for safeguards, nondestructive-assay (NDA) measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberer, R. B.; Chiang, L. G.; Norris, M. J.; Gunn, C. A.; Adaline, B. C.

    2009-05-26

    This paper examines two cases where gamma rays from Tl-208, including the 2614keV gamma ray, were used to detect anomalies in waste material. In addition to the characterization of waste for waste acceptance, and compliance with environmental and transportation laws, there is a safeguards element as well. The more sophisticated method of NDA at Y-12 includes a means to detect shielded special nuclear material (SNM). Excess count rates in the 2614keV gamma ray from Tl-208 are an indication of potential shielded HEU in waste as well as other containers. The 2614keV gamma ray is easy to monitor routinely. When a large 2614keV peak is detected, further investigation can be conducted from the gamma spectrum. This paper describes this further investigation in two cases. In one case self-shielded HEU was detected. In the other case the Tl-208 gamma rays came from a piece of Th-232 metal.

  18. Long-duration gamma-ray emissions from 2007 and 2008 winter thunderstorms

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchiya, H; Yamada, S; Yuasa, T; Nakazawa, K; Kitaguchi, T; Kawaharada, M; Kokubun, M; Kato, H; Okano, M; Makishima, K

    2011-01-01

    The Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter THunderclouds (GROWTH) experiment, consisting of two radiation-detection subsystems, has been operating since 2006 on the premises of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant located at the coastal area of Japan Sea. By 2010 February, GROWTH detected 7 long-duration $\\gamma$-rays emissions associated with winter thunderstorms. Of them, two events, obtained on 2007 December 13 and 2008 December 25, are reported.On both occasions, all inorganic scintillators (NaI, CsI, and BGO) of the two subsystems detected significant gamma-ray signals lasting for >1 minute. Neither of these two events were associated with any lightning. In both cases, the gamma-ray energy spectra extend to 10 MeV, suggesting that the detected gamma-rays are produced by relativistic electrons via bremsstrahlung. Assuming that the initial photon spectrum at the source is expressed by a power-law function,the observed photons can be interpreted as being radiated from a source located at a distance of 290-560 m ...

  19. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  20. Isotope-specific detection of low density materials with mono-energetic (gamma)-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Hagmann, C A; Johnson, M S; Messerly, M J; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C J

    2009-03-16

    The first demonstration of isotope-specific detection of a low-Z, low density object, shielded by a high-Z and high density material using mono-energetic gamma-rays is reported. Isotope-specific detection of LiH shielded by Pb and Al is accomplished using the nuclear resonance fluorescence line of {sup 7}Li at 0.478 MeV. Resonant photons are produced via laser-based Compton scattering. The detection techniques are general and the confidence level obtained is shown to be superior to that yielded by conventional x-ray/{gamma}-ray techniques in these situations.

  1. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239Pu Fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullmann John

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution.

  2. Measurement of fast neutrons and secondary gamma rays in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarious, A.S.; El-Asyd Abdo, A.; Kansouh, W.A. [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre; Bashter, I.I. [Zagazig Univ. (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The spatial fluxes and energy distributions of fast neutrons, total gamma rays and secondary gamma rays transmitted through different thicknesses of graphite have been measured. The graphite samples were arranged in front of one of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. Gamma ray measurements were carried out for bare, cadmium filtered and boron carbide filtered reactor beams. A fast neutron and gamma ray spectrometer with a stilbene crystal was used to measure the spectrum of fast neutrons and gamma rays. Pulse shape discrimination using the zero cross over technique was used to distinguish the proton pulses from the electron pulses. The total fast neutrons macroscopic cross section and the linear attenuation coefficient for gamma rays were derived both for the whole energy range and at different energies. The obtained values were used to calculate the relaxation lengths for fast neutrons and gamma rays. (Author).

  3. A multiple-plate, multiple-pinhole camera for X-ray gamma-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, R. B.

    1971-01-01

    Plates with identical patterns of precisely aligned pinholes constitute lens system which, when rotated about optical axis, produces continuous high resolution image of small energy X-ray or gamma ray source. Camera has applications in radiation treatment and nuclear medicine.

  4. Constraints on Cosmic-Ray Origin Theories from TeV $\\gamma$-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lessard, R W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Burdett, A C; Gordo, J B; Carter-Lewis, D A; Catanese, M; Cawley, M F; Fegan, D J; Finley, J P; Gaidos, J A; Hillas, A M; Krennrich, F; Lamb, R C; Masterson, C; McEnery, J E; Mohanty, G B; Quinn, J; Rodgers, A J; Rose, H J; Samuelson, F W; Sembroski, G H; Srinivasan, R; Weekes, T C; Zweerink, J A

    1997-01-01

    If supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, the associated nuclear interactions should result in observable fluxes of TeV gamma-rays from the nearest SNRs. Measurements of the gamma-ray flux from six nearby, radio-bright, SNRs have been made with the Whipple Observatory gamma-ray telescope. No significant emission has been detected and upper limits on the $>$300 GeV flux are reported. Three of these SNRs (IC443, gamma-Cygni and W44) are spatially coincident with low latitude unidentified sources detected with EGRET. These upper limits weaken the case for the simplest models of shock acceleration and energy dependent propagation.

  5. Real time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials from HPGe gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S.; Howard, Douglas E.; Wong, James L.; Jessup, James L.; Bianchini, Greg M.; Miller, Wayne O.

    2007-10-23

    A real-time method and computer system for identifying radioactive materials which collects gamma count rates from a HPGe gamma-radiation detector to produce a high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum. A library of nuclear material definitions ("library definitions") is provided, with each uniquely associated with a nuclide or isotope material and each comprising at least one logic condition associated with a spectral parameter of a gamma-ray energy spectrum. The method determines whether the spectral parameters of said high-resolution gamma-ray energy spectrum satisfy all the logic conditions of any one of the library definitions, and subsequently uniquely identifies the material type as that nuclide or isotope material associated with the satisfied library definition. The method is iteratively repeated to update the spectrum and identification in real time.

  6. Ambiguity in gamma-ray tracking of 'two-interaction' events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, N.J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Duguet, T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lister, C.J. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)]. E-mail: lister@anl.gov

    2005-08-01

    Tracking of gamma-rays in germanium detectors can allow the full reconstruction of interactions, a feature that is useful in many applications. Scrutiny of the kinematics and geometry of gamma-rays which are Compton scattered only once prior to full absorption reveals that there are special cases where even perfect spatial and energy resolution cannot resolve the true interaction sequence and consequently the gamma-ray tracks cannot be unambiguously reconstructed. The photon energy range where this ambiguity exists is from 255 keV to about 700 keV. This is an energy region of importance for nuclear structure research and a domain where two-point interactions are probable.

  7. SNM gamma-ray fingerprint monitor functional requirements and design specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kane, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    A number of DOE facilities need to perform confirmatory inventory measurements on items of special nuclear material (SNM). The DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has tasked the Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division (SSN) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray-spectroscopy-based instrument for performing confirmatory inventory measurements on such materials, a ``gamma-ray fingerprint monitor`` (GRFM). This document is a conceptual design for the SSN GRFM system. This conceptual design is based on previous experience with measurements of plutonium-bearing materials and comparison of gamma-ray spectrum features, not on actual tests of the procedures or hardware described. As a result, modifications may be necessary when actual prototype hardware and software are tested in realistic circumstances on actual materials of interest.

  8. Low-energy gamma ray attenuation characteristics of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Shen, Chih-Ping; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    Am241 (59.5 keV) gamma ray attenuation characteristics were investigated in 270 aviation fuel (Jet A and Jet A-1) samples from 76 airports around the world as a part of world wide study to measure the variability of aviation fuel properties as a function of season and geographical origin. All measurements were made at room temperature which varied from 20 to 27 C. Fuel densities (rho) were measured concurrently with their linear attenuation coefficients (mu), thus providing a measure of mass attenuation coefficient (mu/rho) for the test samples. In 43 fuel samples, rho and mu values were measured at more than one room temperature, thus providing mu/rho values for them at several temperatures. The results were found to be independent of the temperature at which mu and rho values were measured. It is noted that whereas the individual mu and rho values vary considerably from airport to airport as well as season to season, the mu/rho values for all samples are constant at 0.1843 + or - 0.0013 cu cm/gm. This constancy of mu/rho value for aviation fuels is significant since a nuclear fuel quantity gauging system based on low energy gamma ray attenuation will be viable throughout the world.

  9. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated MTR fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, L.A.A. E-mail: laaterre@net.ipen.br; Zeituni, C.A.; Perrotta, J.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2000-08-11

    The availability of burnup data is an important requirement in any systematic approach to the enhancement of safety, economics and performance of a nuclear research reactor. This work presents the theory and experimental techniques applied to determine, by means of nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the burnup of Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements irradiated in the IEA-R1 research reactor. Burnup measurements, based on analysis of spectra that result from collimation and detection of gamma-rays emitted in the decay of radioactive fission products, were performed at the reactor pool area. The measuring system consists of a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector together with suitable fast electronics and an on-line microcomputer data acquisition module. In order to achieve absolute burnup values, the detection set (collimator tube+HPGe detector) was previously calibrated in efficiency. The obtained burnup values are compared with ones provided by reactor physics calculations, for three kinds of MTR fuel elements with different cooling times, initial enrichment grades and total number of fuel plates. Both values show good agreement within the experimental error limits.

  10. The Gamma-ray Afterglows of Tidal Disruption Events

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xian; Guillochon, James

    2015-01-01

    A star wandering too close to a supermassive black hole (SMBH) will be tidally disrupted. Previous studies of such "tidal disruption event" (TDE) mostly focus on the stellar debris that are bound to the system, because they give rise to luminous flares. On the other hand, half of the stellar debris in principle are unbound and can steam to a great distance, but so far there is no clear evidence that this "unbound debris steam" (UDS) exists. Motivated by the fact that the circum-nuclear region around SMBHs is usually filled with dense molecular clouds (MCs), here we investigate the observational signatures resulting from the collision between an UDS and a MC, which is likely to happen hundreds of years after a TDE. We focus on $\\gamma$-ray emission ($0.1-10^5$ GeV), which comes from the encounter of shock-accelerated cosmic rays with background protons and, more importantly, is not subject to extinction. We show that because of the high proton density inside the MC, the peak $\\gamma$-ray luminosity is at least...

  11. EBL constraints with VERITAS gamma-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Alonso, M.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) contains all the radiation emitted by nuclear and accretion processes since the epoch of recombination. Direct measurements of the EBL in the near-IR to mid-IR waveband are extremely difficult due mainly to the zodiacal light foreground. Instead, gamma-ray astronomy offers the possibility to indirectly set limits to the EBL by studying the effects of gamma-ray absorption in the spectra of detected sources in the very high energy range (VHE: 100 GeV). These effects can be generally seen in the spectra of VHE blazars as a softening (steepening) of the spectrum and/or abrupt changes in the spectral index or breaks. In this work, we use recent VERITAS data of a group of blazars and apply two methods to derive constraints for the EBL spectral properties. We present preliminary results that will be completed with new observations in the near future to enhance the calculated restrictions to the EBL.

  12. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nucleus {sup 139}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Ivascu, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Rusu, C.; Suliman, G. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)

    2006-03-15

    Gamma-ray coincidence techniques are used to determine new level structures in the N=81 nucleus {sup 139}Ce, at low spins and excitation energies with the {sup 139}La(p,n{gamma}) reaction at 5.0 and 6.0 MeV incident energy, and at high spins with the {sup 130}Te({sup 12}C,3n{gamma}) reaction at 50.5 MeV, respectively. Lifetime determinations are also made in the (p,n{gamma}) reaction with the centroid DSA method. The observed level structures are discussed by comparison with existing calculations and with those in the neighbouring nucleus {sup 140}Ce. (orig.)

  13. High energy gamma-ray emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts -- before GLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft gamma-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high energy gamma-ray emission (>20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  14. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  15. Measurement of deuteron induced gamma-ray emission differential cross sections on natCl from 1.0 to 2.0 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.

    2016-06-01

    In this research work, measured differential cross sections for gamma-ray emission from the nuclear reactions 35Cl(d,pγ1-0)36Cl (Eγ = 788 keV), 35Cl(d,pγ2-0)36Cl (Eγ = 1165 keV), 37Cl(d,pγ1-0)38Cl (Eγ = 671 keV) and 37Cl(d,pγ2-0)38Cl (Eγ = 755 keV) are presented. For these measurements a thin natural BaCl2 target evaporated onto a 50 μm-thick Mo foil was used. The gamma-rays and backscattered deuterons were detected simultaneously. An HPGe detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction was employed to collect gamma-rays while an ion implanted Si detector placed at a scattering angle of 165° was used to detect backscattered deuterons. The validity of the obtained differential cross sections was verified through a thick target benchmarking experiment. The overall systematic uncertainty of cross section values was estimated to be ±10%.

  16. Thick target yields of proton induced gamma-ray emission from Al, Si and P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokar, A.; Kakuee, O.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Fathollahi, V.

    2017-03-01

    Thick target excitation yield curves of gamma-rays from the reactions 27Al(p,p‧γ)27Al (Eγ = 844 and 1014 keV), 27Al(p,αγ)27Al (Eγ = 1369 keV), 28Si(p,p‧γ)28Si (Eγ = 1779 keV), 29Si(p,p‧γ)29Si (Eγ = 1273 keV) and 31P(p,p‧γ)31P (Eγ = 1266 keV) were measured by bombarding pure-element targets with protons at energies below 3 MeV. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector placed at an angle of 90° with respect to the beam direction. The obtained thick target gamma-ray yields were compared with the previously published data. The overall systematic uncertainty of the thick target yield values was estimated to be better than ±9%.

  17. Attosecond gamma-ray pulses via nonlinear Compton scattering in the radiation dominated regime

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian-Xing; Galow, Benjamin J; Keitel, Christoph H

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of a relativistic electron bunch with a counter-propagating tightly-focused laser beam is investigated for intensities when the dynamics is strongly affected by its own radiation. The Compton scattering spectra of gamma-radiation are evaluated employing a semiclassical description for the laser-driven electron dynamics and a quantum electrodynamical description for the photon emissions. We show for laser facilities under construction that gamma-ray bursts of few hundred attoseconds and dozens of megaelectronvolt photon energies may be detected in the near-backwards direction of the initial electron motion. Tight focussing of the laser beam and radiation reaction are demonstrated to be jointly responsible for such short gamma-ray bursts which are independent of both duration of electron bunch and laser pulse. Furthermore, the stochastic nature of the gamma-photon emission features signatures in the resulting gamma-ray comb in the case of the application of a multi-cycle laser pulse.

