WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear radiation detection

  1. Detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro Sanz, A.

    1959-01-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations given by the author in the Courses of Introduction to Nuclear Engineering held at the JEN up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intent to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author) 8 refs

  2. Detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro Sanz, A.

    1967-01-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations explained by the author in the courses of Nuclear Engineering held at the J.E.N. up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied Electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intended to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author)

  3. Principles of nuclear radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.; Poston, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the transistorization of equipment and provides an introduction into practice of semiconductor and thermoluminescent detectors. It discusses the principles of radiation detectors most widely used in nuclear technology, medical practice and radiation protection. It stresses the alternative detectors available and discusses practical considerations in choosing and setting up detector systems for actual use. Traditional materials, including semiconductors, TLD's and modern data handling facilities are covered

  4. Radiation, ionization, and detection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Tapan K.

    2013-01-01

    Up-to-date information on a wide range of topics relating to radiation, ionization, and detection in nuclear medicine. In-depth coverage of basic radiophysics relating to diagnosis and therapy. Extensive discussion of instrumentation and radiation detectors. Detailed information on mathematical modelling of radiation detectors. Although our understanding of cancer has improved, the disease continues to be a leading cause of death across the world. The good news is that the recent technological developments in radiotherapy, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, digital imaging systems, and detection technology have raised hope that cancer will in the future be combatted more efficiently and effectively. For this goal to be achieved, however, safe use of radionuclides and detailed knowledge of radiation sources are essential. Radiation, Ionization, and Detection in Nuclear Medicine addresses these subjects and related issues very clearly and elaborately and will serve as the definitive source of detailed information in the field. Individual chapters cover fundamental aspects of nuclear radiation, including dose and energy, sources, and shielding; the detection and measurement of radiation exposure, with detailed information on mathematical modelling; medical imaging; the different types of radiation detector and their working principles; basic principles of and experimental techniques for deposition of scintillating materials; device fabrication; the optical and electrical behaviors of radiation detectors; and the instrumentation used in nuclear medicine and its application. The book will be an invaluable source of information for academia, industry, practitioners, and researchers.

  5. Radiation, ionization, and detection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tapan K. [Radiation Monitoring Devices Research, Nuclear Medicine, Watertown, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Up-to-date information on a wide range of topics relating to radiation, ionization, and detection in nuclear medicine. In-depth coverage of basic radiophysics relating to diagnosis and therapy. Extensive discussion of instrumentation and radiation detectors. Detailed information on mathematical modelling of radiation detectors. Although our understanding of cancer has improved, the disease continues to be a leading cause of death across the world. The good news is that the recent technological developments in radiotherapy, radionuclide diagnostics and therapy, digital imaging systems, and detection technology have raised hope that cancer will in the future be combatted more efficiently and effectively. For this goal to be achieved, however, safe use of radionuclides and detailed knowledge of radiation sources are essential. Radiation, Ionization, and Detection in Nuclear Medicine addresses these subjects and related issues very clearly and elaborately and will serve as the definitive source of detailed information in the field. Individual chapters cover fundamental aspects of nuclear radiation, including dose and energy, sources, and shielding; the detection and measurement of radiation exposure, with detailed information on mathematical modelling; medical imaging; the different types of radiation detector and their working principles; basic principles of and experimental techniques for deposition of scintillating materials; device fabrication; the optical and electrical behaviors of radiation detectors; and the instrumentation used in nuclear medicine and its application. The book will be an invaluable source of information for academia, industry, practitioners, and researchers.

  6. Nuclear radiation detection by a variband semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Possibilities of using a variband semiconductor for detecting nuclear radiations are considered. It is shown that the variaband quasielectric field effectively collects charges induced by a nuclear particle only at a small mean free path in the semiconductor (up to 100 μm), the luminescence spectrum of the variband semiconductor when a nuclear particle gets into it, in principle, permits to determine both the energy and mean free path in the semiconductor (even at large mean free paths) [ru

  7. Origin, characteristics and detection of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettel, K.

    1975-06-01

    The report is an introduction into the physical principles of radiation protection. After a brief summary of the most significant experimental results and data on the atomic structure of the matter and after explaining the principles of atomic and nuclear structure, radioactive decay and its laws are dealt with. This is followed by a representation of the characteristics of nuclear radiation, its interaction with the matter as well as the biological effects. After a description of the measurement units for radioactivity and doses the most inportant methods for radiation detection and the principles of how detectors function are explained. (ORU/LN) [de

  8. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  9. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  10. Electronic detection of nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, J.

    1972-01-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of i ts immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  11. Detection of nuclear radiations; Deteccion de Radiaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanarro Sanz, A

    1967-07-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations explained by the author in the courses of Nuclear Engineering held at the J.E.N. up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied Electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intended to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author)

  12. Detection of nuclear radiations; Detectores de radiaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanarro Sanz, A

    1959-07-01

    A summary of the lectures about the ordinary detectors of nuclear radiations given by the author in the Courses of Introduction to Nuclear Engineering held at the JEN up to the date of publication is given. Those lectures are considered to be a necessary introduction to Nuclear Instrumentation and Applied electronics to Nuclear Engineering so it has been intent to underline those characteristics of radiation detectors that must be taken in consideration in choosing or designing the electronic equipment associated to them in order to take advantage of each detector possibilities. (Author) 8 refs.

  13. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    After the September 11 terrorist attack, the threat of a potential for a radiological or nuclear terrorist attack became more apparent. The threats relating to radiological or nuclear materials include a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD), an Improved Nuclear Device (IND) or a State Nuclear Device (such as a Soviet manufactured suitcase nuclear weapon). For more effective countermeasures against the disaster, multilayer protection concept - prevention of smuggling of radioactive or nuclear material into our country through seaports or airports, detection and prevention of the threat materials in transit on a road, and prevention of their entry into a target building - is recommended. Due to different surrounding circumstances of where detection system is deployed, different types of radiation detection systems are required. There have been no studies on characteristics of detection equipment required under Korean specific conditions. This paper provides information on technical requirements of radiation detection system to achieve multi-layer countermeasures for the purpose of protecting the public and environment against radiological and nuclear terrorism

  14. Radiation Detection Overview for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-16

    This presentation discusses the fundamentals of gamma and neutron detection; presents an overview of the DOE Triage and JTOT Programs, gamma, and neutron signatures in select measurements; and offers a detector demonstration.

  15. Nuclear radiation detection with superconducting tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakado, Masahiko

    1984-01-01

    Since the gap energy of superconductors is as small as 1 meV and 1/1000 of that of semiconductors, it is expected that the number of electron-hole pairs produced in superconductors by radiation is several thousands times as many as the pairs in semiconductors. Therefore, high sensitivity and high resolution radiation detectors may be manufactured by using superconductors. A computer simulation of the cascade excitation process of electrons was carried out. The experimental study was performed by using Sn junctions. The variation of transient voltage was measured by the constant current method. The alpha particles from Po-210 were measured, and the generation of quasi particles was confirmed. The relaxation time of signals was measured by using pulsed laser beam. It was found that the superconductors just after the incidence of radiation became nonequilibrium. The typical alpha spectra were obtained by cooling the superconductors to 0.32 K. The detector is still under development. The problem is leakage current. (Kato, T.)

  16. Electronic detection of nuclear radiations; Deteccion Electronica de radiaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, J

    1972-07-01

    This report is the first draft of one of the chapters of a book being prepared under the title: Topics on Practical Nuclear Physics. It is published as a report because of i ts immediate educational value and in order to include in its final draft the suggestions of the readers. (Author)

  17. Nuclear radiation detected optical pumping of neutron deficient Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extension of the Nuclear Radiation Detected Optical Pumping method to mass-separated samples of isotopes far off stability is presented for a series of light Hg isotopes produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The isotope under investigation is transferred by an automatic transfer system into the optical pumping apparatus. Zeeman scanning of an isotopically pure Hg spectral lamp is used to reach energetic coincidence with the hyperfine structure components of the 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 3 P 1 (lambda = 2537 A) resonance line of the investigated isotope and the Hg lamp. The orientation build up by optical pumping is monitored via the asymmetry or anisotropy of the nuclear radiation. Nuclear spins, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments and isotopic shift are obtained for 181 Hg- 191 Hg using the β-asymmetry as detector. The extension of the method using the γ-anisotropy is discussed and measurements on 193 Hg are presented. (orig./HK)

  18. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2010-01-01

    Fixed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed at border, seaport, airport and key traffic checkpoints have played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM is usually large and heavy and can't easily be moved to different locations. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Field tests to characterize the developed detection system were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of measurements and detection limits of our system are described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle

  19. Proposal of secure camera-based radiation warning system for nuclear detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Ken'ichi; Kurosawa, Kenji; Akiba, Norimitsu; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Imoto, Daisuke; Hirabayashi, Manato; Kuroki, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    Counter-terrorisms against radiological and nuclear threat are significant issues toward Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. In terms of cost benefit, it is not easy to build a warning system for nuclear detection to prevent a Dirty Bomb attack (dispersion of radioactive materials using a conventional explosive) or a Silent Source attack (hidden radioactive materials) from occurring. We propose a nuclear detection system using the installed secure cameras. We describe a method to estimate radiation dose from noise pattern in CCD images caused by radiation. Some dosimeters under neutron and gamma-ray irradiations (0.1mSv-100mSv) were taken in CCD video camera. We confirmed amount of noise in CCD images increased in radiation exposure. The radiation detection using CMOS in secure cameras or cell phones has been implemented. However, in this presentation, we propose a warning system including neutron detection to search shielded nuclear materials or radiation exposure devices using criticality. (author)

  20. Enhancing international radiation/nuclear detection training opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Thomas L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bersell, Bridget M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Booker, Paul M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Gerald E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Leitch, Rosalyn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meagher, John B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Siefken, Rob R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spracklen, James L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-23

    The United States has worked domestically to develop and provide radiological and nuclear detection training and education initiatives aimed at interior law enforcement, but the international community has predominantly focused efforts at border and customs officials. The interior law enforcement officials of a State play a critical role in maintaining an effective national-level nuclear detection architecture. To meet this vital need, DNDO was funded by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to create and deliver a 1-week course at the International Law Enforcement Academy (ILEA) in Budapest, Hungary to inform interior law enforcement personnel of the overall mission, and to provide an understanding of how the participants can combat the threats of radiological and nuclear terrorism through detection efforts. Two courses, with approximately 20 students in each course, were delivered in fiscal year (FY) 2013, two were delivered in FY 2014 and FY 2015, and as of this report’s writing more are planned in FY 2016. However, while the ILEA courses produced measurable success, DNDO requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research potential avenues to further increase the course impact.In a multi-phased approach, PNNL researched and analyzed several possible global training locations and venues, and other possible ways to increase the impact of the course using an agreed-to data-gathering format.

  1. Development of mobile radiation detection system against nuclear terrorism in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Chang, Sung-Soon; Yoo, Ho-Sik

    2011-01-01

    A fixed radiation portal monitors (RPM) deployed at border, seaport, airport or key traffic checkpoints has played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM usually is large and heavy and can't easily be moved to a different location. An intelligent terrorist may also circumvent the fixed RPM to avoid being detected. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for the search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Measurements were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of our measurements and the detection limits of the system is described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle. (author)

  2. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Jean A.

    2012-08-22

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the inaugural Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from June 11 – 22, 2012. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. The first week of the summer school focused on the foundational knowledge required by technology practitioners; the second week focused on contemporary applications. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security.

  3. Nanotechnology-Based Systems for Nuclear Radiation and Chemical Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kody Varahramyan; Pedro Derosa; Chester Wilson

    2006-01-01

    This main objectives of this effort are the development and prototyping of a small, sensitive, and low-cost multi-channel nanoparticle scintillation microdevice with integrated waveguides for alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron detection. This research effort has integrated experiments and simulation to determine the combination of process-specific materials for the achievement optimum detection conditions

  4. Summary Report for the Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baciak, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Woodring, Mitchell L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jenno, Diana M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Executive Summary The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) hosted students from across the United States at the 3rd Radiation Detection for Nuclear Security Summer School from 16 – 27 June 2014. The summer school provided students with a unique understanding of nuclear security challenges faced in the field and exposed them to the technical foundations, analyses, and insight that will be required by future leaders in technology development and implementation. The course heavily emphasized laboratory and field demonstrations including direct measurements of special nuclear material. Student evaluations and feedback from student advisors indicates that the summer school achieved its objectives of 1) exposing students to the range of nuclear security applications for which radiation detection is necessary, 2) articulating the relevance of student research into the broader context, and 3) exciting students about the possibility of future careers in nuclear security. In fact, we are beginning to see previous students both enroll in graduate programs (former undergraduates) and complete internships at agencies like the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  5. Bayesian-statistical decision threshold, detection limit, and confidence interval in nuclear radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, K.

    1998-01-01

    When a contribution of a particular nuclear radiation is to be detected, for instance, a spectral line of interest for some purpose of radiation protection, and quantities and their uncertainties must be taken into account which, such as influence quantities, cannot be determined by repeated measurements or by counting nuclear radiation events, then conventional statistics of event frequencies is not sufficient for defining the decision threshold, the detection limit, and the limits of a confidence interval. These characteristic limits are therefore redefined on the basis of Bayesian statistics for a wider applicability and in such a way that the usual practice remains as far as possible unaffected. The principle of maximum entropy is applied to establish probability distributions from available information. Quantiles of these distributions are used for defining the characteristic limits. But such a distribution must not be interpreted as a distribution of event frequencies such as the Poisson distribution. It rather expresses the actual state of incomplete knowledge of a physical quantity. The different definitions and interpretations and their quantitative consequences are presented and discussed with two examples. The new approach provides a theoretical basis for the DIN 25482-10 standard presently in preparation for general applications of the characteristic limits. (orig.) [de

  6. Position sensitive detection of nuclear radiation mediated by non equilibrium phonons at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pröbst, F.; Peterreins, Th.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Kraus, H.

    1990-03-01

    Many experiments in nuclear and particle physics would benefit from the development of a device capable of detecting non-ionizing events with a low energy threshold. In this context, we report on experimental tests of a detector based on the registration of nonequilibrium phonons. The device is composed of a silicon single crystal (size: 20×10×3 mm 3) and of an array of superconducting tunnel junctions evaporated onto the surface of the crystal. The junctions serve as sensors for phonons created by absorption of nuclear radiation in the crystal. We show how pulse height analysis and the investigation of time differences between correlated pulses in different junctions can be used to obtain information about the point of absorption.

  7. Detecting Illicit Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, Richard T.

    2005-01-01

    The threat that weapons of mass destruction might enter the United States has led to a number of efforts for the detection and interdiction of nuclear, radiological, chemical, and biological weapons at our borders. There have been multiple deployments of instrumentation to detect radiation signatures to interdict radiological material, including weapons and weapons material worldwide

  8. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This is an update of the standard textbook for the field of radiation measurement. It includes illustrative examples and new problems. The research and applications of nuclear instrumentation have grown substantially since publication of the previous editions. With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines, including nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. Continuing in the tradition of its bestselling predecessors, "Measurement and Detection of Radiation, Third Edition" illustrates the fundamentals of nuclear interactions and radiation detection with a multitude of examples and problems. It offers a clearly written, accessible introduction to nuclear instrumentation concepts. The following are new to the third edition: a new chapter on the latest applications of radiation detection, covering nuclear medicine, dosimetry, health physics, no...

  9. Nuclear instrumentation for radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madan, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses. Nuclear detectors and associated electronics facilitate detection and measurement of different types of radiation like alpha particles, beta particles, gamma radiation, and detection of neutrons. Nuclear instrumentation has evolved greatly since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been tremendous advancement in detector technology, electronics, computer technology, and development of efficient algorithms and methods for spectral processing to extract precisely qualitative and quantitative information of the radiation. Various types of detectors and nuclear instruments are presently available and are used for different applications. This paper describes nuclear radiation, its detection and measurement and associated electronics, spectral information extraction, and advances in these fields. The paper also describes challenges in this field

  10. Dynamic CT for Parathyroid Adenoma Detection: How Does Radiation Dose Compare With Nuclear Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Caroline A; Einsiedel, Paul F; Phal, Pramit M; Miller, Julie A; Lichtenstein, Meir; Stella, Damien L

    2018-05-01

    Dynamic CT is increasingly used for preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas, but concerns remain about the radiation effective dose of CT compared with that of 99m Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose delivered by three-phase dynamic CT with that delivered by 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT performed in accordance with our current protocols and to assess the possible reduction in effective dose achieved by decreasing the scan length (i.e., z-axis) of two phases of the dynamic CT protocol. The effective dose of a 99m Tc-sestamibi nuclear medicine parathyroid study performed with and without coregistration CT was calculated and compared with the effective dose of our current three-phase dynamic CT protocol as well as a proposed protocol involving CT with reduced scan length. The median effective dose for a 99m Tc-sestamibi nuclear medicine study was 5.6 mSv. This increased to 12.4 mSv with the addition of coregistration CT, which is higher than the median effective dose of 9.3 mSv associated with the dynamic CT protocol. Reducing the scan length of two phases in the dynamic CT protocol could reduce the median effective dose to 6.1 mSv, which would be similar to that of the dose from the 99m Tc-sestamibi study alone. Dynamic CT used for the detection of parathyroid adenoma can deliver a lower radiation dose than 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT. It may be possible to reduce the dose further by decreasing the scan length of two of the phases, although whether this has an impact on accuracy of the localization needs further investigation.

  11. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Nuclear radiation in warfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios); biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion. (U.K.)

  13. Radiation monitors of new generation - New methodology of detection of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, L.; Stavrov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In recent few years the world community has faced a problem which was considered before as an almost theoretical one - a possibility of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials due to their partially controlled or even completely uncontrolled proliferation. Organization of the first conference entitled 'Safety of Radiation Sources and Security of Radioactive Materials', Dijon, France, 14-18 September 1998, is particularly a witness of the world community's concern about these issues. The conference was held under the aegis of the IAEA, European Commission, INTERPOL and World Customs Organization. The conference covered the whole range of problems concerned with both the elaboration of legal regulations of radiation control, development of equipment and training of personnel. Since 1997 till 2000 the international ITRAP program (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Detection Assessment Program) was held under the aegis of the IAEA, WCO and INTERPOL. The task of the program was to work out the common requirements to the equipment, to test the equipment against the program requirements and to elaborate recommendations for the IAEA member-countries. In the course of this program realization the modern devices of the world leading manufacturers of the equipment for radiation control at state borders had been tested. The equipment to be tested is designed to fulfil the following main tasks: alarming about the presence of radioactive source in the controlled area; detection and location of the source, as well as its identification, personnel radiation protection being necessarily provided. To fulfil each of the above tasks essentially different specialized instruments are used: from large fixed installed systems to portable instruments, 'pager' type pocket search instruments and personal dosimeters. Consequently numerous different instruments have to be used during the radiation control at borders. It creates considerable difficulties for border guard

  14. Nuclear medicine in the detection of radiation associated normal tissue damage of kidney, brain and salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaomei; Li Dongxue; Pan Liping

    2005-01-01

    The radiation induced damage of kidney, brain and salivary glands is an important complicating disease after limit radiotherapy. The routine technology of nuclear medicine, such as tracing and imaging technique conduce to dose-effect calculations used in the planning of modern radiotherapy to three major organ systems and early detection of irradiation induced organ dysfunctions, as well as increased availability of radiotherapy. (authors)

  15. Measurement and detection of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This fourth edition reflects recent major developments that have occurred in radiation detector materials, systems, and applications. It continues to provide the most practical and up-to-date introduction to radiation detector technology, proper measurement techniques, and analysis of results for engineers and scientists using radiation sources. New chapters emphasize the expanded use of radiation detection systems in nuclear non-proliferation, homeland security, and nuclear medicine. The book also discusses the correct ways to perform measurements following current health physics procedures.

  16. Development of Sensor Technology and Its Application for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskia

    2007-01-01

    Radiation is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. Radiation can be ionizing or nonionizing radiation, depending on its effect on atomic matter. Because radiation cannot be seen, felt, tasted, heard or smelled, even at lethal levels, radiations detection devices must be used to alert those exposed to radiation. The measurement of radioactivity in the environment is a regulatory requirement around sites where significant amounts of radioactive materials are used or stored. Recently, advent in microelectronics and material technology has enabled to produce small sensor or microsensor, sensitive, accurate, and integrated in a chip or substrate. Development of radiation sensor technology using thin/thick film and micromachining technique was described in this paper. Indonesian capabilities in radiation sensor research and development and opportunities for commercialization also given. (author)

  17. The Development of Sensor Technology and Application to Detect Nuclear Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskia

    2007-01-01

    Radiation is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. Radiation can be ionizing or non-ionizing radiation, depending on its effect on atomic matter. Because radiation cannot be seen, felt, tasted, heard or smelled, even at lethal levels, radiations detection devices must be used to alert those exposed to radiation. The measurement of radioactivity in the environment is a regulatory requirement around sites where significant amounts of radioactive materials are used or stored. Recently, advent in microelectronics and material technology has enabled to produce small sensor or microsensor, sensitive, accurate, and integrated in a chip or substrate. Development of radiation sensor technology using thin/thick film and micromachining technique was described in this paper. Indonesian capabilities in radiation sensor research and development and opportunities for commercialization also given. (author)

  18. Nuclear radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present monograph is intended to treat the commonly used detectors in the field of nuclear physics covering important developments of the recent years. After a general introduction, a brief account of interaction of radiation with matter relevant to the processes in radiation detection is given in Chapter II. In addition to the ionization chamber, proportional counters and Geiger Mueller counters, several gas-filled detectors of advanced design such as those recently developed for heavy ion physics and other types of studies have been covered in Chapter III. Semiconductor detectors are dealt with in Chapter IV. The scintillation detectors which function by sensing the photons emitted by the luminescence process during the interaction of the impinging radiation with the scintillation detector medium are described in Chapter V. The topic of neutron detectors is covered in Chapter VI, as in this case the emphasis is more on the method of neutron detection rather than on detector type. Electronic instrumentation related to signal pulse processing dealt with in Chapter VII. The track etch detectors based on the visualization of the track of the impinging charge particle have also been briefly covered in the last chapter. The scope of this monograph is confined to detectors commonly used in low and medium energy nuclear physics research and applications of nuclear techniques. The monograph is intended for post-graduate students and those beginning to work with the radiation detectors. (author)

  19. Detecting nuclear warheads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, S.; Frolov, V.A.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Miller, M.

    1992-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, all nuclear weapons contain at least several kilograms of fissile material - material that can sustain a chain reaction. Such material provides the energy for fission explosives such as those that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki; it is also used in the fission trigger modern thermonuclear weapons. The two fissile materials used in US and Soviet warheads are weapon grade uranium (WgU) and weapon-grade plutonium (WgPu). Fissile materials are radioactive; they are very dense and absorb certain radiations very well; and they can be fissioned. This paper reports on the two basic ways to detect fissile material: passive detection of the radiation emitted by its radioactive decay, or active detection involving either radiographing (x-raying) an object with neutrons or high-energy photons and detecting particles emitted by the resulting induced fissions. Passive detection is the preferred technique for verification purposes because of its simplicity and safety

  20. Detection of Terahertz Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation.......The present invention relates to a system for detecting terahertz radiation, a camera device, and a method for detecting terahertz radiation....

  1. Counterbalanced radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1987-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection system is described comprising: (a) a stand; (b) a first radiation detector; (c) a first radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the first radiation detector with the stand; (d) a second radiation detector; (e) a second radiation detector arm means for tiltably connecting the second radiation detector with the stand, whereby the tilting angles of the radiation detector arm means define a distance between the radiation detectors; and (f) a torque transforming means connected between the first and second radiation detector arm means for transforming the torque created by one of the radiation detectors in a sense opposed to the torque created by the other radiation detector

  2. Integrated nuclear radiation detector and monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, B.L.; Lieberman, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A battery powered device which can continuously monitor and detect nuclear radiation utilizing fully integrated circuitry and which is provided with an alarm which alerts persons when the radiation level exceeds a predetermined threshold

  3. Materials science for nuclear detection

    OpenAIRE

    Peurrung, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detec...

  4. Nuclear radiation gauge standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described, comprising a body of superposed interleaved thin layers of a moderating material containing hydrogen in the molecular structure thereof and of a substantially non-moderating material

  5. Instrumentation For Multiple Radiation Detection Based On Novel Mercurous Halides For Nuclear Planetology, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation detectors that sense gamma and neutron radiation are critical to the exploration of planetary surface composition. Among the key technological challenges...

  6. Counterbalanced radiation detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1986-01-01

    A counterbalanced radiation detection device is described which consists of: (a) a base; (b) a radiation detector having a known weight; (c) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for positioning the radiation detector in different heights with respect to the base; (d) electronic component means movably mounted on the base for counterbalancing the weight of the radiation detector; (e) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector positioning means for positioning the electronic component means in different heights with respect to the base opposite to the heights of the radiation detector; (f) means connected with the radiation detector and the base for shifting the radiation detector horizontally with respect to the base; and (g) means connected with the electronic component means and the radiation detector shifting means for shifting the electronic component means horizontally with respect to the base in opposite direction to shifting of the radiation detector

  7. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  8. Nuclear medicine radiation dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2010-01-01

    Complexities of the requirements for accurate radiation dosimetry evaluation in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine (including PET) have grown over the past decade. This is due primarily to four factors: growing consideration of accurate patient-specific treatment planning for radionuclide therapy as a means of improving the therapeutic benefit, development of more realistic anthropomorphic phantoms and their use in estimating radiation transport and dosimetry in patients, design and use of advanced Monte Carlo algorithms in calculating the above-mentioned radiation transport and

  9. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  10. Pulse generator circuit triggerable by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse generator circuit triggerable by a pulse of nuclear radiation is described. The pulse generator circuit includes a pair of transistors arranged, together with other electrical components, in the topology of a standard monostable multivibrator circuit. The circuit differs most significantly from a standard monostable multivibrator circuit in that the circuit is adapted to be triggered by a pulse of nuclear radiation rather than electrically and the transistors have substantially different sensitivities to radiation, due to different physical and electrical characteristics and parameters. One of the transistors is employed principally as a radiation detector and is in a normally non-conducting state and the other transistor is normally in a conducting state. When the circuit is exposed to a pulse of nuclear radiation, currents are induced in the collector-base junctions of both transistors but, due to the different radiation sensitivities of the transistors, the current induced in the collector-base junction of the radiation-detecting transistor is substantially greater than that induced in the collector-base junction of the other transistor. The pulse of radiation causes the radiation-detecting transistor to operate in its conducting state, causing the other transistor to operate in its non-conducting state. As the radiation-detecting transistor operates in its conducting state, an output signal is produced at an output terminal connected to the radiation-detecting transistor indicating the presence of a predetermined intensity of nuclear radiation

  11. Procedures and techniques for monitoring the radiation detection, signalization and alarm systems in the centralized ambience monitoring systems of the basic nuclear facilities of the CEN Saclay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, J.-J.; Drouet, J.; Leblanc, P.

    1979-01-01

    After referring to the regulations governing the 'systematic ambience monitoring' in the basic nuclear facilities, the main radiation detection, signalization and alarm devices existing at present in these facilities of the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are described. The analysis of the operating defects of the measuring channels and detection possibilities leads to the anomalies being classified in two separate groups: the anomalies of the logical 'all or nothing' type of which all the possible origins are integrated into a so-called 'continuity' line and the evolutive anomalies of various origins corresponding to poor functioning extending possibly to a complete absence of signal. The techniques for testing the detection devices of the radiation monitoring board set up in the 'Departement de Rayonnements' at the Saclay Nuclear Study Centre are also described [fr

  12. Computer-based nuclear radiation detection and instrumentation teaching laboratory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, W.H.; He, Q.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of computers into the University of Florida's Nuclear Engineering Sciences teaching laboratories is based on the innovative use of MacIntosh 2 microcomputers, IEEE-488 (GPIB) communication and control bus system and protocol, compatible modular nuclear instrumentation (NIM) and test equipment, LabVIEW graphics and applications software, with locally prepared, interactive, menu-driven, HyperCard based multi-exercise laboratory instruction sets and procedures. Results thus far have been highly successful with the majority of the laboratory exercises having been implemented

  13. Nanostructured Lanthanum Halides and CeBr3 for Nuclear Radiation and Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guise, Ron; Yuan, Ding

    2010-01-01

    Scintillator materials are used to detect, and in some cases identify, gamma rays. Higher performance scintillators are expensive, hard to manufacture, fragile, and sometimes require liquid nitrogen or cooling engines. But whereas lower-quality scintillators are cheap, easy to manufacture, and more rugged, their performance is lower. At issue: can the desirable qualities of high-and low-performance scintillators be combined to achieve better performance at lower cost? Preliminary experiments show that a LaF 3 :Ce oleic acid-based nanocomposite exhibits a photopeak when exposed to 137 Cs source gamma-radiation. The chemical synthesis of the cerium-doped lanthanum halide nanoparticles are scalable and large quantities of material can be produced at a time, unlike typical crystal growth processes such as the Bridgeman process. Using a polymer composite (Figure 1), produced by LANL, initial measurements of the unloaded and 8% LaF 3 :Ce-loaded sample have been made using 137 Cs sources. Figure 2 shows an energy spectrum acquired for CeF 3 . The lighter plot is the measured polymer-only spectrum and the black plot is the spectrum from the nanocomposite scintillator. As the development of this material continues, the energy resolution is expected to improve and the photopeak-to-Compton ratio will become greater at higher loadings. These measurements show the expected Compton edge in the polymer-only sample, and the Compton edge and photo-peak expected in the nanophosphor composites that LANL has produced. Using a porous VYCORR with CdSe/ZnS core shell quantum dots, Letant has demonstrated that he has obtained signatures of the 241Am photopeak with energy resolution as good at NaI (Figure 3). We begin with the fact that CeBr 3 crystals do not have a self-activity component as strong as the lanthanum halides. The radioactive 0.090% 138 La component of lanthanum leads to significant self-activity, which will be a problem for very large detector volumes. Yet a significant

  14. Nuclear energy and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Johnson, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Both the light water reactor and the Canadian heavy water reactor systems produce electricity cheaply and efficiently. They produce some fissionable byproducts, which can be recycled to extend energy sources many-fold. Besides the production of electrical power, the nuclear industry produces various radioistopes used for treatment of cancer, in diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine, in ionization smoke detectors, and as radioactive tracers with various technological applications including the study of the mechanisms of life. The increment in environmental radiation levels resulting from operation of nuclear power reactors represents a very small fraction of the radiation levels to which we are all exposed from natural sources, and of the average radiation exposures resulting from diagnostic procedures in the healing arts. The total health hazard of the complete nuclear power cycle is generally agreed to be smaller than the hazards associated with the generation of an equal amount of electricity from most other currently available sources of energy. The hazards from energy production in terms of shortened life expectancy are much smaller in all cases than the resulting increase in health and life expectancy. (auth)

  15. Nuclear fuel element leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a leak detection system integral with a wall of a building used to fabricate nuclear fuel elements for detecting radiation leakage from the nuclear fuel elements as the fuel elements exit the building. The leak detecting system comprises a shielded compartment constructed to withstand environmental hazards extending into a similarly constructed building and having sealed doors on both ends along with leak detecting apparatus connected to the compartment. The leak detecting system provides a system for removing a nuclear fuel element from its fabrication building while testing for radiation leaks in the fuel element

  16. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry.

  17. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry. (author)

  18. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho

    2000-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows: The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost some level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water sample were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author)

  19. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Young Ho; Lee, M.H. [and others

    1999-02-01

    Environmental radiation monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul research reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross {alpha}, {beta} radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. {gamma}-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul research reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by {gamma}-spectrometry. (author). 3 refs., 50 tabs., 12 figs.

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Geun Sik and others

    2001-02-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. Radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor. The results of environmental radiation monitoring around KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactor are the follows : The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by NaI scintillation counter and accumulated radiation dose by TLD was almost same level compared with the past years. Gross α, β radioactivity in environmental samples showed a environmental level. γ-radionuclides in water samples were not detected. But only radionuclide K-40, which is natural radionuclide, was detected in the all samples and Cs-137 was detected in the surface soil and discharge sediment. The average level of environmental radiation dose around Seoul Research Reactor was almost same level compared with the past years, and Be-7 and Cs-137 were detected in some surface soil and discharge sediment by γ-spectrometry

  1. Aerial Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W. M.

    1999-01-01

    An airborne system designed for the detection of radioactive sources on the soil surface from an aircraft normally senses gamma rays emitted by the source. Gamma rays have the longest path length (least attenuation) through the air of any of the common radioactive emissions and will thus permit source detection at large distances. A secondary benefit from gamma rays detection if that nearly all radioactive isotopes can be identified by the spectrum of gammas emitted. Major gaseous emissions from fuel processing plants emit gammas that may be detected and identified. Some types of special nuclear material also emit neutrons which are also useful for detection at a distance

  2. Radiation Detection Center on the Front Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A

    2005-01-01

    Many of today's radiation detection tools were developed in the 1960s. For years, the Laboratory's expertise in radiation detection resided mostly within its nuclear test program. When nuclear testing was halted in the 1990s, many of Livermore's radiation detection experts were dispersed to other parts of the Laboratory, including the directorates of Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS); Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT); Defense and Nuclear Technologies (DNT); and Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and International Security (NAI). The RDC-- was formed to maximize the benefit of radiation detection technologies being developed in 15 to 20 research and development (R and D) programs. These efforts involve more than 200 Laboratory employees across eight directorates, in areas that range from electronics to computer simulations. The RDC's primary focus is the detection, identification, and analysis of nuclear materials and weapons. A newly formed outreach program within the RDC-- is responsible for conducting radiation detection workshops and seminars across the country and for coordinating university student internships. Simon Labov, director of the RDC, says, ''Virtually all of the Laboratory's programs use radiation detection devices in some way. For example, DNT uses radiation detection to create radiographs for their work in stockpile stewardship and in diagnosing explosives; CMS uses it to develop technology for advancing the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer; and the Energy and Environment Directorate uses radiation detection in the Marshall Islands to monitor the aftermath of nuclear testing in the Pacific. In the future, the National Ignition Facility will use radiation detection to probe laser targets and study shock dynamics.''