  18. A simple identification method for spore-forming bacteria showing high resistance against [gamma]-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko; Sone, Koji; Kobayashi, Toshikazu (Japan Radioisotope Association, Koka, Shiga (Japan). Koka Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    A simple identification method was developed for spore-forming bacteria which are highly resistant against [gamma]-rays. Among 23 species of Bacillus studied, the spores of Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. pumilus and B. aneurinolyticus showed high resistance against [gamma]-rays as compared with other spores of Bacillus species. Combination of the seven kinds of biochemical tests, namely, the citrate utilization test, nitrate reduction test, starch hydrolysis test, Voges-Proskauer reaction test, gelatine hydrolysis test, mannitol utilization test and xylose utilization test showed a characteristic pattern for each species of Bacillus. The combination pattern of each the above tests with a few supplementary test, if necessary, was useful to identify Bacillus species showing high radiation resistance against [gamma]-rays. The method is specific for B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis and B. pumilus, and highly selective for B. aneurinolyticus and B. cereus. (author).

  19. Evaluation of the 1077keV gamma-ray emission probability from 68Ga decay

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X L; Chen, X J; Chen, G C

    2013-01-01

    68Ga decays to the excited states of 68Zn through the electron capture decay mode. New recommended values for the emission probability of 1077keV gamma-ray given by the ENSDF and DDEP databases all use data from absolute measurements. In 2011 Jiang Liyang deduced a new value for 1077keV gamma-ray emission probability by measuring the 69Ga(n,2n)68Ga reaction cross section. The new value is about 20% lower than values obtained from previous absolute measurements and evaluations. In this paper, the discrepancies among the measurements and evaluations are analyzed carefully and the new values are re-recommended. Our recommended value for the emission probability of 1077keV gamma-ray is 2.72+-0.16 %.

  20. Gamma-ray observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Allafort, A; Antolini, E; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Enoto, T; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Fukui, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Lee, S -H; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makishima, K; Mazziotta, M N; Mehault, J; Mitthumsiri, W; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Naumann-Godo, M; Nishino, S; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tramacere, A; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between \\sim100 MeV and \\sim100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to \\sim10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity integrated CO intensity (WCO) at a 1{\\deg} \\times1{\\deg} pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a WCO range of ~10 fold when divided in 3 regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The Wco-to-mass conversion factor, Xco, is found to be \\sim2.3\\times1...

  1. Tom Bonner Prize: Gamma-ray energy tracking array GRETINA and its early science results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-ray detector with good energy resolution has been one of the essential instruments for the study of nuclear structure. To push these studies toward the exotic nuclei near the particle stability line, we need detectors with higher peak efficiency and good peak-to-total ratio. In addition, radioactive ion beams needed for such studies are often produced by the projectile fragmentation method. They have high velocities, and detectors must provide adequate position resolution for accurate Doppler correction. To fulfill these requirements, the new concept of gamma ray energy tracking array was developed. GRETINA, with 1 π solid angle coverage, is the first implementation of this concept. It uses electrically segmented Ge crystals in a close packed geometry, fast digital electronics, and signal decomposition to determine the position and energy of the individual interaction points. Then the path of a gamma ray can be tracked using the angle-energy relation of the scattering process. GRETINA was completed at LBNL and started physics operation in 2012. It has been used at NSCL at MSU and ATLAS at ANL for a large number of experiments addressing diverse topics from nuclear structure to nuclear astrophysics. In this talk I will describe the concept of gamma-ray energy tracking and the technology developed for GRETINA. A few representative experiments showing the breadth of the science and the power of the instrument will be discussed. Finally the plan toward the full 4 π array GRETA will be presented.

  2. Feasibility of Strong and Quasi-Monochromatic Gamma-Ray Generation by the Laser Compton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This is because LCS γ-rays are energy-tunable, quasi-monochromatic, and beam-like. The photon intensity of the mono-chromatic LCS gamma-ray should be high or strong for efficient and high transmutation rate. It was recently reported that a so-called energy-recovery linac system is able to produce a very high-intensity LCS photons in the order of approximately 1013 photons/s economically. It however did not evaluate quality of the LCS photon beam although a quasi-monoenergetic LCS beam is of huge importance in the photo-nuclear transmutation reactions. It is upon this observation that this paper was prepared. Specifically, this work attempts to quantify intensity of the quasi-monochromatic LCS beam from the said linac system. In addition, this paper aims to discuss general characteristics of the LCS photon, and possible approaches to increase its intensity. This paper presents essential characteristics of the laser Compton scattering (LCS) in terms of its photon energy, cross-section and photon intensity. By using different combinations of electron energy, laser energy and scattering angle, we can effectively generate high-intensity and highly-chromatic LCS gamma-rays. Our preliminary analyses indicate that, in view of Compton cross-section, higher-energy photon can be better generated by increasing the electron energy rather than increasing the laser energy. However, in order to maximize the intensity of monochromatic beam, the laser energy should be maximized for a targeted LCS photon energy.

  3. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano [Department of Physics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-08-20

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  4. Reproducibility of (n,γ) gamma ray spectrum in Pb under different ENDF/B releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebwaro, J.M., E-mail: jeremiahkebwaro@gmail.com [Department of Physical Sciences, Karatina University, P.O. Box 1957-10101, Karatina (Kenya); He, C.H.; Zhao, Y.L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Radiative capture reactions are of interest in shielding design and other fundamental research. In this study the reproducibility of (n,γ) reactions in Pb when cross-section data from different ENDF/B releases are used in the Monte-Carlo code, MCNP, was investigated. Pb was selected for this study because it is widely used in shielding applications where capture reactions are likely to occur. Four different neutron spectra were declared as source in the MCNP model which consisted of a simple spherical geometry. The gamma ray spectra due to the capture reactions were recorded at 10 cm from the center of the sphere. The results reveal that the gamma ray spectrum produced by ENDF/B-V is in reasonable agreement with that produced when ENDF/B-VI.6 is used. However the spectrum produced by ENDF/B-VII does not reveal any primary gamma rays in the higher energy region (E > 3 MeV). It is further observed that the intensities of the capture gamma rays produced when various releases are used differ by a some margin showing that the results are not reproducible. The generated spectra also vary with the spectrum of the source neutrons. The discrepancies observed among various ENDF/B releases could raise concerns to end users and need to be addressed properly during benchmarking calculations before the next release. The evaluation from ENDF to ACE format that is supplied with MCNP should also be examined because errors might have arisen during the evaluation.

  5. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energ...

  6. Properties of $\\gamma$-Ray Burst Classes

    CERN Document Server

    Hakkila, J; Roiger, R J; Mallozzi, R S; Pendleton, G N; Meegan, C A; Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    The three gamma-ray burst (GRB) classes identified by statistical clustering analysis (Mukherjee et al. 1998) are examined using the pattern recognition algorithm C4.5 (Quinlan 1986). Although the statistical existence of Class 3 (intermediate duration, intermediate fluence, soft) is supported, the properties of this class do not need to arise from a distinct source population. Class 3 properties can easily be produced from Class 1 (long, high fluence, intermediate hardness) by a combination of measurement error, hardness/intensity correlation, and a newly-identified BATSE bias (the fluence duration bias). Class 2 (short, low fluence, hard) does not appear to be related to Class 1.

  7. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  8. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  9. The Nature of Gamma Ray Burst Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Cano, Zach

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Supernovae (SNe) are among the brightest and most energetic physical processes in the universe. It is known that core-collapse SNe arise from the gravitational collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars (the progen- itors of nearby core-collapse SNe have been imaged and unambiguously identified). It is also believed that the progenitors of long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs) are massive stars, mainly due to the occurrence and detection of very energetic core-collap...

  10. Two classes of gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, J I

    1995-01-01

    Data from the 3B Catalogue suggest that short and long GRB are the results of different classes of events, rather than different parameter values within a single class: Short bursts have harder spectra in the BATSE bands, but chiefly long bursts are detected at photon energies over 1 MeV, implying that their hard photons are radiated by a process not found in short bursts. The values of \\langle V/V_{max} \\rangle for short and long bursts differ by 4.3 \\sigma, implying different spatial distributions. Only the soft gamma-ray radiation mechanisms are the same in both classes.

  11. Material recognition using fission gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: giuseppe.viesti@pd.infn.it; Sajo-Bohus, L. [Universidad Simon-Bolivar, Laboratorio Fisica Nuclear, Apartado 8900, 1080 A. Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Fabris, D. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2009-07-21

    Material recognition is studied by measuring the transmission spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission gamma rays in the energy range E{sub {gamma}}=0.1-5.5 MeV for 0.1-MeV-wide energy bins through a number of elementary samples. Each transmitted spectrum is compared with a library of reference spectra for different elements providing the possibility of material identification. In case of elemental samples with known thickness, this procedure allows the identification of the sample Z with uncertainty typically lower than 3 Z-units over a wide range of elements. Applications to composite materials are also reported.

  12. Multiwavelength Studies of gamma-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Christina

    2011-01-01

    High mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) consist of an O or B star orbited by either a neutron star or a black hole. Of the 114 known Galactic HMXBs, a handful of these objects, dubbed gamma-ray binaries, have been observed to produce MeV-TeV emission. The very high energy emission can be produced either by accretion from the stellar wind onto a black hole or a collision between the stellar wind and a relativistic pulsar wind. Both these scenarios make gamma-ray binaries valuable nearby systems for studying the physics of shocks and jets. Currently, the nature of the compact object and the high energy production mechanism is unknown or unconfirmed in over half of these systems. My goal for this dissertation is to constrain the parameters describing two of these systems: LS 5039 and HD 259440. LS 5039 exhibits gamma-ray emission modulated with its orbital period. The system consists of an ON6.5V((f)) star and an unidentified compact companion. Using optical spectra from the CTIO 1.5m telescope, we found LS 5039 to have an orbital period of 3.90608 d and an eccentricity of 0.337. Spectra of the Halpha line observed with SOAR indicate a mass loss rate of ˜ 1.9x10 -8 M yr-1. Observations taken with ATCA at 13 cm, 6 cm, and 3 cm indicate radio fluxes between 10--40 mJy. The measurements show variability with time, indicating a source other than thermal emission from the stellar wind. HD 259440 is a B0pe star that was proposed as the optical counterpart to the gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057. Using optical spectra from the KPNO CF, KPNO 2.1m, and OHP telescopes, we find a best fit stellar effective temperature of 27500--30000 K, a log surface gravity of 3.75--4.0, a mass of 13.2--19.0 Msolar, and a radius of 6.0--9.6 Rsolar. By fitting the spectral energy distribution, we find a distance between 1.1--1.7 kpc. We do not detect any significant radial velocity shifts in our data, ruling out orbital periods shorter than one month. If HD 259440 is a binary, it is likely a long

  13. Nucleosynthetic Yields from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Rockefeller, Gabriel; Young, Patrick; Bennett, Michael; Diehl, Steven; Herwig, Falk; Hirschi, Raphael; Hungerford, Aimee; Pignatari, Marco; Magkotsios, Georgios; Timmes, Francis X

    2008-01-01

    The "collapsar" engine for gamma-ray bursts invokes as its energy source the failure of a normal supernova and the formation of a black hole. Here we present the results of the first three-dimensional simulation of the collapse of a massive star down to a black hole, including the subsequent accretion and explosion. The explosion differs significantly from the axisymmetric scenario obtained in two-dimensional simulations; this has important consequences for the nucleosynthetic yields. We compare the nucleosynthetic yields to those of hypernovae. Calculating yields from three-dimensional explosions requires new strategies in post-process nucleosynthesis; we discuss NuGrid's plan for three-dimensional yields.

  14. RIPL - Reference Input Parameter Library for Calculation of Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Data Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote, R.; Herman, M.; Obložinský, P.; Young, P. G.; Goriely, S.; Belgya, T.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Plujko, V. A.; Avrigeanu, M.; Bersillon, O.; Chadwick, M. B.; Fukahori, T.; Ge, Zhigang; Han, Yinlu; Kailas, S.; Kopecky, J.; Maslov, V. M.; Reffo, G.; Sin, M.; Soukhovitskii, E. Sh.; Talou, P.

    2009-12-01

    phenomenological parameterizations based on the modified Fermi gas and superfluid models and microscopic calculations which are based on a realistic microscopic single-particle level scheme. Partial level densities formulae are also recommended. All tabulated total level densities are consistent with both the recommended average neutron resonance parameters and discrete levels. GAMMA contains parameters that quantify giant resonances, experimental gamma-ray strength functions and methods for calculating gamma emission in statistical model codes. The experimental GDR parameters are represented by Lorentzian fits to the photo-absorption cross sections for 102 nuclides ranging from 51V to 239Pu. FISSION includes global prescriptions for fission barriers and nuclear level densities at fission saddle points based on microscopic HFB calculations constrained by experimental fission cross sections.

  15. First Data with the Hybrid Array of Gamma-Ray Detectors (HAGRiD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl; Burcher, S.; Carter, A. B.; Gryzwacz, R.; Jones, K. L.; Munoz, S.; Paulauskas, S. V.; Schmitt, K.; Thornsberry, C.; Chipps, K. A.; Febbraro, M.; Pain, S. D.; Baugher, T.; Cizewski, J. A.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Toomey, B.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of nuclei provides insight into astrophysical reaction rates that are difficult to measure directly. These studies are often performed with transfer reaction and beta-decay measurements. These experiments benefit from particle-gamma coincident measurements providing information beyond that of particle detection alone. The Hybrid Array of Gamma Ray Detectors (HAGRiD) of LaBr3(Ce) scintillators has been designed with this purpose in mind. The design of the array permits it to be coupled with particle detector systems, such as the Oak Ridge Rutgers University Barrel Array (ORRUBA) of silicon detectors and the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE). It is also designed to operate with the Jet Experiments in Nuclear Structure and Astrophysics (JENSA) advanced target system. HAGRiD's design avoids compromising the charged-particle angular resolution due to compact geometries often used to increase the gamma efficiency in other systems. First experimental data with HAGRiD coupled to VANDLE as well as ORRUBA and JENSA will be presented. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science Nuclear Physics and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  17. How promising is the search for gamma-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1985-03-01

    Radiopulsars are rotating neutron stars. At present more than 330 of these objects are known. From two of them (Crab and Vela) pulsed emission has been observed at ..gamma..-ray energies, too. Because both of these pulsars have their maximum of luminosity at ..gamma..-ray energies and not in the radio range, it is supposed that the key for an understanding of the pulsar phenomenon will be found in the ..gamma..-ray range. In spite of intensive searches in the ..gamma..-ray range no further pulsars have been found yet. Indeed, theoretical estimates on the ..gamma..-ray luminosity indicate that only the next generation of ..gamma..-ray telescopes will be sufficiently sensitive to see more of them.