  3. Nuclear and radiation safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikus, T; Strycek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne (SE) is a producer of electricity and heat, including from nuclear fuel source. The board of SE is ultimately responsible for nuclear and radiation safety matters. In this leaflet main principles of maintaining nuclear and radiation safety of the Company SE are explained

  4. Radiation detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, Sandor

    1989-01-01

    Principles and operation of radiation detectors used for industrial and laboratory radiometric measurements are reviewed. The discussed detector types are as follows: ionization chamber, proportional counter, Geiger-Mueller counter, semiconductor detectors, scintillation counter and scintillators, photomultiplier tube, scintillation spectrometer and scintillation detector with semiconductor light sensor. A brief overview of the detectors of industrial nuclear instruments is also presented. (R.P.) 32 figs.; 3 tabs

  5. Nuclear radiation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    The manifestations of acute radiation sickness in the post-nuclear attack period must be recognized and understood in order to apply therapeutic measure appropriately. The syndromes observed-hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, central nervous system-are dose dependent and vary in the degree of patient impairment and lethality. Estimates of mortality and morbidity following a massive exchange vary profoundly, depending on the targeting scenarios, the modes employed, and the meteorologic conditions anticipated. Even the LD-50 dose remain the subject of controversy. Using a US Government model of such an exchange, an estimated 23 million survivors would have radiation sickness, frequently complicated by trauma and burns. Among these survivors, an overriding consideration will be the presence and extent of infection, associated with alterations in the immune system, malnutrition, dehydration, exposure and hardship. Triage and treatment will be extraordinarily complex, requiring patient relocation, massive fluid replacement, antibiotics, a sterile environment , and many other measures. Massive disparities between supply and demand for physicians, nurses, other health workers, hospital beds, supplies and equipment, antibiotics, and other pharmaceutical agents will render a coherent physician response virtually impossible. Such disparities will be compounded by the destruction of transport systems and intolerably high radiation levels in many areas. If it is true that the meliorative efforts of physicians in post-attack radiation damage will be incapable of addressing this massive health care problem meaningfully, then clearly their most effective role is to prevent the threat from materializing. (authors)

  6. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  7. Radiation versus radiation: nuclear energy in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.; Anderer, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a proper perspective on radiation exposures from nuclear energy. Instead of comparing these exposures with other pollutants, natural and man-made, it assesses the radiation doses that result from the human environment and from the entire fuel cycle associated with nuclear generated electricity. It explores radiation versus radiation, not only in terms of absolute levels but, more importantly, of the enormous variability characterizing many radiation sources. The quantitative findings and their implications are meant to contribute to a balanced understanding of the radiological impact of nuclear energy, and so to help to bridge the information gap that is perceived to exist on this issue. The 1988 Unscear report and its seven scientific annexes provide an authoritative and dispassionate factual basis for examining radiation levels from all sources, natural and man-made. It is the main source for this paper. (author)

  8. Chambers nuclear energy and radiation dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This Dictionary is designed to make it easier for those who are concerned about nuclear power and radiation to learn more about nuclear energy and to come to an informed opinion. The first two of the 11 chapters which precede the dictionary proper describe the properties of the atomic nucleus which make nuclear energy possible and then the problems which have to be overcome in harnessing this energy. The next two chapters discuss the many different kinds of power stations which rely on fission and then the methods of fusion which may produce power in the next century. There are then two chapters on nuclear safety and on the production and enrichment of uranium fuel, together with methods for its eventual disposal. These are followed by a chapter on nuclear bombs of various kinds and one on how nuclear and other forms of radiation can be detected. There is then a chapter which relates the radiation resulting from nuclear fission to other kinds of radiation. The next chapter discusses some basic biology particularly cancer. Finally, the biological effects of radiation are described before comparing the amounts of man-made radiation to that which comes naturally from outer space and from the rocks beneath us. This then leads to the radiation limits which are determined by the various regulartory authorities and the kinds of evidence upon which their decisions are based. (Author)

  9. Radiation detector for use in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, T.C.; Grimaila, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    A multi-sensor radiation detection system for removable insertion into a nuclear reactor is described in which one conductor of all the sensors is a single, common element. This single common element is contained within a tubular metallic sheath and in crosssection comprises a multiple radial armed metallic conductor having a star shaped cross-section dimensioned to form wedgeshaped compartments throughout the active radiation detecting length of the metallic sheath

  10. Radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuszer, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A circuit is disclosed that detects radiation transients and provides a clamping signal in response to each transient. The clamping signal is present from the time the transient rises above a given threshold level and for a known duration thereafter. The system includes radiation sensors, a blocking oscillator that generates a pulse in response to each sensor signal, and an output pulse duration control circuit. The oscillator pulses are fed simultaneously to the output pulse duration control circuit and to an OR gate, the output of which comprises the system output. The output pulse duration is controlled by the time required to magnetize a magnetic core to saturation in first one direction and then the other

  11. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corstens, F.

    1989-01-01

    Aspects of radiation protection in nuclear medicine and the role of the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine in these are discussed. With an effective dose-equivalence of averaged 3 mSv per year per nuclear medical examination and about 200.000 examinations per year in the Netherlands, nuclear medicine contributes only to a small degree to the total averaged radiation dose by medical treating. Nevertheless from the beginning, besides to protection of environment and personnel, much attention has been spent by nuclear physicians to dose reduction with patients. Replacing of relatively long living radionuclides like 131 I by short living radionuclides like 99m Tc is an example. In her education and acknowledgement policy the Dutch Society for Nuclear Medicine spends much attention to aspects of radiation reduction. (author). 3 tabs

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-03-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uranium and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The {gamma}-radionuclides such as natural radionuclides 40K or 7Be were detected in pine needle and food. The nuclear radionuclides 134Cs, 137Cs or 131I were temporarily detected in the samples of air particulate and rain in April and of fall out in 2nd quarter from the effect of Fukusima accident.

  13. Radiation chemistry in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke

    2006-01-01

    The importance of radiation chemistry in the field of nuclear technology including reactor chemistry, spent fuel reprocessing and radioactive high level waste repository, is summarized and, in parallel, our research activity will be briefly presented. (author)

  14. Radiation Detection for Homeland Security Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, James

    2008-05-01

    In the past twenty years or so, there have been significant changes in the strategy and applications for homeland security. Recently there have been significant at deterring and interdicting terrorists and associated organizations. This is a shift in the normal paradigm of deterrence and surveillance of a nation and the `conventional' methods of warfare to the `unconventional' means that terrorist organizations resort to. With that shift comes the responsibility to monitor international borders for weapons of mass destruction, including radiological weapons. As a result, countries around the world are deploying radiation detection instrumentation to interdict the illegal shipment of radioactive material crossing international borders. These efforts include deployments at land, rail, air, and sea ports of entry in the US and in European and Asian countries. Radioactive signatures of concern include radiation dispersal devices (RDD), nuclear warheads, and special nuclear material (SNM). Radiation portal monitors (RPMs) are used as the main screening tool for vehicles and cargo at borders, supplemented by handheld detectors, personal radiation detectors, and x-ray imaging systems. This talk will present an overview of radiation detection equipment with emphasis on radiation portal monitors. In the US, the deployment of radiation detection equipment is being coordinated by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office within the Department of Homeland Security, and a brief summary of the program will be covered. Challenges with current generation systems will be discussed as well as areas of investigation and opportunities for improvements. The next generation of radiation portal monitors is being produced under the Advanced Spectroscopic Portal program and will be available for deployment in the near future. Additional technologies, from commercially available to experimental, that provide additional information for radiation screening, such as density imaging equipment, will

  15. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  16. Nuclear radiation and the properties of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.F.

    1983-08-01

    Concrete is used for structures in which the concrete is exposed to nuclear radiation. Exposure to nuclear radiation may affect the properties of concrete. The report mentions the types of nuclear radiation while radiation damage in concrete is discussed. Attention is also given to the effects of neutron and gamma radiation on compressive and tensile strength of concrete. Finally radiation shielding, the attenuation of nuclear radiation and the value of concrete as a shielding material is discussed

  17. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    Introductory material covers radiation sources, radiation interactions, general properties of radiation detectors, and counting statistics and error prediction. This is followed by detailed sections on gas-filled detectors, scintillation counters, semiconductor detectors, neutron detectors and spectroscopy, detector electronics and pulse processing, and miscellaneous radiation detectors and applications

  18. Measurement and detection of radiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsoulfanidis, Nicholas; Landsberger, Sheldon

    2011-01-01

    .... With the miniaturization of equipment, increased speed of electronic components, and more sophisticated software, radiation detection systems are now more productively used in many disciplines...

  19. Radiation protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Lochard, J.; Lefaure, Ch.; Schieber, C.; Schneider, Th; Lecomte, J.F.; Delmont, D.; Boitel, S.; Le Fauconnier, J.P.; Sugier, A; Zerbib, J.C.; Barbey, P.

    1998-01-01

    Close ties exist between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Nuclear safety is made up of all the arrangements taken to prevent accidents occurring in nuclear facilities, these accidents would certainly involved a radiological aspect. Radiation protection is made up of all the arrangements taken to evaluate and reduce the impact of radiation on workers or population in normal situations or in case of accident. In the fifties the management of radiological hazards was based on the quest for minimal or even zero risk. This formulation could lead to call some activities in question whereas the benefits for the whole society were evident. Now a new attitude more aware of the real risks and of no wasting resources prevails. This attitude is based on the ALARA principle whose purpose is to maintain the exposure to radiation as low as reasonably achievable taking into account social and economic concerns. This document regroups articles illustrating different aspects of the radiation protection in nuclear facilities such as a research center, a waste vitrification workshop and a nuclear power plant. The surveillance of radiological impacts of nuclear sites on environment is examined, a point is made about the pending epidemiologic studies concerning La Hague complex. (A.C.)

  20. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volodin, V; Hanson, G P

    1993-12-31

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  1. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, V.; Hanson, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this Chapter is to give a general outline of the essential principles and procedures for radiation protection in a nuclear medicine department where radionuclides are used for diagnosis and therapy. More detailed recommendations regarding radiation protection in nuclear medicine are given in the publications of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP, publications 25, 57, 60) and in ILO/IAEA/WHO Manual on Radiation Protection in Hospitals and General Practice (Volume 2: Unsealed Sources, WHO, Geneva, 1975), on which this Chapter is based. This chapter is not intended to replace the above-mentioned international recommendations on radiation protection, as well as existing national regulations on this subject, but intended only to provide guidance for implementing these recommendations in clinical practice

  2. Radiation detection device and a radiation detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.

    1975-01-01

    A radiation detection device is described including at least one scintillator in the path of radiation emissions from a distributed radiation source; a plurality of photodetectors for viewing each scintillator; a signal processing means, a storage means, and a data processing means that are interconnected with one another and connected to said photodetectors; and display means connected to the data processing means to locate a plurality of radiation sources in said distributed radiation source and to provide an image of the distributed radiation sources. The storage means includes radiation emission response data and location data from a plurality of known locations for use by the data processing means to derive a more accurate image by comparison of radiation responses from known locations with radiation responses from unknown locations. (auth)

  3. Detection limits of nuclear radiation and radioactivity measurements. Digital, non-selective measurements on untreated specimens. Draft. Nachweisgrenzen bei Kernstrahlungs- und Radioaktivitaetsmessungen. Digitale, nichtselektive Messungen ohne Probenbehandlung. Entwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The standard applies to nuclear radiation measurements where the number of pulses is recorded directly, considering exclusively the statistical character of radioactive decay and pulse counting, with the measuring time being short with regard to the half-life of radionuclides, and instrument dead-times being neglectible. The standard is intended to define suitable characteristics allowing an evaluation of detection efficiency. Two criteria are explained for given error probabilities: the sensitivity limit which allows a decision to be made as to whether the pulses recorded include values contributed by the sample; the detection limit which permits an evaluation of the measuring method in terms of suitability to the measuring goals. (orig./HP).

  4. Nuclear detection systems in traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, T.; Pernicka, L.; Svec, A.

    2005-01-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become a problem, due to the circulation of a high number of radioactive sources caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. Aim of this paper is to point out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at preselected traffic check points (railway and highway border crossings, industrial sites entry gates, international airports). The ITRAP lab test was designed to work as strict benchmark to qualify border monitoring systems 67 with very low false alarm rates, in addition the minimum sensitivity to give an alarm has been defined for fix-installed systems, pocket type and hand held instruments. For the neutron tests a special prepared Californium source ( 252 Cf) was used to simulate the weapons plutonium. The source is shielded against gamma radiation, use a moderator and provides the required neutron rate of 20000 n/s at 2 rn distance. To test the false alarm rate (rate of false positive ) the same test facility , under the same background conditions, was used but without a radioactive test source. The ITRAP lab tests for the fix-installed systems started at May 1998 and first results were given in September 1998. Only 2 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems could fulfil the minimum requirement for neutron detection. 7 of 14 fix-installed monitoring systems (50%) passed the ITRAP lab test. The analytical method developed and used for certification of installed radiation monitors in the Slovak Institute of Metrology consists in measurement of radiation activity of selected radionuclide in defined conditions. (authors)

  5. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeburrun, V.

    2013-04-01

    Radiation protection in nuclear medicine in this project is concerned with the reduction of doses to workers, patients and members of the public. Protection of workers is achieved by adopting good personal habits, good housekeeping, proper use of personal protective devices and equipment, attend training and have continuous education. Exposure to radiation of workers and the members of the public are minimised by proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. The design and shielding of a nuclear medicine department shall further provide for the protection of the worker, the patient and the general public. Protection of patient is achieved by justifying the procedure, delivering the minimum radiation dose possible to the patient while obtaining the best image quality and applying guidance levels. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. Quality assurance programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and patient records on nuclear medicine procedures shall provide assurance to the patient. (au)

  6. Radiation portal monitor with {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector performance for the detection of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Ibanez F, S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica, ETSI Industriales, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Gonzalez, J. A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Nuclear, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, C. Prof. Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mendez, R., E-mail: ingkarenguzman@gmail.com [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Laboratorio de Patrones Neutronicos, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    In homeland security, neutron detection is used to prevent the smuggling of special nuclear materials. Thermal neutrons are normally detected with {sup 3}He proportional counters, in the radiation portal monitors, Rpms, however due to the {sup 3}He shortage new procedures are being studied. In this work Monte Carlo methods, using the MCNP6 code, have been used to study the neutron detection features of a {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) under real conditions inside of a Rpm. The performance for neutron detection was carried out for {sup 252}Cf, {sup 238}U and {sup 239}Pu under different conditions. In order to mimic an actual situation occurring at border areas, a sample of SNM sited inside a vehicle was simulated and the Rpm with {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) response was calculated. At 200 cm the {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) on Rpm response is close to 2.5 cps-ng {sup 252}Cf, when the {sup 252}Cf neutron source is shielded with 0.5 cm-thick lead and 2.5 cm-thick polyethylene fulfilling the ANSI recommendations. Three different geometries of neutron detectors of {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) in a neutron detection system in Rpm were modeled. Therefore, the {sup 10}B+ZnS(Ag) detectors are an innovative and viable replacement for the {sup 3}He detectors in the Rpm. (Author)

  7. Radiation portal monitor with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) neutron detector performance for the detection of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman G, K. A.; Gallego, E.; Lorente, A.; Ibanez F, S.; Vega C, H. R.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Mendez, R.

    2016-10-01

    In homeland security, neutron detection is used to prevent the smuggling of special nuclear materials. Thermal neutrons are normally detected with "3He proportional counters, in the radiation portal monitors, Rpms, however due to the "3He shortage new procedures are being studied. In this work Monte Carlo methods, using the MCNP6 code, have been used to study the neutron detection features of a "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) under real conditions inside of a Rpm. The performance for neutron detection was carried out for "2"5"2Cf, "2"3"8U and "2"3"9Pu under different conditions. In order to mimic an actual situation occurring at border areas, a sample of SNM sited inside a vehicle was simulated and the Rpm with "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) response was calculated. At 200 cm the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) on Rpm response is close to 2.5 cps-ng "2"5"2Cf, when the "2"5"2Cf neutron source is shielded with 0.5 cm-thick lead and 2.5 cm-thick polyethylene fulfilling the ANSI recommendations. Three different geometries of neutron detectors of "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) in a neutron detection system in Rpm were modeled. Therefore, the "1"0B+ZnS(Ag) detectors are an innovative and viable replacement for the "3He detectors in the Rpm. (Author)

  8. Radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, Arun

    2014-01-01

    The branch of medical science that utilizes the nuclear properties of the radioactivity and stable nuclides to make diagnostic evaluation of anatomical and/or physiological conditions of the body and provide therapy with unsealed radioactive sources is called Nuclear Medicine (NM). The use of unsealed radionuclides in medicine is increasing throughout the world for diagnosis and treatment. As per UNSCEAR report more than 6 million nuclear medicine procedures are conducted in a year. However we know that radiation is double edged sword and if not used carefully will be harmful to patient as well as staff and therefore a nuclear medicine procedure should be undertaken only after proper justification and optimization. Nuclear medicine procedures are different than the X-ray diagnostic procedures as in NM, radioisotope is administered to patient and patient becomes radioactive. The NM staff is involved in unpacking radioactive material, activity measurements, storage of sources, internal transports of sources, preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, administration of radiopharmaceutical, examination of the patient, care of the radioactive patient, handling of radioactive waste and therefore receives radiation dose. This talk will discuss the various steps for radiation safety of patient, staff and public during Nuclear Medicine procedures so as to implementing the ALARA concept. (author)

  9. Electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Addresses the developments in the design of semiconductor detectors and integrated circuits, in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explains how circuits for radiation are built, focusing on practical information about how they are being used, rather than mathematical details.

  10. Detection and measurement of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    All detection or measurement of radiation rests in the possibility of recognizing the interactions of radiation with matter. When radiation passes through any kind of material medium, all or a portion of its energy is transferred to this medium. This transferred energy produces an effect in the medium. In principle, the detection of radiation is based on the appearance and the observation of this effect. In theory, all of the effects produced by radiation may be used in detecting it: in practice, the effects most commonly employed are: (1) ionization of gases (gas detectors), or of some chemical substance which is transformed by radiation (photographic or chemical dosimeters); (2) excitations in scintillators or semiconductors (scintillation counters, semiconductor counters); (3) creation of structural defects through the passage of radiation (transparent thermoluminescent and radioluminescent detectors); and (4) raising of the temperature (calorimeters). This study evaluates in detail, instruments based on the ionization of gases and the production of luminescence. In addition, the authors summarize instruments which depend on other forms of interaction, used in radiation medicine and hygiene (radiology, nuclear medicine)

  11. Radiation detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  12. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms

  13. Passive detection of nuclear-armed SLCMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Prilutsky, O.F.; Frolov, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Effective procedures have been developed, using national technical measures (photoreconnaissance satellites, radiointercept stations, etc.), for verification of reductions in land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, such as marine-based ballistic missiles, and strategic bombers. However, there is agreement on procedures for verifying limitations of numbers of long-range nuclear-armed cruise missiles. The difficulties in developing such procedures are sometimes regarded (by opponents of nuclear disarmament) as a reason why cruise missiles based on ships and submarines ought not to be limited by future arms-reduction treaties. This paper considers the detectability of nuclear-armed cruise missiles through the penetrating radiation emitted spontaneously from their warheads

  14. Radiation control system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapisovsky, V.; Kosa, M.; Melichar, Z.; Moravek, J.; Jancik, O.

    1977-01-01

    The SYRAK system is being developed for in-service radiation control of the V-1 nuclear power plant. Its basic components are an EC 1010 computer, a CAMAC system and communication means. The in-service release of radionuclides is measured by fuel can failure detection, by monitoring rare gases in the coolant, by gamma spectrometric coolant monitoring and by iodine isotopes monitoring in stack disposal. (O.K.)

  15. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  16. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  17. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  18. Detection of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1994-01-01

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

  19. Environmental Radiation Monitoring Around the Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-05-15

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environment. radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis on the sites of KAERI nuclear facilities and Seoul Research Reactors and their environments. The average level of environmental radiation dose measured by an ERM and the accumulated radiation dose by a TLD were almost same level compared with the previous years. The activity of gross {alpha} and gross {beta}, Tritium, Uraniu and Strontium in environmental samples showed a environmental level. The radioactivities of most {gamma}-radionuclides in air particulate, surface water and ground water were less than MDA except {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be which are natural radionuclides. However, not only {sup 40}K or {sup 7}Be but also {sup 137}Cs were detected at the background level in surface soil, discharge sediment and fallout or pine needle.

  20. Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation detector using micromechanical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.; Wachter, Eric A.

    2000-01-01

    Electromagnetic and nuclear radiation is detected by micromechanical sensors that can be coated with various interactive materials. As the micromechanical sensors absorb radiation, the sensors bend and/or undergo a shift in resonance characteristics. The bending and resonance changes are detected with high sensitivity by any of several detection methods including optical, capacitive, and piezoresistive methods. Wide bands of the electromagnetic spectrum can be imaged with picoJoule sensitivity, and specific absorptive coatings can be used for selective sensitivity in specific wavelength bands. Microcantilevers coated with optical cross-linking polymers are useful as integrating optical radiation dosimeters. Nuclear radiation dosimetry is possible by fabricating cantilevers from materials that are sensitive to various nuclear particles or radiation. Upon exposure to radiation, the cantilever bends due to stress and its resonance frequency shifts due to changes in elastic properties, based on cantilever shape and properties of the coating.

  1. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thomé

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to outstanding physicochemical properties, ceramics are key engineering materials in many industrial domains. The evaluation of the damage created in ceramics employed in radiative media is a challenging problem for electronic, space, and nuclear industries. In this latter field, ceramics can be used as immobilization forms for radioactive wastes, inert fuel matrices for actinide transmutation, cladding materials for gas-cooled fission reactors, and structural components for fusion reactors. Information on the radiation stability of nuclear materials may be obtained by simulating the different types of interactions involved during the slowing down of energetic particles with ion beams delivered by various types of accelerators. This paper presents a review of the radiation effects occurring in nuclear ceramics, with an emphasis on recent results concerning the damage accumulation processes. Energetic ions in the KeV-GeV range are used to explore the nuclear collision (at low energy and electronic excitation (at high energy regimes. The recovery by electronic excitation of the damage created by ballistic collisions (SHIBIEC process is also addressed.

  2. Detecting radiation with your smartphone

    CERN Multimedia

    Agnes Szeberenyi

    2014-01-01

    The winners of the CERN EIROforum Prize in the European Union Competition for Young Scientists 2013 (EUCYS), Michał Gumiela and Rafał Tomasz Kozik from Poland, have just spent an exciting week exploring CERN from 1 to 5 September. The students visited several CERN experiments and facilities and had ample time to interact with scientists on how to improve their invention further.   Michał Gumiela (left) and Rafał Tomasz Kozik (right) with their CERN host, Sabrina El Yacoubi (middle) at the ALICE detector. Michał (21) and Rafał (20) both won a young physicist prize in Poland before submitting their work on “Studies of the applicability of CMOS and CCD sensors for detection of ionising radiation” to the EUCYS competition. “It all started with Fukushima,” recalls Michał. The high school students met in 2011 at a physics workshop, where they started discussing digital photos taken around the Fukushima nuclear plant after the radiation leak. &ldqu...

  3. Code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. M.

    2012-09-01

    The present work aims at developing and updating a code of practice of radiation protection in fixed nuclear gauges that comply with current international recommendations. The work also intended to evaluate the current radiation protection situation in two selected companies using nuclear gauges in Sudan. A draft of the code is proposed which includes the basic principle of protection such as source construction and gauges radiation monitoring, storage maintenance and leak testing as well as specific issues related to nuclear gauges. The practical part of this study included investigation of radiation protection in the comparisons using nuclear gauges for level detection, to evaluate the level of radiation protection and the compliance to the regulatory authority regulations. The result revealed that the two companies do not have an effective radiation protection program and that can lead to exposure of workers to unnecessary doses. Some recommendations were stated, if implemented they could improve the status of radiation protection in those companies. (Author)

  4. Technologies for detection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Detection of smuggled nuclear materials at transit points requires monitoring unknown samples in large closed packages. This review contends that high-confidence nuclear-material detection requires induced fission as the primary mechanism, with passive radiation screening in a complementary role. With the right equipment, even small quantities of nuclear materials are detectable with a high probability at transit points. The equipment could also be linked synergistically with detectors of other contrabond. For screening postal mail and packages, passive monitors are probably more cost-effective. When a suspicious item is detected, a single active probe could then be used. Until active systems become mass produced, this two-stage screening/interrogation role for active/passive equipment is more economic for cargo at border crossings. For widespread monitoring of nuclear smuggling, it will probably be necessary to develop a system for simultaneously detecting most categories of contraband, including explosives and illicit drugs. With control of nuclear materials at known storage sites being the first line of defense, detection capabilities at international borders could establish a viable second line of defense against smuggling

  5. Radiation detecting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In spectrophotometry systems, a usual arrangement for modulating the radiation is a rotating disc having one or more sectors removed. A beam of radiation may be blocked by the disc except when a cut-away sector is in the path of the beam. With a double-beam system, a cut-away sector of 180 0 may be used so that when the first path is blocked, the second is allowed through, and vice versa. One or both sides of the disc may be formed as mirrors to facilitate beam switching and to allow use of more than two beams for background compensation purposes or for analysis of more than one substance within a sample. (G.T.H.)

  6. Radiation shield for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfluh, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A shield for use with nuclear reactor systems to attenuate radiation resulting from reactor operation is described. The shield comprises a container preferably of a thin, flexible or elastic material, which may be in the form of a bag, a mattress, a toroidal segment or toroid or the like filled with radiation attenuating liuid. Means are provided in the container for filling and draining the container in place. Due to its flexibility, the shield readily conforms to irregularities in surfaces with which it may be in contact in a shielding position

  7. Radiation detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschmann, Kristian.

    1982-01-01

    A radiation detector suitable for use in computer tomography device has an ionization chamber which comprises a high voltage electrode, a collector electrode, a high voltage source having two terminals, one connected to the high voltage electrode, current measuring means having two terminals, one connected to the high voltage source and the other to the collector electrode, and an auxilliary electrode near and parallel to the entrance window of the device, having one adjacent to the high voltage electrode and the other adjacent but not connected to the collector electrode. The auxilliary electrode is connected to the high voltage source. In this way the electric field between the high voltage and collector electrodes is made homogeneous in the vicinity of the auxilliary electrode, improving the measuring speed of the detector

  8. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, Brian C. [Purdue University (United States); Lapinskas, Joseph R. [QSA Global, Inc. (United States); Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A. [Purdue University (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A and M University (United States); Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu [Purdue University (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: > Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. > Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. > Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. > Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. > Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. > Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30{sup o} with 80% confidence; this required {approx}2000 detection events which could be collected within {approx}50 s at a detection rate of {approx}30-40 per second. Blind testing was

  9. Ascertaining directionality information from incident nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambault, Brian C.; Lapinskas, Joseph R.; Wang Jing; Webster, Jeffrey A.; McDeavitt, Sean; Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use of tensioned metastable fluids for detection of fast neutron radiation. → Monitored neutrons with 100% gamma photon blindness capability. → Monitored direction of incoming neutron radiation from special nuclear material emissions. → Ascertained directionality of neutron source to within 30 deg. and with 80% confidence with 2000 detection events at rate of 30-40 per second. → Conducted successful blind test for determining source of neutrons from a hidden neutron emitting source. → Compared results with MCNP5-COMSOL based multi-physics model. - Abstract: Unprecedented capabilities for the detection of nuclear particles via tailored resonant acoustic systems such as the acoustic tensioned metastable fluid detection (ATMFD) systems were assessed for determining directionality of incoming fast neutrons. This paper presents advancements that expand on these accomplishments, thereby increasing the accuracy and precision of ascertaining directionality information utilizing enhanced signal processing-cum-signal analysis, refined computational algorithms, and on demand enlargement of the detector sensitive volume. Advances in the development of ATMFD systems were accomplished utilizing a combination of experimentation and theoretical modeling. Modeling methodologies include Monte-Carlo based nuclear particle transport using MCNP5 and multi-physics based assessments accounting for acoustic, structural, and electromagnetic coupling of the ATMFD system via COMSOL's multi-physics simulation platform. Benchmarking and qualification studies have been conducted with a 1 Ci Pu-Be neutron-gamma source. These results show that the specific ATMFD system used for this study can enable detection of directionality of incoming fast neutrons from the neutron source to within 30 o with 80% confidence; this required ∼2000 detection events which could be collected within ∼50 s at a detection rate of ∼30-40 per second. Blind testing was successfully

  10. Radiation detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Richard A [Knoxville, TN; Wintenberg, Alan L [Knoxville, TN; Clonts, Lloyd G [Knoxville, TN; Cooper, Ronald G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-02-14

    A preamplifier circuit for processing a signal provided by a radiation detector includes a transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a detector and generate a voltage signal at its output. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifier for providing an amplified voltage signal. Detector electronics include a preamplifier circuit having a first and second transimpedance amplifier coupled to receive a current signal from a first and second location on a detector, respectively, and generate a first and second voltage signal at respective outputs. A second amplification stage has an input coupled to an output of the transimpedance amplifiers for amplifying the first and said second voltage signals to provide first and second amplified voltage signals. A differential output stage is coupled to the second amplification stage for receiving the first and second amplified voltage signals and providing a pair of outputs from each of the first and second amplified voltage signals. Read out circuitry has an input coupled to receive both of the pair of outputs, the read out circuitry having structure for processing each of the pair of outputs, and providing a single digital output having a time-stamp therefrom.

  11. Proceedings of 8. national conference on nuclear electronic and nuclear detection technology: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 8th National Conference on Nuclear Electronics and Nuclear Detection Technology was held during 2-7, 12, 1996 in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. 184 pieces of papers were collected in the conference proceedings. The contents of the conference proceedings are: nuclear electronics, nuclear detectors, nuclear instruments and its application, nuclear medical electronics, computer applications in nuclear sciences and technology, measurement of nuclear monitoring and nuclear explosion, radiation hardened electronics, liquid scintillation counting techniques and miscellaneous. Reported hereafter is the first part of the proceedings

  12. System for detecting nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawls, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus for detecting underground nuclear explosions is described that is comprised of an antenna located in the dielectric substance of a deep waveguide in the earth and adapted to detect low frequency electromagnetic waves generated by a nuclear explosion, the deep waveguide comprising the high conductivity upper sedimentary layers of the earth, the dielectric basement rock, and a high conductivity layer of basement rock due to the increased temperature thereof at great depths, and means for receiving the electromagnetic waves detected by said antenna means

  13. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.; Tagesson, M.; Ljungberg, M.; Strand, S.E.; Thomas, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A knowledge of the radiation dose received by different organs in the body is essential to an evaluation of the risks and benefits of any procedure. In this paper, current methods for internal dosimetry are reviewed, as they are applied in nuclear medicine. Particularly, the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) system for dosimetry is explained, and many of its published resources discussed. Available models representing individuals of different age and gender, including those representing the pregnant woman are described; current trends in establishing models for individual patients are also evaluated. The proper design of kinetic studies for establishing radiation doses for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed. An overview of how to use information obtained in a dosimetry study, including that of the effective dose equivalent (ICRP 30) and effective dose (ICRP 60), is given. Current trends and issues in internal dosimetry, including the calculation of patient-specific doses and in the use of small scale and microdosimetry techniques, are also reviewed

  14. Resonance detection of Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The resonance detection method as compared with the usual method of registering Moessbauer spectra has a number of advantages, one of which is the increase of resolution of the Moessbauer spectrum. The method is based on the modulation of a secondary radiation of a converter tuned in the resonance with the Moessbauer gamma-quantum source. The resonance detection method with account of supression, secondary radiation outgoing from the converter is investigated. The converter represents a substrate enriched by the Moessbauer isotope placed either inside the gas counter, or coupled with any other detecting device. Analytical expressions for Moessbauer spectrum parameters: effect, area and width of the spectral line are derived. It is shown that the joint application of usual and resonance detection methods for registering the Moessbauer spectrum allows one to determine parameters of the source, converter and the investigated absorber

  15. Transport Imaging of Spatial Distribution of Mobility-Lifetime (Micro Tau) Product in Bulk Semiconductors for Nuclear Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    reproducibility for currents of 3×10-10 A, and 6×10-10 A. An operating current of 1×10-10 A shows higher variations in the distribution beginning at...York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. [21] A. Owens and A. Peacock , “Compound semiconductor radiation detectors,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, vol. 531, pp. 18...A. G. Kozorezov, J. K. Wigmore, A. Owens, R. den Hartog, A. Peacock , and H. A. Al-Jawari, “Resolution degradation of semiconductor detectors due to

  16. Use of environmental TLD data at a nuclear power station to estimate detection limits for radiation exposure due to station operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, E.; Hardeman, J.; Kahn, B.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental radiation monitoring network maintained by the Georgia Department of Natural Resources at the Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, GA, was used to determine the variability in measured background exposures in order to estimate the detection limits for radiation due to station operation. Data were obtained from LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) exposed in sets of four at 46 locations for 16 consecutive quarters from 1982 to 1985. The average exposure for 695 values was 11.8 microC kg-1 y-1 (mR/quarter). At individual locations, the averages of quarterly exposures ranged from 9.3 to 14.3 microC kg-1 y-1 and had standard deviations from 0.8 to 2.2 microC kg-1 y-1 with a typical standard deviation of 1.5 microC kg-1 y-1. The standard deviation due to reading the TLDs and subtracting the transit plus storage exposure, estimated as 0.4 microC kg-1 y-1, contributed only a small fraction of the uncertainty of the mean background; the greater contribution is from temporal fluctuations. There is a spatial pattern of higher background along the Altamaha River but no distinct seasonal pattern. The observation that exposure values at most locations rose and fell in unison suggested a calculational model that adjusts the average exposure level at a location by an increment determined each quarter at control locations. This model reduced the standard deviation for a predicted quarterly background exposure to 0.9 microC kg-1 y-1, with a range of 0.5 to 1.3 microC kg-1 y-1. If the standard deviation of the net value is multiplied by an error probability constant of 3.3 (type I and II errors not greater than 5%), the detection limits range from 2 to 5 microC kg-1 y-1 at the individual locations, with an average of 3 microC kg-1 y-1. This approach or two similar ones described earlier are recommended for improving the detection limit where needed

  17. Analog electronics for radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Analog Electronics for Radiation Detection showcases the latest advances in readout electronics for particle, or radiation, detectors. Featuring chapters written by international experts in their respective fields, this authoritative text: Defines the main design parameters of front-end circuitry developed in microelectronics technologies Explains the basis for the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors for the detection of charged particles and other non-consumer applications Delivers an in-depth review of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), evaluating the pros and cons of ADCs integrated at the pixel, column, and per-chip levels Describes incremental sigma delta ADCs, time-to-digital converter (TDC) architectures, and digital pulse-processing techniques complementary to analog processing Examines the fundamental parameters and front-end types associated with silicon photomultipliers used for single visible-light photon detection Discusses pixel sensors ...

  18. Intercomparison of Environmental Nuclear Radiation Measuring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Fei; NI; Ning; HOU; Jin-bing; SONG; Ming-zhe

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,Radiation Metrology Division of China Institute of Atomic Energy organized an environmental monitoring of nuclear radiation measuring intercomparison,and 9laboratories attended.The intercomparison included environmental level dosemeters and protection level

  19. Radiation exposure due to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This information brochure contains 12 earlier papers of leading experts on the radiation hazard the population incurs during normal operation of nuclear facilities and the radiation-biological fundamentals of the effects of ionizing radio humans. (HP) [de

  20. New aspects regarding to radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabestani Monfared, A.; Amiri, M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: The society has been concerned about nuclear energy usage and nuclear environment pollution for ages. The necessity of using radiation and its applications in modern life especially in medicine is undeniable. Some interesting properties such as the potential for non-destructive tests, detection simplicity, and penetrability into substances and having reactions with them cause radiation to be known as a useful tool for peace purposes. Nuclear weapons' experiments (1945-1973) and nuclear accidents in Three-Mile Island in USA, Goiania in Brazil and Chernobyl in Ukraine Republic have enhanced man's worries towards nuclear radiation and radioactivity in environment, and founding associations and groups which are against nuclear energy, such as green peace society, can be related with above mentioned concerns. Today, nuclear medicine has rapidly been developed so that in some cases plays a unique role in diagnosis but unfortunately in spite of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages, the term N UCLEAR c an induce worries in patients and society. In this article, base on new documents we intend to show that this worries has no scientific basis. Material and Methods: To produce a realistic view, regarding to radiation protection we used several ways such as natural origin of radiation, high natural background radiation areas' data non-linear dose-effect model, risk versus benefit, use of arbitrary unit for measurement of radiation, radio adaptive response and radiation hormesis. Discussion and conclusion: Harmful effects of radiation on biologic systems has obviously been shown, but most of related documents are based on receiving high doses in nuclear and atomic accidents and explosions and radiation protection regulations are based on this observations. So, it sometimes causes patients are afraid of low doses of radiation in medical diagnostic procedures so that some of them even resist against performing this procedures. Thus, being aware of

  1. Nuclear analysis methods. Rudiments of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear analysis methods are generally used to analyse radioactive elements but they can be used also for chemical analysis, with fields such analysis and characterization of traces. The principles of radiation protection are explained (ALARA), the biological effects of ionizing radiations are given, elements and units used in radiation protection are reminded in tables. A part of this article is devoted to how to use radiation protection in a nuclear analysis laboratory. (N.C.)

  2. Integrated nuclear and radiation protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, V.; Cerga, V.; Pirvu, V.; Badea, E.