  18. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results. 2. Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma-ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR1818-04 and PSR1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma-ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Since the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma-ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma-ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. Using distance estimates it is found that PSR1818-04 has a gamma-ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, while the luminosities of PSR1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. This survey of SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations has also yielded upper limits to gamma-ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars.

  19. Gamma ray densitometry techniques for measuring of volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affonso, Renato Raoni Werneck; Silva, Ademir Xavier da; Salgado, Cesar Marques, E-mail: raoniwa@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the volume fraction in a multiphase flow is of key importance in predicting the performance of many systems and processes. It is therefore an important parameter to characterize such flows. In the context of nuclear techniques, the gamma ray densitometry is promising and this is due to its non-invasive characteristics and very reliable results. It is used in several applications for multiphase flows (water-oil-air), which are employed tools such as: computational fluid dynamics, artificial neural networks and statistical methods of radiation transport, such as the Monte Carlo method. Based on the gamma radiation techniques for measurements of volume fractions, the aim of this paper is to present several techniques developed for this purpose. (author)

  20. Gamma ray absorption of cylindrical fissile material with dual shields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chen-Yan; TIAN Dong-Feng; CHENG Yi-Ying; HUANG Yong-Yi; LU Fu-Quan; YANG Fu-Jia

    2005-01-01

    This work analyzed the gamma ray attenuation effect from the self-absorption and shield attenuation perspectively. An exact mathematical equation was given for the geometric factor of the cylindrical fissile material with dual shields. In addition, several approximation approaches suitable for real situation were discussed, especially in the radial and axial directions of the cylinders, since the G-factors have simple forms. Then the space distribution patterns of the G-factor were analyzed based on numerical result and effective ways to solve the geometric information of the cylindrical fissile material, the radii and the heights, were deduced. This method was checked and verified by numerical calculation. Because of the efficiency of the method, it is ideal for application in real situations, such as nuclear safeguards, which demands speed of detection and accuracy of geometric analysis.

  1. Compact Gamma-ray Source Technology Development Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S G; Gibson, D J; Rusnak, B

    2009-09-25

    This study focuses on the applicability of current accelerator and laser technologies to the construction of compact, narrow bandwidth, gamma-ray sources for DHS missions in illicit materials detection. It also identifies research and development areas in which advancement will directly benefit these light sources. In particular, we review the physics of Compton scattering based light sources and emphasize the source properties most important to Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) applications of interest. The influences of laser and electron beam properties on the light source are examined in order to evaluate the utility of different technologies for this application. Applicable bulk and fiber-based laser systems and laser recirculation technologies are discussed and Radio Frequency (RF) Linear Accelerator (linac) technologies are examined to determine the optimal frequency and pulse formats achievable.

  2. A computational study of gabor zone plate gamma ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, C E

    2000-01-01

    Gamma ray zone plate holography is a new technique with applications to Nuclear Medicine. Unlike other tomographic techniques, three-dimensional images can be reconstructed from just one projection. The history of zone plate holography is reviewed, and the differences between this technique and conventional holography are outlined. Sources of error in the recorded hologram are reviewed and methods for the assessment of image quality are given. Three image reconstruction techniques are described and compared. These techniques are convolution, deconvolution and the CLEAN algorithm. Simulated diffraction is the main image reconstruction method which has previously been used to reconstruct images from zone plate holograms. This method is a form of convolution reconstruction. Several variations on this technique are introduced and compared. Matched filtering is also investigated and compared with the simulated diffraction based methods. An approximate Fourier Wiener filter is used to reconstruct the images by deco...

  3. Giant dipole resonance decay and bremsstrahlung emission as a source of high-energy gamma-rays in sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg and sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 4 Ni reactions at 6-11 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Kicinska-Habior, M; Maj, A; Kelly, M P; Schagen, J P S; Snover, K A

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that in the mass-asymmetric reactions, sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg and sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 4 Ni, at E sub p /A = 6-11 MeV/u, the two types of gamma-ray emission, statistical GDR decay and bremsstrahlung radiation, may be disentangled using angular distribution measurements. The analyzed data give information on the GDR built on excited states as well as on the bremsstrahlung process. The extracted GDR parameters and bremsstrahlung parameters for sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 2 sup 4 sup , sup 2 sup 6 Mg are in general in agreement with the systematics. However, the inverse slope parameter, E sub 0 , depends on gamma-ray energy and as a result the bremsstrahlung cross-section at low and high E subgamma energies is lower than expected for constant E sub 0 value.

  4. Absolute hydrogen depth profiling using the resonant $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C nuclear reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Tobias P; Bemmerer, Daniel; Stöckel, Klaus; Wagner, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Resonant nuclear reactions are a powerful tool for the determination of the amount and profile of hydrogen in thin layers of material. Usually, this tool requires the use of a standard of well-known composition. The present work, by contrast, deals with standard-less hydrogen depth profiling. This approach requires precise nuclear data, e.g. on the widely used $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C reaction, resonant at 6.4\\,MeV $^{15}$N beam energy. Here, the strongly anisotropic angular distribution of the emitted $\\gamma$-rays from this resonance has been re-measured, resolving a previous discrepancy. Coefficients of (0.38$\\pm$0.04) and (0.80$\\pm$0.04) have been deduced for the second and fourth order Legendre polynomials, respectively. In addition, the resonance strength has been re-evaluated to (25.0$\\pm$1.5)\\,eV, 10\\% higher than previously reported. A simple working formula for the hydrogen concentration is given for cases with known $\\gamma$-ray detection efficiency. Finally, the absolute approach i...

  5. Relation between $\\gamma$-rays and emission lines for the $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, J H

    2000-01-01

    The relation between the $\\gamma$-ray and the emission line luminosities for a sample of 36 $\\gamma$-ray loud blazars is investigated; an apparent correlation between them, $L_{\\gamma} \\propto L_{Line}^{0.69\\pm0.11}$, with a correlation coefficient $r=0.741$ and a chance probability of $p = 1.9\\times10^{-6}$, is found. It is found, however, that there is no intrinsic correlation between them: the apparent correlation is due to the redshift dependence in a flux-limited sample. Thus no evidence is found to support the argument that the up-scattered soft photons are from the broad emission lines. Our analysis does not conflict with the SSC model. The disk-jet symbiosis and radio/$\\gamma$-ray correlation found in the literature are also discussed. The radio/$\\gamma$-ray correlation may be an apparent correlation caused by the boosting effect since both bands are strongly beamed.

  6. Gamma-ray Polarimetry with the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislat, Fabian

    2017-08-01

    The All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) is a next-generation Compton and pair-production telescope. It will allow us to perform sensitive polarimetric observations in the 200keV to 3MeV energy range. Due to its wide field of view it will survey the entire sky every 3 hours, enabling polarization measurements not only of persistent, but also of transient sources such as gamma-ray bursts. The polarization of gamma-rays carries geometric information about compact emission regions that are too small to be imaged at any wavelength, and will thus provide qualitatively new insights. In this paper we discuss AMEGO's polarization sensitivity based on detailed simulations of the instrument. We will use these results to discuss the scientific potential of AMEGO to search for violations of Lorentz invariance. Finally, we present predictions for possible observations based on theoretical models of bright gamma-ray bursts, blazar jets, and the high-energy tail of the galactic black hole binary Cygnus X-1. These predictions will demonstrate AMEGO's ability to distinguish different theoretical models.

  7. Investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation sources

    CERN Document Server

    Liu Su Ping; Gu Dang Chang; Gong-Jian; Hao Fan Hua; Hu Guang Chun

    2002-01-01

    Radiation fingerprints sometimes can be used to label and identify the radiation resources. For instance, in a future nuclear reduction treaty that requires verification of irreversible dismantling of reduced nuclear warheads, the radiation fingerprints of nuclear warheads are expected to play a key role in labelling and identifying the reduced warheads. It would promote the development of nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification technologies if authors start right now some investigations on the issues related to the radiation fingerprints. The author dedicated to the investigation of gamma-ray fingerprint identifying mechanism for the types of radiation resources. The purpose of the identifying mechanism investigation is to find a credible way to tell whether any two gamma-ray spectral fingerprints that are under comparison are radiated from the same resource. The authors created the spectrum pattern comparison (SPC) to study the comparability of the two radiation fingerprints. Guided by the principle of SPC,...

  8. Response of AGATA Segmented HPGe Detectors to Gamma Rays up to 15.1 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Crespi, F C L; Camera, F; Akkoyun, S; Atac, A; Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Bortolato, D; Bottoni, S; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Bruyneel, B; Cerutia, S; Ciemala, M; Coelli, S; Eberth, J; Fanin, C; Farnea, E; Gadea, A; Giaz, A; Gottardo, A; Hess, H; Kmiecik, M; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Mengoni, D; Michelagnoli, C; Million, B; Montanari, D; Pellegri, L; Recchia, F; Reiter, P; Riboldi, S; Ur, C A; Vandone, V; Valiente-Dobon, J J; Wieland, O; Wiens, A

    2012-01-01

    The response of AGATA segmented HPGe detectors to gamma rays in the energy range 2-15 MeV was measured. The 15.1 MeV gamma rays were produced using the reaction d(11B,ng)12C at Ebeam = 19.1 MeV, while gamma-rays between 2 to 9 MeV were produced using an Am-Be-Fe radioactive source. The energy resolution and linearity were studied and the energy-to-pulse-height conversion resulted to be linear within 0.05%. Experimental interaction multiplicity distributions are discussed and compared with the results of Geant4 simulations. It is shown that the application of gamma-ray tracking allows a suppression of background radiation following neutron capture by Ge nuclei. Finally the Doppler correction for the 15.1 MeV gamma line, performed using the position information extracted with Pulse-shape Analysis, is discussed.

  9. AGNs and microquasars as high energy gamma-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Paredes, J M

    2004-01-01

    The extragalactic analogs of the microquasars, the quasars, are strong gamma-ray emitters at GeV energies. It is expected that microquasars are also gamma-ray sources, because of the analogy with quasars and because theoretical models predict the high-energy emission. There are two microquasars that appear as the possible counterparts for two unidentified high-energy gamma-ray sources.

  10. Gamma ray bursts, neutron star quakes, and the Casimir effect

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, C; Pérez-Mercader, J; Carlson, C; Goldman, T; Perez-Mercader, J

    1994-01-01

    We propose that the dynamic Casimir effect is a mechanism that converts the energy of neutron starquakes into \\gamma--rays. This mechanism efficiently produces photons from electromagnetic Casimir energy released by the rapid motion of a dielectric medium into a vacuum. Estimates based on the cutoff energy of the gamma ray bursts and the volume involved in a starquake indicate that the total gamma ray energy emission is consonant with observational requirements.

  11. Developing a method for soft gamma-ray Laue lens assembly and calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E; Lowell, Alexander; Wade, Colin; Baugh, Max; von Ballmoos, Peter; Abrosimov, Nikolay V; Hanlon, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Laue lenses constitute a promising option for concentrating soft gamma rays with a large collection area and reasonable focal lengths. In astronomy they could lead to increased telescope sensitivity by one to two orders of magnitude, in particular for faint nuclear gamma-ray lines, but also for continua like hard X-ray tails from a variety of compact objects. Other fields like Homeland security and nuclear medicine share the same need for more sensitive gamma-ray detection systems and could find applications for gamma-ray focusing optics. There are two primary challenges for developing Laue lenses: the search for high-reflectivity and reproducible crystals, and the development of a method to accurately orient and fix the thousands of crystals constituting a lens. In this paper we focus on the second topic. We used our dedicated X-ray beamline and Laue lens assembly station to build a breadboard lens made of 15 crystals. This allowed us to test our tools and methods, as well as our simulation code and calibrat...

  12. Development of a digital method for neutron/gamma-ray discrimination based on matched filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolczuk, S.; Linczuk, M.; Romaniuk, R.; Zychor, I.

    2016-09-01

    Neutron/gamma-ray discrimination is crucial for measurements with detectors sensitive to both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. Different techniques to discriminate between neutrons and gamma-rays based on pulse shape analysis are widely used in many applications, e.g., homeland security, radiation dosimetry, environmental monitoring, fusion experiments, nuclear spectroscopy. A common requirement is to improve a radiation detection level with a high detection reliability. Modern electronic components, such as high speed analog to digital converters and powerful programmable digital circuits for signal processing, allow us to develop a fully digital measurement system. With this solution it is possible to optimize digital signal processing algorithms without changing any electronic components in an acquisition signal path. We report on results obtained with a digital acquisition system DNG@NCBJ designed at the National Centre for Nuclear Research. A 2'' × 2'' EJ309 liquid scintillator was used to register mixed neutron and gamma-ray radiation from PuBe sources. A dedicated algorithm for pulse shape discrimination, based on real-time filtering, was developed and implemented in hardware.

  13. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  14. Radio flares from gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Kopac, D; Kobayashi, S; Virgili, F J; Harrison, R; Japelj, J; Guidorzi, C; Melandri, A; Gomboc, A

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parametrization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. (2007) and Melandri et al. (2010) in which the typical frequency of the reverse shock was suggested to lie at radio, rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct reverse-shock radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1 -- 1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later opt...

  15. $\\gamma$-Ray Bursts the Four Crises

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M

    1998-01-01

    We discuss some open problems concerning the origin and the emission mechanism of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in light of recent developments. If GRBs originate at extragalactic distances, we are facing four crises: (1) an energy crisis, models have to account for more than 10^{53} ergs of energy emitted in the gamma-ray energy band; (2) a spectral crisis, emission models have to account for the surprising `smoothness' of GRB broad-band spectra, with no indication of the predicted spectral `distorsions' caused by inverse Compton scattering in large radiation energy density media, and no evidence for beaming; (3) an afterglow crisis, relativistic shock models have to explain the complexity of the afterglow behavior, the longevity of optical transients detectable up to six months after the burst, the erratic behavior of the radio emission, and the lack of evidence for substantial beaming as indicated by recent searches for GRB afterglows in the X-ray band; (4) a population crisis, from data clearly indicating that ...