    1993-01-01

    A multifunctional radiation monitoring equipment, flexible and capable to meet virtually environmental radiation monitoring, activity measurement and computational requirements, for nuclear laboratories has been designed. It can be used as a radiation protection system, for radionuclide measurement in isotope laboratories, nuclear technology, health physics and nuclear medicine, nuclear power stations and nuclear industry. The equipment is able to measure, transmit and record gamma dose rate and isotope activities. Other parameters and functions are optionally available, such as: self-contained alarm level, system self-test, dose integrator, syringe volume calculation for a given dose corrected for decay, calibration factor, 99 Mo assays performing and background subtraction

  3. Nuclear radiation application to nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Out of the numerous uses and applications of nuclear radiation, in particular heavy ions, the interaction of radiation with materials have culminated into a gamut of fine tools and technologies for taming the synergetic potential of the interaction. One such field of the immense importance is nanotechnology through nuclear radiation via use of ion-crafted polymeric membranes- so called 'Template Synthesis'. This talk will be addressed to the users of membranes - organic (polymeric) in general, formed through irradiation of polymeric foils with heavy and energetic ions followed by chemical processing leading finally to what is known as 'Track Etch Membranes (TEMs)', and present the review of the innovative uses of these membranes from filtration to electro-kinetic based applications and nano-/micro fabrication of devices- the potent aspect of emerging technologies. The emphasis would be on the dependence of useful and novel usages including applications in nano devices' fabrication. A membrane, with its most comprehensive and clear definition, is an intervening phase separating two phases and/or acting as an active or passive barrier to the transport of matter between phases. The very existence of a membrane relies upon the functionality domain of the pores contained therein. The geometrical traits and morphology of the pore ensembles dictate the applications, which any membrane can serve to. There are variety of membranes being developed and used in myriad of applications in diverse fields of science and technology. The range of commercially available membrane materials is quiet diverse and varies widely in terms of composition, and physical structure. The creation of pores, whether through natural self-assembling phenomenon or man-made processes, might itself be an issue of interest but these are the pore-traits which are fundamentally more important, whether the membrane is being used for sieving-one of the ever most important applications the mankind has been

  4. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharath Kumar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of nucleonic signals is required to control and operate the reactor in a safe and reliable manner. To achieve this, parameters like Neutron flux, other radiation fields, contamination levels, source strength, release thru stack etc. are required to be monitored and controlled. The above are required to be monitored throughout the life of the reactor whether it is operational or in shutdown condition. In addition such monitoring is also required during decommissioning phase of the reactor as needed. To measure these parameters a large number of instruments are used in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) which includes sensors and electronics for detecting alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation with qualification to withstand harsh environment

  5. Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

    2013-09-24

    Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for

  6. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  7. Nuclear radiation sensors and monitoring following a nuclear or radiological emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P K [Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (India)

    2009-01-15

    Management of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies arising from Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Devices (IND), Nuclear Reactors/Power plants and Nuclear War require measurement of ionizing radiations and radioactivity on an enhanced scale relative to the levels encountered in peaceful uses of ionizing radiations and radioactivity. It is heartening that since Hiroshima, Nagasaki nuclear disaster, the world has been quiet but since early 2000 there has been a fear of certain devices to be used by terrorists, which could lead to panic, and disaster due to dispersal of radioactivity by RDD, IND. Nuclear attack would lead to blast, thermal, initial nuclear radiation, nuclear fall out leading to gamma and neutron dose, dose rates in range from few R, R/h to kR, kR/h, and determinations of k Bq or higher order. Such situations have been visualized at national levels and National Disaster Management Authority NDMA has been established and Disaster Management Act 2005 has come into existence. NDMA has prepared guidelines for Nuclear and radiological emergency management highlighting preparedness, mitigation, response, capacity building, etc. Critical point in all these issues is detection of emergency, quick intimation to the concerned for action in shortest possible time. Upper most requirement by those involved in pursuing action, is radiation sensor based radiation monitors for personnel, area, and to assess contamination due to radioactivity.This presentation briefly describes the Indian scenario in the development of the radiation sensors and the sensor-based radiation monitors. (author)

  8. Advanced concepts in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, Kai; Barnowski, Ross; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Haefner, Andy; Torii, Tatsuo; Shikaze, Yoshiaki; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in the detector fabrication, signal readout, and data processing enable new concepts in radiation detection that are relevant for applications ranging from fundamental physics to medicine as well as nuclear security and safety. We present recent progress in multi-dimensional radiation detection and imaging in the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program. It is based on the ability to reconstruct scenes in three dimensions and fuse it with gamma-ray image information. We are using the High-Efficiency Multimode Imager HEMI in its Compton imaging mode and combining it with contextual sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect or visual cameras. This new concept of volumetric imaging or scene data fusion provides unprecedented capabilities in radiation detection and imaging relevant for the detection and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials. This concept brings us one step closer to the seeing the world with gamma-ray eyes. (author)

  9. 3.International conference 'Nuclear and Radiation Physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 3-rd International Conference 'Nuclear and Radiation Physics' was held in Almaty (Kazakhstan) 4-7 June 2001. The primary purpose of the conference is consolidation of the scientists efforts in the area of fundamental and applied investigations on nuclear physics, radiation physics of solids and radioecology. In the conference more than 350 papers were presented by participants from 17 countries

  10. Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng

    1992-10-01

    The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed

  11. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  12. A study of the fluorescence of the rare gases excited by nuclear particles. Use of the principle for the detection of nuclear radiation by scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1959-12-01

    In the first part is studied the properties of atoms excited by the passage of α particles through the various rare gases at atmospheric pressure. A spectral analysis of the emitted light showed that certain impurities play an important part in producing the fluorescence, and it has led to the conclusion that the light emission contains at least two components - one very short - lived due to the direct deexcitation of the rare gas, the other relatively slower due to the energy transfers to the impurity. The measurement of the life-time of the excited states has confirmed this foregoing hypothesis, the rapid part of the impulse is extremely short: less than 2,25.10 -9 s in the case of xenon; the slower part has a life-time depending directly on the nitrogen concentration, nitrogen being the impurity giving the largest effect in all cases. The study of rare gases under the influence of an electric field has made it possible to show that the amount of light produced by an α particle can be multiplied (by 60, for example, in a field of 600 V:cm) so that the luminescent efficiency is greater than in the case of INaTI. In the second part the characteristics of the rare gases acting as scintillators is examined, the most important property being the absence of fluorescence saturation when the intensity of the excitation incident on the gas is very large. This, together with the very short time of scintillation has made it possible to study a certain number of nuclear physical applications (heavy particle energy-measurements, kinetic studies on nuclear reactors, neutron spectroscopy). (author) [fr

  13. IAEA eLearning Program: The Use of Radiation Detection Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a computer based training on Radiation Detection Techniques for Nuclear Security Applications. The IAEA Nuclear Security eLearning tool offers computer based training to Frontline Officers to improve their understanding about key elements of the use of radiation detection instruments. The eLearning program prepares Frontline Officers for the IAEA Detection and Response Frontline Officer course

  14. Ionizing radiations, detection, dosimetry, spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, D.

    1997-10-01

    A few works in French language are devoted to the detection of radiations. The purpose of this book is to fill a gap.The five first chapters are devoted to the properties of ionizing radiations (x rays, gamma rays, leptons, hadrons, nuclei) and to their interactions with matter. The way of classification of detectors is delicate and is studied in the chapter six. In the chapter seven are studied the statistics laws for counting and the spectrometry of particles is treated. The chapters eight to thirteen study the problems of ionization: charges transport in a gas, ionization chambers (theory of Boag), counters and proportional chambers, counters with 'streamers', chambers with derive, spark detectors, ionization chambers in liquid medium, Geiger-Mueller counters. The use of a luminous signal is the object of the chapters 14 to 16: conversion of a luminous signal in an electric signal, scintillators, use of the Cerenkov radiation. Then, we find the neutron detection with the chapter seventeen and the dosimetry of particles in the chapter eighteen. This book does not pretend to answer to specialists questions but can be useful to physicians, engineers or physics teachers. (N.C.)

  15. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  16. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  17. Radiation detection technology assessment program (RADTAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted a technical and operational assessment of gamma ray radiation detection equipment during the period May 5-16, 1997 at a testing facility in North Carolina. The effort was entitled, ''Radiation Detection Technology Assessment Program (RADTAP)'', and was conducted for the purpose of assessing the applicability, sensitivity and robustness of a diverse suite of gamma ray detection and identification equipment for possible use by Customs and other law enforcement agencies. Thirteen companies entered 25 instruments into the assessment program. All detection equipment entered had to exhibit a minimum sensitivity of 20 micro-R per hour (background included) from a Cesium-137 point source. Isotope identifying spectrometers entered were man portable and operable at room temperature with read-out that could be interpreted by non-technical personnel. Radioactive sources used in the assessment included special nuclear material, industrial and health isotopes. Evaluators included Customs inspectors and technical experts from DOE and Customs. No conclusions or recommendations were issued based on the quantitative and qualitative test results, however, the results of the program provided law enforcement agencies with the necessary data to select equipment that best meets their operational needs and budgets. (author)

  18. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  19. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  20. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  1. Radiation protection on nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a sector of the medicine that studies and applies radionuclide in diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear medicine is a very specific area of the medicine, making use of non-sealed radioactive sources which are prescribed to the patient orally or are injected. Special procedures in radiation protection are required in nuclear medicine to manipulate these kind of sources and to produce technetium-99m through molybdenum generator. The present paper addresses the them radiation protection in a Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD), showing the main requirements of the CNEN- National Commission of Nuclear Energy and the Public Health. Radiation protection procedures adopted in assembling a NMD, as well the daily techniques for monitoring and for individual dosimetry are discussed. Past and present analyses in a level of radiation protection are presented. (author)

  2. Imaging plates for nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Ken; Takebe, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The imaging plate (IP, hereafter) is a new opto-electronic X-ray film developed by Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., formed with a large area of thin flexible plastic plate coated with photo-estimulable storage phosphor (e.g. Ba F Br: Eu 2+ ). Recently, it has been found highly sensitive to soft X-ray (SR), soft electrons, and also usual alpha, beta, gamma rays and others, e.g. cosmic rays, energy heavy ions, and moreover neutrons through suitable converters inside or outside of the IP. Many types of IP are now used in various fields, such as medical examinations, auto-radiography in vivo/ in situ/ in vitro, X-ray/neutron diffraction/ radiography, electron microscopy. RI contamination, assay of ore. The IP has other striking performances, e.e. extremely low intrinsic noises, a high position resolution, high detection efficiency (100-1000 times) as high as an X-ray film), extremely wide dynamic range of dose (more than 10 5 ). Besides the thermal fading yet left unresolved materially, the only feature lacking and that one has ben longing for is the radiation identification by itself. We found out that the IP has a full potential ability of radiation identification in itself. One evidence found is that the ratio of the twin peaks of the PSL (photo-stimulated luminescence) excitation spectra indicates simply the particle energies, studied and now established. Another is that the photo-beaching provides the fluorescent responses different enough to discriminate the radiations, yet in progress with cyclotron experiments, into the usage of double labeled bio tracers

  3. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  4. Development of pressure boundaries leak detection technology for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yao; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    The leak detection for the pressure boundaries is an important safeguard in nuclear reactor operation. In the paper, the status and the characters on the development of the pressure boundaries leak detection technology for the nuclear reactor were reviewed, especially, and the advance of the radiation leak detection technology and the acoustic emission leak detection technology were analyzed. The new advance trend of the leak detection technology was primarily explored. According to the analysis results, it is point out that the advancing target of the leak detection technology is to enhance its response speed, sensitivity, and reliability, and to provide effective information for operator and decision-maker. The realization of the global leak detection and the whole life cycle health monitoring for the nuclear boundaries is a significant advancing tendency of the leak detection technology. (authors)

  5. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  6. Radiation protection in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashkar, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: People are exposed to ionizing radiation in many different forms: cosmic rays that penetrate earth atmosphere or radiation from soil and mineral resources are natural forms of ionizing radiation. Other forms are produced artificially using radioactive materials for various beneficial applications in medicine, industry and other fields. The greatest concerns about ionizing radiation are tied to its potential health effects and a system of radiation protection has been developed to protect people from harmful radiation. The promotion of radiation protection is one of the International Atomic Energy Agency main activities. Radiation protection concerns the protection of workers, members of public, and patients undergoing diagnosis and therapy against the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The report covers the responsibility of radiation protection officer in Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2) in Inshas - Egypt, also presents the protection against ionizing radiation from external sources, including types of radiation, sources of radiation (natural - artificial), and measuring units of dose equivalent rate. Also covers the biological effects of ionizing radiation, personal monitoring and radiation survey instruments and safe transport of radioactive materials. The report describes the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2), the survey instruments used, also presents the results obtained and gave a relations between different categories of data. (author)

  7. Bubble Radiation Detection: Current and Future Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Craig, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Despite a number of noteworthy achievements in other fields, superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) and bubble chambers (BCs) have not been used for nuclear nonproliferation and arms control. This report examines these two radiation-detection technologies in detail and answers the question of how they can be or should be ''adapted'' for use in national security applications. These technologies involve closely related approaches to radiation detection in which an energetic charged particle deposits sufficient energy to initiate the process of bubble nucleation in a superheated fluid. These detectors offer complete gamma-ray insensitivity when used to detect neutrons. They also provide controllable neutron-energy thresholds and excellent position resolution. SDDs are extraordinarily simple and inexpensive. BCs offer the promise of very high efficiency (∼75%). A notable drawback for both technologies is temperature sensitivity. As a result of this problem, the temperature must be controlled whenever high accuracy is required, or harsh environmental conditions are encountered. The primary findings of this work are listed and briefly summarized below: (1) SDDs are ready to function as electronics-free neutron detectors on demand for arms-control applications. The elimination of electronics at the weapon's location greatly eases the negotiability of radiation-detection technologies in general. (2) As a result of their high efficiency and sharp energy threshold, current BCs are almost ready for use in the development of a next-generation active assay system. Development of an instrument based on appropriately safe materials is warranted. (3) Both kinds of bubble detectors are ready for use whenever very high gamma-ray fields must be confronted. Spent fuel MPC and A is a good example where this need presents itself. (4) Both kinds of bubble detectors have the potential to function as low-cost replacements for conventional neutron detectors such as 3 He tubes. For SDDs

  8. Nuclear and radiation safety in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batjargala, Erdev

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to assess legal environment of Mongolia for development of nuclear and radiation safety and security. The Nuclear Energy Agency, regulatory agency of the Government of Mongolia, was founded in the beginning of 2009. Since then, it has formulated the State Policy for Utilization of Radioactive Minerals and Nuclear Energy and the Nuclear Energy Law, regulatory law of the field. The State Great Khural of Mongolia has enacted these acts. By adopting the State Policy and Nuclear Energy Law, which together imported the international standards for nuclear and radiation safety and security, it is possible to conclude that legal environment has formed in Mongolia to explore and process radioactive minerals and utilize nuclear energy and introduce technologies friendly to human health and environment. (author)

  9. Multi-sensor radiation detection, imaging, and fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, Kai [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Glenn Knoll was one of the leaders in the field of radiation detection and measurements and shaped this field through his outstanding scientific and technical contributions, as a teacher, his personality, and his textbook. His Radiation Detection and Measurement book guided me in my studies and is now the textbook in my classes in the Department of Nuclear Engineering at UC Berkeley. In the spirit of Glenn, I will provide an overview of our activities at the Berkeley Applied Nuclear Physics program reflecting some of the breadth of radiation detection technologies and their applications ranging from fundamental studies in physics to biomedical imaging and to nuclear security. I will conclude with a discussion of our Berkeley Radwatch and Resilient Communities activities as a result of the events at the Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in Fukushima, Japan more than 4 years ago. - Highlights: • .Electron-tracking based gamma-ray momentum reconstruction. • .3D volumetric and 3D scene fusion gamma-ray imaging. • .Nuclear Street View integrates and associates nuclear radiation features with specific objects in the environment. • Institute for Resilient Communities combines science, education, and communities to minimize impact of disastrous events.

  10. Radiation hazards in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roo, M.J.K. de

    1981-01-01

    After a survey of the actual situation of nuclear medicine in Belgium, the evolution of nuclear medicine is studied with regard to quantitative aspects (tracerquantities, number of radioisotopic explorations, number of certified doctors) and qualitative aspects (use of short living isotopes emitting low energy radiation, introduction of in vitro tests). Taking these data into consideration, the exposure of nuclear medicine staff by external or internal radiation is evaluated. From this study it appears that the radiation exposure of the personnel of nuclear medicine departments remains low if proper manipulation methods and simple protective devices are used and if there is an efficient collaboration with an active health physics department or radiation control organism. (author)

  11. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N. [ANTECH, A. N. Technology Ltd., Unit 6, Thames Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 9TA (United Kingdom); Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr{sub 3} scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr{sub 3} detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple

  12. Testing and Performance Validation of a Sensitive Gamma Ray Camera Designed for Radiation Detection and Decommissioning Measurements in Nuclear Facilities-13044

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, John A.; Looman, Marc R.; Poundall, Adam J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Creed, Richard; Pancake, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the measurements, testing and performance validation of a sensitive gamma ray camera designed for radiation detection and quantification in the environment and decommissioning and hold-up measurements in nuclear facilities. The instrument, which is known as RadSearch, combines a sensitive and highly collimated LaBr 3 scintillation detector with an optical (video) camera with controllable zoom and focus and a laser range finder in one detector head. The LaBr 3 detector has a typical energy resolution of between 2.5% and 3% at the 662 keV energy of Cs-137 compared to that of NaI detectors with a resolution of typically 7% to 8% at the same energy. At this energy the tungsten shielding of the detector provides a shielding ratio of greater than 900:1 in the forward direction and 100:1 on the sides and from the rear. The detector head is mounted on a pan/tile mechanism with a range of motion of ±180 degrees (pan) and ±90 degrees (tilt) equivalent to 4 π steradians. The detector head with pan/tilt is normally mounted on a tripod or wheeled cart. It can also be mounted on vehicles or a mobile robot for access to high dose-rate areas and areas with high levels of contamination. Ethernet connects RadSearch to a ruggedized notebook computer from which it is operated and controlled. Power can be supplied either as 24-volts DC from a battery or as 50 volts DC supplied by a small mains (110 or 230 VAC) power supply unit that is co-located with the controlling notebook computer. In this latter case both power and Ethernet are supplied through a single cable that can be up to 80 metres in length. If a local battery supplies power, the unit can be controlled through wireless Ethernet. Both manual operation and automatic scanning of surfaces and objects is available through the software interface on the notebook computer. For each scan element making up a part of an overall scanned area, the unit measures a gamma ray spectrum. Multiple radionuclides may be

  13. Radiation protection programme for nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzongomerwa, A.

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation including the use of nuclear gauges can be very hazardous to humans and steps must be taken to minimize the risks so as to prevent deterministic effects and limiting chances for stochastic effects. The availability of a Radiation Protection Programme and its effective implementation ensures appropriate safety and security provisions for sealed radiation sources and promotes a safety culture within a facility that utilizes these sources. This study aims at establishing a guide on the radiation protection programme in nuclear gauges that comply with national requirements derived from current international recommendations. Elements that form part of a radiation protection programme are covered in detail as well as recommendations. The overall objective is to protect people (operators and the public) and the environment from the harmful effects of these sources if they are not properly controlled. Nuclear gauges for well logging and X-ray based gauges are outside the scope of this study. (au)

  14. Radiation exposure of nuclear medicine procedures in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine procedures offer the possibility to detect abnormalities on the basis of physiological and metabolic changes and to treat a growing number of diseases in human beings. However, the use of radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine examinations causes a significant component of the total radiation exposure of populations. In Germany it is an essential task of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to determinate and assess radiation exposure of the population due to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy. An important input for this task is the frequency of nuclear-medical examinations with application of ionising radiation and the radiation exposure of patients related to the various procedures. Additional implementation of age- and gender-specific data today allows more exact risk stratification in focusing on different subgroups of patients. Moreover, the collective effective dose as well as the per caput effective dose of the German population may be estimated and compared with earlier collected data or foreign countries. These data reveal where the indication should be questioned particularly critically and if the dose for the various examinations can be reduced and, thus, contribute to the definition of diagnostic reference levels for nuclear medicine procedures in Germany with the aim of both a sufficient image quality and a minimum of radiation exposure. Exceeding the high- as well as the low-values requires documentation and explanation. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating nuclear radiation moisture gauges is described. Each standard has physical characteristics and dimensions effective for representing to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration, an infinite mass of homogeneous hydrogen content. Calibration standards are discussed which are suitable for use with surface gauges and with depth gauges. (C.F.)

  16. Physics and engineering of radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Naeem

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of the physics of radiation detection and its applications. It covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. The second edition is fully revised and provides the latest developments in detector technology and analyses software. Also, more material related to measurements in particle physics and a complete solutions manual have been added.

  17. A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.; Schively, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    The valve has a first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics which are different. The valve parts are positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system. (author)

  18. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. A special session entitled ''The dose-response relationship: implications for nuclear energy'', and a panel on ''Radiation protection education and training'' were included in the conference programme. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Assembly of gamma radiation detection with directivity properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, M.; Talpalariu, C.

    2016-01-01

    An assembly of gamma radiation detection with directivity properties and small size enables the development of portable equipment or robots specialized in finding and signaling radioactively contaminated areas in case of nuclear incidents or decommissioning of nuclear installations. Directivity characteristic of the assembly of gamma radiation detection is very important when aiming to build an equipment for searching radioactively contaminated areas. In order to obtain a suitable directivity characteristics in terms of detection of gamma rays, it was necessary to construct a lead collimator with a cylindrical shape. The detector, preamplifier and amplifier pulse were placed inside the collimator and pulse discriminator circuit and power source were placed beside the collimator, all being disposed within the housing cylindrical experimental. A PIN photodiode type was used as a detector of gamma radiation. (authors)

  20. US Army Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, R.F.

    1980-07-01

    The Nuclear Burst Detection System (NBDS) was developed to meet the Army requirements of an unattended, automatic nuclear burst reporting system. It provides pertinent data for battlefield commanders on a timely basis with high reliability

  1. Research on crisis communication of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yali; Zhang Ying

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient public cognition of nuclear and radiation safety and absence of effective method to handle crisis lead to common crisis events of nuclear and radiation safety, which brings about unfavorable impact on the sound development of nuclear energy exploring and application of nuclear technology. This paper, based on crisis communication theory, analyzed the effect of current situation on nuclear and radiation safety crisis, discussed how to handle crisis, and tried to explore the effective strategies for nuclear and radiation safety crisis handling. (authors)

  2. Nuclear data for radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Shunichi; Takahashi, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    The third shielding expert conference was convened in Paris in Oct. 1975 for exchanging informations about the sensitivity evaluation of nuclear data in shielding calculation and integral bench mark experiment. The requirements about nuclear data presented at present from the field of nuclear design do not reflect sufficiently the requirements of shielding design, therefore it was the object to gather the requirements about nuclear data from the field of shielding. The nuclides used for shielding are numerous, and the nuclear data on these isotopes are required. Some of them cannot be ignored as the source of secondary γ-ray or in view of the radioactivation of materials. The requirements for the nuclear data of neutrons in the field of shielding are those concerning the reaction cross sections producing secondary γ-ray, the reaction cross sections including the production of secondary neutrons, elastic scattering cross sections, and total cross sections. The topics in the Paris conference about neutron shielding data are described, such as the methodology of sensitivity evaluation, the standardization of group constant libraries, the bench mark experiment on iron and sodium, and the cross section of γ-ray production. In the shielding of nuclear fission reactors, the γ-ray production owing to nuclear fission reaction is also important. In (d, t) fusion reactors, high energy neutrons are generated, and high energy γ-ray is emitted through giant E1 resonance. (Kako, I.)

  3. Environmental radiation monitoring around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Yong Ho; Cho, Yueng Hyun; Choi, Gyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company. Environmental Radiation rates measured by Portable ERM and accumulated dose rates measured by TLD were same level compared with past years. Total alpha and beta concentrations in the air particulates showed the similar values in all sampling points. The concentration of uranium isotopes in soils and underground waters were measured similar to natural uranium values. The concentration of uranium isotopes in surface waters and sediments decreased with increasing distances from the point of discharge. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in rain water and foods such as rices and vegetables were not detected or measured similar to natural uranium level. Hence, the environment around the nuclear facilities in Korea has been contaminated only to an insignificant extent, although a small amount of disequilibated uranium was detected within 4 km downstream of the point of discharge of KNFC. 31 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs. (Author)

  4. Split energy level radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes an energy discriminating radiation detector comprising: (a) a first element comprising a first material of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of a first energy range; (b) a second element comprising a second material different in kind from the first material and of a kind which is preferentially responsive to penetrative radiation of second energy range extending higher than the first energy range. The element is positioned to receive radiation which has penetrated through a portion of the first element; and (c) a filter of penetrative radiation interposed between the first and second elements

  5. Radiation hazards of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, H.

    1981-01-01

    The basic mechanisms and principles of nuclear power plants are discussed, since their knowledge is mandatory for the understanding of the true risk associated with nuclear technology. Differences between predictable and catastrophic accidents are compared, terms which have been frequently confused to the extent that the public has become unjustifiably and irresponsibly alarmed. A description of the jobs and their responsibilities is also given. Known accidents are reported and the role of the physician in the care of accidents and the scheduling of emergency situations is described. Finally, the usefullness, necessity and risk associated with nuclear power are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Radiation damage studies of nuclear structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum utilization of fuel in nuclear reactors is one of the important aspects for operating them economically. The main hindrance to achieve this higher burnups of nuclear fuel for the nuclear reactors is the possibility of the failure of the metallic core components during their operation. Thus, the study of the cause of the possibility of failure of these metallic structural materials of nuclear reactors during full power operation due to radiation damage, suffered inside the reactor core, is an important field of studies bearing the basic to industrial scientific views.The variation of the microstructure of the metallic core components of the nuclear reactors due to radiation damage causes enormous variation in the structure and mechanical properties. A firm understanding of this variation of the mechanical properties with the variation of microstructure will serve as a guide for creating new, more radiation-tolerant materials. In our centre we have irradiated structural materials of Indian nuclear reactors by charged particles from accelerator to generate radiation damage and studied the some aspects of the variation of microstructure by X-ray diffraction studies. Results achieved in this regards, will be presented. (author)

  7. Nuclear Radiation and the Thyroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... told to evacuate? Nuclear releases are unpredictable and traffic jams are likely to delay speedy evacuation. People ... patient information section on the American Thyroid Association ® website at www.thyroid.org .

  8. Gamma and neutron detection modeling in the nuclear detection figure of merit (NDFOM) portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroud, Phillip D.; Saeger, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Detection Figure Of Merit (NDFOM) portal is a database of objects and algorithms for evaluating the performance of radiation detectors to detect nuclear material. This paper describes the algorithms used to model the physics and mathematics of radiation detection. As a first-principles end-to-end analysis system, it starts with the representation of the gamma and neutron spectral fluxes, which are computed with the particle and radiation transport code MCNPX. The gamma spectra emitted by uranium, plutonium, and several other materials of interest are described. The impact of shielding and other intervening material is computed by the method of build-up factors. The interaction of radiation with the detector material is computed by a detector response function approach. The construction of detector response function matrices based on MCNPX simulation runs is described in detail. Neutron fluxes are represented in a three group formulation to treat differences in detector sensitivities to thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons.

  9. Regulatory aspects for nuclear and radiation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duraisamy, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is the national authority for ensuring that the use of ionizing radiation and nuclear energy does not cause any undue risk to the health of workers, members of the public and to the environment. AERB was constituted on November 15, 1983 and derives its regulatory power from the rules and notifications promulgated under the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. AERB is provided with the necessary powers and mandate to frame safety policies, lay down safety standards and requirements for monitoring and enforcing the safety provisions. AERB follows multi-tier system for its review and assessment, safety monitoring, surveillance and enforcement. While regulating various nuclear and radiation facilities, AERB adopts a graded approach taking into account the hazard potential associated with the facilities being regulated. The regulatory process has been continuous evolving to cater to the new developments in reactor and radiation technologies. The regulatory effectiveness and efficiency of AERB have grown over the last three decades to make it into a robust organization. The radiation protection infrastructure in the country is on a sound footing and is constantly being strengthened based on experience and continued research and development. As one of its mandates AERB prescribes radiation dose limits for the occupational workers and the public, in line with the IAEA Safety Standard and ICRP recommendations. The current dose limits and the radiation safety requirements are more stringent than past. To meet the current safety standards, it is important for the facilities to have state of art radiation monitoring system and programme in place. While recognizing the current system in place, this presentation also highlights certain key radiation protection challenges associated with the implementation of radiation protection standards in the nuclear and radiation facilities especially in the areas of

  10. Radiation doses and radiation risk in foreign nuclear objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvehlov, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Data on levels of irradiation on NPP operating in different regions of the world obtained from the data of the International Information System ISOE created by IAEA in association with the Nuclear Energetic Agency OECD are performed. Effect of commissioning new NPP, sacrifice of radiation situation at the Ignalina NPP in 1996, importance of the development and introduction of programs on perfecting of radiation protection and culture of safety are noted [ru

  11. Ecological radiation protection criteria for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1993-01-01

    By now a large quantity of radioactive hazards of all sizes and shapes has accumulated in Russia. They include RBMK, VVER, and BN (fast-neutron) nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel processing plants, radioactive waste dumps, ships with nuclear power units, etc. In order to evaluate the radioecological situation correctly, the characteristics of the radioactive contamination must be compiled in these areas with some system of criteria which will provide an acceptable level of ecological safety. Currently health criteria for radiation protection are, which are oriented to man's radiation protection, predominate. Here the concept of a thresholdless linear dose-response dependence, which has been confirmed experimentally only at rather high doses (above 1 Gy), is taken as the theoretical basis for evaluating and normalizing radiation effects. According to one opinion, protecting people against radiation is sufficient to protect other types of organisms, although they are not necessarily of the same species. However, from the viewpoint of ecology, this approach is incorrect, because it does not consider radiation dose differences between man and other living organisms. The article discusses dose-response dependences for various organisms, biological effects of ionizing radiation, and appropriate radiation protection criteria

  12. Radiation dose assessment in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    In any application involving the use of ionizing radiation in humans, risks and benefits must be properly evaluated and balanced. Radionuclides are used in nuclear medicine in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Recently, interest has grown in therapeutic agents for a number of applications in nuclear medicine, particularly in the treatment of hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies. This has heightened interest in the need for radiation dose calculations and challenged the scientific community to develop more patient-specific and relevant dose models. Consideration of radiation dose in such studies is central to efforts to maximize dose to tumor while sparing normal tissues. In many applications, a significant absorbed dose may be received by some radiosensitive organs, particularly the active marrow. This talk will review the methods and models used in internal dosimetry in nuclear medicine, and discuss some current trends and challenges in this field

  13. Radiation Protection Programme in Nuclear Medicine Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarfaj, Abd-I.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper specifies the main elements of the radiation protection programma (RPP) that should be estabished for each practice, which involves radiation exposure. Practices of nuclear medicine have been considered as an example, since among the 245 installations which are conducting different practices with radiation sources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are 78 installations dealing with nuclear medicine practices. Reviewing the RPP in these nuclear medicine installations, it may be easily concluded that the RPPs for the majority of these installations do not respond to the requirements of the regulatory body of the Kingdom, which is King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). This may be attributed to a set of different reasons, such as shortage in understanding the main elements of the RPP as well as in applying methodologies

  14. Nuclear power and low level radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Newcombe, H.B.

    1979-03-01

    Even in the future, nuclear power is expected to contribute less than 1/10th of the present total population exposure to man-made radiation. By the best estimates available, the current health risks of nuclear power generation appear to be much less than those associated with the major alternative sources of energy, with the exception of natural gas which is about equally safe. Uncertainties concerning the radiation risks from nuclear power, from medical x-rays and from the effects of reduced ventillation to conserve heat appear to be less than those associated with estimates of risks from the use of coal and various other sources of energy. This is in part because of the large amount of effort devoted to studies of radiation effects. The benefits in terms of current life expectancy associated with any of the conventional or unconventional methods of power production appear to greatly outweigh the associated current health hazards. (author)

  15. Interface between radiation protection and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.; Hoegberg, L.

    1991-01-01

    Interface issues concern the character and management of overlaps between radiation protection and nuclear safety in nuclear power plants. Typical examples include the selection of inspection and maintenance volumes in order to balance occupational radiation doses versus the safety status of the plant, and the intentional release to the environment in the course of an accident in order to secure better plant control. The paper discusses whether it is desirable and possible to employ a consistent management of interface issues with trade-offs between nuclear safety and radiation protection. Illustrative examples are quoted from a major Nordic research programme on risk analysis and safety rationale. These concern for instance in-service inspections, modifications of plant systems and constructions after the plant has been taken into operation, and studies on the limitations of probabilistic safety assessment. They indicate that in general there are no simple rules for such trade-offs

  16. Nuclear radiation and its role in general nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempaiah, A.; Ravi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is really nothing more than the emission of energy through space, as well as through physical objects. Nuclear radiations are emitted due to decay of nuclei of radioactive materials and damage cells and the DNA inside them through its ionizing effect. That causes melanoma and other cancers. Nuclear radiation has a number of beneficial uses especially in medical field with low levels of radioactive compounds, better than X-rays. There are some 440 nuclear reactors worldwide, people around will be under the effect of radiation. In nuclear medicine (medical imaging) small amount of radioactive materials were used to diagnose and determine the severity of or treat a variety of disease, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body it is painless and cost-effective techniques and provides information about both structure and function. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures called Gamma camera, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Radiation effects, nuclear energy and comparative risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopinath, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy had a promising start as an unlimited, inexpensive and environmentally benign source of energy for electricity generation. However, over the decades its growth was severely retarded due to concerns about its possible detrimental effects on the well-being of mankind and the environment. Since such concerns are essentially due to the gigantic magnitude of radioactivity and ionizing radiations associated with nuclear energy, this article starts with a comprehensive account of effects of the ionizing radiation on living systems. Quantitative description of types of radiation exposure and their varied effects is given. The origin, type and magnitude of mutagenic effects of radiation are described. The concept of radiation risk factors, basis for their evaluation and their currently accepted values are presented. With this background, origin and magnitude of radioactivity and associated ionizing radiations in nuclear reactors are presented and the elaborate measures to contain them are described. It is recognized that notwithstanding all the measures taken in the nuclear industry, certain amount of radiation exposure, however small, is inevitable and the values, based on the experience world over, are presented. Estimated health risk due to such exposures is evaluated. For a comparative analysis, risks in other options of electricity generation such as hydel and fossil-fuelled plants are described. It is seen that on an overall basis, the nuclear option is no more risky than the other commonly employed options, and is in fact, significantly less. Lastly, since every option of electricity generation entails some risk, the case of 'no addition of electricity, and its impact on the society are considered. Based on the analysis of extensive data provided by UNDP on the human development parameters for different countries in the world, it is shown that at least for developing countries, any option of addition of electricity would be far more desirable than the

  18. Radiation shield for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenfluh, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A reusable radiation shield for use in a reactor installation comprises a thin-walled, flexible and resilient container, made of plastic or elastomeric material, containing a hydrogenous fluid with boron compounds in solution. The container can be filled and drained in position and the fluid can be recirculated if required. When not in use the container can be folded and stored in a small space. The invention relates to a shield to span the top of the annular space between a reactor vessel and the primary shield. For this purpose a continuous toroidal container or a series of discrete segments is used. Other forms can be employed for different purposes, e.g. mattress- or blanket-like forms can be draped over potential sources of radiation or suspended from a mobile carrier and placed between a worker and a radiation source. (author)

  19. Radiation levels in nuclear diagnostic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, A.M.T.I.

    1987-01-01

    To estimate the risks for a pregnant radiological worker, radiation level measurements are executed for common nuclear diagnostic techniques. These measurements are combined with the time which the radiologic worker is present during the performance of the diagnostic techniques. It is concluded that a radiologic worker is receiving less than 5 mSv during pregnancy. This is the case with in vivo determination in a department of nuclear medicine with common diagnostic techniques. Reduction of radiation doses during pregnancy is possible by reduction of heart function examinations, skeletal examinations and brain scans. 1 figure; 13 tabs

  20. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  1. Personal radiation protection in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Koshcheev, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific peculiarities of organization of personal radiation protection at various nuclear industry enterprises when dealing with radioactive and other toxic substances are illuminated. Effect of heatin.g and cooling microclimate is discussed. Medical and technical requirements for personal protection means and tasks of personal protection in the field of nuclear industry are considered in short along with some peculiarities of application of different kinds of personal protection means and psychological aspects of personnel protection

  2. Natural radiation, nuclear wastes and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Ehdwall, H.; Stranden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic Countries are summarized and man made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given of the radiological consequences of energy conservation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final repositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. (author) 13 refs

  3. Nuclear radiation applications in hydrological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The applications of radiation sources for the determination of water and soil properties in hydrological investigations are many and varied. These include snow gauging, soil moisture and density determinations, measurement of suspended sediment concentrations in natural streams and nuclear well logging for groundwater exploitation. Besides the above, many radiation physics aspects play an important role in the development of radiotracer techniques, particularly in sediment transport studies. The article reviews the above applications with reference to their limitations and advantages. (author)

  4. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Groer, Peter G

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed comp...