  16. The interplanetary gamma ray burst network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, T.

    The Interplanetary Gamma-Ray Burst Network (IPN) is providing gamma-ray burst (GRB) alerts and localizations at the maximum rate anticipated before the launch of the Swift mission. The arc-minute source precision of the IPN is again permitting searches for GRB afterglows in the radio and optical regimes with delays of only hours up to 2 days. The successful addition of the Mars Odyssey mission has compensated for the loss of the asteroid mission NEAR, to reconstitute a fully long- baseline interplanetary network, with Ulysses at > 5 AU and Konus-Wind and HETE-2 near the Earth. In addition to making unassisted GRB localizations that enable a renewed supply of counterpart observations, the Mars/Ulysses/Wind IPN is confirming and reinforcing GRB source localizations with HETE-2. It has also confirmed and reinforced localizations with the BeppoSAX mission before the BeppoSAX termination in May and has detected and localized both SGRs and an unusual hard x-ray transient that is neither an SGR nor a GRB. This IPN is expected to operate until at least 2004.

  17. Gamma-ray bursts and collisionless shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2006-01-01

    Particle acceleration in collisionless shocks is believed to be responsible for the production of cosmic-rays over a wide range of energies, from few GeV to >10^{20} eV, as well as for the non-thermal emission of radiation from a wide variety of high energy astrophysical sources. A theory of collisionless shocks based on first principles does not, however, exist. Observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) "afterglows" provide a unique opportunity for diagnosing the physics of relativistic collisionless shocks. Most GRBs are believed to be associated with explosions of massive stars, and their "afterglows," delayed low energy emission following the prompt burst of gamma-rays, are produced by relativistic collisionless shock waves driven by the explosion into the surrounding plasma. Some of the striking characteristics of these shocks include the generation of downstream magnetic fields with energy density exceeding that of the upstream field by ~8 orders of magnitude, the survival of this strong field at distances ...

  18. Gamma-ray binaries: pulsars in disguise ?

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, G

    2006-01-01

    LS 5039 and LSI +61 303 are unique amongst high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) for their spatially-resolved radio emission and their counterpart at >GeV gamma-ray energies, canonically attributed to non-thermal particles in an accretion-powered relativistic jet. The only other HMXB known to emit very high energy (VHE) gamma-rays, PSR B1259-63, harbours a non-accreting millisecond pulsar. I investigate whether the interaction of the relativistic wind from a young pulsar with the wind from its stellar companion, as in PSR B1259-63, constitutes a viable scenario to explain the observations of LS 5039 and LSI +61 303. Emission would arise from the shocked pulsar wind material, which then flows away to large distances in a comet-shape tail, reproducing on a smaller scale what is observed in isolated, high motion pulsars interacting with the ISM. Simple expectations for the SED are derived and are shown to depend on few input parameters. Detailed modelling of the particle evolution is compared to the observations from ...

  19. Long Gamma-Ray Transients from Collapsars

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S E

    2011-01-01

    In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts, the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first $\\sim$10 seconds following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur - blue supergiants with low mass loss rates, tidally-interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common gamma-ray burst. A broad range of powers is possible, $10^{47}$ to $10^{50}\\,$erg s$^{-1}$, and t...

  20. The Cosmic Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Djorgovski, S G; Kulkarni, S R; Sari, R; Bloom, J S; Galama, T J; Harrison, F A; Price, P A; Fox, D; Reichart, D; Yost, S; Berger, E; Diercks, A H; Goodrich, R; Chaffee, F H

    2001-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray bursts are one of the great frontiers of astrophysics today. They are a playground of relativists and observers alike. They may teach us about the death of stars and the birth of black holes, the physics in extreme conditions, and help us probe star formation in the distant and obscured universe. In this review we summarise some of the remarkable progress in this field over the past few years. While the nature of the GRB progenitors is still unsettled, it now appears likely that at least some bursts originate in explosions of very massive stars, or at least occur in or near the regions of massive star formation. The physics of the burst afterglows is reasonably well understood, and has been tested and confirmed very well by the observations. Bursts are found to be beamed, but with a broad range of jet opening angles; the mean gamma-ray energies after the beaming corrections are ~ 10^51 erg. Bursts are associated with faint ~ 25 mag) galaxies at cosmological redshifts, with ~ 1. The host gal...

  1. Classifying Unidentified Gamma-ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Salvetti, David

    2016-01-01

    During its first 2 years of mission the Fermi-LAT instrument discovered more than 1,800 gamma-ray sources in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. Despite the application of advanced techniques to identify and associate the Fermi-LAT sources with counterparts at other wavelengths, about 40% of the LAT sources have no a clear identification remaining "unassociated". The purpose of my Ph.D. work has been to pursue a statistical approach to identify the nature of each Fermi-LAT unassociated source. To this aim, we implemented advanced machine learning techniques, such as logistic regression and artificial neural networks, to classify these sources on the basis of all the available gamma-ray information about location, energy spectrum and time variability. These analyses have been used for selecting targets for AGN and pulsar searches and planning multi-wavelength follow-up observations. In particular, we have focused our attention on the search of possible radio-quiet millisecond pulsar (MSP) candidates in the sample of...

  2. Gamma ray tests of Minimal Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirelli, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hambye, Thomas [Service de Physique Theórique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, CP225, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Panci, Paolo [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Sala, Filippo; Taoso, Marco [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-10-12

    We reconsider the model of Minimal Dark Matter (a fermionic, hypercharge-less quintuplet of the EW interactions) and compute its gamma ray signatures. We compare them with a number of gamma ray probes: the galactic halo diffuse measurements, the galactic center line searches and recent dwarf galaxies observations. We find that the original minimal model, whose mass is fixed at 9.4 TeV by the relic abundance requirement, is constrained by the line searches from the Galactic Center: it is ruled out if the Milky Way possesses a cuspy profile such as NFW but it is still allowed if it has a cored one. Observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also relevant (in particular searches for lines), and ongoing astrophysical progresses on these systems have the potential to eventually rule out the model. We also explore a wider mass range, which applies to the case in which the relic abundance requirement is relaxed. Most of our results can be safely extended to the larger class of multi-TeV WIMP DM annihilating into massive gauge bosons.

  3. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  4. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  6. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear], e-mail: laaterre@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  7. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  8. Activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold up to 40 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels (Belgium); Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-06-15

    Cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on gold were measured up to 40 MeV by using the standard stacked foil irradiation technique and high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Experimental cross-sections and derived integral yields are reported for the {sup 197}Au(d,xn){sup 197m,197g,195m,195g}Hg and {sup 197}Au(d,x){sup 198g,196m,196g,195,194}Au nuclear reactions. The experimental data are analyzed and compared to literature and predictions of the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS theoretical model codes. The application of the new cross-sections for accelerator technology, medical radioisotope production, thin layer activation and dose calculation is discussed.

  9. Magnetically insulated diode for generating pulsed neutron and gamma ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswa, Glenn W.; Leeper, Ramon J.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetically insulated diode employs a permanent magnet to generate a magnetic insulating field between a spaced anode and cathode in a vacuum. An ion source is provided in the vicinity of the anode and used to liberate ions for acceleration toward the cathode. The ions are virtually unaffected by the magnetic field and are accelerated into a target for generating an nuclear reaction. The ions and target material may be selected to generate either neutrons or gamma ray emissions from the reaction of the accelerated ions and the target. In another aspect of the invention, a field coil is employed as part of one of the electrodes. A plasma prefill is provided between the electrodes prior to the application of a pulsating potential to one of the electrodes. The field coil multiplies the applied voltage for high diode voltage applications. The diode may be used to generate a .sup.7 Li(p,.gamma.).sup.8 Be reaction to produce 16.5 MeV gamma emission.

  10. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint

  11. Identification of in-beam gamma rays in {sup 181}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Penttila, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The interest in studying the neutron-deficient Hg isotopes stems from the fact that they are located in a region of the nuclear landscape where shape changes occur and where very large deformations were predicted. More specifically, the investigation of odd-A nuclei enables one to identify the orbitals located in the vicinity of the Fermi surface which play a crucial role in determining global properties such as nuclear shapes. Prior to this experiment, the {sup 183}Hg nucleus studied by this collaboration was the lightest odd-A Hg isotope known. From a recent experiment performed at the FMA in conjunction with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors from the Argonne Notre Dame gamma-ray facility, it was possible to identify transitions in {sup 181}Hg following the {sup 144}Sm({sup 40}Ar,3n) reaction at a beam energy of 175 MeV. A level scheme was constructed and the transitions were regrouped into three rotational bands. One of these is proposed to be built on the [521]1/2{sup -} groundstate and the two others are interpreted as signature partner bands built on the [624]9/2{sup +} configuration. The statistics in this experiments were not sufficient to obtain multipolarity information and an additional measurement was proposed.

  12. Nuclear reaction database on Meme Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohbayashi, Yoshihide; Masui, Hiroshi [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Aoyama, Shigeyoshi [Information Processing Center, Kitami Institute of Technology, Kitami, Hokkaido (Japan); Kato, Kiyoshi [Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Chiba, Masaki [Division of Social Information, Sapporo Gakuin University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    We have developed the system of charged particle nuclear reaction data (CPND) on the IntelligentPad architecture. We called the system CONTIP, which is an abbreviation of 'Creative, Cooperative and Cultural Objects for Nuclear data and Tools'. NRDF (Nuclear Reaction Data File), which is a kind of CPND compilation, is applied as an application example. Although CONTIP is currently applied to NRDF, the framework can be generalized to use the othernuclear database. We will develop CONTIP to give the framework for effective utilization of nuclear data. (author)

  13. Digital Logarithmic Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, GuoQiang; Li, Chen; Tan, ChengJun; Ge, LiangQuan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range, because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. The spectrometer can clearly distinguish the photopeaks at 239, 352, 583, and 609keV in the low-energy spectral sections after the energy calibration. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, effectively measuring energy from 20keV to 10MeV is possible.

  14. Digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guo-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Xian; Li, Chen; Tan, Cheng-Jun; Ge, Liang-Quan; Gu, Yi; Cheng, Feng

    2014-07-01

    A new digital logarithmic airborne gamma ray spectrometer is designed in this study. The spectrometer adopts a high-speed and high-accuracy logarithmic amplifier (LOG114) to amplify the pulse signal logarithmically and to improve the utilization of the ADC dynamic range because the low-energy pulse signal has a larger gain than the high-energy pulse signal. After energy calibration, the spectrometer can clearly distinguish photopeaks at 239, 352, 583 and 609 keV in the low-energy spectral sections. The photopeak energy resolution of 137Cs improves to 6.75% from the original 7.8%. Furthermore, the energy resolution of three photopeaks, namely, K, U, and Th, is maintained, and the overall stability of the energy spectrum is increased through potassium peak spectrum stabilization. Thus, it is possible to effectively measure energy from 20 keV to 10 MeV.

  15. Gamma-ray burst afterglow theory

    CERN Document Server

    van Eerten, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    It is by now fairly well established that gamma-ray burst afterglows result from initially relativistic outflows interacting with the medium surrounding the burster and emitting non-thermal radiation ranging from radio to X-rays. However, beyond that, many big and small questions remain about afterglows, with the accumulating amount of observational data at the various frequencies raising as many questions as they answer. In this review I highlight a number of current theoretical issues and how they fit or do not fit within our basic theoretical framework. In addition to theoretical progress I will also emphasize the increasing role and usefulness of numerical studies of afterglow blast waves and their radiation.

  16. Balloon-borne gamma-ray polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The physical processes postulated to explain the high-energy emission mechanisms of compact astrophysical sources often yield polarised soft gamma rays (X-rays). PoGOLite is a balloon-borne polarimeter operating in the 25-80 keV energy band. The polarisation of incident photons is reconstructed using Compton scattering and photoelectric absorption in an array of phoswich detector cells comprising plastic and BGO scintillators, surrounded by a BGO side anticoincidence shield. The polarimeter is aligned to observation targets using a custom attitude control system. The maiden balloon flight is scheduled for summer 2011 from the Esrange Space Centre with the Crab and Cygnus X-1 as the primary observational targets.

  17. Statistics of gamma ray burst temporal asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Link, B; Link, Bennett; Epstein, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We study the temporal asymmetry of over 600 bursts from the BATSE 3B catalog, encompassing a 200-fold range in peak flux. By comparing the rates of rise and fall of the flux near the highest burst peak, we find that about two-thirds of the bursts exhibit a preferred asymmetry in the sense that the flux rises more rapidly than it falls, confirming the conclusions of previous studies employing smaller databases. The statistical significance of the average time asymmetry of the sample is >99.999\\%; therefore, models that predict time symmetry of the burst profile are ruled out. We find no statistically significant correlation between burst temporal asymmetry and peak. This result is consistent with both cosmological and local interpretations of the gamma ray burst phenomenon.

  18. Gamma-ray Production in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    1997-01-01

    Supernova remnants are widely believed to be a principal source of galactic cosmic rays, produced by diffusive shock acceleration in the environs of the remnant's expanding shock. This review discusses recent modelling of how such energetic particles can produce gamma-rays via interactions with the remnants' ambient interstellar medium, specifically via neutral pion decay, bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton emission. Predictions that relate to the handful of associations between EGRET unidentified sources and known radio/optical/X-ray emitting remnants are summarized. The cessation of acceleration above 1 TeV - 10 TeV energies in young shell-type remnants is critical to model consistency with Whipple's TeV upper limits; these observations provide important diagnostics for theoretical models.

  19. Black Holes, Supernovae and Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffini, Remo

    2013-01-01

    We review recent progress in our understanding of the nature of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) and in particular, of the relationship between short GRBs and long GRBs. The first example of a short GRB is described. The coincidental occurrence of a GRB with a supernova (SN) is explained within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, following the sequence: 1) an initial binary system consists of a compact carbon-oxygen (CO) core star and a neutron star (NS); 2) the CO core explodes as a SN, and part of the SN ejecta accretes onto the NS which reaches its critical mass and collapses to a black hole (BH) giving rise to a GRB; 3) a new NS is generated by the SN as a remnant. The observational consequences of this scenario are outlined.