  5. Nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Major factors by which the radiation situation in Kazakhstan is formed are: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, including uranium mining and milling activity and geological exploration of uranium; nuclear power plant and research reactors; residues of atmospheric and underground nuclear explosions, which were conducted for military and peaceful purposes at different test sites; mining and milling of commercial minerals accompanied by radioactive substances; use of radioactive sources in industry, medicine, agriculture and scientific research. Since 1991, after getting sovereignty, creation was started of an own legislative basis of the country for the field of atomic energy use. It includes laws, regulations and standards for nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations, personnel, involved in the activity with using of atomic energy, population and environment. An applicable system of state regulation in this area (including a central regulatory body in the field of atomic energy use) and various ministries, agencies and committees, was created. As a result of these reforms, regulatory activities were improved in the country. This paper presents the current matters of nuclear and radiation safety in Kazakhstan and some difficulties which Kazakhstan encountered during the transition to an independent state. (author)

  6. Design of radiation shields in nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Shirazi, A.; Daneshvar, Sh.; Aghanajafi, C.; Jahanfarnia, Gh.; Rahgoshay, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article consists of designing radiation shields in the core of nuclear reactors to control and restrain the harmful nuclear radiations in the nuclear reactor cores. The radiation shields protect the loss of energy. caused by nuclear radiation in a nuclear reactor core and consequently, they cause to increase the efficiency of the reactor and decrease the risk of being under harmful radiations for the staff. In order to design these shields, by making advantages of the O ppenheim Electrical Network m ethod, the structure of the shields are physically simulated and by obtaining a special algorithm, the amount of optimized energy caused by nuclear radiations, is calculated

  7. Biological effects of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotz, G.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief survey about the main radiobiological effects caused by ionizing radiation, human symptoms after irradiation and incorporation are shown. The special radiotoxic effect of radionuclides which are chemically associated with metabolism-specific elements such as calcium and potassium is shown and methods of treatment are indicated. (ORU) [de

  8. Nuclear and radiation studies and environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    Over the three days 22-24 September 1998 a Science Forum was convened under the general heading of 'Nuclear technology in relation to water resources and the aquatic environment' at the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. Some points of interest, or points of more particular relevance to radiation protection, are noted from the five sessions of the Forum: Session 1: water resources; Session 2: sea transport of radioactive and nuclear materials; Session 3: monitoring radioactivity in the aquatic environment; Session 4: nuclear technology in relation to waste resources and the aquatic environment, Session 5: impact assessment. (author)

  9. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  10. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  11. Active neutron technique for detecting attempted special nuclear material diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.W.; Rice, L.G. III.

    1979-01-01

    The identification of special nuclear material (SNM) diversion is necessary if SNM inventory control is to be maintained at nuclear facilities. (Special nuclear materials are defined for this purpose as either 235 U of 239 Pu.) Direct SNM identification by the detection of natural decay or fission radiation is inadequate if the SNM is concealed by appropriate shielding. The active neutron interrogation technique described combines direct SNM identification by delayed fission neutron (DFN) detection with implied SNM detection by the identification of materials capable of shielding SNM from direct detection. This technique is being developed for application in an unattended material/equipment portal through which items such as electronic instruments, packages, tool boxes, etc., will pass. The volume of this portal will be 41-cm wide, 53-cm high and 76-cm deep. The objective of this technique is to identify an attempted diversion of at least 20 grams of SNM with a measurement time of 30 seconds

  12. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  13. Radiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.; Wang, Lumin; Hess, Nancy J.; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics, as well as the influence of solid-state radiation effects on aqueous dissolution kinetics, which may impact the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. This work provides the underpinning science to develop improved glass and ceramic waste forms for the immobilization and disposition of high-level tank waste, excess plutonium, plutonium residues and scrap, other actinides, and other nuclear waste streams. Furthermore, this work is developing develop predictive models for the performance of nuclear waste forms and stabilized nuclear materials. Thus, the research performed under this project has significant implications for the immobilization of High-Level Waste (HLW) and Nuclear Materials, two mission areas within the Office of Environmental Management (EM). With regard to the HLW mission, this research will lead to improved understanding of radiation-induced degradation mechanisms and their effects on dissolution kinetics, as well as development of predictive models for waste form performance. In the Nuclear Materials mission, this research will lead to improvements in the understanding of radiation effects on the chemical and structural properties of materials for the stabilization and long-term storage of plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, and other actinides. The research uses plutonium incorporation, ion-beam irradiation, and electron-beam irradiation to simulate the effects of alpha decay and beta decay on relevant glasses and ceramics. The research under this project has the potential to result in improved glass and ceramic materials for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste, plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, highly-enriched uranium, other actinides, and other radioactive materials

  14. Current Trends in Nuclear and Radiation Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Harold R.; Quam, William

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of radiation detector history, a summary of the present state of the art, and some speculation on future developments in this field. Trends in the development of radiation detectors over the years are analyzed. Rapid progress in detection technology was experienced between WWII and the 1970s. Since then, fewer dramatic improvements have been seen. The authors speculate about the reasons for this trend and where the technology might take us in the next 20 years. Requirements for radiation detection equipment have changed drastically since 9/11; this demand is likely to accelerate detector development in the near future

  15. Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Fischer, Larry E [Los Gatos, CA; Felter, Thomas E [Livermore, CA

    2010-04-20

    A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

  16. Power components behavior under nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy, J.C.; Azais, B.

    1989-01-01

    Many apparatus, either fixed or on-board of vehicles, use power converters. The most common scheme includes chopper with bipolar transistors. In case of nuclear radiations, these equipments may be severely damaged. Depending on the disturbance level, the need for changes in power transistor technology has to be considered or not [fr

  17. Radiation Protection, Nuclear Safety and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faye, Ndeye Arame Boye; Ndao, Ababacar Sadikhe; Tall, Moustapha Sadibou

    2014-01-01

    Senegal has put in place a regulatory framework which allows to frame legally the use of radioactive sources. A regulatory authority has been established to ensure its application. It is in the process of carrying out its regulatory functions. It cooperates with appropriate national or international institutions operating in fields related to radiation protection, safety and nuclear safety.

  18. Nuclear Bragg diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueffer, R.; Gerdau, E.; Grote, M.; Hollatz, R.; Roehlsberger, R.; Rueter, H.D.; Sturhahn, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Bragg diffraction with synchrotron radiation as source will become a powerful new X-ray source in the A-region. This source exceeds by now the brilliance of conventional Moessbauer sources giving hyperfine spectroscopy further momentum. As examples applications to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and iron borate will be discussed. (author)

  19. Nuclear radiation moisture gauge calibration standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrophobic standard for calibrating radiation moisture gauges is described. This standard has little or no affinity for water and accordingly will not take up or give off water under ambient conditions of fluctuating humidity in such a manner as to change the hydrogen content presented to a nuclear gauge undergoing calibration. (O.T.)

  20. Physics and engineering of radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Naeem

    2007-01-01

    Physics and Engineering of Radiation Detection presents an overview of basic physics of radiation and its applications and covers the origins and properties of different kinds of ionizing radiation, their detection and measurement, and the procedures used to protect people and the environment from their potentially harmful effects. Covering both the basic physics of radiation and its applications, it will provide an up-to-date and coherent account of the origins and properties of the different kinds of ionizing radiation, and their detection and measurement. This book will illustrate the basic physical principles with an abundance of practical, worked-out examples, numerical problems, real world applications, and data, including biological effects, radon, risk assessment, and statistics.

  1. Optical Fibers in Nuclear Reactor Radiation Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    1992-01-01

    A performance evaluation of fiber optics under radiation conditions similar to those encountered in nuclear power plants is reported. The evaluation was accomplished by the creation of an analytical model for atomic scale radiation damage in silica glass and by the execution of an extensive fiber performance measurement program. The analytic model calculates displacement and electronic damage rates for silica glass subjected to a specified nuclear reactor radiation environment. It accomplishes this by first generating the primary charged particle spectrum produced in silica irradiated in a nuclear reactor. The resultant spectra are then applied to the integral equations describing radiation damage in polyatomic solids. The experimental measurements were selected to span the range of fiber types, radiation environments, temperatures, and light powers expected to be used in nuclear power plants. The basic experimental protocol was to expose the optical fibers to either a nuclear reactor or a ^{60}Co radiation environment while simultaneously monitoring fiber light transmission. Experimental temperatures were either ~23 ^circC or ~100 ^circC and light powers were either -30 dBm or -60 dBm. Measurements were made at each of the three standard communications wavelengths (850 nm, 1300 nm, and 1550 nm). Several conclusions are made based on these performance measurements. First, even near the core of a nuclear reactor the vast majority of the dose to silica glass is due to gamma rays. Even with the much lower doses (factor of roughly 40) neutrons cause much more displacement damage than gamma rays (35 times the oxygen displacement rate and 500 times the silicon displacement rate). Even with neutrons having many times the displacement rate as compared with gamma rays, little if any difference is observed in the transmission losses for gamma only as compared to mixed neutron/gamma transmission losses. Therefore, atomic displacement is not a significant damage mechanism for

  2. Radiation damage in nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2000-01-01

    Final disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste is usually envisioned in some sort of ceramic material. The physical and chemical properties of host materials for nuclear waste can be altered by internal radiation and consequently their structural integrity can be jeopardized. Assessment of long-term performance of these ceramic materials is therefore vital for a safe and successful disposal. This paper presents an overview of studies on several possible candidate materials for immobilization of fission products and actinides, such as spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ), perovskite (CaTiO 3 ), zircon (ZrSiO 4 ), and pyrochlore (Gd 2 Ti 2 O 7 and Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 ). The basic microscopic picture of radiation damage in ceramics consists of atomic displacements and ionization. In many cases these processes result in amorphization (metaminctization) of irradiated material. The evolution of microscopic structure during irradiation leads to various macroscopic radiation effects. The connection between microscopic and macroscopic picture is in most cases at least qualitatively known and studies of radiation induced microscopic changes are therefore an essential step in the design of a reliable nuclear waste host material. The relevance of these technologically important results on our general understanding of radiation damage processes and on current research efforts in Slovenia is also addressed. (author)

  3. Nuclear Power and Radiation in Public Acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastchenko, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    The special knowledge deficiency does not give the possibility to the majority of people to pattern their behaviour in a correct way on radiation problems and to estimate faithfully the possible damage rate to the health of a human being from the different radiation sources effects. Studying of the public opinion in Belarus has shown that one of the results of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences is inseparability of nuclear and radiation danger in public consciousness. The anonymous questionnaire of the inhabitants living in various Belarus regions has been carried out aiming at definition of a general radiation erudition, as well as revealing the knowledge of the population about the effect of power stations (nuclear and thermal) on the environment and the human being health. Answers on questions connected with power have shown a very poor erudition of population about ecological advantages and drawbacks inherent in thermal and nuclear power plants. The majority of the respondents (about 80%) does not know about the absence of CO 2 discharge and oxygen preservation in the air. The questionnaire analysis shows that people are exclusively frightened with radiation from NPPs, but the rest sources of radiation effect do not cause so anxiety and apprehension. People in Belarus have learnt well that the reason of the majority of the diseases is radiation, so it can be frequently heard not only from mass media, but also at scientific conferences and seminars. Most of medical workers are sure that all diseases are caused by radiation. The deficiency of special knowledge on nuclear technologies in the people majority and availability of a great amount of contradictory and untrue information supplied by mass media result in overestimation of danger from energy objects and underestimation of the increased radiation dose from other sources consequences, for example, under roentgen medical examination and treatment. The investigations carried out will help to arrange

  4. Pulse X-radiation in flaw detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavilov, S.P.; Gorbunov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Principles of physical and engineering application of pulse X-radiation (PXR) of micro- and nanosecond duration for nondestructive testing of processes, materials and devices are given. Methods and devices, aimed at generating X-ray pulses, as well as their radiation and flow detection characteristics, and testing methods by means of PXR are considered

  5. The research of nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoqiong; Wang Pan; Fang Fang

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces based on monolithic integrated circuit's nuclear experiment radiation environment wireless alarm device's software and hardware design. The system by G-M tube, high-pressured module, signal conditioning circuit, power source module, monolithic integrated circuit and wireless transmission module is composed. The device has low power consumption, high performance, high accuracy detection, easy maintenance, small size, simple operation, and other features, and has a broad application prospects. (authors)

  6. Device for detecting ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon

  7. Assembly for detecting penetrating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The detector to pick up the X-rays emitted from a cross-sectional plane of a patient (computer tomography) consists of a cadmium sulfide monocrystal, an ultrasonic transmitter, and an ultrasonic receiver. The X-rays hit the crystal at right angle to a d.c. drift field applied on the electrons generated by the X-radiation. The ultrasonic field may strike the crystal parallel or at some angle with respect to this d.c. drift field. The energefically changed sound wave picked up by the ultrasonic receiver respectively its amplitude is a measure for the intensity of the X-radiation. (DG) [de

  8. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this voluminous report describe the different ASN (Nuclear Safety Authority) actions: nuclear activities (ionising radiation and health and environmental risks), principles and stakeholders in nuclear safety regulation, radiation protection and protection of the environment, regulation, regulation of nuclear activities and exposure to ionizing radiation, radiological emergencies, public information and transparency, international relations. It also gives an overview of nuclear safety and radiation protection activities in the different French regions. The second part addresses activities regulated by the ASN: medical uses of ionizing radiation, non-medical uses of ionizing radiation, transport of radioactive materials, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle installations, nuclear research facilities and various nuclear installations, safe decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, radioactive waste and contaminated sites and soils

  9. Special nuclear material radiation monitors for the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehlau, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    During the two decades that automatic gamma-radiation monitors have been applied to detecting special nuclear material (SNM), little attention has been devoted to how well the monitors perform in plant environments. Visits to 11 DOE facilities revealed poor information flow between developers, manufacturers, and maintainers of SNM radiation monitors. To help users achieve best performance from their monitors or select new ones, Los Alamos National Laboratory developed a hand-held monitor user's guide, calibration manuals for some commercial SNM pedestrian monitors, and an application guide for SNM pedestrian monitors. In addition, Los Alamos evaluated new commercial SNM monitors, considered whether to apply neutron detection to SNM monitoring, and investigated the problem of operating gamma-ray SNM monitors in variable plutonium gamma-radiation fields. As a result, the performance of existing SNM monitors will improve and alternative monitoring methods will become commerciallly available during the 1980s. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Aims of failed fuel detection and substantiation of radiation safety at implementation of new kinds of nuclear fuel and fuel cycles on NPP with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miglo, V.; Luzanova, L.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting of number of leaking fuel rods in a core during reactor operation in the analyses which are carried out for a substantiation of radiating safety for NPP with WWER as well as problems and possibilities of FFD at implementation of new kinds of fuel and fuel cycles are the main topics discussed in this paper. Available experience of designing of the NPP with WWER shows, that for ensuring of implementation of the RS criteria regarding limiting radioactive emissions from the NPP and doses of an irradiation of the population living near to NPP, it is required to regulate more rigidly number of failed fuel rods in comparison with requirements of Rules of nuclear safety NP-082-07. The reason of it is necessity to consider a technical condition of all safety barriers on a path of radioactive FP extension in a complex, first and foremost of uncontrolled leakage of the primary coolant to the NPP premises and efficiency of filters of ventilating systems, and also spike-effect on activity of isotopes of iodine after a power unit shutdown for fuel reloading and openings of a cover of a reactor. Depending on the project of NPP, parameters of fuel loading, a place of placing of the NPP and other factors the limit level of activity of isotopes of iodine in the primary coolant will be reached at various number of leaking fuel rods which can be unequal for various power units and the NPP with WWER, constructed on one design. The quantity of leaking fuel rods at which the design limit on FP-activity in the primary coolant of operating reactor is reached, can be essential below an operational limit on number of failed fuel rods established by Rules of nuclear safety. However the reached quality of fabrication of the WWER fuel rods providing their high reliability (the probability of fuel rod failure in the course of one operation year is not higher than 10 -5 ) as well as due to the levels of the WWER fuel rod depressurization actually attainable in the normal conditions of

  11. Post-graduate course on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Vol. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety containing two parts some was prepared mainly by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The contents o this handbook have the principals aspects: radiation detection, radio dosimetry, biological effects of the ionizing radiation, occupational exposure, environmental effects, contamination and decontamination, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive materials, medical and industrial applications and the Argentine regulatory system

  12. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  13. Labor security in radiation flaw detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulis, U.Ya.; Chistov, E.D.; Partolin, O.F.; Pertsov, V.A.; Momzhiev, B.N.; Sprygaev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Problems of ensuring safe labour conditions in radiation flaw detection are considered. Methods for ionizing radiation protection are given calculating techniques for shielding flaw detectors and stationary structures are presented as well. Safe methods of nondestructive testing of items under field conditions, in a shop and special laboratories using gamma- and X-ray flaw detectors, betatrons, electron accelerators are described. Attention is paid to the principles of radiation factor stantardization as well as radiation monitoring. Analysis of accidents and recommendations on their prevention and liquidation of accidental consequences are given

  14. Nuclear energy, radiation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few decades, energy has been the subject of much debate. Energy is the backbone of technology and economic development. Today, most machines run on electricity and they are needed to make anything and everything. Hence, our energy requirements have spiraled in the years following the industrial revolution. This rapid increase in use of energy has created problems of demand and supply in addition to the environmental consciousness which picked momentum in last decades of 20 th century. The impending crisis the world over due to overuse of nonrenewable energy sources to reduce this gap shall soon lead to a situation for all concerned to take a prudent decision to tap other sources of energy, including relatively new renewable sources. Future economic growth crucially depends on the long-term availability of energy from sources that are affordable, accessible and environmentally friendly. The drive for more energy has had the happy consequences of spawning new technologies and improving earlier ones. Emphasis on renewable sources has resulted in viable harnessing of solar, wind and tidal energies. Even though these sources offer relatively clean energy, their potential to supply reliable energy in large scale in an economically viable way is limited. Nuclear energy offers a major source of commercial energy, which is economic, reliable and environmentally benign

  15. Thermoset plastics for the nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.

    1984-01-01

    Characteristics of thermoset plastics for the nuclear track detection have been studied. Some of the samples show good etching properties and will be useful for observations of super heavy primaries. (author)

  16. Radiation protection in nuclear energy. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference was convened to provide a forum for the exchange of international views on the principles of radiation protection for regulators and practitioners, to highlight issues of current importance, to examine the problems encountered in applying the principles of radiation protection, and, where possible, to identify generic solutions. The highlights of the conference were the sessions on the interface between nuclear safety and radiation protection, the evolution of radiation protection principles, exemption rules and accident experiences. The special session on the practical implications of the linear dose-response relationships also provoked particular interest. Although the session on optimization and decision aiding did not reveal any new developments, it did indicate an increasing emphasis on the optimization of radiation protection. A clear trend towards attaining lower collective doses per unit practice over a given time period, despite the increase in nuclear power plant capacity, is also apparent, although very few data on job-related worker doses have been published to date in the open literature. From the regulators' viewpoint, a very strong desire was expressed for a move towards regulatory strategies that exempt practices and sources causing insignificant individual and collective doses. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Radiation exposure in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1981-01-01

    The individual and collective doses in German nuclear power stations have decreased remarkably since the beginning of the commercial nuclear power production. The paper discusses the influencing factors, that have caused this development and points out areas where improvements are possible in the future. Moreover the interaction between radiation protection practice and the relevant legal regulations is considered. Usually the recording of job related doses is regarded as the most direct access to possible improvements. Concluding, it is therefore demonstrated by some examples how the evaluation of such information has taken effect in practice. (orig.) [de

  18. Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Kabakchi, S.A.; Egorov, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering are discussed (predominantly on the base of the works performed in the Soviet Union). The data on the influence of temperature within the range of 0-300 0 C on the yields of water radiolysis products are considered. The results obtained from the study of reactivity of actinide ions towards inorganic free radicals in acid aqueous solutions are summarized. The information on composition and properties of the products of radiolytic transformations of different extragents and diluents and on their influence on the behaviour of extraction systems during processing of irradiated nuclear fuel is presented. (author)

  19. Radiation damage in nuclear waste ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.; Rusin, J.M.; Wald, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The text contains a number of specific observations about the radiation-induced changes in glass, glass-ceramic, and supercalcine nuclear waste forms. Other, more general conclusions can be summarized: Radiation-induced property changes follow an exponential ingrowth curve to saturation. Actinide host phases in both crystalline waste forms become X-ray amorphous. The magnitudes of the waste-form density changes observed could not be directly related to observed changes in the primary actinide phases. Although large crystal-structure changes occur in the materials studied, obvious physical degradation was not observed

  20. Ionizing radiation, nuclear energy and radiation protection for school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucena, E.A.; Reis, R.G.; Pinho, A.S.; Alves, A.S.; Rio, M.A.P.; Reis, A.A.; Silva, J.W.S.; Paula, G.A. de; Goncalves Junior, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, ionizing radiation has been applied in many sectors of society, such as medicine, industry, safety, construction, engineering and research. However, population is unaware of both the applications of ionizing radiation and their risks and benefits. It can be seen that most people associate the terms 'radiation' and 'nuclear energy' with the atomic bomb or cancer, most likely because of warlike applications and the stealthy way radioactivity had been treated in the past. Thus, it is necessary to clarify the population about the main aspects related to the applications, risks and associated benefits. These knowledge can be disseminated in schools. Brazilian legislation for basic education provides for topics such as nuclear energy and radioactivity to high school students. However, some factors hamper such an educational practice, namely, few hours of class, textbooks do not address the subject, previous concepts obtained in the media, difficulty in dealing with the subject in the classroom, phobia, etc. One solution would be the approximation between schools and institutions that employ technologies involving radioactivity, which would allow students to know the practices, associated radiological protection, as well as the risks and benefits to society. Currently, with the increasing application of ionizing radiation, especially in medicine, it is necessary to demystify the use of radioactivity. (author)

  1. Electrets for beta radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, L.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1983-01-01

    Electret dosimetry has been reviewed by Gross. A cylindrical electret ionization-chamber type dosimeter has been studied for X and gamma rays and neutrons. The principle of the dosimeter is electret charge compensation due to ionization in the chamber volume. Electret ionization chambers can be designed with one or more electrets and in various shapes. This study is concerned with a simple system, similar to a cylindrical ionization chamber (sensitive volume: 3,5 cm 3 ) using teflon electrets. Aluminum and lucite were used as wall-materials. Other experiences were performed using chambers without wall, i.e., without defined sensitive volume. The teflon electrets were obtained by Corona discharge in the gas surrounding them. The measurement of the electret charge was made by induction using a co-axial insulated metal chamber connected to an electrometer Keithley 610C. By measuring the charge before and after irradiation it is possible to obtain a calibration curve: charge (Q) versus absorbed dose (D) for the dosimeter. The irradiation setup used was the Beta Secondary Standard System of IPEN calibration laboratory with four beta sources: 90 Sr 90 Y (74 and 1850 MBq), 204 Tl (18,5 MBq) and 147 Pm (518 MBq). In some cases a 85 Kr source was also used. The electrets were tested in different radiation field geometries: electret axis parallel and perpendicular to the field. In conclusion, depending on the wall material and radiation field geometry, the teflon electret detector can be used for different dose interval determinations, using beta radiation

  2. Radiation monitor system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bingzhe; Guo Shusheng

    1990-12-01

    The system has 8 kinds of radiation monitors and 2 stage microcomputers designed for processing the data from each monitor, storaging the information, printing out and displaying on the colour CRT. The function of the system includes high-value alarm, warm alarm and failure alarm, so called t hree-level alarms . Two functions of the alarms are the threshold alarm and the tendency alarm, so that this system is an intelligency system. This system has high reliability and very wide range when LOCA accident takes place. It is aseismic and immune to industrial interference. The system can meet IEC-761-1 standard and is of nuclear safety 3rd class. Also the following monitors were designed: 133 Xe monitor, 131 I monitor, low-level liquid monitor and high radiation γ area monitor. The system can meet the requirements of nuclear power plants

  3. Radiation protection at nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Momose, T.; Furuta, S.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection methodologies concerning individual monitoring, workplace monitoring and environmental monitoring in nuclear fuel facilities have been developed and applied to facilities in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories (NCL) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for over 40 y. External exposure to photon, beta ray and neutron and internal exposure to alpha emitter are important issues for radiation protection at these facilities. Monitoring of airborne and surface contamination by alpha and beta/photon emitters at workplace is also essential to avoid internal exposure. A critical accident alarm system developed by JAEA has been proved through application at the facilities for a long time. A centralised area monitoring system is effective for emergency situations. Air and liquid effluents from facilities are monitored by continuous monitors or sampling methods to comply with regulations. Effluent monitoring has been carried out for 40 y to assess the radiological impacts on the public and the environment due to plant operation. (authors)

  4. Radiation safely culture in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, R.

    2018-01-01

    The importance of developing a sound radiation safety culture is a relatively new development in the practical application of radiation protection in operational facilities. It is instructive to trace the evolution of the fundamental approaches to controlling operational exposures, staring with the engineering-based 'Distance, Shielding and Time' mantra, through the growing emphasis on ALARA and systematic management-based approaches, towards a recognition of the importance of developing a more 'hearts and minds' approach based within the wider safety culture of the organization. The underlying requirements for developing a strong radiation safety culture are not novel, and are largely identical to those necessary for nuclear safety culture, which is why an integrated approach to culture within the organization is essential

  5. Radiation emergency preparedness in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Ramamirtham, B.; Khot, P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of planning for radiation emergency response is to ensure adequate preparedness for protection of the plant personnel and members of the public from significant radiation exposures in the unlikely event of an accident. With a number of safety features in the reactor design and sound operating procedures, the probability of a major accident resulting in the releases of large quantities of radioactivity is extremely small. However, as an abundant cautious approach a comprehensive radiation emergency response preparedness is in place in all the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Radiation Emergency in NPPs is broadly categorized into three types; plant emergency, site emergency and off-site emergency. During off site emergency conditions, based on levels of radiation in the environment, Civil Authorities may impose several counter measures such as sheltering, administering prophylaxis (stable iodine for thyroid blocking) and evacuation of people from the affected area. Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) carries out environmental survey extensively in the affected sector identified by the meteorological survey laboratory. To handle emergency situations, Emergency Control Centre with all communication facility and Emergency Equipment Centre having radiation measuring instruments and protective equipment are functional at all NPPs. AERB stipulates certain periodicity for conducting the exercises on plant, site and off site emergency. These exercises are conducted and deficiencies corrected for strengthening the emergency preparedness system. In the case of off site emergency exercise, observers are invited from AERB and Crisis Management Group of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The emergency exercises conducted by Nuclear Power Plant Sites have been very satisfactory. (author)

  6. Better to detect nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, Bob

    1987-01-01

    In a 150 km 2 reserve just west of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories, three GSC employees operate one of the most sensitive seismic arrays in existence for locating ground movement around the world. The array station is staffed year round despite the harsh climate. Since 1963 the Yellowknife seismic array has contributed data which will significantly aid international efforts to achieve a nuclear test ban treaty

  7. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A. (University Texas Medical Branch); Neerathilingam, Muniasamy (University Texas Medical Branch); Ansari, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Volk, David (University Texas Medical Branch); Sarkar, S. (University Texas Medical Branch); Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-08-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  8. Metabonomics for detection of nuclear materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd Michael; Luxon, Bruce A.; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy; Ansari, S.; Volk, David; Sarkar, S.; Alam, Mary Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Tracking nuclear materials production and processing, particularly covert operations, is a key national security concern, given that nuclear materials processing can be a signature of nuclear weapons activities by US adversaries. Covert trafficking can also result in homeland security threats, most notably allowing terrorists to assemble devices such as dirty bombs. Existing methods depend on isotope analysis and do not necessarily detect chronic low-level exposure. In this project, indigenous organisms such as plants, small mammals, and bacteria are utilized as living sensors for the presence of chemicals used in nuclear materials processing. Such 'metabolic fingerprinting' (or 'metabonomics') employs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess alterations in organismal metabolism provoked by the environmental presence of nuclear materials processing, for example the tributyl phosphate employed in the processing of spent reactor fuel rods to extract and purify uranium and plutonium for weaponization.

  9. Adaptive search and detection of laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efendiev, F.A.; Kasimova, F.I.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of cosmic optical line connected with the solving of difficult problems, among which stand out spatial search task, detection and target tracking. Indeed, the main advantage of systems of the optical diapason, high radiation direction leads to a challenging task of entering in communication, consisting in mutual targeting antenna receiving and transmitting systems. Algorithm detection, obtained by solving the corresponding statistical optimal detection test synthesis tasks detector determines the structure and quality of his work which depend on the average characteristics of the signal and the background radiation of the thermal noise require full priori certainty about the conditions of observation. Algorithm of the optimal detector of laser light modulated on a sub carrier frequency of intensity assumes a priori known intensity and efficiency background radiation and internal noise power photo detector

  10. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  11. Bayesian Methods for Radiation Detection and Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter G. Groer

    2002-01-01

    We performed work in three areas: radiation detection, external and internal radiation dosimetry. In radiation detection we developed Bayesian techniques to estimate the net activity of high and low activity radioactive samples. These techniques have the advantage that the remaining uncertainty about the net activity is described by probability densities. Graphs of the densities show the uncertainty in pictorial form. Figure 1 below demonstrates this point. We applied stochastic processes for a method to obtain Bayesian estimates of 222Rn-daughter products from observed counting rates. In external radiation dosimetry we studied and developed Bayesian methods to estimate radiation doses to an individual with radiation induced chromosome aberrations. We analyzed chromosome aberrations after exposure to gammas and neutrons and developed a method for dose-estimation after criticality accidents. The research in internal radiation dosimetry focused on parameter estimation for compartmental models from observed compartmental activities. From the estimated probability densities of the model parameters we were able to derive the densities for compartmental activities for a two compartment catenary model at different times. We also calculated the average activities and their standard deviation for a simple two compartment model

  12. RADIATION EFFECTS IN NUCLEAR WASTE MATERIALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this research was to develop fundamental understanding and predictive models of radiation effects in glasses and ceramics at the atomic, microscopic, and macroscopic levels, as well as an understanding of the effects of these radiation-induced solid-state changes on dissolution kinetics (i.e., radionuclide release). The research performed during the duration of this project has addressed many of the scientific issues identified in the reports of two DOE panels [1,2], particularly those related to radiation effects on the structure of glasses and ceramics. The research approach taken by this project integrated experimental studies and computer simulations to develop comprehensive fundamental understanding and capabilities for predictive modeling of radiation effects and dissolution kinetics in both glasses and ceramics designed for the stabilization and immobilization of high-level tank waste (HLW), plutonium residues and scraps, surplus weapons plutonium, other actinides, and other highly radioactive waste streams. Such fundamental understanding is necessary in the development of predictive models because all experimental irradiation studies on nuclear waste materials are ''accelerated tests'' that add a great deal of uncertainty to predicted behavior because the damage rates are orders of magnitude higher than the actual damage rates expected in nuclear waste materials. Degradation and dissolution processes will change with damage rate and temperature. Only a fundamental understanding of the kinetics of all the physical and chemical processes induced or affected by radiation will lead to truly predictive models of long-term behavior and performance for nuclear waste materials. Predictive models of performance of nuclear waste materials must be scientifically based and address both radiation effects on structure (i.e., solid-state effects) and the effects of these solid-state structural changes on dissolution kinetics. The ultimate goal of this

  13. Detection of food treated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1998-01-01

    Treatment of food with ionizing energy-'food irradiation'- is finally becoming reality in many countries. The benefits include an improvement in food hygiene, spoilage reduction and extension of shelf-life. Although properly irradiated food is safe and wholesome, consumers should be able to make their own free choice between irradiated and non-irradiated food. For this purpose labelling is indispensable. In order to check compliance with existing regulations, detection of radiation treatment by analysing the food itself is highly desirable. Significant progress has been made in recent years in developing analytical detection methods utilizing changes in food originating from the radiation treatment

  14. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dennis Eugene [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 11/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei.

  15. Nuclear dynamical diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    The scattering of synchrotron radiation by nuclei is extensively explored in this thesis. From the multipole electric field expansion resulting from time-dependent nonrelativistic perturbation theory, a dynamical scattering theory is constructed. This theory is shown, in the many particle limit, to be equivalent to the semi-classical approach where a quantum mechanical scattering amplitude is used in the Maxwell inhomogeneous wave equation. The Moessbauer specimen whose low-lying energy levels were probed is a ferromagnetic lattice of 57 Fe embedded in a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) crystal matrix. The hyperfine fields in YIG thin films were studied at low and room temperature using time-resolved quantum beat spectroscopy. Nuclear hyperfine structure quantum beats were measured using a fast plastic scintillator coincidence photodetector and associated electronics having a time resolution of 2.5 nsec. The variation of the quantum beat patterns near the Bragg [0 0 2] diffraction peak gave a Lamb-Moessbauer factor of 8.2±0.4. Exploring characteristic dynamical features in the higher order YIG [0 0 10] reflection revealed that one of the YIG crystals had bifurcated into two different layers. The dynamics of nuclear superradiance was explored. This phenomenon includes the radiative speedup exhibited by a collective state of particles, and, in striking concurrence, resonance frequency shifts. A speedup of a factor of 4 in the total decay rate and a beat frequency shift of 1 1/2 natural resonance linewidths were observed. Nuclear resonance scattering was also found to be a useful way of performing angular interferometry experiments, and it was used to observe the phase shift of a rotated quantum state. On the whole, nuclear dynamical diffraction theory has superbly explained many of the fascinating features of resonant magnetic dipole radiation scattered by a lattice of nuclei

  16. Remote Optical Detection of Alpha Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.; Hannuksela, V.; Toivonen, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peraejaervi, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha emitting radiation sources are typically hard to detect with conventional detectors due to the short range of alpha particles in the air. However, previous studies have shown that remote detection of alpha radiation is possible by measuring the ionization-induced fluorescence of air molecules. The alpha-induced ultraviolet (UV) light is mainly emitted by molecular nitrogen and its fluorescence properties are well known. The benefit of this method is the long range of UV photons in the air. Secondly, the detection is possible also under a strong beta and gamma radiation backgrounds as they do not cause localized molecular excitation. In this work, the optical detection was studied using two different detection schemes; spectral separation of fluorescence from the background lighting and coincidence detection of UV photons originating from a single radiative decay event. Our spectrally integrated measurements have shown that one alpha decay event yields up to 400 fluorescence photons in the air and all these UV photons are induced in a 5 ns time-window. On the other hand, the probability of a background coincidence event in 5 ns scale is very rare compared to the number of background photons. This information can be applied in fluorescence coincidence filtering to discriminate the alpha radiation initiated fluorescence signal from much more intense background lighting. A device called HAUVA (Handheld Alpha UV Application) was built during this work for demonstration purposes. HAUVA utilizes spectral filtering and it is designed to detect alpha emitters from a distance of about 40 cm. Using specially selected room lighting, the device is able to separate 1 kBq alpha emitter from the background lighting with 1 second integration time. (author)

  17. Development of a novel gamma probe for detecting radiation direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M. N.; Longo, M.; Donnarumma, R.; D'Alessio, A.; Borrazzo, C.; Pergola, A.; Ridolfi, S.; De Vincentis, G.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial localization of radioactive sources is currently a main issue interesting different fields, including nuclear industry, homeland security as well as medical imaging. It is currently achieved using different systems, but the development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation is becoming important especially in medical imaging. In this latter field, radiation detection probes have long been used to guide surgery, thanks to their ability to localize and quantify radiopharmaceutical uptake even deep in tissue. Radiolabelled colloid is injected into, or near to, the tumor and the surgeon uses a hand-held radiation detector, the gamma probe, to identify lymph nodes with radiopharmaceutical uptkake. The present work refers to a novel scintigraphic goniometric probe to identify gamma radiation and its direction. The probe incorporates several scintillation crystals joined together in a particular configuration to provide data related to the position of a gamma source. The main technical characteristics of the gamma locator prototype, i.e. sensitivity, spatial resolution and detection efficiency, are investigated. Moreover, the development of a specific procedure applied to the images permits to retrieve the source position with high precision with respect to the currently used gamma probes. The presented device shows a high sensitivity and efficiency to identify gamma radiation taking a short time (from 30 to 60 s). Even though it was designed for applications in radio-guided surgery, it could be used for other purposes, as for example homeland security.