  20. Perspectives on Gamma-Ray Pulsar Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, Matthew G

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are powerful sources of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. This paper highlights some theoretical insights into non-thermal, magnetospheric pulsar gamma-ray radiation. These advances have been driven by NASA's Fermi mission, launched in mid-2008. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) instrument on Fermi has afforded the discrimination between polar cap and slot gap/outer gap acceleration zones in young and middle-aged pulsars. Altitude discernment using the highest energy pulsar photons will be addressed, as will spectroscopic interpretation of the primary radiation mechanism in the LAT band, connecting to both polar cap/slot gap and outer gap scenarios. Focuses will mostly be on curvature radiation and magnetic pair creation, including population trends that may afford probes of the magnetospheric accelerating potential.

  1. Search for Gamma Ray Bursts at Chacaltaya

    CERN Document Server

    Vernetto, S

    2001-01-01

    A search for Gamma Ray Bursts in the GeV-TeV energy range has been performed by INCA, an air shower array working at 5200 m of altitude at the Chacaltaya Laboratory (Bolivia). The altitude of the detector and the use of the "single particle technique" allows to lower the energy threshold up to few GeVs. No significant signals are observed during the occurrence of 125 GRBs detected by BATSE, and the obtained upper limits on the energy fluence in the interval 1-1000(100) GeV range from 3.2(8.6) 10^-5 to 2.6(7.0) 10^-2 erg/cm^2 depending on the zenith angle of the events. These limits, thanks to the extreme altitude of INCA, are the lowest ever obtained in the sub-TeV energy region by a ground based esperiment.

  2. The Gamma Ray Bursts Hubble diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; Dainotti, M G; De Laurentis, M; Izzo, L; Perillo, M

    2011-01-01

    Thanks to their enormous energy release, Gamma Rays Bursts (GRBs) have recently attracted a lot of interest to probe the Hubble diagram (HD) deep into the matter dominated era and hence complement Type Ia Supernovae (SNeIa). We consider here three different calibration methods based on the use of a fiducial LCDM model, on cosmographic parameters and on the local regression on SNeIa to calibrate the scaling relations proposed as an equivalent to the Phillips law to standardize GRBs finding any significant dependence. We then investigate the evolution of these parameters with the redshift to obtain any statistical improvement. Under this assumption, we then consider possible systematics effects on the HDs introduced by the calibration method, the averaging procedure and the homogeneity of the sample arguing against any significant bias.

  3. Critical Test Of Gamma Ray Burst Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2016-01-01

    Long and precise follow-up measurements of the X-ray afterglow (AG) of very intense gamma ray bursts (GRBs) provide a critical test of GRB afterglow theories. Here we show that the power-law decline with time of X-ray AG of GRB 130427A, the longest measured X-ray AG of an intense GRB with the Swift, Chandra and XMM Newton satellites, and of all other well measured late-time X-ray afterglow of intense GRBs, is that predicted by the cannonball (CB) model of GRBs from their measured spectral index, while it disagrees with that predicted by the widely accepted fireball (FB) models of GRBs.

  4. Three types of $\\gamma$-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, S; Babu, G J; Murtagh, F; Fraley, C; Raftery, A E; Mukherjee, Soma; Feigelson, Eric D.; Babu, Gutti Jogesh; Murtagh, Fionn; Fraley, Chris; Raftery, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    A multivariate analysis of gamma-ray burst (GRB) bulk properties is presented to discriminate between distinct classes of GRBs. Several variables representing burst duration, fluence and spectral hardness are considered. Two multivariate clustering procedures are used on a sample of 797 bursts from the Third BATSE Catalog: a nonparametric average linkage hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure validated with Wilks' $\\Lambda^*$ and other MANOVA tests; and a parametric maximum likelihood model-based clustering procedure assuming multinormal populations calculated with the EM Algorithm and validated with the Bayesian Information Criterion. The two methods yield very similar results. The BATSE GRB population consists of three classes with the following Duration/Fluence/Spectrum bulk properties: Class I with long/bright/intermediate bursts, Class II with short/hard/faint bursts, and Class III with intermediate/intermediate/soft bursts. One outlier with poor data is also present. Classes I and II correspond...

  5. Relativistic Outflows in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Aloy, M A

    2007-01-01

    The possibility that gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) were not isotropic emissions was devised theoretically as a way to ameliorate the huge energetic budget implied by the standard fireball model for these powerful phenomena. However, the mechanism by which after the quasy-isotropic release of a few $10^{50} $erg yields a collimated ejection of plasma could not be satisfactory explained analytically. The reason being that the collimation of an outflow by its progenitor system depends on a very complex and non-linear dynamics. That has made necessary the use of numerical simulations in order to shed some light on the viability of some likely progenitors of GRBs. In this contribution I will review the most relevant features shown by these numerical simulations and how they have been used to validate the collapsar model (for long GRBs) and the model involving the merger of compact binaries (for short GRBs).

  6. Radio Afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, Lekshmi

    2017-09-01

    This review focuses on the physics of Gamma Ray Bursts probed through their radio afterglow emission. Even though radio band is the least explored of the afterglow spectrum, it has played an important role in the progress of GRB physics, specifically in confirming the hypothesized relativistic effects. Currently radio astronomy is in the beginning of a revolution. The high sensitive Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is being planned, its precursors and pathfinders are about to be operational, and several existing instruments are undergoing upgradation. Thus, the afterglow results from detection statistics and follow up programs are expected to improve in the coming years. We list a few avenues unique to radio band which if explored to full potential have the promise to greatly contribute to the future of GRB physics.

  7. SAS-2 galactic gamma ray results, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Bignami, G. F.; Lamb, R. C.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1976-01-01

    Continuing analysis of the data from the SAS-2 high energy gamma-ray experiment has produced an improved picture of the sky at photon energies above 35 MeV. On a large scale, the diffuse emission from the galactic plane is the dominant feature observed by SAS-2. This galactic plane emission is most intense between galactic longitude 310 and 45 deg, corresponding to a region within 7kpc of the galactic center. Within the high-intensity region, SAS-2 observes peaks around galactic longitudes 315 deg, 330 deg, 345 deg, 0 deg, and 35 deg. These peaks appear to be correlated with such galactic features and components as molecular hydrogen, atomic hydrogen, magnetic fields, cosmic ray concentrations, and photon fields.

  8. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  9. Université de Genève : Gamma-ray lines astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél. : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 8 March PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Gamma-ray lines astronomy by Prof. Nicolas Prantzos / CNRS, Paris Gamma-ray lines from cosmic sources provide unique isotopic information, since they originate from energy level transitions in the atomic nucleus. Gamma-ray telescopes explored this astronomical window in the past three decades, detecting radioactive isotopes that have been ejected in interstellar space by cosmic nucleosynthesis events. Astronomical gamma-ray telescopes feature standard detectors of nuclear physics, but have to be surrounded by effective shields against local instrumental background, and need special detector and/or mask arrangements to collect imaging information. Due to exceptionally-low signal/noise ratios, progress in the field has been slow compared with other wavelengths. Despite the...

  10. Gamma-ray lines from neutron stars as probes of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    The detection of gamma-ray lines produced at the surface of neutron stars will serve to test both the strong and gravitational interactions under conditions unavailable in terrestrial laboratories. Observation of a single redshifted gamma-ray line, combined with an estimate of the mass of the star will serve as a strong constraint on allowable equations of state of matter at supernuclear densities. Detection of two redshifted lines arising from different physical processes at the neutron star surface can provide a test of the strong principle of equivalence. Expected fluxes of nuclear gamma-ray lines from accreting neutron stars were calculated, including threshold, radiative transfer and redshift effects. The most promising probes of neutron star structure are the deuterium formation line and the positron annihilation line. Detection of sharp redshifted gamma-ray lines from X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1 would argue strongly in favor of a neutron star rather than black hole identification for the object.

  11. THE NATURE OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhko, E. G.; Ksenofontov, L. T. [Yu. G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy, 31 Lenin Avenue, 677980 Yakutsk (Russian Federation); Voelk, H. J., E-mail: berezhko@ikfia.ysn.ru [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-01-20

    The nature of the recently detected high-energy and very high-energy {gamma}-ray emission of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is studied. A nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs is employed to investigate the properties of Tycho's SNR and their correspondence with the existing experimental data, taking into account that the ambient interstellar medium (ISM) is expected to be clumpy. It is demonstrated that the overall steep {gamma}-ray spectrum observed can be interpreted as the superposition of two spectra produced by the CR proton component in two different ISM phases: the first {gamma}-ray component, extending up to about 10{sup 14} eV, originates in the diluted warm ISM, whereas the second component, extending up to 100 GeV, comes from numerous dense, small-scale clouds embedded in this warm ISM. Given the consistency between acceleration theory and the observed properties of the nonthermal emission of Tycho's SNR, very efficient production of nuclear CRs in Tycho's SNR is established. The excess of the GeV {gamma}-ray emission due to the clouds' contribution above the level expected in the case of a purely homogeneous ISM is inevitably expected in the case of Type Ia SNe.

  12. COMPTEL gamma-ray observations of the C4 solar flare on 20 January 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.; Arndt, M. B.; Bennett, K.; Connors, A.; Debrunner, H.; Diehl, R.; McConnell, M.; Miller, R. S.; Rank, G.; Ryan, J. M.; Schoenfelder, V.; Winkler, C.

    2001-10-01

    The ``Pre-SMM'' (Vestrand and Miller 1998) picture of gamma-ray line (GRL) flares was that they are relatively rare events. This picture was quickly put in question with the launch of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). Over 100 GRL flares were seen with sizes ranging from very large GOES class events (X12) down to moderately small events (M2). It was argued by some (Bai 1986) that this was still consistent with the idea that GRL events are rare. Others, however, argued the opposite (Vestrand 1988; Cliver, Crosby and Dennis 1994), stating that the lower end of this distribution was just a function of SMM's sensitivity. They stated that the launch of the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) would in fact continue this distribution to show even smaller GRL flares. In response to a BACODINE cosmic gamma-ray burst alert, COMPtonTELescope on the CGRO recorded gamma rays above 1 MeV from the C4 flare at 0221 UT 20 January 2000. This event, though at the limits of COMPTEL's sensitivity, clearly shows a nuclear line excess above the continuum. Using new spectroscopy techniques we were able to resolve individual lines. This has allowed us to make a basic comparison of this event with the GRL flare distribution from SMM and also compare this flare with a well-observed large GRL flare seen by OSSE. .

  13. Measurements of the induced gamma ray cross sections by 14. 2 MeV neutrons with Fe, Ni, Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Xiamin; Shen Ronglin; Xing Jinjiang; Wu Yongshun; Ding Dazhao

    1982-05-01

    The differential cross sections of the discrete gamma rays at 55/sup 0/ in the nuclear reactions of 14.2 MeV neutrons with Fe, Ni, Cu have been measured. The Ge (Li) semiconductor detector is enclosed in a heavy complete shielding. The relative efficiencies of full energy peaks and double peaks of the Ge (Li) detector are determined by the ''doubleline method'' in ..gamma.. energy region from 0.3 to 12 MeV and then normalized by a set of standard sources in order to determine the absolute efficiency. The linearity, stability and the effect of counting rate of the spectrometer have been checked.

  14. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Pulses and Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, Thomas J.; Hakkila, J. E.; Broadbent, M.; Wasserman, I. M.; Wolpert, R. L.

    2013-04-01

    We describe ongoing work on two projects that are enabling more thorough and accurate use of archival BATSE data for elucidating the nature of GRB sources; the methods and tools we are developing will also be valuable for analyzing data from other missions. The first project addresses modeling the spectro-temporal behavior of prompt gamma ray emission from GRBs by modeling gamma ray count and event data with a population of pulses, with the population drawn from one or more families of single-pulse kernels. Our approach is built on a multilevel nonparametric probabilistic framework we have dubbed "Bayesian droplets," and offers several important advances over previous pulse decomposition approaches: (1) It works in the pulse-confusion regime, quantifying uncertainty in the number, locations, and shapes of pulses, even when there is strong overlap. (2) It can self-consistently model pulse behavior across multiple spectral bands. (3) It readily handles a variety of spatio-temporal kernel shapes. (4) It reifies the idea of a burst as a population of pulses, enabling explicit modeling and estimation of the pulse population distribution. We describe the framework and present analyses of prototypical simple and complex GRB light curves. The second project aims to enable accurate demographic modeling of GRBs using the BATSE catalog. We present new calculations of the BATSE sky exposure, encompassing the full duration of the BATSE catalog for the first time, with many improvements over the currently available exposure map. A similar calculation of the detection efficiency is in progress. We also describe public Python software enabling access and accurate modeling of BATSE GRB data. The software enables demographic studies (e.g., modeling log N - log S distributions) with accurate accounting of both selection effects and measurement errors. It also enables spectro-temporal modeling of detailed data from individual GRBs. These projects are supported by NASA through the AISR

  15. Enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, R.; Ciprini, S.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary LAT analysis indicates enhanced gamma-ray activity from the Crab nebula. The daily-averaged gamma-ray emission (E > 100 MeV) from the direction of the Crab Nebula has surpassed 4.0 x 10^-6 ph cm^-2 s^-1 five times in the last 12 days.

  16. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  17. Wolf-Rayet stars as gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A. -J; Yoon, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    It became clear in the last few years that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the endpoints of massive star evolution. They occur in star forming regions at cosmological distances (Jakobsson et al., 2005), and are associated with supernova-type energies. The collapsar model explains gamma-ray

  18. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence of ...

  19. Wolf-Rayet stars as gamma-ray burst progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A. -J; Yoon, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    It became clear in the last few years that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the endpoints of massive star evolution. They occur in star forming regions at cosmological distances (Jakobsson et al., 2005), and are associated with supernova-type energies. The collapsar model explains gamma-ray

  20. Gamma Rays from Star Formation in Clusters of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Storm, Emma; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission. The detection of gamma rays from star-forming galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity (Ackermann et. al. 2012). Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 micrometers) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study we apply the relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities derived in Ackermann et. al. 2012 to a sample of galaxy clusters from Ackermann et. al. 2010 in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with sta...

  1. Very High Energy Gamma Ray Extension of GRO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, Trevor C.

    1994-01-01

    The membership, progress, and invited talks, publications, and proceedings made by the Whipple Gamma Ray Collaboration is reported for june 1990 through May 1994. Progress was made in the following areas: the May 1994 Markarian Flare at Whipple and EGRET (Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope) energies; AGN's (Active Galactic Nuclei); bursts; supernova remnants; and simulations and energy spectra.

  2. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  3. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  4. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  5. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  6. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  7. HEAO C-1 gamma-ray spectrometer. [experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, W. A.; Ling, J. C.; Willett, J. B.; Jacobson, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy experiment to be launched on the third High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO C) will perform a complete sky search for narrow gamma-ray line emission to the level of about 00001 photons/sq cm -sec for steady point sources. The design of this experiment and its performance based on testing and calibration to date are discussed.