  18. Development of a novel gamma probe for detecting radiation direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Longo, M.; Donnarumma, R.; Borrazzo, C.; D'Alessio, A.; Pergola, A.; Ridolfi, S.; Vincentis, G. De

    2016-01-01

    Spatial localization of radioactive sources is currently a main issue interesting different fields, including nuclear industry, homeland security as well as medical imaging. It is currently achieved using different systems, but the development of technologies for detecting and characterizing radiation is becoming important especially in medical imaging. In this latter field, radiation detection probes have long been used to guide surgery, thanks to their ability to localize and quantify radiopharmaceutical uptake even deep in tissue. Radiolabelled colloid is injected into, or near to, the tumor and the surgeon uses a hand-held radiation detector, the gamma probe, to identify lymph nodes with radiopharmaceutical uptkake. The present work refers to a novel scintigraphic goniometric probe to identify gamma radiation and its direction. The probe incorporates several scintillation crystals joined together in a particular configuration to provide data related to the position of a gamma source. The main technical characteristics of the gamma locator prototype, i.e. sensitivity, spatial resolution and detection efficiency, are investigated. Moreover, the development of a specific procedure applied to the images permits to retrieve the source position with high precision with respect to the currently used gamma probes. The presented device shows a high sensitivity and efficiency to identify gamma radiation taking a short time (from 30 to 60 s). Even though it was designed for applications in radio-guided surgery, it could be used for other purposes, as for example homeland security

  19. Nuclear energy - Radioprotection - Procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a procedure for radiation protection monitoring in nuclear installations for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation, especially to beta radiation and describes the procedure in radiation protection monitoring for external exposure to weakly penetrating radiation in nuclear installations. This radiation comprises β - radiation, β + radiation and conversion electron radiation as well as photon radiation with energies below 15 keV. This International Standard describes the procedure in radiation protection planning and monitoring as well as the measurement and analysis to be applied. It applies to regular nuclear power plant operation including maintenance, waste handling and decommissioning. The recommendations of this International Standard may also be transferred to other nuclear fields including reprocessing, if the area-specific issues are considered. This International Standard may also be applied to radiation protection at accelerator facilities and in nuclear medicine, biology and research facilities

  20. Precision of quantum tomographic detection of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G.M. (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy) Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy)); Macchiavello, Chiara (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy)); Paris, M.G.A. (Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Alessandro Volta' ' , Via A. Bassi 6, I-27100, Pavia (Italy))

    1994-11-21

    Homodyne tomography provides an experimental technique for reconstructing the density matrix of the radiation field. Here we analyze the tomographic precision in recovering observables like the photon number, the quadrature, and the phase. We show that tomographic reconstruction, despite providing a complete characterization of the state of the field, is generally much less efficient than conventional detection techniques. ((orig.))

  1. Precision of quantum tomographic detection of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Macchiavello, Chiara; Paris, M.G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Homodyne tomography provides an experimental technique for reconstructing the density matrix of the radiation field. Here we analyze the tomographic precision in recovering observables like the photon number, the quadrature, and the phase. We show that tomographic reconstruction, despite providing a complete characterization of the state of the field, is generally much less efficient than conventional detection techniques. ((orig.))

  2. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  3. Detection of electromagnetic radiation using nonlinear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Harold Y.; Liu, Mengkun; Averitt, Richard D.; Nelson, Keith A.; Sternbach, Aaron; Fan, Kebin

    2016-06-14

    An apparatus for detecting electromagnetic radiation within a target frequency range is provided. The apparatus includes a substrate and one or more resonator structures disposed on the substrate. The substrate can be a dielectric or semiconductor material. Each of the one or more resonator structures has at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of target electromagnetic radiation within the target frequency range, and each of the resonator structures includes at least two conductive structures separated by a spacing. Charge carriers are induced in the substrate near the spacing when the resonator structures are exposed to the target electromagnetic radiation. A measure of the change in conductivity of the substrate due to the induced charge carriers provides an indication of the presence of the target electromagnetic radiation.

  4. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, K [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Decreton, M [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Seifert, C C [Siemens AG (Germany); Sharp, R [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs.

  5. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauridsen, K.; Decreton, M.; Seifert, C.C.; Sharp, R.

    1996-10-01

    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs

  6. Radiation dosimetry in nuclear medicine - recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, E.L.R.; Wood, N.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews developments in radiation dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine over the past few years. The practical scope of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee's Schema for dose determination has been extended by the development of more realistic mathematical models of the human body, together with the improvement in basic physical data used in dose calculations. Apart from the use of the Adult Human Phantom as the basis for dose determination, models have been developed for the estimation of doses to children and to the developing foetus. The Schema has been extended to permit calculations of the dose to dynamic organs, particularly the bladder. The principle of Monte Carlo photon history simulation, which forms the basis of much of the MIRD Schema's published data, has been used at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for the determination of complete photon dose distributions. These are more meaningful in many cases than the average doses determined by the absorbed fraction method. (author)

  7. Force detection of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rugar, D.; Zueger, O.; Hoen, S.; Yannoni, C.S.; Vieth, H.M.; Kendrick, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Micromechanical sensing of magnetic force was used to detect nuclear magnetic resonance with exceptional sensitivity and spatial resolution. With a 900 angstrom thick silicon nitride cantilever capable of detecting subfemtonewton forces, a single shot sensitivity of 1.6 x 10 13 protons was achieved for an ammonium nitrate sample mounted on the cantilever. A nearby millimeter-size iron particle produced a 600 tesla per meter magnetic field gradient, resulting in a spatial resolution of 2.6 micrometers in one dimension. These results suggest that magnetic force sensing is a viable approach for enhancing the sensitivity and spatial resolution of nuclear magnetic resonance microimaging

  8. Landmine detection by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahid, R M [Reactor Physics Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-15

    According to the information given by recent published data , more than 150 million land mines are buried in more than 70 countries, among them is Egypt . In Egypt, more than 23 million land mines lie buried in the northern parts of the western desert and western parts of Sinai . These mines are triggered accidentally by civilian activities, ravaging the land and killing or maiming a lot of innocent civilian people . For humanitarian demining , the removal of land mines already in the ground is very difficult and quite costly. In addition, detecting minimum metal antipersonnel mines and distinguishing them from the metallic debris of a minefields is difficult with current available detectors.

  9. Landmine detection by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahid, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    According to the information given by recent published data , more than 150 million land mines are buried in more than 70 countries, among them is Egypt . In Egypt, more than 23 million land mines lie buried in the northern parts of the western desert and western parts of Sinai . These mines are triggered accidentally by civilian activities, ravaging the land and killing or maiming a lot of innocent civilian people . For humanitarian demining , the removal of land mines already in the ground is very difficult and quite costly. In addition, detecting minimum metal antipersonnel mines and distinguishing them from the metallic debris of a minefields is difficult with current available detectors

  10. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, Y.B.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.; Chung, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    For the KAERI site, various environmental samples were collected three times a month, and the natural environmental radiation levels were also measured at each sampling point. Measurements for gross alpha and beta radioactivities of the samples were routinely measured for all samples. Strontium-90 concentrations were also analysed for the fallout and air samples collected daily basis on the roof of the main building. Accumulated exposure including the possibility of determination of low level environmental radiation field by employing thermoluminescent dosimeter, CaSO 4 : Dsub(y)-0.4 teflon disc type, at 6 posts in on-site of the KAERI. As for Kori site, at 19 points of ON, OFF-site, and at the same time the environmental radiation exposure rate at each sampling point were measured. Several environmental samples such as surface soil, pine needles, water samples, milk sample and pasture samples were collected and analysed on a quarterly basis. As a result of the survey it can be said that no significant release of radiation to the environment due to the operations of nuclear facilities including research reactor at the KAERI and power reactor at the Kori has been found during the period of the survey and monitoring. (author)

  11. A novel mobile system for radiation detection and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    A novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance has been developed within the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). The REWARD sensing units are small, mobile portable units with low energy consumption, which consist of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit is integrated by a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station as well as a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system also incorporates middleware and high-level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information. A central monitoring and decision support system has been designed to process the data from the sensing units and to compare them with historical record in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. A security framework ensures protection against unauthorized access to the network and data, ensuring the privacy of the communications and contributing to the overall robustness and reliability of the REWARD system. The REWARD system has been designed for many different scenarios such as nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination or nuclear accidents. It can be deployed in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment, but also inside public/private buildings or infrastructures. The complete system is scalable in terms of complexity and cost and offers very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system allows for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a basic, low cost system and increase the complexity based on their

  12. Radiation sensitive area detection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Hecht, Diana L. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A radiation sensitive area detection device for use in conjunction with an X ray, ultraviolet or other radiation source is provided which comprises a phosphor containing film which releases a stored diffraction pattern image in response to incoming light or other electromagnetic wave. A light source such as a helium-neon laser, an optical fiber capable of directing light from the laser source onto the phosphor film and also capable of channelling the fluoresced light from the phosphor film to an integrating sphere which directs the light to a signal processing means including a light receiving means such as a photomultiplier tube. The signal processing means allows translation of the fluoresced light in order to detect the original pattern caused by the diffraction of the radiation by the original sample. The optical fiber is retained directly in front of the phosphor screen by a thin metal holder which moves up and down across the phosphor screen and which features a replaceable pinhole which allows easy adjustment of the resolution of the light projected onto the phosphor film. The device produces near real time images with high spatial resolution and without the distortion that accompanies prior art devices employing photomultiplier tubes. A method is also provided for carrying out radiation area detection using the device of the invention.

  13. Evaluation of radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, Ezzeldien Mohammed Nour

    2013-05-01

    This study conducted to evaluate the radiation protection in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures in four nuclear medicine departments in Sudan. The evaluated procedures followed in these departments were in accordance with the standards, International Recommendations and code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine. The evolution included the optimum design for diagnostic nuclear medicine departments, dealing with radioactive sources, quality assurance and quality control, training and responsibilities for radiation worker taking into account economic factors in Sudan. Evaluation of radiation protection procedures in diagnostic investigations was carried out by taken direct measurements of dose rate and the contamination level in some areas where radiation sources, radiation workers and public are involved. Designated questionnaires covered thirteen areas of radiation protection based on inspection check list for nuclear medicine prepared by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and American Association of Physicist in Medicine (AAPM) were used in the evaluation. This questionnaire has been Filled by Radiation Protection Officer (RPO), nuclear medicine technologist, nuclear medicine specialist in the nuclear medicine departments. Four hospitals, two governmental hospital and two private hospitals, have been assisted, the assessment shows that although the diagnostic nuclear medicine department in Sudan are not applying a fully safety and radiation protection procedures, but the level of radiation dose and the contamination level were found within acceptable limits. The private hospital D scored the higher level of protection (85.25%) while the governmental hospital C scored the lower level of protection (59.02%). Finally, this study stated some recommendations that if implemented could improve the level of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. One of the most important recommendations is that a proper radiation protection

  14. Measuring element for the detection and determination of radiation doses of gamma radiation and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, W.; Piesch, E.

    1975-01-01

    A measuring element detects and proves both gamma and neutron radiation. The element includes a photoluminescent material which stores gamma radiation and particles of arsenic and phosphorus embedded in the photoluminescent material for detecting neutron radiation. (U.S.)

  15. Spectral Analysis Method of Plastic Scintillator-based Radiation Detector against Nuclear/Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sung-Woo; Yoo, Ho-Sik; Jang, Sung Soon; Kim, Jung-Soo; Yoon, Wan-Ki

    2008-01-01

    In these days, the threats relating to nuclear or radioactive materials have become a matter of internationally increased grave concern. A plastic scintillation detector in radiation portal monitoring (RPM) application has been used to detect radioactive sources in steel scrap entering reprocessing facilities, and to detect illicit transport of radioactive material across border ports-of-entry. The detection systems for RPM application usually are large and can not easily be moved to a different location. For some situations, an inconspicuous and mobile system for the radioactive or nuclear material during road transport is needed. The mobile radiation detection system has employed a NaI- based radiation detector to detect and identify the material hidden in vehicle. There are some operational constraints - short measuring time, weak activity due to heavy shield of illegal source, long distance - of inspection system in such nuclear security applications. Due to these constraints, large area sensor is required to maximize its sensitivity. Large NaI material, however, is extremely expensive. In designing a radiation detector for prevention of illicit trafficking of nuclear or radioactive materials, the trade-off should be carefully optimized between performance and cost in order to achieve cost-effective inspection system. For the cost-effective mobile radiation detection system, this paper describes new spectral analysis method to use the crude spectroscopic information available from a plastic detector to discriminate other man-made radiation source from NORM

  16. Passive radiation detection using optically active CMOS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosiek, Luke; Schalk, Patrick D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, there have been a number of small-scale and hobbyist successes in employing commodity CMOS-based camera sensors for radiation detection. For example, several smartphone applications initially developed for use in areas near the Fukushima nuclear disaster are capable of detecting radiation using a cell phone camera, provided opaque tape is placed over the lens. In all current useful implementations, it is required that the sensor not be exposed to visible light. We seek to build a system that does not have this restriction. While building such a system would require sophisticated signal processing, it would nevertheless provide great benefits. In addition to fulfilling their primary function of image capture, cameras would also be able to detect unknown radiation sources even when the danger is considered to be low or non-existent. By experimentally profiling the image artifacts generated by gamma ray and β particle impacts, algorithms are developed to identify the unique features of radiation exposure, while discarding optical interaction and thermal noise effects. Preliminary results focus on achieving this goal in a laboratory setting, without regard to integration time or computational complexity. However, future work will seek to address these additional issues.

  17. Summary of Prometheus Radiation Shielding Nuclear Design Analyses , for information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Stephens

    2006-01-01

    This report transmits a summary of radiation shielding nuclear design studies performed to support the Prometheus project. Together, the enclosures and references associated with this document describe NRPCT (KAPL and Bettis) shielding nuclear design analyses done for the project

  18. Radiation protection organization in Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Maochun

    1993-01-01

    The French way of radiation protection management has been adopted by Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) but there are some differences. In this paper author describes radiation protection organization in GNPS, special measures having been taken and the present status

  19. Waveshifters and Scintillators for Ionizing Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaugh, B.; Bishop, J.; Karmgard, D.; Marchant, J.; McKenna, M.; Ruchti, R.; Vigneault, M.; Hernandez, L.; Hurlbut, C.

    2007-01-01

    Scintillation and waveshifter materials have been developed for the detection of ionizing radiation in an STTR program between Ludlum Measurements, Inc. and the University of Notre Dame. Several new waveshifter materials have been developed which are comparable in efficiency and faster in fluorescence decay than the standard material Y11 (K27) used in particle physics for several decades. Additionally, new scintillation materials useful for fiber tracking have been developed which have been compared to 3HF. Lastly, work was done on developing liquid scintillators and paint-on scintillators and waveshifters for high radiation environments

  20. Radiation safety and protection on the nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Bogorad, V.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Litvinskaya, T.V.; Slepchenko, A.Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The main issues of the radiation safety and protection provision on the nuclear power plants are considered in this monograph. The description of the basic sources of the radiation danger on NPPs, the principles, the methods and the means of the safety and radiation monitoring provision are shown. The special attention is paid to the issues of the ionizing radiation regulation

  1. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  2. Excitation of nuclear states by synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olariu, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We study the excitation of nuclear states by gamma ray beams of energy up to 200 keV produced as synchrotron radiation. We consider the possibility to populate an excited state |i> in two steps, from the ground state |g> to an intermediary state |n> which decays by gamma emission or internal conversion to a lower state |i>. The aim of this study is to establish that the probability P 2 of the two-step transition |g> → |n> → |i> should be greater than the probability P 1 of the direct transition |g> → |i>. The probabilities P 1 and P 2 correspond to a radiation pulse of duration equal to the half-time of the state |i>. We have written a computer program in C++ which computes the probability P 2 , the ratio P 2 /P 1 and the rate C 2 of the two-step transitions for any nuclei and different configurations of states. The program uses a database which contains information on the energy levels, half-lives, spins and parities of nuclear states and on the relative intensities of the nuclear transitions. If the half-lives or the relative intensities are not known the program uses the Weisskopf estimates for the transition half-lives. An interpolation program of internal conversion coefficients has also been used. We listed the values obtained for P 2 , P 2 /P 1 and C 2 in a number of cases in which P 2 is significant from the 2900 considered cases. The states |i> and |n> have the energies E i and E n , the corresponding half-lives being t i and t n . The spectral density of the synchrotron radiation has been considered to be 10 12 photons cm -2 s -1 eV -1 . We listed only the cases for which the relative intensities of the transitions from levels |n> and |i> to lower states are known. The calculations carried out in this study allowed us to identify nuclei for which P 2 has relatively great values. In the listed cases P 2 /P 1 >>1, so that the two-step excitation by synchrotron radiation is more efficient than the direct excitation |g> → |i>. For a sample having 10

  3. Integration of radiation monitoring for nuclear emergency response teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, J T; Thompson, N Y [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The Canadian Forces have established Nuclear Emergency Response Teams to cope with potential radiation accidents. Previously, only gamma and high-energy beta radiation could be detected. Recently, new radiation sampling, detecting, and analytical equipment has been bought, including air samplers, beta counters, high-purity germanium gamma detectors, and multi-channel analyzers together with Gamma Vision Software to analyze gamma spectra. The purpose of the present study is to propose a way to use the new equipment, to analyze the results from the gamma and beta detectors, and to integrate the results into a format for decision making. Integration is achieved through the creation of a computer program, Radiation Integration Program (RIP). This program analyzes gross beta counts, and uses them to estimate danger to the thyroid. As well the results from Gamma Vision are converted from Bq to dose rate for several parts of the body. Overall gamma results affecting the thyroid are compared to the beta results to verify the initial estimations.

  4. New challenges in nuclear material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlop, W.; Sale, K.; Dougan, A.; Luke, J.; Suski, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Even before the attacks of September 11, 2001 the International Safeguards community recognized the magnitude of the threat posed by illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and the need for enhanced physical protection. For the first time, separate sessions on illicit trafficking and physical protection of nuclear materials were included in the IAEA Safeguards Symposium. In the aftermath of September 11, it is clear that the magnitude of the problem and the urgency with which it must be addressed will be a significant driver for advanced nuclear materials detection technologies for years to come. Trafficking in nuclear material and other radioactive sources is a global concern. According to the IAEA Illicit Trafficking Database Program, there have been confirmed cases in more than 40 countries and the number of cases per year have nearly doubled since 1996. The challenge of combating nuclear terrorism also brings with it many opportunities for the development of new tools and new approaches. In addition to the traditional gamma-ray imaging, spectrometry and neutron interrogation, there is a need for smaller, smarter, more energy-efficient sensors and sensor systems for detecting and tracking threats. These systems go by many names - correlated sensor networks, wide-area tracking systems, sensor or network fabrics - but the concept behind them is the same. Take a number of wireless sensors and tie them together with a communications network, develop a scheme for fusing the data and make the system easy to deploy. This paper will present a brief survey of nuclear materials detection capability, and discuss some advances in research and development that are particularly suited for illicit trafficking, detection of shielded highly enriched uranium, and border security. (author)

  5. Radiation Monitoring - A Key Element in a Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.S.; El-dally, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    For a nuclear power plant, radiation is especially of great concern to the public and the environment. Therefore, a radiation monitoring program is becoming a critical importance. This program covers all phases of the nuclear plant including preoperational, normal operation, accident and decommissioning. The fundamental objective of radiation monitoring program is to ensure that the health and safety of public inside and around the plant and to confirm the radiation doses are below the dose limits for workers and the public. This paper summarizes the environmental radiation monitoring program for a nuclear power plant

  6. The Australian radiation protection and Nuclear Safety Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, D.; Burn, P.; Rubendra, R.

    1998-01-01

    The author talks about the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), the new regulatory authority which will combine the existing resources of the Australian Radiation Laboratory and the Nuclear Safety Bureau. Most uses of radiation in Australia are regulated by State or Territory authorities, but there is presently no regulatory authority for Commonwealth uses of radiation. To provide for regulation of the radiation practices of the Commonwealth, the Australian Government has decided to establish the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) and a Bill has passed through the House of Representatives and will go to the Spring sitting of the Senate. The new agency will subsume the resources and functions of the Nuclear Safety Bureau and the Australian Radiation Laboratory, with additional functions including the regulation of radiation protection and nuclear safety of Commonwealth practices. Another function of ARPANSA will be the promotion of uniform regulatory requirements for radiation protection across Australia. This will be done by developing, in consultation with the States and Territories, radiation health policies and practices for adoption by the Commonwealth, States and Territories. ARPANSA will also provide research and services for radiation health, and in support of the regulatory and uniformity functions. The establishment of ARPANSA will ensure that the proposed replacement research reactor, the future low level radioactive waste repository and other Commonwealth nuclear facilities and radiation practices are subject to a regulatory regime which reflects the accumulated experience of the States and Territories and best international practice, and meets public expectations

  7. Plasmonically enhanced thermomechanical detection of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei; Zhu, Hai; Reed, Jason C; Cubukcu, Ertugrul

    2013-04-10

    Nanoplasmonics has been an attractive area of research due to its ability to localize and manipulate freely propagating radiation on the nanometer scale for strong light-matter interactions. Meanwhile, nanomechanics has set records in the sensing of mass, force, and displacement. In this work, we report efficient coupling between infrared radiation and nanomechanical resonators through nanoantenna enhanced thermoplasmonic effects. Using efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy in this plasmo-thermomechanical platform with a nanoslot plasmonic absorber integrated directly on a nanobeam mechanical resonator, we demonstrate room-temperature detection of nanowatt level power fluctuations in infrared radiation. We expect our approach, which combines nanoplasmonics with nanomechanical resonators, to lead to optically controlled nanomechanical systems enabling unprecedented functionality in biomolecular and toxic gas sensing and on-chip mass spectroscopy.

  8. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  9. Optical fiber applied to radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Francisco A.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Vasconcelos, Danilo C., E-mail: fanbra@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: danilochagas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, the production of optical fibers cables has make possible the development of a range of spectroscopic probes for in situ analysis performing beyond nondestructive tests, environmental monitoring, security investigation, application in radiotherapy for dose monitoring, verification and validation. In this work, a system using an optical fiber cable to light signal transmission from a NaI(Tl) radiation detector is presented. The innovative device takes advantage mainly of the optical fibers small signal attenuation and immunity to electromagnetic interference to application for radiation detection systems. The main aim was to simplify the detection system making it to reach areas where the conventional device cannot access due to its lack of mobility and external dimensions. Some tests with this innovative system are presented and the results stimulate the continuity of the researches. (author)

  10. Detection of radiation processing in onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchacek, V.

    1985-01-01

    Two breeds of onions were used for irradiation. Both breeds were divided into two parts - the first was irradiated with a dose of 80 Gy and the second served as a control. The two parts were stored under the same conditions. Conductometry, liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry were used for detecting the radiation processing of the onions. Only from the spectrophotometric determination of 2-desoxysaccharides it was possible to safely distinguish irradiated onions from non-irradiated controls throughout storage time. (E.S.)

  11. Multichannel Digital Emulator of Radiation Detection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abba, A.; Caponio, F.; Geraci, A.

    2013-06-01

    A digital system for emulating in real time signals from generic setups for radiation detection is presented. The instrument is not a pulse generator of recorded shapes but a synthesizer of random pulses compliant to programmable statistics for energy and occurrence time. Completely programmable procedures for emulation of noise, disturbances and reference level variation can be implemented. The instrument has been realized and fully tested. (authors)

  12. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, U.C. E-mail: ucmishra@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a

  13. Regulation of nuclear radiation exposures in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    India has a long-term program of wide spread applications of nuclear radiations and radioactive sources for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and research and is already having several thousand places in the country where such sources are being routinely used. These places are mostly outside the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) installations. DAE supplies such sources. The most important application of nuclear energy in DAE is in electricity generation through nuclear power plants. Fourteen such plants are operating and many new plants are at various stages of construction. In view of the above mentioned wide spread applications, Indian parliament through an Act, called Atomic Energy Act, 1964 created an autonomous body called Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) with comprehensive authority and powers. This Board issues codes, guides, manuals, etc., to regulate such installations so as to ensure safe use of such sources and personnel engaged in such installations and environment receives radiation exposures within the upper bounds prescribed by them. Periodic reports are submitted to AERB to demonstrate compliance of its directives. Health, Safety and Environment Group of Bhabha Atomic Research Centres, Mumbai carries out necessary surveillance and monitoring of all installations of the DAE on a routine basis and also periodic inspections of other installations using radiation sources. Some of the nuclear fuel cycle plants like nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing involve large radioactive source inventories and have potential of accidental release of radio activity into the environment, an Environmental Surveillance Laboratory (ESL) is set up at each such site much before the facility goes into operation. These ESL's collect baseline data and monitor the environment throughout the life of the facilities including the de- commissioning stage. The data is provided to AERB and is available to members of the public. In addition, a multi

  14. New radiological material detection technologies for nuclear forensics: Remote optical imaging and graphene-based sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Richard Karl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Jeffrey B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiemann, Dora K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choi, Junoh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We developed new detector technologies to identify the presence of radioactive materials for nuclear forensics applications. First, we investigated an optical radiation detection technique based on imaging nitrogen fluorescence excited by ionizing radiation. We demonstrated optical detection in air under indoor and outdoor conditions for alpha particles and gamma radiation at distances up to 75 meters. We also contributed to the development of next generation systems and concepts that could enable remote detection at distances greater than 1 km, and originated a concept that could enable daytime operation of the technique. A second area of research was the development of room-temperature graphene-based sensors for radiation detection and measurement. In this project, we observed tunable optical and charged particle detection, and developed improved devices. With further development, the advancements described in this report could enable new capabilities for nuclear forensics applications.

  15. ITRAP. Illicit trafficking radiation detection assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    2001-02-01

    Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials (nuclear criminality) has become more and more a problem, due to the circulation of the a high number of radioactive sources and the big amount of nuclear material, particularly, caused by the changes of the organisational infrastructures to supervise these material within the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The IAEA data base counts at present more than 300 verified cases. The endangering cased thereby ranges from possible health defect for the publication to terrorists activities and production of nuclear weapons. In addition to the primary criminal reasons the illegal deposal of radioactive sources as salvage, scrap and others show a further problem, which has lead to severe accidents and lethal effects in the past (e.g. Goiana, Mexiko). As the study ITRAP (Illicit Trafficking Radiation Assessment Program) can show, also in Austria the cases of partly considerable contaminated scrap transports from neighbouring countries exists. Some countries have already under taken countermeasures (e.g. Monitoring at the Finnish-Russian and German-Polish border, border monitoring in Italy). The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reacted on this actual problem by setting up a new program to fight against nuclear criminality and has suggested a pilot study for the practical test of border monitoring systems. Aim of the study was to work out the technical requirements and the practicability of an useful monitoring system at border crossings. The results of the study will be offered by the IAEA to the member states as international recommendations for border monitoring systems. (author)

  16. Practical methods for radiation survey in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.

    2001-12-01

    This study is placed to those who are responsible to perform radiation survey in the nuclear installations, especially the beginners. Therefore, it gives a comprehensive view to all-important aspects related to their work starting from the structure of atoms to the practical steps for radiation survey works. So, it clarify how to perform personal monitoring, methods for monitoring surface contamination, methods for measuring radioactivity of gases and radioactive aerosols in air, monitoring radiation doses, measuring radiation influences in workplaces and finally measuring internal exposure of radiation workers in nuclear installations. Finally, The study shows some cases of breaches of radiation protection rules in some American nuclear installations and describes the final results of these breaches. The aim of this is to assure that any breach or ignore to radiation protection principles may produce bad results, and there is no leniency in implementing environmental radiation protection principles. (author)

  17. Internal radiation dose in diagnostic nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedler, H D; Kaul, A; Hine, G J

    1978-01-01

    Absorbed dose values per unit administered activity for the most frequently used radipharmaceuticals and methods were calculated according to the MIRD concept or compiled from literature and were tabulated in conventional as well as in the SI-units recently introduced. The data are given for critical or investigated organs, ovaries, testes and red bone marrow. Where available, dose values for newborns, infants and children are included. Additionally, mean values of administered activity are listed. The manner in which to estimate the radiation dose to the patient is to multiply the tabulated dose values per unit administered activity with the corresponding mean or the actually administered activity. The methods are arranged in correlation with the following nuclear medical subspecialities: 1. Endocrinology 2. Neurology, 3. Osteomyology, 4. Gastroenterology, 5. Nephrology, 6. Pulmonology, 7. Hematology, 8. Cardiology/Angiology.

  18. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  19. The new law on radiation and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niittylae, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Law on Nuclear Energy, which entered into force in 1988, controls the use of nuclear power. The new Law on Radiation is under consideration in the Parliament. The internationally approved main principles on radiation protection are the basis of the law. In the article, these principles and the contents of the law are described

  20. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10 3 to 10 6 years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references

  1. Acoustic leak detection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    For several years now, utilities have been utilizing acoustic leak detection methods as an operating tool in their nuclear power stations. The purpose for using the leak detection system at the various stations vary from safety, ALARA, improved operations, preventive maintenance, or increased plant availability. This paper describes the various acoustic techniques and their application. The techniques are divided into three categories: specific component leakage, intersystem leakage, and pipe through-wall crack leakage. The paper addresses each category in terms of motivation to monitor, method of application and operation, and benefits to be gained. Current requirements are reviewed and analyzed with respect to the acoustic techniques. The paper shows how acoustic leak detection is one of the most effective leak detection tools available. 9 figures, 1 table

  2. Principles of radiation interaction in matter and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The fourth edition of this book has been widely revised. It includes additional chapters and some sections are complemented with either new ones or an extension of their content. In this latest edition a complete treatment of the physics and properties of semiconductors is presented, covering transport phenomena in semiconductors, scattering mechanisms, radiation effects and displacement damages. Furthermore, this edition presents a comprehensive treatment of the Coulomb scattering on screened nuclear potentials resulting from electrons, protons, light- and heavy-ions — ranging from (very) low up to ultra-relativistic kinetic energies — and allowing one to derive the corresponding NIEL (non-ionizing energy-loss) doses deposited in any material. The contents are organized into two parts: Chapters 1 to 7 cover Particle Interactions and Displacement Damage while the remaining chapters focus on Radiation Environments and Particle Detection. This book can serve as reference for graduate students and final-y...

  3. Radiation safety in nuclear industry in retrospect and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1993-01-01

    More than 30 years have passed since the starting up of nuclear industry in China from the early 1950's. Over the past 30-odd years, nuclear industry has always kept a good record in China thanks to the policy of 'quality first, safety first' clearly put forward for nuclear industry from the outset and a lot of suitable effective measures taken over that period. Internationally, there is rapid progress in radiation protection and nuclear safety (hereafter refereed to as radiation safety) and a number of new concepts in the field of radiation protection have been advanced. Nuclear industry is developing based on the international standardization. To ensure the further development of nuclear utility, radiation safety needs to be further strengthened

  4. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R [comp.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection, including aspects of radiobiology, nuclear medicine, and nuclear legislation, has an important role within nuclear research and the use of radioactive materials. Radiation protection comprises all measures and efforts to prevent the unwanted distribution and negative influence of ionizing radiation, especially where the human organism and the living environment are involved. The increasing role of radiation protection is reflected by the foundation of institutes in all industrial countries to control such radiant energy and prevent radiation damage. Nowadays ionizing radiation is employed on a large scale for basic investigations in biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, in soil tests, fertilization problems and pest control in agriculture, as well as for medicinal diagnoses and therapy. This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language 'Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering', compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language.

  5. Dictionary of radiation protection, radiobiology and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sube, R.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation protection, including aspects of radiobiology, nuclear medicine, and nuclear legislation, has an important role within nuclear research and the use of radioactive materials. Radiation protection comprises all measures and efforts to prevent the unwanted distribution and negative influence of ionizing radiation, especially where the human organism and the living environment are involved. The increasing role of radiation protection is reflected by the foundation of institutes in all industrial countries to control such radiant energy and prevent radiation damage. Nowadays ionizing radiation is employed on a large scale for basic investigations in biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, in soil tests, fertilization problems and pest control in agriculture, as well as for medicinal diagnoses and therapy. This dictionary is a thematic enlargement of the four-language 'Dictionary of Nuclear Engineering', compiled by the same author. It comprises about 12,000 terms in each language. (orig.)

  6. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W [Pittsburg, CA; Labov, Simon E [Berkeley, CA

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  7. GPU Nuclear Corporation's radiation exposure management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodien, M.J.; Bovino, A.A.; Perry, O.R.; Hildebrand, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corporation has developed a central main frame (IBM 3081) based radiation exposure management system which provides real time and batch transactions for three separate reactor facilities. The structure and function of the data base are discussed. The system's main features include real time on-line radiation work permit generation and personnel exposure tracking; dose accountability as a function of system and component, job type, worker classification, and work location; and personnel dosemeter (TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeters) data processing. The system also carries the qualifications of all radiation workers including RWP training, respiratory protection training, results of respirator fit tests and medical exams. A warning system is used to prevent non-qualified persons from entering controlled areas. The main frame system is interfaced with a variety of mini and micro computer systems for dosemetry, statistical and graphics applications. These are discussed. Some unique dosemetry features which are discussed include assessment of dose for up to 140 parts of the body with dose evaluations at 7,300 and 1000 mg/cm 2 for each part, tracking of MPC hours on a 7 day rolling schedule; automatic pairing of TLD and self-reading pocket dosemeter values, creation and updating of NRC Forms 4 and 5, generation of NRC required 20.407 and Reg Guide 1.16 reports. As of July 1983, over 20 remote on-line stations were in use with plans to add 20-30 more by May 1984. The system provides response times for on-line activities of 2-7 seconds and 23 1/2 hours per day ''up time''. Examples of the various on-line and batch transactions are described

  8. Guideline on radiation protection requirements for ionizing radiation shielding in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The guideline which entered into force on 1 May 1988 stipulates the radiation protection requirements for shielding against ionizing radiation to be met in the design, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  9. Nuclear energy and radiation protection law: no. 14 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The full text of Jordan's Nuclear Energy and Radiation Protection Law, no. 14 1987. The law's 39 articles govern all aspects organizing the utilization of nuclear energy and radiation protection activities in the country; including terms and conditions for licensing activities and personnel, and the import, export, and disposal of radioactive sources. The law establishes for the purpose of implementing its regulations, a consultative technical committee and a radiation protection board, both in the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources

  10. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Light scalar fields can drive accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, scalars are obvious dark energy candidates. To make these models compatible with test of General Relativity in the solar system and fifth force searches on earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the chameleon mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local energy density. If chameleons exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth through their radiation pressure. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the sensitivity of an experiment to be carried out at CAST, CERN, utilizing a radiation pressure sensor currently under development at INFN, Trieste. We show that such an experiment will be sensitive to a wide range of model parameters and signifies a pioneering effort searching for chameleons in unprobed paramterspace.

  11. Nuclear science in the 20th century. Radiation chemistry and radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Tao; Xu Furong; Zheng Chunkai

    2003-01-01

    The application of nuclear science and technology to chemistry has led to two important subjects, radiation chemistry and radiation processing, which are playing important roles in many aspects of science and society. We review the development and major applications of radiation chemistry and radiation processing, including the basic physical and chemical mechanisms involved

  12. Genetical effects of radiations from products of nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiers, F W

    1955-01-01

    Relative radiation dose-rates to man and to Drosophila are discussed. Data previously presented by Prof. J.B.S. Haldane on the genetical effects of radiation resulting from nuclear explosions are reviewed. A reply from Prof. Haldane presents revised calculations of radiation dose rates.

  13. Nuclear safety and radiation protection in the German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitzlack, G.; Scheel, H.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation protection organization in the GDR is outlined laying emphasis on the tasks of the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. In addition to the basic tasks, the various forms of radiation protection monitoring, the management of radioactive wastes, and international responsibilities are briefly explained. (author)

  14. Standoff alpha radiation detection for hot cell imaging and crime scene investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Thomas; Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Nicholl, Adrian; Hrnecek, Erich; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the remote detection of alpha contamination in a nuclear facility. Alpha-active material in a shielded nuclear radiation containment chamber has been localized by optical means. Furthermore, sources of radiation danger have been identified in a staged crime scene setting. For this purpose, an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera was used to capture photons generated by alpha-induced air scintillation (radioluminescence). The detected radioluminescence was superimposed with a regular photograph to reveal the origin of the light and thereby the alpha radioactive material. The experimental results show that standoff detection of alpha contamination is a viable tool in radiation threat detection. Furthermore, the radioluminescence spectrum in the air is spectrally analyzed. Possibilities of camera-based alpha threat detection under various background lighting conditions are discussed.

  15. Pencil-shaped radiation detection ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.

    1979-01-01

    A radiation detection ionization chamber is described. It consists of an elongated cylindrical pencil-shaped tubing forming an outer wall of the chamber and a center electrode disposed along the major axis of the tubing. The length of the chamber is substantially greater than the diameter. A cable connecting portion at one end of the chamber is provided for connecting the chamber to a triaxial cable. An end support portion is connected at the other end of the chamber for supporting and tensioning the center electrode. 17 claims

  16. Detection of nuclear material by photon activation inside cargo containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, Mehdi; Berthoumieux, Eric; Boyer, Sébastien; Carrel, Frédérick; Doré, Diane; Giacri, Marie-Laure; Lainé, Frédéric; Poumarède, Bénédicte; Ridikas, Danas; Van Lauwe, Aymeric

    2006-05-01

    Photons with energies above 6 MeV can be used to detect small amounts of nuclear material inside large cargo containers. The method consists in using an intense beam of high-energy photons (bremsstrahlung radiation) in order to induce reactions of photofission on actinides. The measurement of delayed neutrons and delayed gammas emitted by fission products brings specific information on localization and quantification of the nuclear material. A simultaneous measurement of both of these delayed signals can overcome some important limitations due to matrix effects like heavy shielding and/or the presence of light elements as hydrogen. We have a long experience in the field of nuclear waste package characterization by photon interrogation and we have demonstrated that presently the detection limit can be less than one gram of actinide per ton of package. Recently we tried to extend our knowledge to assess the performance of this method for the detection of special nuclear materials in sea and air freights. This paper presents our first results based on experimental measurements carried out in the SAPHIR facility, which houses a linear electron accelerator with the energy range from 15 MeV to 30 MeV. Our experiments were also modeled using the full scale Monte Carlo techniques. In addition, and in a more general frame, due to the lack of consistent data on photonuclear reactions, we have been working on the development of a new photonuclear activation file (PAF), which includes cross sections for more than 600 isotopes including photofission fragment distributions and delayed neutron tables for actinides. Therefore, this work includes also some experimental results obtained at the ELSA electron accelerator, which is more adapted for precise basic nuclear data measurements.

  17. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Baum, S.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Karuza, M.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Upadhye, A.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-10-24

    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary re...

  18. A radiation monitoring system model for the Laguna Verde nuclear power training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, M.H.; DeAlbornoz, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    A model for the Radiation Monitoring System of the Laguna Verde Boiling Water Reactor training simulator is presented. This model comprises enough definitions to assure interactions with the processes related, directly or indirectly, with the transport of radioisotopes. It is capable of following a dynamic behavior of the plant so an operator could be trained to become aware of nuclear radiation hazards. The model is composed of three parts: the electronics for the Process and Area Radiation Monitoring System; a lumped parameter transport model for the most representative radioisotopes; and the interactions with the modeled processes as well as with process not being simulated. The first part represents the radiation monitor controls in the vertical board panels of the nuclear station. The second part allows the carrying of nuclear isotopes between processes. The third part defines the way that the process interacts with the electronics at the point of release to environment or the point of detection. Each part of the model has been tested individually, and the transport model has been incorporated as a part of each process required to simulate nuclear radiation. The model parameters has been calculated using typical BWR nuclear radiation data, and Laguna Verde heat balance data at 100% design power. However, tunning will be necessary once the Simulator is integrated and tested. The tunning allows each detecting channel to behave as expected

  19. A Method for Improving Reliability of Radiation Detection using Deep Learning Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hojong; Kim, Tae-Ho; Han, Byunghun; Kim, Hyunduk; Kim, Ki-duk

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is essential technology for overall field of radiation and nuclear engineering. Previously, technology for radiation detection composes of preparation of the table of the input spectrum to output spectrum in advance, which requires simulation of numerous predicted output spectrum with simulation using parameters modeling the spectrum. In this paper, we propose new technique to improve the performance of radiation detector. The software in the radiation detector has been stagnant for a while with possible intrinsic error of simulation. In the proposed method, to predict the input source using output spectrum measured by radiation detector is performed using deep neural network. With highly complex model, we expect that the complex pattern between data and the label can be captured well. Furthermore, the radiation detector should be calibrated regularly and beforehand. We propose a method to calibrate radiation detector using GAN. We hope that the power of deep learning may also reach to radiation detectors and make huge improvement on the field. Using improved radiation detector, the reliability of detection would be confident, and there are many tasks remaining to solve using deep learning in nuclear engineering society.

  20. Radiation protection databases of nuclear safety regulatory authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation protection and nuclear safety of nuclear installations have a common objective, protection against ionising radiation. The operational safety of a nuclear power plant is evaluated using performance indicators as for instance collective radiation exposure, unit capability factor, unplanned capability loss factor, etc. As stated by WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) the performance indicators are 'a management tool so each operator can monitor its own performance and progress, set challenging goals for improvement and consistently compare performance with that of other plants or industry'. In order to make the analysis of the performance indicators feasible to an operator as well as to regulatory authorities a suitable database should be created based on the data related to a facility or facilities. Moreover, the international bodies found out that the comparison of radiation protection in nuclear facilities in different countries could be feasible only if the databases with well defined parameters are established. The article will briefly describe the development of international databases regarding radiation protection related to nuclear facilities. The issues related to the possible development of the efficient radiation protection control of a nuclear facility based on experience of the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration will be presented. (author)

  1. Basic radiation effects in nuclear power electronics technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gover, J.E.; Srour, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    An overview is presented of the effects of radiation in microelectronics technology. The approach taken throughout these notes is to review microscopic phenomena associated with radiation effects and to show how these lead to macroscopic effects in semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Bipolar integrated circuits technology is reviewed in Appendix A. Appendix B gives present and future applications of radiation-tolerant microelectronics in nuclear power applications as well as the radiation tolerance requirements of these applications

  2. Conception and activity directions of journal ''Nuclear and radiation safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olena, M.; Volodymyr, S.

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the State Scientific and Technical Centre onr Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SSTC NRA) and Odessa State Polytechnic University the journal 'Nuclear and Radiation Safety' was established in 1998. In Ukraine many people are interested in nuclear energy problems. The accident in Chernobyl NPP unit 4 touches all Ukrainians and brings about strong and regular attention to nuclear and radiation safety of nuclear installations and nuclear technology, on the other side more than 50 per cent of electric power is produced in 5 NPPs and as following national power supply depends on stability of NPPs work. Main goals of the journal are: Support to Nuclear Regulatory Administration (NRA) of MEPNS of Ukraine, creation of information space for effective exchange of results of scientific, scientific and technical, scientific and analytical work in the field of Nuclear and Radiation Safety, assistance in integrated development of research for Nuclear and Radiation Safety by publication in a single issue of scientific articles, involvement of state scientific potential in resolving actual problems, participation in international collaboration in the framework of agreements, programs and plans. (orig.)

  3. Organization of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretre, S.

    1995-01-01

    In Switzerland an important distinction is made between radiation protection (in charge of the use of ionizing radiations for medical uses or non nuclear industry), and nuclear safety (in charge of nuclear industry, including prevention or limitation of any risk of nuclear accident). In the eighties, it has been decided to make two laws for these two topics. The law for radioprotection, voted in 1991 is enforced since 1994 by OFSP (Office Federal de la Sante Publique). It performs any radiation monitoring outside nuclear industry plants. The law for nuclear safety, that should be enforced by OFEN (Office Federal de l'ENergie), is still not voted. The only existing legislation is the 1959 atomic law. (D.L.). 1 fig., 1 map

  4. Radiation protection problems by diagnostic procedures of pediatric nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kletter, K.

    1994-01-01

    Special dosimetry considerations are necessary in the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. The influence of differences in irradiation geometry and biokinetic parameters on the radiation dose in children and adults is discussed. Assuming an equal activity concentration, both factors lead rather to a reduced radiation dose than an increased radiation burden in children compared to adults. However, the same radiation dose in children and adults may lead to a different detriment. This is explained by differences in life expectancy and radiation sensitivity for both groups. From special formulas an age dependent reduction factor can be calculated for the application of radiopharmaceuticals in pediatric nuclear medicine. Radiation exposure to hospital staff and parents from children, undergoing nuclear medicine diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, is low. (author)

  5. Distributing radiation management system of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihoya, Eiichi; Akashi, Michio

    1999-01-01

    The importance of radiation management for nuclear facilities including nuclear power plants has increased as the general public understanding has progressed, and necessary information for management must be processed exactly and quickly. In nuclear power plants, radiation management is performed by each individual operation, and collected information is managed by the system of each operation. The distributing radiation management system has been developed aiming to use a general-purpose LAN and make quick and efficient use of information managed by individual operations. This paper describes the system configuration and functions. (author)

  6. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  7. Nuclear and radiation applications in industry: Tools for innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Iyer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Applications of nuclear and radiation technologies have been contributing to industrial efficiency, energy conservation, and environmental protection for many years. Some of these are: Manufacturing industries: Radiation processing technologies are playing increasing roles during manufacturing of such everyday products as wire and cable, automobile tires, plastic films and sheets, and surface materials. Production processes: Other techniques employing radioisotope gauges are indispensable for on-line thickness measurements during paper, plastic, and steel plate production. Processing and quality checks are made using nucleonic control systems that are common features of industrial production lines. Sterilization of medical products using electron beam accelerators or cobalt-60 radiation is better than the conventional methods. Industrial safety and product quality: Non-destructive examination or testing using gamma- or X-ray radiography is widely used for checking welds, casting, machinery, and ceramics to ensure quality and safety. Additionally, radiotracer techniques are unique tools for the optimization of chemical processes in reactors, leakage detection, and wear and corrosion studies, for example. Environmental protection: An innovative technology using electron beams to simultaneously remove sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) has been under development. The electron beam technology is very cost competitive and its byproduct can be used as agricultural fertilizer

  8. Acoustic valve leak detection in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmick, J.G.; Dickey, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Internal valve leakage is a hidden energy loss and can cause or prolong a forced outage. Recent advances in acoustic detection of internal valve leakage have reduced piping system maintenance costs, unnecessary downtime, and energy waste. Extremely short payback periods have been reported by plants applying this technology to preventive maintenance, troubleshooting, energy conservation and outage planning. Sensors temporarily attached to the outside of valves and connected to the instruments detect ultrasonic acoustic emissions which are characteristic of internal valve leakage. Since the sensors are attached to the outside of the valves, the time and expense of dismantling the valves or removing them from the systems are eliminated. This paper describes the instrumentation and specific applications to nuclear plant valves, including independent verification of initial findings. Guidelines for potential users, including instrumentation selection, training requirements, application planning, and the choice of in-house versus contract services are discussed

  9. History of radiation and nuclear disasters in the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    The report describes the history of radiation and nuclear accidents in the former USSR. These accidents accompanied development of military and civilian use of nuclear energy. Some of them as testing of the first Soviet nuclear, Kyshtym radiation accident, radiation contamination of the Karachai lake and the Techa river, nuclear accidents at the Soviet submarine on August 10, 1985 in the Chazhma Bay (near Vladivostok) as well as nuclear accidents on April 26, 1986 at the Chernobyl NPP were of large scale causing significant radiological problems for many hundreds thousands of people. There were a number of important reasons of these and other accidents. The most important among them were time pressure by development of nuclear weapon, an absence of required financial and material means for adequate management of problems of nuclear and radiation safety, and inadequate understanding of harmful interaction of ionizing radiation on organism as well as a hypersecrecy by realization of projects of military and civilian use of nuclear energy in the former USSR. (author)

  10. Safeguards: Modelling of the Detection and Characterization of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enqvist, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards is a collective term for the tools and methods needed to ensure nonproliferation and safety in connection to utilization of nuclear materials. It encompasses a variety of concepts from legislation to measurement equipment. The objective of this thesis is to present a number of research results related to nuclear materials control and accountability, especially the area of nondestructive assay. Physical aspects of nuclear materials are often the same as for materials encountered in everyday life. One special aspect though is that nuclear materials also emit radiation allowing them to be qualitatively and quantitatively measured without direct interaction with the material. For the successful assay of the material, the particle generation and detection needs to be well understood, and verified with measurements, simulations and models. Four topics of research are included in the thesis. First the generation and multiplication of neutrons and gamma rays in a fissile multiplying sample is treated. The formalism used enables investigation of the number of generated, absorbed and detected particles, offering understanding of the different processes involved. Secondly, the issue of relating the coincident detector signals, generated by both neutrons and gamma rays, to sample parameters is dealt with. Fission rate depends directly on the sample mass, while parameters such as neutron generation by alpha decay and neutron leakage multiplication are parameters that depend on the size, composition and geometry of the sample. Artificial neural networks are utilized to solve the inverse problem of finding sample characteristics from the measured rates of particle multiples. In the third part the interactions between neutrons and organic scintillation detectors are treated. The detector material consists of hydrogen and carbon, on which the neutrons scatter and transfer energy. The problem shares many characteristics with the area of neutron moderation found in

  11. Detecting nuclear materials smuggling: performance evaluation of container inspection policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukler, Gary M; Li, Chenhua; Ding, Yu; Chirayath, Sunil S

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the United States, along with many other countries, has significantly increased its detection and defense mechanisms against terrorist attacks. A potential attack with a nuclear weapon, using nuclear materials smuggled into the country, has been identified as a particularly grave threat. The system for detecting illicit nuclear materials that is currently in place at U.S. ports of entry relies heavily on passive radiation detectors and a risk-scoring approach using the automated targeting system (ATS). In this article we analyze this existing inspection system and demonstrate its performance for several smuggling scenarios. We provide evidence that the current inspection system is inherently incapable of reliably detecting sophisticated smuggling attempts that use small quantities of well-shielded nuclear material. To counter the weaknesses of the current ATS-based inspection system, we propose two new inspection systems: the hardness control system (HCS) and the hybrid inspection system (HYB). The HCS uses radiography information to classify incoming containers based on their cargo content into "hard" or "soft" containers, which then go through different inspection treatment. The HYB combines the radiography information with the intelligence information from the ATS. We compare and contrast the relative performance of these two new inspection systems with the existing ATS-based system. Our studies indicate that the HCS and HYB policies outperform the ATS-based policy for a wide range of realistic smuggling scenarios. We also examine the impact of changes in adversary behavior on the new inspection systems and find that they effectively preclude strategic gaming behavior of the adversary. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Radiation-related impacts for nuclear plant physical modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Knudson, R.; Simion, G.; Baca, G.; Behling, H.; Behling, K.; Britz, W.; Cohen, S.

    1989-10-01

    The radiation fields in nuclear power plants present significant obstacles to accomplishing repairs and modifications to many systems and components in these plants. The NRC's generic cost estimating methodology attempts to account for radiation-related impacts by assigning values to the radiation labor productivity factor. This radiation labor productivity factor is then used as a multiplier on the greenfield or new nuclear plant construction labor to adjust for the actual operating plant conditions. The value assigned to the productivity factor is based on the work-site radiation levels. The relationship among ALARA practices, work-place radiation levels, and radiation-related cost impacts previously had not been adequately characterized or verified. The assumptions made concerning the use and application of radiation-reduction measures such as system decontamination and/or the use of temporary shielding can significantly impact estimates of both labor requirements and radiation exposure associated with a particular activity. Overall guidance was needed for analysts as to typical ALARA practices at nuclear power plants and the effects of these practices in reducing work-site dose rates and overall labor requirements. This effort was undertaken to better characterize the physical modification cost and radiological exposure impacts related to the radiation environment of the work place. More specifically, this work sought to define and clarify the quantitative relationships between or among: radiation levels and ALARA practices, such as the use of temporary shielding, decontamination efforts, or the use of robots and remote tools; radiation levels and labor productivity factors; radiation levels, in-field labor hours, and worker radiation exposure; radiation levels and health physics services costs; and radiation levels, labor hours, and anti-contamination clothing and equipment. 48 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...

  14. Requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The requirements of radiation protection and safety for nuclear medicine services are established. The norms is applied to activities related to the radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutics and 'in vivo' diagnostics purposes. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. The design of intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yan; Fang Zongliang; Wen Qilin; Li Lirong; Hu Jiewei; Peng Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduced an intelligentized nuclear radiation monitoring detector. The detector contains GM tubes, high voltage power supply and MCU circuit. The detector connect terminal via reformative serial port to provide power, accept the data and sent the command. (authors)

  16. A nuclear radiation multi-parameter measurement system based on pulse-shape sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Xiaolin; Fang Guoming; Xu Peng; Di Yuming

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, A nuclear radiation multi-parameter measurement system based on pulse-shape sampling is introduced, including the system's characteristics, composition, operating principle, experiment data and analysis. Compared with conventional nuclear measuring apparatus, it has some remarkable advantages such as the synchronous detection using multi-parameter measurement in the same measurement platform and the general analysis of signal data by user-defined program. (authors)

  17. Verifying a nuclear weapon`s response to radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, F.F.; Barrett, W.H.

    1998-05-01

    The process described in the paper is being applied as part of the design verification of a replacement component designed for a nuclear weapon currently in the active stockpile. This process is an adaptation of the process successfully used in nuclear weapon development programs. The verification process concentrates on evaluating system response to radiation environments, verifying system performance during and after exposure to radiation environments, and assessing system survivability.

  18. Introduction to symposium 'radiation protection at nuclear facilities'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, L.

    1996-01-01

    An introduction to the symposium 'radiation protection of nuclear facilities' on Wednesday, April 17, 1996 in Vienna has been given. The number of operating reactors and the total collective dose per reactor in OECD countries has been discussed. The evolution of the total collective dose associated with the replacement of steam generators at nuclear power reactors from 1979 to 1995 is presented. The background and culture of radiation protection, regulatory aspects, strategic formulation, plan management policy and organization responsibilities are discussed generally. (Suda)

  19. Project and construction of a measurement system and nuclear radiations analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R. B. de.

    1983-01-01

    A counting system was designed and built, aiming to: detect and measure nuclear radiations using a Geiger-Mueller counter; and to measure the amplitudes of pulses from either a proportional or a NaI detector. The results obtained of the Cs-137 and Co-60 energy spectra were compared with results obtained from other researches. (Author) [pt

  20. INSAG's ongoing work on nuclear, radiation and waste safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) is an advisory group to the Director General of the IAEA. It identifies current nuclear safety issues, draws conclusions from its analyses and gives advice on those issues. INSAG is currently working on four documents: a complete revision of INSAG-3, the classical paper on safety principles for nuclear plants, published in 1988; 'Safety Management', the effective system for the management of operational strategy; 'Safe Management of the Life Cycle of Nuclear Power Plants'; and the fourth document in preparation entitled 'The Safe Management of Sources of Radiation: Principles and Strategies'. The fourth document is aimed primarily at political decision makers who have no knowledge of radiation safety or of nuclear matters generally but are called upon to make important decisions in this field. INSAG has attempted to present them with a 'unified doctrine' of the management of all radiation sources, even though, for historical reasons radiation protection and nuclear safety have evolved largely independently of each other. The major conclusion to be drawn from the paper is that a systematic application of protection and safety principles, and of appropriate strategies, goes a long way towards ensuring the safe management of technologies involving radiation. Furthermore, the management of sources of radiation could benefit from the experience accumulated in other industries facing comparable challenges

  1. Concrete alkali-silica reaction and nuclear radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneki

    2008-01-01

    The deterioration of concrete by alkali-silica reaction of aggregates (ASR) and the effect of nuclear radiations on the ASR have been reviewed based on our studies on the mechanism of ASR and the effect of nuclear radiations on the resistivity of minerals to alkaline solution. It has been found that the ASR is initiated by the attack of alkaline solution in concrete to silicious aggregates to convert them into hydrated alkali silicate. The consumption of alkali hydroxide by the aggregates induces the dissolution of Ca 2+ ions into the solution. The alkali silicate surrounding the aggregates then reacts with Ca 2+ ions to convert to insoluble tight and rigid reaction rims. The reaction rim allows the penetration of alkaline solution but prevents the leakage of viscous alkali silicate, so that alkali silicate generated afterward is accumulated in the aggregate to give an expansive pressure enough for cracking the aggregate and the surrounding concrete. The effect of nuclear radiation on the reactivity of quartz and plagioclase, a part of major minerals composing volcanic rocks as popular aggregates, to alkaline solution has been examined for clarifying whether nuclear radiations accelerates the ASR. It has been found that the irradiation of these minerals converts them into alkali-reactive amorphous ones. The radiation dose for plagioclase is as low as 10 8 Gy, which suggests that the ASR of concrete surrounding nuclear reactors is possible to be accelerated by nuclear radiation. (author)

  2. Licensing authority's control of radiation sources and nuclear materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is the national licensing authority and among its responsibilities is the control of nuclear materials and radiation sources. This control is carried out in three different ways: 1) Control of the import and export of nuclear materials and radiation sources. To be able to import or export any nuclear material or radiation source, the user has to have an explicit permission of the licensing authority. This is controlled by electronic means in which the user has to fill a special form found on the licensing authority's home page, where he has to fill in his name, license number, license number of his radiation protection officer and data of the material to be imported or exported. These data are checked with a data base that contains all the information of the licensed users and qualified personnel before authorization is emitted. The airport authorities have already installed x-ray machines to check all baggages entering or leaving the country. 2) Transport and transfer permit for radiation sources. In order to transport and/or transfer radiations sources and nuclear materials within the country, the user(s) have to submit an application to the licensing authority. The user(s) fill out an application form where he fills in his company's name, licensing I.D., radiation protection officer's name and I.D and identification of the sources involved. These information are checked with the licensing operations data before the operations is permitted. 3) Inspections and radiation monitoring systems. Routine and regulatory inspections are continuously carried out where the user's radiation sources and nuclear materials inventory are checked. Also the physical security and protection of these materials are verified. The installation of monitoring systems is an item that is being discussed with the airport authorities so as to increase the possibilities of detecting any illegal transport of these materials. (author)

  3. Radiation detection and measurement concepts, methods and devices

    CERN Document Server

    McGregor, Douglas

    2019-01-01

    This text on radiation detection and measurement is a response to numerous requests expressed by students at various universities, in which the most popularly used books do not provide adequate background material, nor explain matters in understandable terms. This work provides a modern overview of radiation detection devices and radiation measurement methods. The topics selected in the book have been selected on the basis of the author’s many years of experience designing radiation detectors and teaching radiation detection and measurement in a classroom environment.

  4. Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection in Europe - a common approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, the European Union has adopted directives and implemented other measures which form the basis of a common approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection across all Member States. In particular, there are EU directives setting out radiation protection standards and establishing a Community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear installations. There are also arrangements in place to provide for an effective response to nuclear emergencies and to facilitate high quality research into nuclear and radiation protection related topics. Inevitably the stage of development in each area is somewhat different, but generally progress is ongoing in each area. From the point of view of a small country like Ireland, the development of common standards and arrangements across Europe is beneficial as they are based on the best available knowledge and expertise; they provide for greater transparency; they facilitate public confidence and make best use of the available resources. However, there are some areas in which common approaches could be further advanced. For example, the medical exposure of patients is increasingly of concern across Europe and the further development of common approaches in this area would be helpful. It would also be useful to develop a more integrated approach to nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation and to better integrate nuclear and radiation issues with other public health and environment concerns. (author)

  5. Portable apparatus for measurement of nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus described is stated to be particularly applicable to the measurement of tritium contamination of a surface, although it may have other applications to the determination of radioactivity on surfaces. The mean range of a tritium β particle in air at normal atmospheric pressure is only 1.5 mm. and when monitoring such radiation with the apparatus it is necessary to exclude light. The apparatus comprises a plastic scintillator sheet located in the base of a housing, with a sealing ring mounted in the base so as to make a hermetic and light-tight seal between a support surface and the base of the housing. Photomultiplier means are optically coupled to the scintillator sheet to detect and amplify the scintillations, and a pump device is provided to reduce the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet to below atmospheric pressure. The scintillator sheet and the photomultiplier means are movable as one unit within the housing, the unit being arranged to be acted upon by atmospheric pressure so as to move the unit into an operative position against a spring when the air pressure in the vicinity of the sheet is reduced to below atmospheric pressure. A shutter is provided to prevent exposure of the scintillator sheet to light when the apparatus is not in use. (U.K.)

  6. Education in radiation, radioactivity, and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, I.; Wohrizek, J.; Donev, J., E-mail: Isaac.faubert@gmail.com [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear science and nuclear energy are not widely understood topics. A lack of understanding for a potentially dangerous technology can be the cause for avoidance and even fear. In order to break down the barriers of a misunderstood industry, high energy learning is an initiative to change the perspective of nuclear science and technology. Through explanation of the fundamental concepts surrounding nuclear science, we reconstruct a trust within the communities and cultures across the nation. Being able to change the perspective of uninformed and misinformed people may not only benefit the nuclear industry, but the state of our global environment. (author)

  7. Education in radiation, radioactivity, and nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faubert, I.; Wohrizek, J.; Donev, J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science and nuclear energy are not widely understood topics. A lack of understanding for a potentially dangerous technology can be the cause for avoidance and even fear. In order to break down the barriers of a misunderstood industry, high energy learning is an initiative to change the perspective of nuclear science and technology. Through explanation of the fundamental concepts surrounding nuclear science, we reconstruct a trust within the communities and cultures across the nation. Being able to change the perspective of uninformed and misinformed people may not only benefit the nuclear industry, but the state of our global environment. (author)

  8. Radiation detection technique on the fishery foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Hiroshi; Satomi, Masataka; Nakamura, Koji; Yano, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    Recently irradiation of fishery products such as sea bream, lobster etc has been spreading in South-east Asia. It is thus necessary to establish a detection technique for irradiated foods . This study aimed to investigate the effects of irradiation on the production of tyrosine isomers with relation to the status of food sample (frozen and cold-storage) and also the stabilities of the isomers in frozen foods after irradiation. Production of tyrosin isomers (meta-tyrosine, ortho-tyrosine) due to γ-ray irradiation (5 kGy) were observed in the muscles of frozen prawns as well as those at room temperature and the contents of these isomers after the irradiation was not different between the two states of the sample. The content increased depending on the radiation dose. The contents of these tyrosine isomers were not changed after storage at -20degC for 120 days. Therefore, it was thought that the tyrosine isomers were available as an effective indicator for detection of an irradiated food. (M.N.)

  9. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, S.; Cantatore, G.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Karuza, M.; Semertzidis, Y.K.; Upadhye, A.; Zioutas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and “fifth force” searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called “chameleon” mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space

  10. Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, S., E-mail: sebastian.baum@cern.ch [Uppsala Universitet, Box 516, SE 75120, Uppsala (Sweden); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gèneve (Switzerland); Cantatore, G. [Università di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Institut für Kernphysik, TU-Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstr. 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Karuza, M. [INFN Trieste, Padriciano 99, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Phys. Dept. and CMNST, University of Rijeka, R. Matejcic 2, Rijeka (Croatia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Upadhye, A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zioutas, K., E-mail: konstantin.zioutas@cern.ch [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gèneve (Switzerland); University of Patras, GR 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2014-12-12

    Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and “fifth force” searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called “chameleon” mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on Earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary results from a force/pressure sensor, currently under development at INFN Trieste, to be mounted in the focal plane of one of the X-Ray telescopes of the CAST experiment at CERN. We show, that such an experiment signifies a pioneering effort probing uncharted chameleon parameter space.

  11. Pakistan nuclear safety and radiation protection regulation 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In this act regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan has been explained. A legal and licensing procedure to handle protection of nuclear materials, processing storage of radioactive products has been described under this regulation. In these regulations full explanation of accidental exposure, delegation of powers and record keeping/waste disposal of radioactive has been given. (A.B.)

  12. Nuclear and radiation safety assurance federal target programme management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, O.V.; Vasil'ev, V.A.; Nikishin, D.A.; Linge, I.I.; Obodinskij, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Program Nuclear and Radiation Safety Assurance for 2008-2015 is presented. Specifics of Federal target program management as well as changes to program management are discussed. Data on evaluation of management effectiveness is given. Further efforts to resolve the nuclear legacy problem in Russia are also presented [ru

  13. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2000-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia in 1999. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  14. Pakistan nuclear safety and radiation protection ordinance-1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    An act to provide the regulations of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Pakistan has been explained. A legal and licensing procedure to handle production of nuclear materials, processing, storage of radioactive products and wastes has been described under this regulation. (A.B.)

  15. Regulatory inspections in nuclear plants in the field of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.; Fuchsova, D.

    2014-01-01

    State Office for Nuclear Safety executes state administration and performs inspections at peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in the field of radiation protection and nuclear safety. Inspections on radiation protection at nuclear power plants are secured by inspectors of the Department of Radiation Protection in Fuel Cycle, who work at the Regional centre Brno and Ceske Budejovice. (authors)

  16. Nuclear and radiation techniques - state of art and development trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The state of art and development trends of nuclear and radiation techniques in Poland and worldwide have been presented. Among them the radiometric gages, radiation technologies, radiotracer methods and measuring systems for pipeline and vessels, brightness control have been described and their applications in industry, agriculture, health and environment protection have been shown and discussed. 35 refs, 1 fig

  17. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab

  18. A radiation monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Masaru; Nakamori, S.; Ikeda, H.; Oda, M.

    1974-01-01

    Safety with respect to radiation is vital factor, particularly in view of the increasing number of nuclear power plants. For this purpose, a radiation monitoring system is provided to perform constant supervision. This article describes the purpose, installation location, specifications and circuitry of a system which is divided into three units: the process monitor, area monitor and off-site monitor. (auth.)

  19. Radiation and ecological safety of nuclear fuel cycle installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbasheva, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste facilities safety issues are discussed; Chernobyl NPP personnel radiation doses for 1986 are indicated; radiation contamination of environment by Am-241 is investigated; data on radioactive contamination in southern part of Kiev Poles'e are considered

  20. Organization of radiation protection in German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Using the operating handbooks of the nuclear power stations in West Germany, an examination was carried out of how far the existing organisational structure for radiation protection fulfils the requirements for protection and whether a standardisation of the organisation would provide improvements for the protection of the personnel and for the practicability of the radiation protection organisation. In particular, the parts 'Personnel operating organisation', 'Radiation protection order' and 'Maintenance order' of the operating handbook were evaluated and an audit was made of the radiation protection organisation. In general, the result of the assessment is that the organisation of radiation protection does not contradict the orders, guidelines and regulations in any of the nuclear power stations examined. Corresponding to the possibilities of regulating details of the radiation protection organisation within the undertaking, the target of 'protection of the personnel against radioactive irradiation' is achieved by the various organisation structures which are largely equal to the given example. (orig./HP) [de

  1. A National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of radiation protection within Australia is fragmented on a number of different levels. Each state has its own radiation protection organisation. Within the Commonwealth there is also a large number of bodies which deal with different aspects of radiation protection or nuclear safety. There is also an interest in occupational radiation protection by Departments responsible for Occupational Health and Safety. It is estimated that this fragmentation affects the practice of radiation protection at a State level and also the role which Australia can play internationally. The establishment of a National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety is therefore proposed. Possible structures and organizational arrangements for such an institute are discussed. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Environmental radiation monitoring of nuclear sites by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.; Strachotinsky, Ch.

    1978-04-01

    The measurement of environmental radiation doses around nuclear facilities requires the detection of few mrem/year. The properties of the automatic TLD-system Harshaw Mod. 2271 for such measurements have been evaluated under practical conditions and optimized techniques derived. The automatic TLD-system is based on LiF dosimeter cards with two crystals providing gamma and beta dose values. Limit of detection defined as three standard deviations of residuel dose is 1,2 mR. Automatic readout combined with electronic data evaluation are especially useful for large monitoring networks. Practical intercomparisons of this dosimeter with bulb-type CaF 2 detectors have been performed showing good agreement of both detector. Although bulb-dosimeters proved to be extremely sensitive with a limit of detection at 0,012 mR which makes them very suitable for very short exposure times, the automatic LiF system is superior in regards of man power requirement if monthly monitoring periods are sufficient. The system has been tested in practice during two international intercomparisons performed by the US Department of Energy - Health and Safety Laboratory New York and the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Germany, showing excellent agreement. Furthermore a routine monitoring network consisting of 12 measurement positions around the Research Center Seibersdorf has been operated with this technique since more than two years. (author)

  3. Neutron spectrometry by diamond detector for nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, S.F.; Konorova, E.A.; Barinov, A.L.; Jarkov, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on fast neutron spectrometry using the nuclear radiation diamond detector inside a horizontal channel of a water-cooled and water-moderated reactor are described. It is shown that the diamond detector enables neutron spectra to be measured within the energy range of 0.3 to 10 MeV against reactor gamma-radiation background and has radiation resistance higher than that of conventional semiconductor detectors. (U.S.)

  4. New strategies based on biomedical approaches for developing countermeasures against radiation and nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, K. P.

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical and radiological research projects are essentially aimed to understanding, evaluation and modification of ionizing radiation induced effects on microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. It is widely recognized that control and management of radiation injury are central to safety assurances for peaceful applications of nuclear energy and radiation technology. Extensive radiobiological research in the past decades have allowed gaining the deeper insight of molecular mechanisms of radiation damage in vital cellular targets, namely, DNA, membrane, proteins and signaling cascades. The radiation induced damaging events in living cells are believed to be mediated by direct as well as indirect effects of radiation on the components of cells involving highly reactive free radicals which has provided basis for developing protocols for radioprotection and cancer radiotherapy. Cellular responses are subject to nature and dose/dose rates of radiation which are eventually reflected in the severity of health effects of population. Radiobiology research has a long-standing goal in understanding the risk, prevention, and treatment of damage to normal tissue after radiation exposure of healthy populations and also, in cancer treatment. However, much remains to be learned in terms of underlying molecular process and factors controlling the radiation injury. Developing high through put diagnostic tools for detection and bio markers for assessing radiation exposures are immediate challenges for policy planners, administrators, medical experts and safety officials in the management and control of mass exposures from nuclear radiation. Present world is faced with a rather new threat scenario from radiological and nuclear attack using radiation and radioisotope material by so called determined groups. To address the threat, new research efforts are required in developing safe and effective countermeasures against radiation emergency. It has become urgent to identify the

  5. Simulation and modeling for the stand-off radiation detection system (SORDS) using GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, Andrew S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Galassi, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palmer, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schultz, Larry [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Shawn [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    A Stand-Off Radiation Detection System (SORDS) is being developed through a joint effort by Raytheon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bubble Technology Industries, Radiation Monitoring Devices, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). The system is a mobile truck-based platform performing detection, imaging, and spectroscopic identification of gamma-ray sources. A Tri-Modal Imaging (TMI) approach combines active-mask coded aperture imaging, Compton imaging, and shadow imaging techniques. Monte Carlo simulation and modeling using the GEANT4 toolkit was used to generate realistic data for the development of imaging algorithms and associated software code.