  8. SAS-2 galactic gamma-ray results. 2: Localized sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Kniffen, D. A.; Lamb, R. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Bignami, G. F.; Oegelman, H.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma ray emission was detected from the radio pulsars PSR 1818-04 and PSR 1747-46, in addition to the previously reported gamma ray emission from the Crab and Vela pulsars. Because the Crab pulsar is the only one observed in the optical and X-ray bands, these gamma ray observations suggest a uniquely gamma ray phenomenon occurring in a fraction of the radio pulsars. PSR 1818-04 has a gamma ray luminosity comparable to that of the Crab pulsar, whereas the luminosities of PSR 1747-46 and the Vela pulsar are approximately an order of magnitude lower. SAS-2 data for pulsar correlations yielded upper limits to gamma ray luminosity for 71 other radio pulsars. For five of the closest pulsars, upper limits for gamma ray luminosity are found to be at least three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Crab pulsar. Gamma ray enhancement near the Milky Way satellite galaxy and the galactic plane in the Cygnus region is also discussed.

  9. The First Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Connaughton, Valerie; Stanbro, Matthew; Zhang, Binbin; Bhat, Narayana; Fishman, Gerald; Roberts, Oliver; Fitzpatrick, Gerard; McBreen, Shelia; Grove, Eric; Chekhtman, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    We present summary results from the first catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Space Telescope. The catalog reports parameters for over 2700 TGFs. Since the launch of Fermi in 2008 the TGF detection sensitivity of GBM has been improved several times, both in the flight software and in ground analysis. Starting in 2010 July individual photons were downloaded for portions of the orbits, enabling an off-line search that found weaker and shorter TGFs. Since 2012 November 26 this telemetry mode has been extended to continuous coverage. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs).

  10. Extragalactic Gamma Ray Excess from Coma Supercluster Direction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pantea Davoudifar; S. Jalil Fatemi

    2011-09-01

    The origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray is not accurately known, especially because our suggestions are related to many models that need to be considered either to compute the galactic diffuse gamma ray intensity or to consider the contribution of other extragalactic structures while surveying a specific portion of the sky. More precise analysis of EGRET data however, makes it possible to estimate the diffuse gamma ray in Coma supercluster (i.e., Coma\\A1367 supercluster) direction with a value of ( > 30MeV) ≃ 1.9 × 10-6 cm-2 s-1, which is considered to be an upper limit for the diffuse gamma ray due to Coma supercluster. The related total intensity (on average) is calculated to be ∼ 5% of the actual diffuse extragalactic background. The calculated intensity makes it possible to estimate the origin of extragalactic diffuse gamma ray.

  11. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  12. Effect of Conversion Efficiency on Gamma-Ray Burst Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xu; Zi-Gao Dai

    2004-01-01

    Beaming effect makes it possible that gamma-ray bursts have a standard energy,but the gamma-ray energy release is sensitive to some parameters.Our attention is focused on the effect of the gamma ray conversion efficiency(ηγ),which may range between 0.01 and 0.9,and which probably has a random value for different GRBs under certain conditions.Making use of the afterglow data from the literature,we carried out a complete correction to the conical opening angle formula.Within the framework of the conical jet model,we ran a simple Monte Carlo simulation for random values of ηγ,and found that the gamma-ray energy release is narrowly clustered,whether we use a constant value of ηγ or random values for different gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.;

    1995-01-01

    The GRANAT observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1 December, 1989. Three instruments onboard GRANAT - PHEBUS, WATCH and SIGMA are able to detect gamma-ray bursts in a very broad energy range from 6 keV up to 100 MeV. Over 250 gamma-ray bursts were detected. We discuss the results...... of four differently behaving componenents in gamma-ray burst spectra is discussed. Statistical properties of the gamma-ray burst sources based on the 5 years of observations with (∼ 10−6 erg/cm2) sensitivity as well as the results of high sensitivity (∼ 10−8 erg/cm2) search for Gamma-Ray Bursts within...... the SIGMA telescope field of view are reviewed....

  14. Gamma-rays as probes of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Horns, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of $\\gamma$ rays over very large distances provides new insights on the intergalactic medium and on fundamental physics. On their path to the Earth, $\\gamma$ rays can annihilate with diffuse infrared or optical photons of the intergalactic medium, producing $e^+ \\, e^-$ pairs. The density of these photons is poorly determined by direct measurements due to significant galactic foregrounds. Studying the absorption of $\\gamma$ rays from extragalactic sources at different distances allows the density of low-energy diffuse photons to be measured. Gamma-ray propagation may also be affected by new phenomena predicted by extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Lorentz Invariance is violated in some models of Quantum Gravity, leading to an energy-dependent speed of light in vacuum. From differential time-of-flight measurements of the most distant $\\gamma$-ray bursts and of flaring active galactic nuclei, lower bounds have been set on the energy scale of Quantum Gravity. Another effect tha...

  15. Gamma-ray Explosion in Multiple Compton Scattering Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Z; Shou, Y R; Qiao, B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S S; Chen, C E; He, X T; Yan, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray explosion from near critical density (NCD) target irradiated by four symmetrical imploding laser pulses is numerically investigated. With peak intensities about $10^{23}$ W/cm$^2$, the laser pulses boost electron energy through direct laser acceleration, while pushing them inward with the ponderomotive force. After backscattering with counter-propagating laser, the accelerated electron will be trapped in the optical lattice or the electromagnetic standing waves (SW) created by the coherent overlapping of the laser pulses, and meanwhile emit gamma-ray photon in Multiple Compton Scattering regime, where electron acts as a medium to transfer energy from laser to gamma-ray. The energy conversion rate from laser pulses to gamma-ray can be as high as around 50\\%. It may become one of the most efficient gamma-ray sources in laboratory.

  16. Nuclear phenomena in low-energy nuclear reaction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivit, Steven B

    2013-09-01

    This is a comment on Storms E (2010) Status of Cold Fusion, Naturwissenschaften 97:861-881. This comment provides the following remarks to other nuclear phenomena observed in low-energy nuclear reactions aside from helium-4 make significant contributions to the overall energy balance; and normal hydrogen, not just heavy hydrogen, produces excess heat.

  17. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Roberts, O.; McBreen, S.; Bhat, N.; Fitzpatrick, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results from the catalog of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) detected with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The first release, in January 2015, provided data on 2700 TGFs. Updates are extending the catalog at a rate of ~800 TGFs per year. The TGF sample is reliable, with cosmic rays rejected using data both from Fermi GBM and from the Large Area Telescope on Fermi. The online catalog include times (UTC and solar), spacecraft geographic positions, durations, count intensities and other Bayesian Block durations. The catalog includes separate tables for bright TGFs detected by the flight software and for Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs). In January 2016 additional data will be released online from correlating these TGFs with sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). Maps of sferics in the vicinity of each TGF will be provided, as will the locations and times of sferics found to be associated with TGFs.

  18. More Gamma-ray Bursts from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael; Fermi GBM Team Team

    2017-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) Team has developed an offline search for weak gamma-ray bursts which were not already detected in-orbit as ``triggers''. This search is ``untargeted'', searching all of the GBM data without guidance from other observations. The initial version of the search has been operational from January 2016, finding several likely short GRBs per month that are posted to a webpage. The GBM individual photon data are binned to various timescales, a background model is created and the binned data are searched for significant signals above the background that are coincident in two or more detectors. The current search has a latency of several days because several steps require manual intervention. An improved version will be fully automatic so that the latency in detecting candidates will be dominated by the few hours delay in receiving the data. The new version of the search will also include additional detection algorithms to increase the GRB detection rate and will also detect some long GRBs. We will report the candidates via the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network (GCN). These prompt GRB detections and localization should aid multi-messenger observations, in some cases refining localizations on timescales useful for followup observations.

  19. Central Engine Memory of Gamma-Ray Bursts and Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) are bursts of $\\gamma$-rays generated from relativistic jets launched from catastrophic events such as massive star core collapse or binary compact star coalescence. Previous studies suggested that GRB emission is erratic, with no noticeable memory in the central engine. Here we report a discovery that similar light curve patterns exist within individual bursts for at least some GRBs. Applying the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) method, we show that similarity of light curve patterns between pulses of a single burst or between the light curves of a GRB and its X-ray flare can be identified. This suggests that the central engine of at least some GRBs carries "memory" of its activities. We also show that the same technique can identify memory-like emission episodes in the flaring emission in Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGRs), which are believed to be Galactic, highly magnetized neutron stars named magnetars. Such a phenomenon challenges the standard black hole central engine models for GRBs, an...

  20. High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts - Before GLAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Piran, Tsvi

    2011-11-29

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense emission of soft {gamma}-rays, which have fascinated astronomers and astrophysicists since their unexpected discovery in 1960s. The X-ray/optical/radio afterglow observations confirm the cosmological origin of GRBs, support the fireball model, and imply a long-activity of the central engine. The high-energy {gamma}-ray emission (> 20 MeV) from GRBs is particularly important because they shed some lights on the radiation mechanisms and can help us to constrain the physical processes giving rise to the early afterglows. In this work, we review observational and theoretical studies of the high-energy emission from GRBs. Special attention is given to the expected high-energy emission signatures accompanying the canonical early-time X-ray afterglow that was observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. We also discuss the detection prospect of the upcoming GLAST satellite and the current ground-based Cerenkov detectors.

  1. The agile alert system for gamma-ray transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Fioretti, V. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E. [INAF/IASF-Roma, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Parmiggiani, N.; Beneventano, D. [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Science e Metodi dell' Ingegneria (Italy); Chen, A. W. [INAF/IASF-Milano, Via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Vercellone, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P. [INAF/IASF-Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Longo, F. [ASI-ASDC, Via G. Galilei, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Pellizzoni, A. [INFN Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2014-01-20

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  2. The AGILE Alert System for Gamma-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Tavani, M.; Parmiggiani, N.; Fioretti, V.; Chen, A. W.; Vercellone, S.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Santolamazza, P.; Fanari, G.; Giommi, P.; Beneventano, D.; Argan, A.; Trois, A.; Scalise, E.; Longo, F.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pucella, G.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conforti, V.; Tempesta, P.; Cerone, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Valentini, G.; Salotti, L.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of space missions has offered great opportunities for discovery in high-energy astrophysics. In this article we focus on the scientific operations of the Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) on board the AGILE space mission. AGILE-GRID, sensitive in the energy range of 30 MeV-30 GeV, has detected many γ-ray transients of both galactic and extragalactic origin. This work presents the AGILE innovative approach to fast γ-ray transient detection, which is a challenging task and a crucial part of the AGILE scientific program. The goals are to describe (1) the AGILE Gamma-Ray Alert System, (2) a new algorithm for blind search identification of transients within a short processing time, (3) the AGILE procedure for γ-ray transient alert management, and (4) the likelihood of ratio tests that are necessary to evaluate the post-trial statistical significance of the results. Special algorithms and an optimized sequence of tasks are necessary to reach our goal. Data are automatically analyzed at every orbital downlink by an alert pipeline operating on different timescales. As proper flux thresholds are exceeded, alerts are automatically generated and sent as SMS messages to cellular telephones, via e-mail, and via push notifications from an application for smartphones and tablets. These alerts are crosschecked with the results of two pipelines, and a manual analysis is performed. Being a small scientific-class mission, AGILE is characterized by optimization of both scientific analysis and ground-segment resources. The system is capable of generating alerts within two to three hours of a data downlink, an unprecedented reaction time in γ-ray astrophysics.

  3. Design and Operation of a tunable MeV-level Compton-scattering-based (gamma-ray) source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, D J; Albert, F; Anderson, S G; Betts, S M; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Semenov, V A; Shverdin, M Y; Tremaine, A M; Hartemann, F V; Siders, C W; McNabb, D P; Barty, C P

    2009-07-07

    A mono-energetic gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source based on Compton-scattering, targeting nuclear physics applications such as nuclear resonance fluorescence, has been constructed and commissioned at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In this paper, the overall architecture of the system, as well as some of the critical design decisions made in the development of the source, are discussed. The performances of the two laser systems (one for electron production, one for scattering), the electron photoinjector, and the linear accelerator are also detailed, and initial {gamma}-ray results are presented.

  4. Simulation experiments for gamma-ray mapping of planetary surfaces: Scattering of high-energy neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckner, J.; Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Waenke, H.

    1986-01-01

    The concentration and distribution of certain elements in surface layers of planetary objects specify constraints on models of their origin and evolution. This information can be obtained by means of remote sensing gamma-ray spectroscopy, as planned for a number of future space missions, i.e., Mars, Moon, asteroids, and comets. To investigate the gamma-rays made by interactions of neutrons with matter, thin targets of different composition were placed between a neutron-source and a high-resolution germanium spectrometer. Gamma-rays in the range of 0.1 to 8 MeV were accumulated. In one set of experiments a 14-MeV neutron generator using the T(d,n) reaction as neutron-source was placed in a small room. Scattering in surrounding walls produced a spectrum of neutron energies from 14 MeV down to thermal. This complex neutron-source induced mainly neutron-capture lines and only a few scattering lines. As a result of the set-up, there was a considerable background of discrete lines from surrounding materials. A similar situation exists under planetary exploration conditions: gamma-rays are induced in the planetary surface as well as in the spacecraft. To investigate the contribution of neutrons with higher energies, an experiment for the measurement of prompt gamma radiation was set up at the end of a beam-line of an isochronous cyclotron.

  5. Galactic sources of high energy neutrinos: Expectation from gamma-ray data

    CERN Document Server

    Sahakyan, N

    2015-01-01

    The recent results from ground based $\\gamma$-ray detectors (HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) provide a population of TeV galactic $\\gamma$-ray sources which are potential sources of High Energy (HE) neutrinos. Since the $\\gamma$-rays and $\

  6. Gamma-ray astronomy: From Fermi up to the HAWC high-energy {gamma}-ray observatory in Sierra Negra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC Collaboration

    2013-06-12

    Gamma-rays represent the most energetic electromagnetic window for the study of the Universe. They are studied both from space at MeV and GeV energies, with instruments like the Fermi{gamma}-ray Space Telescope, and at TeV energies with ground based instruments profiting of particle cascades in the atmosphere and of the Cerenkov radiation of charged particles in the air or in water. The Milagro gamma-ray observatory represented the first instrument to successfully implement the water Cerenkov technique for {gamma}-ray astronomy, opening the ground for the more sensitive HAWC {gamma}-ray observatory, currently under development in the Sierra Negra site and already providing early science results.