  6. Safety and Radiation Protection at Swedish Nuclear Power Plants 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    In 2004, no severe events occurred which challenged the safety at Swedish nuclear power plants. Two events were classified as Level 1 events on the 7-point International Nuclear Event Scale. The events are described in the chapter Operating Experience. During the year, relatively little new degradation and deficiencies were detected in the reactor barriers. The number of fuel defects is constantly decreasing. The same applies to the number of defects in the pressure-bearing systems. On the other hand, SKI has observed that damage is beginning to occur in the reactor containment. Applied control programmes are effective and capture most of the damage at an early stage before safety is affected. However, individual defects have been detected in material where such degradation was not anticipated and which is currently not regularly checked. SKI will follow up these observations thoroughly in order to judge whether there is a need for increased inspections. During the year, two defects found in the reactor containment were reported. The damage and degradation that occurred indicate that the causes were mainly due to defects during construction, or during subsequent plant modification. Taking into account the difficulty of inspecting the reactor containments and other vital building structures reliably, it is important for the licensees to continue to study possible ageing and degradation mechanisms that can affect the integrity and safety of the components. SKI continuously follows the progress of the degradation in the mechanical devices and building structures that form the plant barriers and defence-in-depth system. This includes both overall evaluations of the progress of degradation as a whole and the progress of degradation in each facility. Furthermore, the occurrence of different degradation mechanisms is followed. The power companies have intensified the rate of investment in nuclear power plants. Modernization work and safety reviews stipulated by the

  7. Fundamental Technology Development for Radiation Damage in Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Sang Chul; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, E. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    This project was performed to achieve technologies for the evaluation of radiation effects at materials irradiated at HANARO and nuclear power plants, to establish measurement equipment and software for the analysis of radiation defects and to set up facilities for the measurements of radiation damage with non-destructive methods. Major targets were 1) establishment of hot laboratories and remote handling facilities/ technologies for the radioactive material tests, 2) irradiation test for the simulation of nuclear power plant environment and measurement/calculation of physical radiation damage, 3) evaluation and analysis of nano-scale radiation damage, 4) evaluation of radiation embrittlement with ultrasonic resonance spectrum measurement and electromagnetic measurement and 5) basic research of radiation embrittlement and radiation damage mechanism. Through the performance of 3 years, preliminary basics were established for the application research to evaluation of irradiated materials of present nuclear power plants and GEN-IV systems. Particularly the results of SANS, PAS and TEM analyses were the first output in Korea. And computer simulations of radiation damage were tried for the first time in Korea. The technologies will be developed for the design of GEN-IV material

  8. Ordinance on the Finnish Centre of Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Ordinance was adopted in implementation of the 1983 Act setting up the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety and the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act and entered into force on 1 November 1990. The Ordinance specifies the tasks of the Centre, as provided under both Acts, and gives it several supplementary responsibilities. In addition to its overall competence in respect of radiation safety, the Centre will carry out research into and supervise the health effects of radiation and maintain a laboratory for national measurements in that field. The Ordinance also sets out the Centre's organisation chart and the staff duties [fr

  9. Provision of operational radiation protection services at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide practical guidance on establishing and maintaining a radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant that is consistent with the optimization process recommended in the Basic Safety Standards. This publication is written with a view to providing guidance to every person associated with the radiation protection programme for a nuclear power plant and develops the theme that radiation protection requires the commitment of all plant staff, including higher levels of executive management. 12 refs, 2 figs

  10. Radioactive clearance discharge of effluent from nuclear and radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Xu Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the basic concepts of radiation safety management system exemption, exclusion and clearance, we expound that the general industrial gaseous and liquid effluent discharges are exempted or excluded, gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are clearance, and non-radioactive. The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the concepts, reach a consensus that the gaseous and liquid effluent discharged from nuclear and radiation facilities are non-radioactive and have no hazard to human health and natural environment. (authors)

  11. Radiation and physical protection challenges at advanced nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study is to examine challenges and opportunities for radiation protection in advanced nuclear reactors and fuel facilities proposed under the Generation IV (GEN IV) initiative which is examining and pursuing the exploration and development of advanced nuclear science and technology; and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), which seeks to develop worldwide consensus on enabling expanded use of economical, carbon-free nuclear energy to meet growing energy demand. The International Energy Agency projects nuclear power to increase at a rate of 1.3 to 1.5 percent a year over the next 20 years, depending on economic growth. Much of this growth will be in Asia, which, as a whole, currently has plans for 40 new nuclear power plants. Given this increase in demand for new nuclear power facilities, ranging from light water reactors to advanced fuel processing and fabrication facilities, it is necessary for radiation protection and physical protection technologies to keep pace to ensure both worker and public health. This paper is based on a review of current initiatives and the proposed reactors and facilities, primarily the nuclear fuel cycle facilities proposed under the GEN IV and GNEP initiatives. Drawing on the Technology Road map developed under GEN IV, this work examines the potential radiation detection and protection challenges and issues at advanced reactors, including thermal neutron spectrum systems, fast neutron spectrum systems and nuclear fuel recycle facilities. The thermal neutron systems look to improve the efficiency of production of hydrogen or electricity, while the fast neutron systems aim to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel. While there are components of these advanced systems that can draw on the current and well-developed radiation protection practices, there will inevitably be opportunities to improve the overall quality of radiation

  12. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  13. Radiation detection and diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The value of mammography in the symptomatic patient has been adequately documented, but its use as a detection procedure remains a question. Risk-benefit ratios, based primarily upon the study carried out by the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York, have suggested that the technique has little value in individuals under age 50. Emphasis has been placed upon the possible carcinogenic effects of radiation as compared with the efficacy of mammography and the questionable influence of early diagnosis upon end results. Although technical advances have substantially reduced the exposure of the patient to radiation, the possibility of significant information loss as the result of these developments has been considered a potential drawback to their routine use. All of these factors have served to diminish both public and professional acceptance of the examination. Although current data do not allow complete resolution of these problems, certain conclusions may be drawn and trends established. The sum of these may indicate that minimal dose mammography is an accurate, low-risk procedure, capable of significantly altering the natural history of breast cancer. Whether or not the examination should be routinely used in women under age 50 remains open to question since the lack of experimental controls prohibits validation of the technique in terms of reduced mortality rates. Documentation of increased survival rates may partially assist in the established of a reliable risk-benefit ratio, but will not satisfy the statistical requirements of eliminating lead-bias, and self-selection. These questions may be resolved by studies now underway

  14. Nuclear toxicology. To detect, to clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.; Lecomte-Pradines, C.; Quemeneur, E.; Petitot, F.; Souidi, M.; Bertho, J.M.; Junot, Ch.; Malard, V.; Berthomieu, C.; Chapon, V.; Gilbin, R.; Misson-Pons, J.; Vavasseur, A.; Richaud, P.; Ansoborlo, E.; Taran, F.; Benech, H.; Fattal, E.; Tsapis, N.; Menetrier, F.; Deverre, J.R.; Burgada, R.

    2009-01-01

    This file shows two complementary parts: one aiming to a better detection of exposure for man and environment and and other one relative to the treatments to be used when there is a contamination. The development of biological captors is a research axis that could be very useful for nuclear toxicologists that wish to dispose of perceptible measurement tools. In the same idea biological markers could be an important help to determine the toxic quantity in organism in case of internal radioactive contamination. About remedial actions, bacteria are able to reduce, to oxide, to capture pollutants and then it is not insane to use them in efficient and low cost remediation for waters or contaminated lands, especially by trace metals or radioactive compounds. Next to them, plants can offer the same service it is the case for sunflower able to treat water loaded in uranium. This file ends with a review of the different treatments known nowadays as therapies for contamination by radioisotopes used in nuclear industry. (N.C.)

  15. Photonuclear-based Detection of Nuclear Smuggling in Cargo Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.; Haskell, K. J.; Hoggan, J. M.; Norman, D. R.; Yoon, W. Y.

    2003-08-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have performed experiments in La Honda, California and at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho to assess and develop a photonuclear-based detection system for shielded nuclear materials in cargo containers. The detection system, measuring photonuclear-related neutron emissions, is planned for integration with the ARACOR Eagle Cargo Container Inspection System (Sunnyvale, CA). The Eagle Inspection system uses a nominal 6-MeV electron accelerator and operates with safe radiation exposure limits to both container stowaways and to its operators. The INEEL has fabricated custom-built, helium-3-based, neutron detectors for this inspection application and is performing an experimental application assessment. Because the Eagle Inspection system could not be moved to LANL where special nuclear material was available, the response of the Eagle had to be determined indirectly so as to support the development and testing of the detection system. Experiments in California have successfully matched the delayed neutron emission performance of the ARACOR Eagle with that of the transportable INEEL electron accelerator (i.e., the Varitron) and are reported here. A demonstration test is planned at LANL using the Varitron and shielded special nuclear materials within a cargo container. Detector results are providing very useful information regarding the challenges of delayed neutron counting near the photofission threshold energy of 5.5 - 6.0 MeV, are identifying the possible utilization of prompt neutron emissions to allow enhanced signal-to-noise measurements, and are showing the overall benefits of using higher electron beam energies.

  16. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  17. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted {beta}-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of {beta}/{gamma} radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  18. Effects of beta/gamma radiation on nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    A key challenge in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) in glass waste forms is the development of models of long-term performance based on sound scientific understanding of relevant phenomena. Beta decay of fission products is one source of radiation that can impact the performance of HLW glasses through the interactions of the emitted β-particles and g-rays with the atoms in the glass by ionization processes. Fused silica, alkali silicate glasses, alkali borosilicate glasses, and nuclear waste glasses are all susceptible to radiation effects from ionization. In simple glasses, defects (e.g., non-bridging oxygen and interstitial molecular oxygen) are observed experimentally. In more complex glasses, including nuclear waste glasses, similar defects are expected, and changes in microstructure, such as the formation of bubbles, have been reported. The current state of knowledge regarding the effects of β/γ radiation on the properties and microstructure of nuclear waste glasses are reviewed. (author)

  19. Perspective on radiation from the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    Methods for estimating the risk of radiation induced cancer mortality to members of the public are outlined for each element of the nuclear power industry - reactor accidents, routine releases from nuclear plants, transport, mining and milling of uranium, and escape of buried radioactive waste (high level and low level). The results are compared with mortality risks from the air pollution and chemical carcinogens released into the ground in generating the same amount of electricity by coal burning - the latter are thousands of times larger. Radiation from nuclear power is also 1,000 times smaller than that from radon in homes. The amount of money spent to avert a death from nuclear power radiation is in the billion dollar range, whereas lives could be saved from radon in homes for 0.00001 times that cost. Medical screening and highway safety programs can save lives for a similarly low cost

  20. Teaching Nuclear Radiation and the Poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-03-01

    The recent international story about the death of the former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko has more than just a few wondering about radiation poisoning and the sinister sounding polonium-210. I was preparing to begin a nuclear radiation unit the Monday after Thanksgiving 2006. As it turned out, Litvinenko died Thanksgiving Day after a short and terrible three-week illness. Having the story continue to unfold throughout the next two weeks of the new unit provided a daily opportunity for students to see the relevance of what we were doing in class. My students were able to have meaningful and informed conversations with their peers and parents over an important international event. They even began to feel a bit like authorities themselves when listening to experts respond to media questions about polonium-210 and nuclear radiation in general. This paper discusses some of the ways that the story of Litvinenko was used while presenting the topic of nuclear radiation.

  1. Radiation protection for population in case of nuclear weapon terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2004-01-01

    A radiation disaster was predicted in case of 1 kt nuclear weapon terrorism on the surface. Despite small size, serious radiation exposure became clear in a range more than 10 km that can't be by an aerial explosion. This kind of exposure comes from radioactive fallout of fission products, not from direct nuclear radiation. This spreads to a lee area. More than 1,000,000 population receive a serious dose including fatal dose if the nuclear disaster occurs in Tokyo is expected. If adequate radiation protection applies to the population, 70% of victim may be saved. A method to be effective as this kind of protection is escape from a danger zone by the subway after more than one hour sheltering in a concrete building. (author)

  2. Code of practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, M. I.

    2010-05-01

    In aim of this study was to develop a draft for a new code practice for radiation protection in nuclear medicine that meets the current relevant international recommendation. The draft includes the following main fields: methods of radiation protection for workers, patients and public. Also, the principles of safe design of nuclear medicine departments, quality assurance program, proper manipulation of radiation sources including radioactive waste and emergency preparedness and response. The practical part of this study includes inspections of three nuclear medicine departments available in Sudan so as to assess the degree of compliance of those departments with what is stated in this code. The inspection missions have been conducted using a checklist that addresses all items that may affect radiation raincoat issues in addition to per formin area radiation monitoring around the installation of the radioactive sources. The results of this revealed that most of the departments do not have effective radiation protection program which in turn could lead to unnecessary exposure to patients, public and workers. Finally, some recommendations are given that - if implemented - could improve the status of radiation protection in nuclear medicine department. (Author)

  3. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-01-01

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash

  4. Nuclear power plant radiation: personnel safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roekmantara, Roestan

    1975-01-01

    Reactor using water as coolant, moderator, and heat transfer can produce a sufficiently great internal and external radiation caused by contamination. The process of contamination and actions that must be taken to avoid radiation workers from receiving more than the maximum permissible dose are presented. (author)

  5. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 2, Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    ''Science, Society and America's Nuclear Waste'' is a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  6. Basis for radiation protection of the nuclear worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the standards for protection of persons who work in areas that have a potential for radiation exposure. A review is given of the units of radiation exposure and dose equivalent and of the value of the maximum permissible dose limits for occupational exposure. Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guides for radiation protection are discussed. Average occupational equivalent doses experienced in several operations typical of the United States Nuclear Industry are presented and shown to be significantly lower than the maximum permissible. The concept of maintaining radiation doses to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable is discussed and the practice of imposing engineering and administrative controls to provide effective radiation protection for the nuclear worker is described

  7. Undoped poly (phenyl sulfone) for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kitamura, Hisashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2015-01-01

    Undoped aromatic ring polymers are potential scintillation materials. Here, we characterise poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) for radiation detection. The amber-coloured transparent resin emits bluish-white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. It has an excitation maximum of 340 nm, and has a density of 1.29 g/cm 3 . The effective refractive index based on its emission spectrum is 1.75. The light yield is almost equal to that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. These results demonstrate that PPSU can be used as a component substrate in polymer blends for altering optical characteristics. - Highlights: • Poly (phenyl sulfone) (PPSU) has suitable characteristics as a scintillation material. • PPSU is an amber-coloured transparent resin that emits bluish white fluorescence with 390-nm maximum. • The 1.75 effective refractive index over the emission spectrum is relatively high. • The light yield is 0.95 times that of poly (ethylene terephthalate), which is a transparent resin. • PPSU can potentially alter optical characteristics in polymer blends

  8. Recent developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jilan

    1993-01-01

    A short summary of the programmes of 'ADMIT' (FAO/IAEA) and the developments in analytical detection methods for radiation processed foods has been given. It is suggested that for promoting the commercialization of radiation processed foods and controlling its quality, one must pay more attention to the study of analytical detection methods of irradiated food

  9. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  10. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 17 chapters. (author)

  11. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 1997. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. Contributions to the report were furthermore prepared by competent authorities in the field of nuclear safety: the Agency for Radwaste Management (ARAO), the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre, etc. The report contains 19 chapters.

  12. Establishing control over nuclear materials and radiation sources in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basilia, G.

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia was lost after disintegration of the Soviet Union. A number of radiation accidents and illegal events occurred in Georgia. From 1999 Nuclear and Radiation Safety Service of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources is responsible for regulatory control over radiation sources in Georgia. US NRC Regulatory Assistance Program in Georgia Assist the Service in establishing long term regulatory control over sources. Main focuses of US NRC program are country-wide inventory, create National Registry of sources, safe storage of disused sources, upgrade legislation and regulation, implementation licensing and inspection activities

  13. What Students Think About (Nuclear) Radiation - Before and After Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, S.

    2014-06-01

    Preparing successful science lessons is very demanding. One important aspect a teacher has to consider is the students' previous knowledge about the specific topic. This is why research about students' preconceptions has been, and continues to be, a major field in science education research. Following a constructivistic approach [R. Duit et al., International handbook of research on conceptual change, p. 629 (2008)], helping students learn is only possible if teachers know about students' ideas beforehand. Studies about students' conceptions regarding the major topics in physics education (e.g. mechanics, electrodynamics, optics, thermodynamics), are numerous and well-documented. The topic radiation, however, has seen very little empirical research about students' ideas and misconceptions. Some research was conducted after the events of Chernobyl [P. Lijnse et al., International Journal of Science Education 12, 67 (1990); B. Verplanken, Environment and Behavior 21, 7 (1989)] and provided interesting insight into some of the students' preconceptions about radiation. In order to contribute empirical findings to this field of research, our workgroup has been investigating the conceptions students have about the topic radiation for several years [S. Neumann et al., Journal of Science Education and Technology 21, 826 (2012)]. We used children's drawings and conducted short follow-up interviews with students (9 - 12 years old) and more detailed interviews with 15-year-old students. Both studies were originally done before the events in Fukushima and replicated a year later. We not only asked students about their general associations and emotions regarding the term radiation, but also examined the students' risk perceptions of different types of radiation. Through the use of open-ended questions we were able to examine students' conceptions about different types of radiation (including nuclear) that could be a hindrance to student learning. Our results show that students

  14. Nuclear radiation in warfare. A SIPRI publication. Strahlungswirkungen beim Einsatz von Kernwaffen. Eine SIPRI-Publikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotblat, J.

    1986-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; digest of nuclear weaponry (characteristics of nuclear weapons; effects of nuclear weapons other than ionizing radiation (fire-ball, fall-out, thermal radiation, blast wave, electromagnetic pulse); the nuclear arms race; war scenarios; biological effects of radiations on man (radiation doses; natural sources of radiation; acute effects of radiation; long-term somatic effects; genetic effects; factors affecting the biological response to radiation; internal exposure; synergistic effects; protection against radiation effects); radiations from nuclear explosions (initial radiation; fall-out; effects of fall-out on animal and plant life; contamination of water and food supplies by fall-out); radiation casualties in a nuclear war; effectiveness of civil defence; other warlike uses of radiation (attacks on civilian nuclear power installations; radiological warfare; terrorist activities); conclusion.

  15. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, D. R.; Accatino, M. R.; Bernstein, A.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J. A.; Descalle, M. A.; Hall, J. M.; Manatt, D. R.; Mauger, G. J.; Moore, T. L.; Norman, E. B.; Petersen, D. C.; Pruet, J. A.; Prussin, S. G.

    2007-08-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235U or 239Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented.

  16. The nuclear car wash: A system to detect nuclear weapons in commercial cargo shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slaughter, D.R.; Accatino, M.R.; Bernstein, A.; Biltoft, P.; Church, J.A.; Descalle, M.A.; Hall, J.M.; Manatt, D.R.; Mauger, G.J.; Moore, T.L.; Norman, E.B.; Petersen, D.C.; Pruet, J.A.; Prussin, S.G.

    2007-01-01

    A concept for detecting the presence of special nuclear material ( 235 U or 239 Pu) concealed in intermodal cargo containers has been developed, studied, and recent performance results are described. It is based on interrogation with a pulsed beam of 3-7 MeV neutrons that produce fission events and subsequent detection of their β-delayed neutron emission or β-delayed high-energy γ-radiation reveals the presence of fissionable material. Fission product β-delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV are nearly 10 times more abundant than β-delayed neutrons and are distinct from natural radioactivity and from nearly all of the induced activity in a normal cargo. Detector backgrounds and potential interferences with the fission signature radiation have been identified and quantified. Their impact on detection sensitivity is relatively minor and can be addressed readily. Components of a simple laboratory prototype have been assembled, tested with the most challenging cargo threat scenarios, and results compared to computer simulations. Preliminary results will be presented

  17. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloebel, B.; Muth, H.; Keller, K.D.; Hector, G.; Lehnen, H.

    1982-01-01

    In a large hospital (University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, 2000 beds) the use of radionuclides was determined with the aim of a balance of the radionuclide flow through the clinic and the resulting radiation exposure for the persons involved. (author)

  18. Data for radiation protection and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Endo, Akira; Sakamoto, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Various conversion coefficients have been used in external and internal dosimetry in radiation protection practices. Radiation doses in the human body cannot be directly measured in general situation and the conversion coefficient has been used to correlate the human body dose with physical quantities such as radioactivity, particle fluence and other dosimetric quantities to be used to describe the radiation field. Fluence-to-organ dose conversion coefficients have been calculated using Monte Carlo radiation transport codes in conjunction with an anthropomorphic mathematical phantom. Neutron and photon interaction cross-section libraries are indispensable for these calculations. ICRP Publication 74 gives tables of conversion coefficients for estimation of organ doses and effective dose for photons, neutrons and electrons. Based on these results, shielding calculation parameters have been prepared for simple and easy dose estimation in radiation facilities. Dose factors, organ doses and effective dose per unit intake of radionuclide, have been also calculated for internal dosimetry purpose. ICRP Publications 68 and 72 give tables of dose factors for a variety of radionuclides. Revision of radiation data library has been made to reflect updated information on radionuclides to internal dosimetry. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional, position-sensitive radiation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhong; Zhang, Feng

    2010-04-06

    Disclosed herein is a method of determining a characteristic of radiation detected by a radiation detector via a multiple-pixel event having a plurality of radiation interactions. The method includes determining a cathode-to-anode signal ratio for a selected interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions based on electron drift time data for the selected interaction, and determining the radiation characteristic for the multiple-pixel event based on both the cathode-to-anode signal ratio and the electron drift time data. In some embodiments, the method further includes determining a correction factor for the radiation characteristic based on an interaction depth of the plurality of radiation interactions, a lateral distance between the selected interaction and a further interaction of the plurality of radiation interactions, and the lateral positioning of the plurality of radiation interactions.

  20. Report on environmental radiation monitoring associated with visits to Australian ports by nuclear powered warships in 1980; and, amendments to the guidelines for environmental radiation monitoring during visits of nuclear powered warships to Australian ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Australian Government requires that an environmental radiation monitoring program be carried out in association with visits of nuclear ships to Australian ports. The objectives and requirements of the program are summarised and the results of the marine environmental sampling program undertaken at berths are presented, together with radiation measurements taken during visits. During 1980, no releases of radioactive material were detected, nor were any radiation measurements recorded in excess of natural background levels

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring around Korea nuclear fuel company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Choi, Gyun Sik; Lee, Won Yun; Park, Hyu Gok; Park, Do Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental Radiation Monitoring was carried out with measurement of environmental radiation and environmental radioactivity analysis around Korea Nuclear Fuel Company. Environmental Radiation rates measured by portable ERM and accumulated dose rates measured by TLD were on the same level as those measured in the previous years. Total alpha and beta concentrations in the air particulates showed the similar values in all sampling points. The concentration of uranium isotopes in soils and underground waters were measured similar to natural uranium values. The concentration of uranium isotopes in surface waters and sediments around the nuclear facilities were somewhat higher than those from reference site. The concentrations of uranium isotopes in rain water and foods such as rices and vegetables were similar to natural uranium level, the environment around the nuclear facilities has been contaminated only to an insignificant extent. It is estimated that the environmental impact resulting from the operation of KNFC in 2001 was negligible. 31 refs., 30 figs., 41 tabs. (Author)

  2. Discussions about nuclear and radiation risk information communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Erqi; Peng Xianxun

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the definition and the objective of risk communication and the development of the risk communication research. It stated that how to establish a trustworthy relationship with public and the 8 aspects that should be done for keeping the relationship. With the analysis of the cognition and the influencing of the nuclear and radiation risk, this article figured out the factors which could influence the cognition of public on nuclear and radiation risk. Moreover, it explained the principles for enhancing the efficiency of the risk communication and the specific works in each phase of the risk communication. Finally, the suggestions for the development of the risk communication of the nuclear and radiation in China had been provided. (authors)

  3. Radiation exposure from nuclear medicine studies in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, A.; Reber, H.; Hahn, K.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear medical examinations of children have to be performed with special regard to the problems of radiation protection because of the high radiation sensitivity esp. of infants and young children. The present contribution describes how any unnecessary radiation exposure can be avoided by the correct choice and planning of a nuclear medical study, by using the appropriate radiopharmaceutical as well as by the exact calculation of the amount of activity applied, depending on body surface resp. body weight of the child. A technically optimized method which employs the best technical equipment and personnel, being specially trained for working with children, are important conditions to achieve optimal results of nuclear medical tests. Due to the difficulties of direct dose measurements, large variations in the biokinetic behaviour of radiopharmaceuticals and the restriction to standard phantoms, individual dose calculations or dose estimations in pediatrics cause great problems. This is reflected by often large variations of dosimetrical data given in the literature. (orig.) [de

  4. Detection limits by EPR spectroscopy of cumulated doses ionizing radiations in molluscs shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, K.; Burlinska, G.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Stachowicz, W.; Michalik, J.; Sadlo, J.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of waters to ionizing radiation from radionuclides stored in concrete containers or freed in nuclear accidents or underwater eruption might be difficult to be proved, when currents, rains, exchange of water displace sand soils or rocks in the bottom. Ionizing radiation evokes stable paramagnetic centers in the crystalline lattice of mineral components in bones as well as in exoskeletons of most molluscs, which are detected by the EPR spectroscopy and could be used as an indicator of the exposure to the action of radiation during prolonged period of time. (authors)

  5. Epidemiological studies on radiation carcinogenesis in human populations following acute exposure: nuclear explosions and medical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1981-05-01

    The current knowledge of the carcinogenic effect of radiation in man is considered. The discussion is restricted to dose-incidence data in humans, particularly to certain of those epidemiological studies of human populations that are used most frequently for risk estimation for low-dose radiation carcinogenesis in man. Emphasis is placed solely on those surveys concerned with nuclear explosions and medical exposures

  6. Role of visualization of nuclear radiation in public education on atomic energy. Visualization of natural nuclear radiation using a cloud chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Junichi H.; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear radiation is indispensable tool, i.e., medical diagnostic systems and industrial nondestructive measurement systems, for our life. On the other hand, ordinary people sometimes have bad image for nuclear radiation. To improve this undesirable situation, many individuals and groups keep holding public educational meeting on nuclear radiation. For this purpose, visualization of natural nuclear radiation by a cloud chamber is very effective way; participants feel existence of nuclear radiation directly. In this talk, public educational activity of Hokkaido University and Japan Atomic Energy Society Hokkaido branch will be reported. (author)

  7. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, M.B.; Davis, M.V.

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10 4 rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10 5 rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects

  8. Nuclear medicine and the environment: radiation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelter, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of radiation interactions on the environment may be considered from the perspective of the purely physical phenomena occurring or from the effects the interactions produce in organized biological systems. The physical processes by which radiation interacts with the environment are quite well defined. Although these processes differ depending upon the nature (either electromagnetic or particulate) of the primary radiation, the ultimate result is the production in the medium of high-speed, secondary charged particles. Some of the energy of these particles is absorbed by the medium, while a portion may be lost as bremsstrahlung. The energy that is absorbed produces excitation and ionization, which can be disruptive to biological systems. The effects produced by ionizing radiations at the biochemical, cellular, and organ level are less well defined. Nevertheless, available data indicate that certain generalizations are possible. For example, given the ubiquitous nature of water in tissues, macromolecules, regardless of their structural types, tend to serve as acceptors of the energy and products of water radiolysis. However, a deeper insight into the consequences of irradiation requires an understanding of the interplay of such parameters as the type and energy of the radiation, and the dose and rate of its application. Furthermore, at the cellular level, the type and age of the irradiated cells, the concentration of oxygen in their environment, and their cell-cycle phase are all important factors in determining the consequences of irradiation. 72 references

  9. Recent advances in MEMS radiation detectors for improving radiation safety in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhisikar, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical-system) is a core technology that leverages integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology, builds ultra-miniaturized components and, enables radical new system applications. When considering MEMS radiation detectors; they are the specific micromechanical structures which are designed to sense doses of radiations. The present article reviews the most recent progress made in the domain of MEMS ionizing radiation sensors at international level for nuclear reactors which can be relevant to Indian context. (author)

  10. Contraband Detection with Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence: Feasibility and Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruet, J; Lange, D

    2007-01-01

    In this report they show that cargo interrogation systems developed to thwart trafficking of illicit nuclear materials could also be powerful tools in the larger fight against contraband smuggling. In particular, in addition to detecting special nuclear materials, cargo scanning systems that exploit nuclear resonance fluorescence to detect specific isotopes can be used to help find: chemical weapons; some drugs as well as some chemicals regulated under the controlled substances act; precious metals; materials regulated under export control laws; and commonly trafficked fluorocarbons

  11. Radiation shielding activities at the OECD/Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, Enrico; Vaz, Pedro

    2000-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has devoted considerable effort over the years to radiation shielding issues. The issues are addressed through international working groups. These activities are carried out in close co-ordination and co-operation with the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). The areas of work include: basic nuclear data activities in support of radiation shielding, computer codes, shipping cask shielding applications, reactor pressure vessel dosimetry, shielding experiments database. The method of work includes organising international code comparison exercises and benchmark studies. Training courses on radiation shielding computer codes are organised regularly including hands-on experience in modelling skills. The scope of the activity covers mainly reactor shields and spent fuel transportation packages, but also fusion neutronics and in particular shielding of accelerators and irradiation facilities. (author)

  12. Environmental radiation monitoring system in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Sadazumi; Tadachi, Katsuo; Endo, Mamoru; Yuya, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the construction of nuclear power stations, prior to their start of operation, the state of environmental radiation must be grasped. After the start of the power stations, based on those data, the system of environmental radiation monitoring is established. Along with the construction of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. jointly with Fujitsu Ltd. has developed a high-reliability, environmental radiation monitoring system, and adopted ''optical data highways'' using optical fiber cables for communication. It consists of a central monitoring station and 11 telemeter observation points, for collecting both radiation and meteorological data. The data sent to the central station through the highways are then outputted on a monitoring panel. They are analyzed with a central processor, and the results are printed out. (Mori, K.)

  13. Microstructural characterization of radiation effects in nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Microstructural Characterization of Radiation Effects in Nuclear Materials provides an overview into experimental techniques that can be used to examine those effects (both neutron and charged particle) and can be used by researchers, technicians or students as a tool to introduce them to the various techniques. The need to examine the effect of radiation on materials is becoming increasingly important as nuclear energy is emerging as a growing source of renewable energy. The book opens with a discussion of why it is important to study the effects of radiation on materials and looks at current and future reactor designs and the various constraints faced by materials as a result of those designs. The book also includes an overview of the radiation damage mechanisms. The next section explores the various methods for characterizing damage including transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, analytical electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, atom probe tomography,...

  14. Radiation protection in the Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.; Koc, J.; Hynek, J.; Trousil, J.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation monitoring by means of the central information system and of autonomous, portable and laboratory devices as well as a brief characteristic of the nuclear power plant radiation fields are described. The new personal dosimetric film and thermoluminescent badges and the method (including the block diagram) for personal dose evaluation are also introduced. Internal contamination monitoring is performed by means of a whole-body counter and excreta sample analysis. Monitoring the influence of effluents from nuclear power plants on environment in Czechoslovakia is based on significant radionuclide measurements in ventilation stacks and in the environment, also by means of the telemetric system, all in connection with mathematical models. (author)

  15. Education in radiation and nuclear technology. Ready for the future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenmuth, T.; Alt, S.; Wodarczack, F.; Heidrich, U.; Kratzsch, A.

    2013-01-01

    The revision of teaching strategies for the field of study 'Radiation and Nuclear Engineering' at the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz is an attractive design with excellent career opportunities to choose from. Thus, the students benefit not least from solid foundations of the general power engineering undergraduates. Additionally it should be noted that on one hand the current developments (e.g. regenerative power generation, power transmission system requirements and energy storage) are increasingly in demand. On the other hand the use of radiation and nuclear installations and facilities is essential - but this will respectively by social constraints currently not represented or shown as an attractive career field. (orig.)

  16. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia.

  17. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovincic, D.

    2001-09-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA), in co-operation with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia, the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief and the Ministry of the Interior, has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in the Republic of Slovenia for 2000. This is one of the regular forms of reporting on the work of the Administration to the Government and National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia. (author)

  18. The computerized radiation control system for the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunamoto, H.; Sato, T.; Taniguchi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Major works of Radiation control in nuclear power plant consist of occupational exposure control, radiation monitoring of working areas and surveillance of monitoring equipment, environmental monitoring and so on. Since a large amount of data will be generated from these works, therefore use of high performance computers will be indispensable. The systematization is presently being advanced in The Japan Atomic Power Company from this viewpoint and the project is being realized smoothly. The actual state is introduced

  19. Radiation protection philosophy and control of radiation doses from nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    The author has reviewed the concurrent developments in each of the three decades from 1950 to the present day in radiation protection philosophy and in the control of radioactive waste disposals, with particular reference to the control of radiation doses to the public from disposals from nuclear installations. In addition, the author has summarised the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's optimisation study which is a generic analysis of the quantitative factors pertinent to the management of tritium, carbon-14, krypton-85 and iodine-129, identified as being the radionuclides in fuel cycle effluents likely to be significant in the radiation exposure of large populations. (author)

  20. Calculation of heat generation due to nuclear radiation in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, L.M.R.; Gomes, I.C.; Maiorino, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The study is performed for caculating nuclear heating due to the interaction of neutrons and gamma-rays with matter. Modifications were implemented in the ANISN code, that solves the one-dimensional transport equation using the discrete ordinate method, to include nuclear heating calculations. Tests of the implemented modifications were performed in problems of nuclear heating due to radiation energy deposition in a fusion reactor. (Author) [pt

  1. Radiation response of hydrated urea evaluated using 14N nuclear quadrupole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintenlang, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper Nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance is utilized to detect radiation-induced changes in urea over the 0- to 300-Gy dose range. The spin-spin relaxation time exhibits a consistent change as a function of delivered dose in hydrated urea under exposure to 60 Co gamma radiation. No changes to the spin-spin relaxation time are observed in urea samples that were not hydrated. The radiation-induced changes are attributed to indirect radiation interactions with the water surrounding the urea molecules and are explained by the formation of subtle changes in the electron bonding configurations surrounding the 14 N nuclei, not major structural rearrangements. These subtle changes may provide additional insight into the effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems

  2. Innovation research on the safety supervision system of nuclear and radiation safety in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qihong; Lu Jigen; Zhang Ping; Wang Wanping; Dai Xia

    2012-01-01

    As the rapid development of nuclear technology, the safety supervision of nuclear and radiation becomes very important. The safety radiation frame system should be constructed, the safety super- vision ability for nuclear and radiation should be improved. How to implement effectively above mission should be a new subject of Provincial environmental protection department. Through investigating the innovation of nuclear and radiation supervision system, innovation of mechanism, innovation of capacity, innovation of informatization and so on, the provincial nuclear and radiation safety supervision model is proposed, and the safety framework of nuclear and radiation in Jiangsu is elementally established in the paper. (authors)

  3. Radiation leakage in nuclear ship 'MUTSU'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yoshio; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Takeuchi, Kiyoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Associated with the radiation leakage in MUTSU occurred in September 1974, this report reviews the shielding design for MUTSU, radiation measurement and inspection activities by a survey group, and 2 dimensional analysis on the behavior of fast neutrons to shielding based on Ssub(N) codes. In the first part, the purpose and the structure of the primary and the secondary shields of MUTSU are briefly illustrated. In the second part, the progress of the series of affairs is explained, starting from zero power criticality experiment, through discovery of radiation leakage in output-increasing test, sending of a survey group for various measurement and inspection, and finally to the conclusion drawn by the survey group. In the third part, various numerical analyses performed to investigate into the leakage are illustrated with their results. The transport codes used were ANISN, TWOTRAN, SPAN, and PALLAS-2DCY. As a result of those inspection and calculation, it was found that the radiation leakage was due to fast neutrons coming through the gap between the reactor vessel and the primary shield. (Aoki, K.)