  7. Enhanced Analysis Techniques for an Imaging Neutron and Gamma Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Amanda C.

    The presence of gamma rays and neutrons is a strong indicator of the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). The imaging Neutron and gamma ray SPECTrometer (NSPECT) developed by the University of New Hampshire and Michigan Aerospace corporation detects the fast neutrons and prompt gamma rays from fissile material, and the gamma rays from radioactive material. The instrument operates as a double scatter device, requiring a neutron or a gamma ray to interact twice in the instrument. While this detection requirement decreases the efficiency of the instrument, it offers superior background rejection and the ability to measure the energy and momentum of the incident particle. These measurements create energy spectra and images of the emitting source for source identification and localization. The dual species instrument provides superior detection than a single species alone. In realistic detection scenarios, few particles are detected from a potential threat due to source shielding, detection at a distance, high background, and weak sources. This contributes to a small signal to noise ratio, and threat detection becomes difficult. To address these difficulties, several enhanced data analysis tools were developed. A Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC) helps set instrumental alarm thresholds as well as to identify the presence of a source. Analysis of a dual-species ROC curve provides superior detection capabilities. Bayesian analysis helps to detect and identify the presence of a source through model comparisons, and helps create a background corrected count spectra for enhanced spectroscopy. Development of an instrument response using simulations and numerical analyses will help perform spectra and image deconvolution. This thesis will outline the principles of operation of the NSPECT instrument using the double scatter technology, traditional analysis techniques, and enhanced analysis techniques as applied to data from the NSPECT instrument, and an

  8. Origin of X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, D. O.; Cheng, K.-S.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    We study a possible connection between different non-thermal emissions from the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy. We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray source 2FGL J1745.6‑2858 (or 3FGL J1745.6‑2859c) in the Galactic Center (GC) and the diffuse hard X-ray component recently found by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, as well as the radio emission and processes of hydrogen ionization from this area. We assume that a source in the GC injected energetic particles with power-law spectrum into the surrounding medium in the past or continues to inject until now. The energetic particles may be protons, electrons, or a combination of both. These particles diffuse to the surrounding medium and interact with gas, magnetic field, and background photons to produce non-thermal emissions. We study the spectral and spatial features of the hard X-ray emission and gamma-ray emission by the particles from the central source. Our goal is to examine whether the hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions have a common origin. Our estimations show that, in the case of pure hadronic models, the expected flux of hard X-ray emission is too low. Despite the fact that protons can produce a non-zero contribution in gamma-ray emission, it is unlikely that they and their secondary electrons can make a significant contribution in hard X-ray flux. In the case of pure leptonic models, it is possible to reproduce both X-ray and gamma-ray emissions for both transient and continuous supply models. However, in the case of the continuous supply model, the ionization rate of molecular hydrogen may significantly exceed the observed value.

  9. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  10. Photo-transmutation of {sup 100}Mo to {sup 99}Mo with Laser-Compton Scattering Gamma-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiyoung; Rehman, Haseeb ur; Kim, Yonghee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a photonuclear transmutation method using laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma-ray beam. Potential production rate (reaction rate) of 99Mo using the photonuclear (γ,n) reaction is evaluated. Rigorous optimization of the LCS spectrum has also been performed to maximize production of the 99Mo. Cyclotron proton accelerators are used worldwide to produce many short-living medical isotopes. However, few are capable of producing Mo-99 and none are suitable for producing more than a small fraction of the required amounts. More than 90% of the world's demand of 99Mo is sourced from five nuclear reactors. Two of these reactors have already been decommissioned and the rest are more than 45 years old. Relatively short half-life of the parent 99Mo requires continuous re-supply to meet the requirements of medical industry. Therefore, there is an urgent need to produce the 99Mo and 99mTc isotopes by alternative ways. One such alternative is giant dipole resonance (GDR) based photonuclear transmutation of 100Mo to 99Mo. For 99Mo production with the LCS photons using GDR-based (γ,n) reaction, the gamma-ray energy should be around 15 MeV. This study indicates that optimization of LCS spectrum by varying the electron and laser energies within practical limits can enhance the transmutation of Mo-100 to M-99 quite significantly. It has been found that irradiation time should be rather short, e.g., less than 6 hours, to maximize the weekly production of Mo-99 in the GDR-based Mo-99 production facility using the LCS photons. The analysis shows that production of 99Mo using a high-performance LCS facility offers a potentially-promising alternative for the production of 99mTc.

  11. Gamma-rays from $^{nat}$Sn and $^{nat}$C induced by fast neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kadenko, Igor; Bondar, Borys; Gorbachenko, Oleksandr; Leshchenko, Borys; Solodovnyk, Kateryna

    2016-01-01

    The cross-sections of prompt gamma-ray production from $^{nat}$Sn and $^{nat}$C elements induced by 14.1-MeV neutrons were measured. The time-of-flight technique was used for n-gamma discrimination. The experimental results were compared with theoretical calculations performed by Empire 3.2 and Talys 1.6 codes using different models for photon strength function and nuclear level density.

  12. Research on CdZnTe and Other Novel Room Temperature Gamma Ray Spectrometer Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold Burger; Michael gGoza; Yunlong Cui; Utpal N. Roy; M. Guo

    2007-05-05

    Room temperature gamma-ray spectrometers are being developed for a number of years for national security applications where high sensitivity, low operating power and compactness are indispensable. The technology has matured now to the point where large volume (several cubic centimeters) and high energy resolution (approximately 1% at 660 eV) of gamma photons, are becoming available for their incorporation into portable systems for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials.

  13. Development of a Reference Database for Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, P., E-mail: P.Dimitriou@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Becker, H.-W. [Ruhr Universität Bochum, Gebäude NT05/130, Postfach 102148, Bochum 44721 (Germany); Bogdanović-Radović, I. [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute Rudjer Boskovic, Bijenicka Cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Chiari, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Goncharov, A. [Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, National Science Center, Akademicheskaya Str.1, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Jesus, A.P. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa (Portugal); Kakuee, O. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, End of North Karegar Ave., PO Box 14395-836, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Bem ter 18/c, PO Box 51, 4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Lagoyannis, A. [National Center of Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Agia Paraskevi, P.O. Box 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Räisänen, J. [Division of Materials Physics, Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 43, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Strivay, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Atomique et de Spectroscopie, Universite de Liège, Sart Tilman, B15 4000 Liège (Belgium); Zucchiatti, A. [Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Faraday 3, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2016-03-15

    Particle-Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) is a powerful analytical technique that exploits the interactions of rapid charged particles with nuclei located near a sample surface to determine the composition and structure of the surface regions of solids by measurement of characteristic prompt γ rays. The potential for depth profiling of this technique has long been recognized, however, the implementation has been limited owing to insufficient knowledge of the physical data and lack of suitable user-friendly computer codes for the applications. Although a considerable body of published data exists in the nuclear physics literature for nuclear reaction cross sections with γ rays in the exit channel, there is no up-to-date, comprehensive compilation specifically dedicated to IBA applications. A number of PIGE cross-section data had already been uploaded to the Ion Beam Analysis Nuclear Data Library (IBANDL) ( (http://www-nds.iaea.org/ibandl)) by members of the IBA community by 2011, however a preliminary survey of this body of unevaluated experimental data has revealed numerous discrepancies beyond the uncertainty limits reported by the authors. Using the resources and coordination provided by the IAEA, a concerted effort to improve the situation was made within the Coordinated Research Project on the Development of a Reference Database for PIGE spectroscopy, from 2011 to 2015. The aim of the CRP was to create a data library for Ion Beam Analysis that contains reliable and usable data on charged particle γ-ray emission cross sections that would be made freely available to the user community. As the CRP has reached its completion, we shall present its main achievements, including the results of nuclear cross-section evaluations and the development of a computer code that will become available to the public allowing for the implementation of a standardless PIGE technique.

  14. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  15. Gamma-ray transfer and energy deposition in supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Sutherland, Peter G.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1995-01-01

    Solutions to the energy-independent (gray) radiative transfer equations are compared to results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Ni-56 and Co-56 decay gamma-ray energy deposition in supernovae. The comparison shows that an effective, purely absorptive, gray opacity, kappa(sub gamma) approximately (0. 06 +/- 0.01)Y(sub e) sq cm/g, where Y is the total number of electrons per baryon, accurately describes the interaction of gamma-rays with the cool supernova gas and the local gamma-ray energy deposition within the gas. The nature of the gamma-ray interaction process (dominated by Compton scattering in the relativistic regime) creates a weak dependence of kappa(sub gamma) on the optical thickness of the (spherically symmetric) supernova atmosphere: The maximum value of kappa(sub gamma) applies during optically thick conditions when individual gamma-rays undergo multiple scattering encounters and the lower bound is reached at the phase characterized by a total Thomson optical depth to the center of the atmosphere tau(sub e) approximately less than 1. Gamma-ray deposition for Type Ia supernova models to within 10% for the epoch from maximum light to t = 1200 days. Our results quantitatively confirm that the quick and efficient solution to the gray transfer problem provides an accurate representation of gamma-ray energy deposition for a broad range of supernova conditions.

  16. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  17. Possible distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Distance measurement of gamma-ray pulsars is a current challenge in pulsar studies. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi gamma-ray observatory discovered more than 70 gamma-ray pulsars including 24 new gamma-selected pulsars with almost no distance information. We study the relation between gammaray emission efficiency (η = Lγ/E) and pulsar parameters for young radio-selected gamma-ray pulsars with known distance information in the first gamma-ray pulsar catalog reported by Fermi/LAT. We have introduced three generation-order parameters to describe the gamma-ray emission properties of pulsars, and find a strong correlation of rη- ζ3, a generation-order parameter which reflects γ-ray photon generation in the pair cascade processes induced by magnetic field absorption in a pulsar's magnetosphere.A good correlation of η- BLC, the magnetic field at the light cylinder radius, is also found. These correlations are the distance indicators in gamma-ray pulsars used to evaluate distances for gamma-selected pulsars. Distances of 25 gamma-selected pulsars are estimated, which could be tested by other distance measurement methods. The physical origin of the correlations may also be interesting for pulsar studies.

  18. Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

    2013-03-01

    A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

  19. The Gamma-ray Albedo of the Moon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; /Stanford U., HEPL; Porter, Troy A.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2007-09-28

    We use the GEANT4 Monte Carlo framework to calculate the {gamma}-ray albedo of the Moon due to interactions of cosmic ray (CR) nuclei with moon rock. Our calculation of the albedo spectrum agrees with the EGRET data. We show that the spectrum of {gamma}-rays from the Moon is very steep with an effective cutoff around 3-4 GeV (600 MeV for the inner part of the Moon disk) and exhibits a narrow pion-decay line at 67.5 MeV, perhaps unique in astrophysics. Apart from other astrophysical sources, the albedo spectrum of the Moon is well understood, including its absolute normalization; this makes it a useful 'standard candle' for {gamma}-ray telescopes. The steep albedo spectrum also provides a unique opportunity for energy calibration of {gamma}-ray telescopes, such as the forthcoming Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). Since the albedo flux depends on the incident CR spectrum which changes over the solar cycle, it is possible to monitor the CR spectrum using the albedo {gamma}-ray flux. Simultaneous measurements of CR proton and helium spectra by the Payload for Antimatter-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA), and observations of the albedo {gamma}-rays by the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT), can be used to test the model predictions and will enable the LAT to monitor the CR spectrum near the Earth beyond the lifetime of the PAMELA.

  20. Attenuation of X and Gamma Rays in Personal Radiation Shielding Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Michaela; Cerny, Radek; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    A collection of personal radiation shielding protective clothing, suitable for use in case of accidents in nuclear facilities or radiological emergency situations involving radioactive agents, was gathered and tested at the Nuclear Protection Department of the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection, Czech Republic. Attenuating qualities of shielding layers in individual protective clothing were tested via spectra measurement of x and gamma rays, penetrating them. The rays originated from different radionuclide point sources, the gamma ray energies of which cover a broad energy range. The spectra were measured by handheld spectrometers, both scintillation and High Purity Germanium. Different narrow beam geometries were adjusted using a special testing bench and a set of various collimators. The main experimentally determined quantity for individual samples of personal radiation shielding protective clothing was x and gamma rays attenuation for significant energies of the spectra. The attenuation was assessed comparing net peak areas (after background subtraction) in spectra, where a tested sample was placed between the source and the detector, and corresponding net peak areas in spectra, measured without the sample. Mass attenuation coefficients, which describe attenuating qualities of shielding layers materials in individual samples, together with corresponding lead equivalents, were determined as well. Experimentally assessed mass attenuation coefficients of the samples were compared to the referred ones for individual heavy metals.

  1. Overview of Mono-Energetic Gamma-Ray Sources and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartemann, Fred; /LLNL, Livermore; Albert, Felicie; /LLNL, Livermore; Anderson, Scott; /LLNL, Livermore; Barty, Christopher; /LLNL, Livermore; Bayramian, Andy; /LLNL, Livermore; Chu, Tak Sum; /LLNL, Livermore; Cross, R.; /LLNL, Livermore; Ebbers, Chris; /LLNL, Livermore; Gibson, David; /LLNL, Livermore; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore; McNabb, Dennis; /LLNL, Livermore; Messerly, Michael; /LLNL, Livermore; Shverdin, Miroslav; /LLNL, Livermore; Siders, Craig; /LLNL, Livermore; Jongewaard, Erik; /SLAC; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC; Vlieks, Arnold; /SLAC; Semenov, Vladimir; /UC, Berkeley

    2012-06-25

    Recent progress in accelerator physics and laser technology have enabled the development of a new class of tunable gamma-ray light sources based on Compton scattering between a high-brightness, relativistic electron beam and a high intensity laser pulse produced via chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). A precision, tunable Mono-Energetic Gamma-ray (MEGa-ray) source driven by a compact, high-gradient X-band linac is currently under development and construction at LLNL. High-brightness, relativistic electron bunches produced by an X-band linac designed in collaboration with SLAC NAL will interact with a Joule-class, 10 ps, diode-pumped CPA laser pulse to generate tunable {gamma}-rays in the 0.5-2.5 MeV photon energy range via Compton scattering. This MEGaray source will be used to excite nuclear resonance fluorescence in various isotopes. Applications include homeland security, stockpile science and surveillance, nuclear fuel assay, and waste imaging and assay. The source design, key parameters, and current status are presented, along with important applications, including nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  2. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2009-03-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  3. NDA via gamma-ray active and passive computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decman, D.J.; Martz, H.E.; Roberson, G.P.; Johansson, E.

    1996-10-01

    Gamma-ray-based computed tomography (CT) requires that two different measurements be made on a closed waste container. [MAR92 and ROB94] When the results from these two measurements are combined, it becomes possible to identify and quantify all detectable gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes within a container. All measurements are made in a tomographic manner, i.e., the container is moved sequentially through well- known and accurately reproducible translation, rotation, and elevation positions in order to obtain gamma-ray data that is reconstructed by computer into images that represent waste contents. [ROB94] The two measurements modes are called active (A) and passive (P) CT. In the ACT mode, a collimated gamma-ray source external to the waste container emits multiple, mono-energetic gamma rays that pass through the container and are detected on the opposite side. The attenuated gamma-rays transmitted are measured as a function of both energy and position of the container. Thus, container contents are `mapped` via the measured amount of attenuation suffered at each gamma-ray energy. In effect, a three dimensional (3D) image of gamma- ray attenuation versus waste content is obtained. In the PCT measurement mode, the external radioactive source is shuttered turned- off, and the waste container, is moved through similar positions used for the ACT measurements. However, this time the radiation detectors record any gamma-rays emitted by radioactive sources on the inside of the waste container. Thus, internal radioactive content is mapped or 3D-imaged in the same tomographic manner as the attenuating matrix materials were in the ACT measurement mode.

  4. Blueshifting may explain the gamma ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Krasiński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that the basic observed properties of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are accounted for if one assumes that the GRBs arise by blueshifting the emission radiation of hydrogen and helium generated during the last scattering epoch. The blueshift generator for a single GRB is a Lema\\^{\\i}tre -- Tolman (L--T) region with a nonconstant bang-time function $t_B(r)$ matched into a Friedmann background. Blueshift visible to the observer arises \\textit{only on radial rays} that are emitted in the L--T region. The paper presents three L--T models with different Big Bang profiles, adapted for the highest and the lowest end of the GRB frequency range. The models account for: (1) The observed frequency range of the GRBs; (2) Their limited duration; (3) The afterglows; (4) Their hypothetical collimation into narrow jets; (5) The large distances to their sources; (6) The multitude of the observed GRBs. Properties (2), (3) and (6) are accounted for only qualitatively. With a small correction of the parameters of the mo...

  5. Studying the WHIM with Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Branchini, E; Corsi, A; Martizzi, D; Amati, L; Herder, J W den; Galeazzi, M; Gendre, B; Kaastra, J; Moscardini, L; Nicastro, F; Ohashi, T; Paerels, F; Piro, L; Roncarelli, M; Takei, Y; Viel, M

    2009-01-01

    We assess the possibility to detect and characterize the physical state of the missing baryons at low redshift by analyzing the X-ray absorption spectra of the Gamma Ray Burst [GRB] afterglows, measured by a micro calorimeters-based detector with 3 eV resolution and 1000 cm2 effective area and capable of fast re-pointing, similar to that on board of the recently proposed X-ray satellites EDGE and XENIA. For this purpose we have analyzed mock absorption spectra extracted from different hydrodynamical simulations used to model the properties of the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium [WHIM]. These models predict the correct abundance of OVI absorption lines observed in UV and satisfy current X-ray constraints. According to these models space missions like EDGE and XENIA should be able to detect about 60 WHIM absorbers per year through the OVII line. About 45 % of these have at least two more detectable lines in addition to OVII that can be used to determine the density and the temperature of the gas. Systematic error...

  6. The SVOM gamma-ray burst mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, B; Atteia, J -L; Basa, S; Claret, A; Daigne, F; Deng, J; Dong, Y; Godet, O; Goldwurm, A; Götz, D; Han, X; Klotz, A; Lachaud, C; Osborne, J; Qiu, Y; Schanne, S; Wu, B; Wang, J; Wu, C; Xin, L; Zhang, B; Zhang, S -N

    2015-01-01

    We briefly present the science capabilities, the instruments, the operations, and the expected performance of the SVOM mission. SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a Chinese-French space mission dedicated to the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the next decade. The SVOM mission encompasses a satellite carrying four instruments to detect and localize the prompt GRB emission and measure the evolution of the afterglow in the visible band and in X-rays, a VHF communication system enabling the fast transmission of SVOM alerts to the ground, and a ground segment including a wide angle camera and two follow-up telescopes. The pointing strategy of the satellite has been optimized to favor the detection of GRBs located in the night hemisphere. This strategy enables the study of the optical emission in the first minutes after the GRB with robotic observatories and the early spectroscopy of the optical afterglow with large telescopes to measure the redshifts. The study of GRBs in the...

  7. Sensitivity of HAWC to gamma ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Ignacio; HAWC Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    HAWC is a ground based very high-energy gamma ray detector under construction in Mexico at an altitude of 4100 m a.s.l. Higher altitude, improved design and a larger physical size used to reject CR background, make HAWC 10-20 times more sensitive than its predecessor Milagro. HAWC's large field of view, ~2sr, and over 90% duty cycle make it ideal to search for GRBs. We review the sensitivity of HAWC to GRBs with two independent data acquisition systems. We show that some of the brightest GRBs observed by Fermi LAT (e.g. GRB 090510) could result in >5 σ observation by HAWC. The observations (or limits) of GRBs by HAWC will provide information on the high-energy spectra of GRBs. The high-energy spectra will teach us about extra galactic background light, the Lorentz boost factor of the jets tha power GRBs and/or particle acceleration models of GRBs. Finally we present limits on > 10 GeV emission from GRB 111016B, recently studied with HAWC's engineering array VAMOS.

  8. The Nature of Gamma Ray Burst Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cano, Zach

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and Supernovae (SNe) are among the brightest and most energetic physical processes in the universe. It is known that core-collapse SNe arise from the gravitational collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars (the progen- itors of nearby core-collapse SNe have been imaged and unambiguously identified). It is also believed that the progenitors of long-duration GRBs (L-GRBs) are massive stars, mainly due to the occurrence and detection of very energetic core-collapse su- pernovae that happen both temporally and spatially coincident with most L-GRBs. However many outstanding questions regarding the nature of these events exist: How massive are the progenitors? What evolutionary stage are they at when they explode? Do they exist as single stars or in binary systems (or both, and to what fractions)? The work presented in this thesis attempts to further our understanding at the types of progenitors that give rise to long-duration GRB supernovae (GRB-SNe). This work is based on optical ...

  9. Population III Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Mészáros, P.

    Population III stars are theoretically expected to be prominent around redshifts z ˜ 20, consisting of mainly very massive stars (VMSs) with M_* ∼ 100;M_⊙, but there is no direct observational evidence for these objects. They may produce collapsar gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), with jets driven by magnetohydrodynamic processes, whose total isotropic-equivalent energy could be as high as E_iso ∼ 1057;erg over a cosmological-rest-frame duration of t_d ∼ 104;s, depending on the progenitor mass. The detection of a burst with such a high total energy and a long duration would be a strong evidence for a VMS progenitor. We calculate the prompt emission and afterglow spectra of such Pop. III GRBs based on the standard models, and show that they will be detectable with the Swift BAT/XRT and Fermi LAT instruments. We also show that the late-time radio afterglows of Pop. III GRBs for typical parameters, despite the large distances, can be very bright: ≃ 140;mJy at 1;GHz, which may lead to a constraint on the Pop. III GRB rate from the current radio survey data, and ≃ 2.4;mJy at 70;MHz, which implies that Pop. III GRB radio afterglows could be interesting background source candidates for 21 cm absorption line detections.

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts: Should cosmologists care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laros, J. G.

    1996-03-01

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) locations are distributed isotropically on the sky, but the intensity distribution of the bursts seems clearly incompatible with spatial homogeneity. Of the scenarios that attempt to provide an explanation, there are two that enjoy current popularity: (1) GRBs are produced by high-velocity neutron stars that have formed an extended (˜100 kpc) spherical halo or “corona” around our galaxy. (2) The bursters are at cosmological distances, with redshifts near unity for the weaker events. The major evidence used to argue for or against each of these scenarios remains inconclusive. Assuming, not unreasonably, that the cosmological scenario is correct, one can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying GRBs as opposed to other objects at moderate redshift. We find that the advantages of GRBs-high intensity, penetrating radiation, rapid variability, and no expected source evolution-are offset by observational difficulties pertaining to the extraction of cosmological information from GRB data. If the cosmological scenario proves to be correct and if the observational difficulties are overcome, then cosmologists certainly should care.

  11. Neutrino astronomy and gamma-ray bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2007-01-01

    The construction of large volume detectors of high energy, >1 TeV, neutrinos is mainly driven by the search for extra-Galactic neutrino sources. The existence of such sources is implied by observations of ultra-high energy, >10^{19} eV, cosmic-rays, the origin of which is a mystery. In this lecture I briefly discuss the expected extra-Galactic neutrino signal and the current state of the experimental efforts. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are likely sources of both high energy protons and neutrinos, is discussed in some detail. The detection of the predicted GRB neutrino signal, which may become possible in the coming few years, will allow one to identify the sources of ultra-high energy cosmic-rays and to resolve open questions related to the underlying physics of GRB models. Moreover, detection of GRB neutrinos will allow one to test for neutrino properties (e.g. flavor oscillations and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible.

  12. Photospheric Emission in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Pe'er, Asaf

    2016-01-01

    A major breakthrough in our understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) prompt emission physics occurred in the last few years, with the realization that a thermal component accompanies the over-all non-thermal prompt spectra. This thermal part is important by itself, as it provides direct probe of the physics in the innermost outflow regions. It further has an indirect importance, as a source of seed photons for inverse-Compton scattering, thereby it contributes to the non-thermal part as well. In this short review, we highlight some key recent developments. Observationally, although so far it was clearly identified only in a minority of bursts, there are indirect evidence that thermal component exists in a very large fraction of GRBs, possibly close to 100%. Theoretically, the existence of thermal component have a large number of implications as a probe of underlying GRB physics. Some surprising implications include its use as a probe of the jet dynamics, geometry and magnetization.

  13. Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Edo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) display a bimodal duration distribution, with a separation between the short- and long-duration bursts at about 2 sec. The progenitors of long GRBs have been identified as massive stars based on their association with Type Ic core-collapse supernovae, their exclusive location in star-forming galaxies, and their strong correlation with bright ultraviolet regions within their host galaxies. Short GRBs have long been suspected on theoretical grounds to arise from compact object binary mergers (NS-NS or NS-BH). The discovery of short GRB afterglows in 2005, provided the first insight into their energy scale and environments, established a cosmological origin, a mix of host galaxy types, and an absence of associated supernovae. In this review I summarize nearly a decade of short GRB afterglow and host galaxy observations, and use this information to shed light on the nature and properties of their progenitors, the energy scale and collimation of the relativistic outflow, and the properties ...

  14. Swift observations of gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2007-05-15

    Since its launch on 20 November 2004, the Swift mission has been detecting approximately 100 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) each year, and immediately (within approx. 90s) starting simultaneous X-ray and UV/optical observations of the afterglow. It has already collected an impressive database, including prompt emission to higher sensitivities than BATSE, uniform monitoring of afterglows and a rapid follow-up by other observatories notified through the GCN. Advances in our understanding of short GRBs have been spectacular. The detection of X-ray afterglows has led to accurate localizations and the conclusion that short GRBs can occur in non-star-forming galaxies or regions, whereas long GRBs are strongly concentrated within the star-forming regions. This is consistent with the NS merger model. Swift has greatly increased the redshift range of GRB detection. The highest redshift GRBs, at z approximately 5-6, are approaching the era of reionization. Ground-based deep optical spectroscopy of high redshift bursts is giving metallicity measurements and other information on the source environment to a much greater distance than other techniques. The localization of GRB 060218 to a nearby galaxy, and the association with SN 2006aj, added a valuable member to the class of GRBs with detected supernova.

  15. Constraining gamma-ray propagation on cosmic distances

    CERN Document Server

    Biteau, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Studying the propagation of gamma rays on cosmological distances encompasses a variety of scientific fields, focusing on diffuse radiation fields such as the extragalactic background light, on the probe of the magnetism of the Universe on large scales, and on physics beyond the standard models of cosmology and particle physics. The measurements, constraints and hints from observations of gamma-ray blazars by airborne and ground-based instruments are briefly reviewed. These observations point to gamma-ray cosmology as one of the major science cases of the Cherenkov Telescope Array, CTA.

  16. Novel Features of Gamma Ray from Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we present some general and novel features of gamma ray from dark matter. We find that gamma-ray spectra with sharp features exist in a wide class of dark matter models and mimic the gamma line signals. The generated gamma rays would generally have polynomial-type spectra or power-law with positive index. We illustrate our results in a model-independent framework with generic kinematic analysis. Similar results can also apply for cosmic rays or neutrino cases.

  17. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray; Page, Mathew J.

    2012-01-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope i...... length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism. © 2012 SPIE....

  18. The Multiwavelength View of Gamma-Ray Loud AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Tonia

    2011-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) encodes much information about the high-energy processes in the universe. Of the extragalactic sources sources resolved by the Fermi-LAT, blazars comprise the class of gamma-ray emitters with the largest number of identified members. Unresolved blazars are expected to contribute significantly to the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray emission. However, blazars are also broadband emitters (from radio to TeV energies), and as such the multiwavelength study of blazars can provide insight into the high-energy processes of the universe.

  19. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    with the local interstellar gas and radiation, as well as an almost uniformly distributed component that is generally believed to originate outside the Galaxy. Through a careful study and removal of the Galactic diffuse emission, the flux, spectrum, and uniformity of the extragalactic emission are deduced......The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions...

  20. Gamma ray energy spectra to test the peak analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Jong In; Song, Myeong Han; Yun, Ju Yong [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Yon; Row, Jung Whan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Gamma ray energy spectra for testing of the spectrum analysis method were produced by using a HPGe detector system. Standard mixed sources emitting gamma ray were used for the purpose. The Monte Carlo Simulation method was utilized for the optimization of measurement condition for radioisotopes in the sources with cascade coincidence summing effects. Calibration spectrum and test spectrum including gamma ray energy peaks with various characteristics were created. The set of test spectra was independently analyzed by 28 spectrometrists in different analysis centers. The reasonability of the spectra was estimated by standard deviations of the intercomparison results of the radioactivity analysis of radioisotopes in the test spectrum.