  4. Initial Human Response to Nuclear Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    symptomatic response to radiation. In the second phase, the models will be used to infer performance effects. DNA staff members Cyrus Knowles and David ...P. Setty ATTN: K. Schwartz ATTN: J. NcGahan Kamn Tempo System Planning Corp ATTN: R. Miller ATTN: J. JonesATTN: G. Perks Kamen Tempo AiT: S. Shrier

  5. Estimates of the radiation environment for a nuclear rocket engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Manohara, H.M.; Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ambitious missions in deep space, such as manned expeditions to Mars, require nuclear propulsion if they are to be accomplished in a reasonable length of time. Current technology is adequate to support the use of nuclear fission as a source of energy for propulsion; however, problems associated with neutrons and gammas leaking from the rocket engine must be addressed. Before manned or unmanned space flights are attempted, an extensive ground test program on the rocket engine must be completed. This paper compares estimated radiation levels and nuclear heating rates in and around the rocket engine for both a ground test and space environments

  6. The design of nuclear radiation measuring instrument of embedded network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqiang; Ge Liangquan; Xiong Shengqing

    2009-01-01

    The design and realization of nuclear radiation measuring instrument is introduced. Due to the current nuclear instrument often used serial interface to communicate the PC, it is widely used for simple design and easy operation. However, as the demand of remote data acquisition and the call of sharing resources, the design of embedded the TCP/IP protocol stack into MCU, it may send the nuclear signal in Internet. Some devices that link each other with the network can be networked. The design is not only realizing remote data acquisition and sharing resources, but also reducing costs and improving the maintainability of the system. (authors)

  7. Telephone consultations on exposure to nuclear disaster radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Sachiko; Chida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. For about six weeks, I worked as a counselor for phone consultations regarding radiation risk. I analyzed the number of consultations, consultations by telephone, and their changing patterns with elapse of time, to assist with consultations about risk in the future. There were a large number of questions regarding the effects of radiation, particularly with regard to children. We believe that counseling and risk communication are the key to effectively informing the public about radiation risks. (author)

  8. Some problems concerning the radiation protection in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoky, L.

    1977-01-01

    The appearance and fast spreading of the nuclear power stations raised new and difficult questions in connection with the theoretical bases of radiation protection. The new standpoint of the International Commission on Radiological Protection is that both the workers at a pile and the inhabitants take less risk because of ionizing radiation than they usually take in everyday life. The maximum dose which can be permitted remained 5 rem/year for those who professionally deal with ionizing radiation and 0.5 rem/year for the groups in special situation. (V.N.)

  9. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) (see 3.1.11) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms. 1.2 Dependable operation of SNM radiation monitors rests on selecting appropriate monitors for the task, operating them in a hospitable environment, and conducting an effective program to test, calibrat...

  10. Radiation doses to patients from nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Boehmova, I.

    2014-01-01

    Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava The exposure of the population to ionizing radiation is rising rapidly, nearly exclusively due to increasing medical use of radiation, including diagnostic methods of nuclear medicine. In 2012 Public health authority of the Slovak republic (PHA SR) performed a survey about the population exposure from nuclear medicine procedures. The primary objectives of this survey were to assess the frequency of different nuclear medicine procedures, determine the average activities administered by nuclear medicine procedures and compare them with the national diagnostic reference levels and determine the annual collective effective dose to the Slovak population from nuclear medicine. The effective dose calculation was based on the methodology of the ICRP32, ICRP80 and ICRP106. In Slovak republic are 11 nuclear medicine departments. The collected data of activities administered by different procedures correspond to 100 % of nuclear medicine departments. The total number of procedures included in the study was 36 250. The most commonly performed procedure was bone scintigraphy (35.9%), followed by lung perfusion and ventilation scintigraphy (17.0%), static and dynamic renal scintigraphy (13.0%), whole-body positron emission tomography of tumors with PET radiopharmaceuticals (11.6%), myocardial perfusion (8.8%), thyroid scintigraphy (6.2%), parathyroid scintigraphy (2.1%), scintigraphy of tumors (2.1%), scintigraphy of the liver and spleen (0.8%), brain perfusion (0.7%) and examination of the gastrointestinal system (0.3%). (authors)

  11. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  12. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  13. Effective nuclear and radiation emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes how to develop a balanced emergency plan, which realistically reflect the interfaces with various emergency organizations. The use of resources should be optimized with focusing on the most likely accidents. The pitfalls of writing an emergency plan without ''big picture'' in mind should be avoided. It is absolutely essential to have a clear definition of responsibilities and to have proper understanding of the tasks in between all counterparts in the emergency preparedness. Special attention should be paid to off-site part of the nuclear emergency preparedness, because the people involved in it usually receive less training than the on-site personnel and they are not specialized for nuclear emergencies but deal with all sorts of emergencies. (author)

  14. Report on nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia in 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia for 2001 as a regular form of reporting to the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia on the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and the use of the ionising sources. The report has been prepared in collaboration with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS), the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR), the Pool for Assurance and Reinsurance of Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Pool for Decommissioning of the NPP Krsko and for the Radwaste Disposal from the NPP Krsko. The reports of the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ARAO), the Institute of Oncology, the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Centre Ljubljana and the technical support organisations are also included. The SNSA made no crucial modifications to the reports of the above mentioned institutions. The modifications were made just facilitate a reading of the reports.

  15. Nuclear and radiation safety in Slovenia. Annual report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.

    2002-01-01

    The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) has prepared a Report on Nuclear and Radiation Safety in Slovenia for 2001 as a regular form of reporting to the citizens of the Republic of Slovenia on the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle and the use of the ionising sources. The report has been prepared in collaboration with the Health Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia (HIRS), the Administration for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief (ACPDR), the Pool for Assurance and Reinsurance of Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Pool for Decommissioning of the NPP Krsko and for the Radwaste Disposal from the NPP Krsko. The reports of the Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ARAO), the Institute of Oncology, the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Centre Ljubljana and the technical support organisations are also included. The SNSA made no crucial modifications to the reports of the above mentioned institutions. The modifications were made just facilitate a reading of the reports. (author)

  16. Micronuclei Frequencies in Lymphocytes of Nuclear Malaysia Radiation Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Rodzi Ali; Aisyah Mohd Yusof; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Juliana Mahamat Napiah; Yahaya Talib; Shafii Khamis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the frequency of cell aberration in lymphocytes of the Nuklear Malaysia radiation workers. A total of 58 blood samples were collected from the radiation workers during their routine medical examination. The donor age range is between 23 to 58 years, 31 male and 27 female. Blood samples were cultured according to the standard protocol recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The mean micronuclei (MN) is 23.5 ± 0.9 MN/ 1000 binucleate, with the median value of 24 MN/ 1000 binucleate. The lowest number of MN was 9, and the highest was 43. There is no correlation between the number of MN in blood and yearly cumulative dose for radiation workers. The results indicate the MN expression due to small radiation exposure is almost negligible in Nuclear Malaysia radiation workers. (author)

  17. Physics contributions to radiation protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    Physical research and physical methods can essentially contribute to radiation protection in nuclear power plants. With their aid, properties of radiation sources can be determined, and calculations of radiation shields can be performed. In the present paper, such tasks are analyzed, the state of the art of their solution is evaluated, and trends of further work are shown. Focal points of the present study are the calculation of properties of radiation sources outside the reactor (fission products, activated corrosion products, decontamination facilities for contaminated media), exact and engineering methods for calculating radiation fields also in inhomogeneous shields, and classification of concretes for gamma-ray shielding. Objectives, possibilities, and problems of standardization of such activities are discussed. (author)

  18. Considerations on radiation protection and accidents in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Carla Flavia de; Avelar, Artur Canella; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2001-01-01

    The present study presents the radiation protection in the services of nuclear medicine in relation to the design of the services, manipulation of sources, cares with the patient, accomplishment of procedures and definition of accidents and incidents; besides approaching the CNEN requirements

  19. Nuclear data for radiation damage assessment and related safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.P.

    1989-12-01

    The IAEA Advisory Group Meeting on Nuclear Data for Radiation Damage Assessment and Related Safety Aspects was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, 19-22 September 1989. This report contains the conclusions and recommendations of this meeting. The papers which the participants prepared for and presented at the meeting will be published as an IAEA Technical Document. (author)

  20. Radiation protection courses in the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozelj, M.; Stritar, A.

    1998-01-01

    We have briefly described the legal framework for the radiation protection training in Slovenia. The history of that activity at the Milan Copic Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana is than described with the detailed description and summary of all performed courses.(author)

  1. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  2. Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Regulations 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    This document contains statutory rules made under the Australian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Act 1998 defining how specified standards to be observed, practices and procedures to be followed and measures to be taken by controlled persons in relation to activities relating to controlled facilities, as well as in relation to dealings with controlled apparatus or controlled material

  3. Single-chip microcomputer application in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou

    1994-01-01

    The single-chip microcomputer has advantage in many respects i.e. multiple function, small size, low-power consumption,reliability etc. It is widely used now in industry, instrumentation, communication and machinery. The author introduced usage of single-chip microcomputer in nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for control, linear compensation, calculation, changeable parameter presetting and military training

  4. Non-combustible nuclear radiation shields with high hydrogen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, W.C.; Peterson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The invention relates to compositions, methods of production, and uses of non-combustible nuclear radiation shields, with particular emphasis on those containing a high concentration of hydrogen atoms, especially effective for moderating neutron energy by elastic scatter, dispersed as a discontinuous phase in a continuous phase of a fire resistant matrix

  5. The IAEA safety standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Abel J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the standards for radiation, waste and nuclear safety established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). It provides a historical overview of their development and also summarizes the standards' current preparation and review process. The final paragraphs offer an outlook on future developments. (author)

  6. Design of instrument for monitoring nuclear radiation and baneful gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Jianping; Chen Jun; Zhu Wenkai

    2006-01-01

    Counters and ionization chambers are applied to sensors, and microprocessor based on ARM IP is applied to center controller in the instrument. It is achieved to monitor nuclear radiation and baneful gas in an instrument. The instrument is capable of LCD displaying, menu operating and speech alarming. (authors)

  7. Research on international cooperation for nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the importance and related requirements of international cooperation on nuclear and radiation safety, analyzes the current status, situation and challenges faced, as well as the existing weakness and needs for improvement, and gives some proposals for reference. (author)

  8. Towards an international regime on radiation and nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The 1990s have seen the de facto emergence of what might be called an 'international regime on nuclear and radiation safety'. It may be construed to encompass three key elements: legally binding international undertakings among States; globally agreed international safety standards; and provisions for facilitating the application of those standards. While nuclear and radiation safety are national responsibilities, governments have long been interested in formulating harmonised approaches to radiation and nuclear safety. A principal mechanism for achieving harmonisation has been the establishment of internationally agreed safety standards and the promotion of their global application. The development of nuclear and radiation safety standards is a statutory function of the IAEA, which is unique in the United Nations system. The IAEA Statute expressly authorises the Agency 'to establish standards of safety' and 'to provide for the application of these standards'. As the following articles and supplement in this edition of the IAEA Bulletin point out, facilitating international conventions; developing safety standards; and providing mechanisms for their application are high priorities for the IAEA. (author)

  9. Medical intervention in case of nuclear or radiation event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.; Bourguignon, M.; Carli, P.; Carosella, E.; Challeton de Vathaire, C.; Court, L.; Ducousso, R.; Facon, A.; Fleutot, J.B.; Goldstein, P.; Gourmelon, P.; Herbelet, G.; Kolodie, H.; Lallemand, J.; Martin, J.C.; Menthonnex, P.; Masse, R.; Origny, S.; Pasnon, J.; Peton Klein, D.; Rougy, C.; Schoulz, D.; Romet, G.; Telion, C.; Vrousos, C.

    2002-01-01

    This guide aims to be a practical tool for intervenors in case of nuclear or radiation accident. It proposes many sheets to favor the reactivity and the implementing of adapted measures. It concerns the course of action to take in case of irradiation accident or contamination and the reception in medical structure or a hospital. (A.L.B.)

  10. Radiation protection monitoring for #betta#-radiation at the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Heinzelmann, M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete system for radiation protection monitoring also includes #betta#-radiation monitoring. This requires suitable dose rate meters, personal dosemeters and last but not least detailed information about possible radiation exposure due to #betta#-radiation. Since there are at present no suitable #betta#-dosemeters available on the market yet, a large nuclear research centre such as the KFA Juelich, where radioactive substances are being handled by more than 1600 persons, has the task of developing and deploying suitable dosemeters. The centre's accomplishments in this area are described

  11. Reporting nuclear power plant operation to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear safety (STUK) is the authority in Finland responsible for controlling the safety of the use of nuclear energy. The control includes, among other things, inspection of documents, reports and other clarification submitted to the STUK, and also independent safety analyses and inspections at the plant site. The guide presents what reports and notifications of the operation of the nuclear facilities are required and how they shall be submitted to the STUK. The guide does not cover reports to be submitted on nuclear material safeguards addressed in the guide YVL 6.10. Guide YVL 6.11 presents reporting related to the physical protection of nuclear power plants. Monitoring and reporting of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is presented in the guide YVL 7.10 and reporting on radiological control in the environment of nuclear power plants in the guide YVL 7.8

  12. Provenance of nuclear radioactivity radiation and hazardous health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhuja, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    This assessment has an important consideration for nuclear energy upon the creation of radioactivity being generated and mobilized through various energy agencies. The term 'Radioactivity' or the rate of nuclear decay is measured in units called 'Becquerel' (Bq), where 1 Bq= 1 event (disintegration) per second. Another commonly used unit of radioactivity is the Curie (Ci), where 1 Ci = 3.70 x 10"1"0 Bq. Radiation is all around us. It is in our environment and has been since the earth was formed. As a result, life has evolved in the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation. It comes from outer space (cosmic), ground (terrestrial) and even from within our own bodies. It is in the air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the state of our wellbeing. However, the entire system is related to human and human-health issues. This paper examines the empirical evidence incorporated with human-made nuclear radioactivity from nuclear energy sources, especially while maintaining the viability of radioactive mechanisms, which may cause the uncontrolled highly dangerous harmful effects of radionuclides in human body and these radiations can even damage the DNA in the cells of people when exposed to it, because it is the DNA that passes on instructions for growth and development to the next generation. This, in turn, is the paradigm for the health risks of various sources of nuclear radioactivity. (author)

  13. Study of the casting speedy radiation-detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xiaochun; Huang Junqing; Shi Xianbei; Zhao Gang; Wang Liping

    2001-01-01

    The paper introduces the design of the launching speedy radiation-detection system. It consists of launcher, semiconductor detector, microprocessor and communicator. It can give the intensity, position, time of radiation. The paper discusses the function, composition, principle, speciality and technical problem of this system

  14. The use of nuclear reactor in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Yowri

    1991-01-01

    The Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) is widely used not only in biology, but also in applied biology, today. These studies were surveyed in the present paper and the future possibility to use KUR in radiation biology was discussed. The researches on the effects of thermal neutrons on various normal tissues, the biological effects of neutrons except thermal neutrons, especially intermediate neutrons between thermal and high speed neutrons or cold neutrons, the adaptive response of cells to thermal neutron radiation, the application of nuclear reactor-produced radionuclides including 195m Pt to biology, and the mutation in botanical science and so on, should be continued using nuclear reactor. The necessity of nuclear reactor in biology and applied biology is emphasized. (author)

  15. Controlling occupational radiation exposure at operating nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical development of the philosophy of keeping the radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is presented. A review is made of some of the ALARA activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Energy Research and Development Administration, and various nuclear installations. Data compiled by the NRC show that routine and special maintenance at light-water reactors accounts for 72 percent of all occupational exposure at these sites. The role that Oak Ridge National Laboratory has taken in ALARA research is presented, with emphasis placed on a study of valve malfunctions at light-water reactors. The valve study indicates a trend toward decreasing valve reliability over the past few years. Finally a cost--benefit analysis of radiation dose reduction is discussed. The rationale for assigning a cost per man-rem based on the radiation exposure level that is encountered is presented

  16. Measurement of gamma radiation doses in nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochvar, I.A.; Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Sergeeva, N.A.

    1976-01-01

    Considered are the problems of measuring gamma radiation dose values and the dose distribution in the nuclear power plant area with the aim of estimating the extent of their effect on the population. Presented are the dosimeters applied, their distribution throughout the controlled area, time of measurement. The distribution of gamma radiation doses over the controlled area and the dose alteration with the increase of the distance from the release source are shown. The results of measurements are investigated. The conclusion is made that operating nuclear power plants do not cause any increase in the gamma radiation dose over the area. Recommendations for clarifying the techniques for using dose-meters and decreasing measurement errors are given [ru

  17. Prospects for coherently driven nuclear radiation by Coulomb excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamyan, S.A.; Carroll, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Possible experiments are discussed in which the Coulomb excitation of nuclear isomers would be followed by sequential energy release. The possibility of the coherent Coulomb excitation of nuclei ensconced in a crystal by channeled relativistic heavy projectiles is considered. The phase shift between neighbor-nuclei excitations can be identical to the photon phase shift for emission in forward direction. Thus, the elementary string of atoms can radiate coherently with emission of characteristic nuclear γ rays and the intensity of the radiation could be increased due to the summation of amplitudes. The Moessbauer conditions should be important for this new type of collective radiation that could be promising in the context of the γ-lasing problem

  18. Radiation and Thermal Ageing of Nuclear Waste Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive decay of fission products and actinides incorporated into nuclear waste glass leads to self-heating and self-radiation effects that may affect the stability, structure and performance of the glass in a closed system. Short-lived fission products cause significant self-heating for the first 600 years. Alpha decay of the actinides leads to self-radiation damage that can be significant after a few hundred years, and over the long time periods of geologic disposal, the accumulation of helium and radiation damage from alpha decay may lead to swelling, microstructural evolution and changes in mechanical properties. Four decades of research on the behavior of nuclear waste glass are reviewed.

  19. Calibration of radiation monitors at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreau, L.; Miller, A.D.; Naughton, M.D.

    1994-03-01

    This work was performed to provide guidance to the utilities in the primary and secondary calibration of the radiation monitoring systems (RMS) installed in nuclear power plants. These systems are installed in nuclear power plants to monitor ongoing processes, identify changing radiation fields, predict and limit personnel radiation exposures and measure and control discharge of radioactive materials to the environment. RMS are checked and calibrated on a continuing basis to ensure their precision and accuracy. This report discusses various approaches towards primary and secondary calibrations of the RMS equipment in light of accepted practices at typical power plants and recent interpretations of regulatory guidance. Detailed calibration techniques and overall system responses, trends, and practices are discussed. Industry, utility, and regulatory sources were contacted to create an overall consensus of the most reasonable approaches to optimizing the performance of this equipment

  20. Radiation dosimetry for medical management in nuclear/radiological disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    ; quartz, sand, stones and man made materials such as glasses, bricks, tiles and ceramics from the close proximity of exposed individual can be examined using TL techniques for estimating the radiation doses to the public. TL techniques have been employed to these materials after exposing them with gamma radiation and the results have been found promising. The current trends in methodologies and techniques of radiation dosimetry for medical management of nuclear/radiological disaster will be presented. (author)

  1. Environmental radiation monitoring around the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.D.; Lee, W.Y.; Park, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements and monitoring of the environmental radiation levels, as well as radioactivity of the various environmental samples were carried out three times a month in the on-site and the off-site around the KAERI site. Measurements were made for both gross alpha and beta radioactivity of all environmental samples. Gross beta measurements were made for radioactivity of the fallout, airborne particulates and precipitations which were collected on a daily basis on the roof of the main building. Measurements of the accumulated doses were also carried out at 10 posts on a bimonthly basis by employing thermoluminescent dosimeters

  2. Calculating the cost of research and Development in nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsulevich, N.Je.; Nosovs'ka, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Methodological support assessing the cost of research and development in the area of nuclear and radiation safety regulation is considered. Basic methodological recommendations for determining labor expenditures for research and development in nuclear and radiation safety are provided.

  3. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, E.

    2014-04-01

    Radiation is useful because of its ability to penetrate tissue, allowing imaging of internal structures. However radiation may produce harmful biological effects. Observations of exposed human populations and animal experimentation indicate that exposure to low levels of radiation over a period of time may lead to stochastic radiation effects. Exposures to high levels of radiation above threshold also leads to deterministic effects. Establishment of radiation protection and safety programme and implement it without fail may help prevent deterministic effect and limit chances of stochastic effects. This is achieved by assigning responsibilities to the proposed organizational structure, management commitment to safety culture by providing continuous education and training to employees, regular reviewing and auditing of radiation safety policies. Occupational, public and environmental radiation exposure is further achieved by implementation of set local rules and operational procedures, proper management of radioactive waste and safe transport of radioactive material. Medical radiation exposure is achieved by justified procedures, optimization of doses, guidance levels, quality assurance and quality control programme through image quality, radiopharmaceutical quality and records keeping of radiation doses, calibration certificates of equipment used, equipment service and test certificates. Diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the minimum possible radiation dose to the patient while therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals must deliver the maximum dose to the target organ or tissue, while minimizing the dose to non-target tissues such as the bone marrow. Special considerations shall be given to pregnant and breast-feeding patients. The proper facility design and shielding of a nuclear medicine facility shall further provide for the radiation protection to the worker, the patient, public and the environment. Precautions should be given to radioactive patients as there

  4. Analysis and characterization. Nuclear resonant scattering with the synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffer, R.; Teillet, J.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear resonant scattering using the synchrotron radiation combines the uncommon properties of the Moessbauer spectroscopy and those of the synchrotron radiation. Since its first observation in 1984, this technique and its applications have been developed rapidly. The nuclear resonant scattering is now a standard technique for all the synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation. As the Moessbauer spectroscopy, it is a method of analysis at the atomic scale and a non destructive method. It presents the advantage not to require the use of radioactive sources of incident photons which can be difficult to make, of a lifetime which can be short and of an obviously limited intensity. The current applications are the hyperfine spectroscopy and the structural dynamics. In hyperfine spectroscopy, the nuclear resonant scattering can measure the same size than the Moessbauer spectroscopy. Nevertheless, it is superior in the ranges which exploit the specific properties of the synchrotron radiation, such as the very small samples, the monocrystals, the measures under high pressures, the geometry of small angle incidence for surfaces and multilayers. The structural dynamics, in a time scale of the nanosecond to the microsecond can be measured in the temporal scale. Moreover, the nuclear inelastic scattering gives for the first time a tool which allows to have directly the density of states of phonons and then allow to deduce the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of the lattice. The nuclear resonant scattering technique presented here, which corresponds to the Moessbauer spectroscopy technique (SM), is called 'nuclear forward scattering' (NFS). Current applications in physics and chemistry are develop. The NFS is compared to the usual SM technique in order to reveal its advantages and disadvantages. (O.M.)

  5. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafe A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC. The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  6. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.; Oehme, L.; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  7. Role of radiation standards in peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahant, A.K.; Sathian, V.; Joseph, L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation standards play an acute role in all the peaceful applications of nuclear energy, which is not limited to generation of electrical power anymore. Radioactive sources are being used in a very wide variety of applications, which can be broadly classified as medicine, agriculture, industry and scientific research. All these applications involve the use of radiation in a well-controlled manner and hence require accurate characterization and quantification of the radiation. Radiation Standards Section of Radiation Safety Systems Division at BARC is the apex national laboratory for all the radiological quantities related to various types of radiation sources. The laboratory develops, maintains and disseminates the standards to the users of the radiation sources all over the country and some of the neighbouring countries viz. Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar with an essential objective to bring homogeneity in all radiological measurements and make them compatible with the international standards. Various services provided by the Radiation Standards Section have been briefly described in the following sections. (author)

  8. Radiation pneumonitis: generalised lung changes detected by radionuclide imaging following focal lung irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.; Sephton, R.; Irving, L.; Crennan, E.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of a nuclear imaging technique as a means of detecting radiation-induced lung injury is examined. The technique involves the patient inhaling modified technegas TM , a gas-like radiotracer which is an ultra fine particulate dispersion. This crosses the alveolar-capillary membrane and the clearance rate of the tracer from the lungs is presumed to reflect membrane permeability. A case of a patient who, after receiving localised radiotherapy and chemotherapy for lung cancer, developed symptoms and signs of radiation pneumonitis is reported. Pre- and post-radiotherapy investigations using the nuclear technique showed acceleration of rates of tracer clearance from both lungs, consistent with generalised changes in alveolar-capillary membrane permeability. It is suggested that the symptoms of radiation pneumonitis may in part result from pathophysiologic changes in nonirradiated lung which may appear radiologically normal. 4 refs., 2 figs

  9. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  10. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years

  11. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Grossman, R.F.; Mullen, A.A.; Potter, G.D.; Smith, D.D.; Hopper, J.L. (comps.)

    1982-08-01

    This report, prepared in accordance with the guidelines in DOE/E-0023 (DOE 1981), covers the program activities conducted around Nevada Test Site (NTS) for calendar year 1981. It contains descriptions of pertinent features of the NTS and its environs, summaries of the dosimetry and sampling methods, analytical procedures, and the analytical results from environmental measurements. Where applicable, dosimetry and sampling data are compared to appropriate guides for external and internal exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. The monitoring networks detected no radioactivity in the various media which could be attributed to US nuclear testing. Small amounts of fission products were detected in air samples as a result of the People's Republic of China nuclear test and atmospheric krypton-85 increased, following the trend beginning in 1960, due to increased use of nuclear technology. Strontium-90 in milk and cesium-137 in meat samples continued the slow decline as observed for the last several years.

  12. Post-graduate course on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Vol. 1,2; Curso de post-grado en proteccion radiologica y seguridad nuclear. Tomo 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The course handbook on radiation protection and nuclear safety containing two parts some was prepared mainly by scientists of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Argentine Republic, under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The contents o this handbook have the principals aspects: radiation detection, radio dosimetry, biological effects of the ionizing radiation, occupational exposure, environmental effects, contamination and decontamination, radioactive waste management, transport of radioactive materials, medical and industrial applications and the Argentine regulatory system.

  13. Rain-Induced Increase in Background Radiation Detected by Radiation Portal Monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Blessinger, Christopher S [ORNL; Guzzardo, Tyler [ORNL; Livesay, Jake [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    A complete understanding of both the steady state and transient background measured by Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) is essential to predictable system performance, as well as maximization of detection sensitivity. To facilitate this understanding, a test bed for the study of natural background in RPMs has been established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This work was performed in support of the Second Line of Defense Program's mission to detect the illicit movement of nuclear material. In the present work, transient increases in gamma ray counting rates in RPMs due to rain are investigated. The increase in background activity associated with rain, which has been well documented in the field of environmental radioactivity, originates from the atmospheric deposition of two radioactive daughters of radon-222, namely lead-214 and bismuth-214 (henceforth {sup 222}Rn, {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi). In this study, rainfall rates recorded by a co-located weather station are compared with RPM count rates and High Purity Germanium spectra. The data verifies these radionuclides are responsible for the dominant transient natural background fluctuations in RPMs. Effects on system performance and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.

  14. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  15. Experiments performed with a functional model based on statistical discrimination in mixed nuclear radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Celarel, A.; Purghel, L.

    1999-01-01

    By using the statistical discrimination technique, the components of on ionization current, due to a mixed radiation field, may be simultaneously measured. A functional model, including a serially manufactured gamma-ray ratemeter was developed, as an intermediate step in the design of specialised nuclear instrumentation, in order to check the concept of statistical discrimination method. The obtained results are in good agreement with the estimations of the statistical discrimination method. The main characteristics of the functional model are the following: - dynamic range of measurement: >300: l; - simultaneous measurement of natural radiation background and gamma-ray fields; - accuracy (for equal exposure rates from gamma's and natural radiation background): 17%, for both radiation fields; - minimum detectable exposure rate: 2μR/h. (authors)

  16. The main goals and principles of nuclear and radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modern radiation technology expands in various fields of human activity. The most advanced approach, methods and technologies and also radiation technologies are of great importance in industrial, medical, agricultural, construction, science, education, and etc. areas of the fastest growing Azerbaijan Republic. Ensuring of nuclear and radiation safety, safety standards, main principles and conception of safety play a crucial role. The following ten principles are taken as a basis to ensure safety measures. 1. Responsible for ensuring safety; 2. The role of government; 3. Leadership and management of security interests; 4. Devices and justification of activity; 5. Optimization of preservation; 6. Limiting of risks for physical persons; 7. The protection of present and future generations; 8. The prevention of accidents; 9. Emergency preparedness and response; 10. Reducing of risks of existing and unregulated radiation protection measures. The safety principles are applied together

  17. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  18. Radiation protection during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guide describes a Radiation Protection Programme for nuclear power plants. It includes: (1) An outline of the basic principles as well as practical aspects of the programme; (2) A description of the responsibilities of the operating organization to establish an effective programme based upon these principles; (3) A description of the administrative and technical measures to establish and implement the programme. This Guide also deals with the operational aspects to be considered by the operating organization in reviewing design in order to facilitate implementation of the Radiation Protection Programme. This Guide covers the requirements for a Radiation Protection Programme for all operational states of the nuclear power plant. It also includes guidelines for handling planned special exposures and for coping with unplanned exposures and contamination of personnel, areas, and equipment. Additional information concerning emergency situations involving releases of radioactive materials is given in Safety Guides 50-SG-O6, ''Preparedness of the Operating Organization (Licensee) for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants'', and 50-SG-G6, ''Preparedness of Public Authorities for Emergencies at Nuclear Power Plants''. This Guide covers the principles of dose limitation to site personnel and to the public, but it does not include detailed instructions on the techniques used for the actual measurement and evaluation of the exposures. This Guide does not include detailed instructions on environmental surveys, but it does mention principal steps in environmental monitoring which may be required for confirmation of the acceptability of radioactive discharges

  19. Radiation Monitoring in a Newly Established Nuclear Medicine Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afroj, Kamila; Anwar-Ul-Azim, Md.; Nath, Khokon Kumar; Khan, Md. Rezaul Karim

    2010-05-01

    A study of area monitoring in a nuclear medicine department's new physical facility was performed for 3 months to ascertain the level of radiation protection of the staff working in nuclear medicine and that of the patients and patient's attendants. Exposure to nuclear medicine personnel is considered as occupational exposure, while exposure to patients is considered medical exposure and exposure to patients' attendants is considered public exposure. The areas for the sources of radiation considered were the hot laboratory, where unsealed isotopes, radionuclides, generators are stored and dosages are prepared, the patients' waiting room, where the radioactive nuclides are administered orally and intravenously for diagnosis and treatment and the SPECT rooms, where the patients' acquisition are taken. The monitoring process was performed using the TLD supplied and measured by the Health Physics Division of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The result shows no over-exposure of radiation from any of the working areas. The environment of the department is safe for work and free from unnecessary radiation exposure risk. (author)

  20. Radiation effects on power cables for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.; Munshi, P.; Badshah, M.G.Q.

    1988-01-01

    A large number of power and control cables, insulated with organic/polymeric materials, are installed quite near the reactor in nuclear power plants. The reliability of electrical equipment, receiving power through these cables, is critically important for the design and safety of the power stations. The radiation intensity inside the containment varies significantly from one location to another. The extent of material degradation is associated with the local radiation intensity. The cables used in the nuclear environment require several unique properties, the most obvious of these being radiation resistance, fire resistance, and the ability to withstand the loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant as specified in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 383. In this study, four specific electrical power cable samples insulated with polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, ethylene propylene rubber, and silicone rubber were chosen to investigate the effect of radiation in reactor environments on the electrical properties of the samples. Voltage breakdown tests and dielectric loss factor (tan δ) and conductor resistance measurements were carried out on each sample before and after irradiating them to near lifetime doses at ambient temperatures in atmospheric conditions

  1. Radiation risk to patients from nuclear medicine procedures in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brigido, O.; Montalván, A.; Barreras, A.; Hernández, J.

    2015-01-01

    Man-made radiation exposure to the Cuban population predominantly results from the medical use of ionizing radiation. It was therefore the aim of the present study, to provide public health information concerning diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures carried out in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces between 2000 and 2005. Population radiation dose estimation due to administration of radiopharmaceuticals in Camagüey and Ciego de Ávila provinces was carried out using Medical Internal Radiation Dose scheme (MIRD). Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used, the administered activity, the numbers of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved during the period 2000 – 2005. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.34 per 1000 population. The results show that imaging nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid and bone explorations with 13.3 and 12.9%, respectively and iodide uptake with 50% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose which averaged 95 man⋅Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagüey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 34.2 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 7.4 as a result of 24139 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding a total detriment of 1.72 per 1000 examination. (authors)

  2. A Statistical Model for Generating a Population of Unclassified Objects and Radiation Signatures Spanning Nuclear Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, K.; Sokkappa, P.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes an approach for generating a simulated population of plausible nuclear threat radiation signatures spanning a range of variability that could be encountered by radiation detection systems. In this approach, we develop a statistical model for generating random instances of smuggled nuclear material. The model is based on physics principles and bounding cases rather than on intelligence information or actual threat device designs. For this initial stage of work, we focus on random models using fissile material and do not address scenarios using non-fissile materials. The model has several uses. It may be used as a component in a radiation detection system performance simulation to generate threat samples for injection studies. It may also be used to generate a threat population to be used for training classification algorithms. In addition, we intend to use this model to generate an unclassified 'benchmark' threat population that can be openly shared with other organizations, including vendors, for use in radiation detection systems performance studies and algorithm development and evaluation activities. We assume that a quantity of fissile material is being smuggled into the country for final assembly and that shielding may have been placed around the fissile material. In terms of radiation signature, a nuclear weapon is basically a quantity of fissile material surrounded by various layers of shielding. Thus, our model of smuggled material is expected to span the space of potential nuclear weapon signatures as well. For computational efficiency, we use a generic 1-dimensional spherical model consisting of a fissile material core surrounded by various layers of shielding. The shielding layers and their configuration are defined such that the model can represent the potential range of attenuation and scattering that might occur. The materials in each layer and the associated parameters are selected from probability distributions that span the

  3. Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, William J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Zhang, Yanwen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2016-09-20

    This is the final report of the NEUP project “Radiation and Thermal Effects on Used Nuclear Fuel and Nuclear Waste Forms.” This project started on July 1, 2012 and was successfully completed on June 30, 2016. This report provides an overview of the main achievements, results and findings through the duration of the project. Additional details can be found in the main body of this report and in the individual Quarterly Reports and associated Deliverables of this project, which have been uploaded in PICS-NE. The objective of this research was to advance understanding and develop validated models on the effects of self-radiation from beta and alpha decay on the response of used nuclear fuel and nuclear waste forms during high-temperature interim storage and long-term permanent disposition. To achieve this objective, model used-fuel materials and model waste form materials were identified, fabricated, and studied.

  4. Response of nuclear emulsions to ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, R.; Pinkerton, F.E.

    1975-01-01

    Heavy ion tracks in Ilford K-2 emulsion are simulated with a computer program which makes use of the delta-ray theory of track structure, and the special assumption that the response of this emulsion to gamma-rays is 8-or-more hit. The Ilford K-series of nuclear emulsions is produced from a parent stock called K.0 emulsion, sensitized to become K.1 to K.5, and desensitized to become K-1 to K-3. Our simulations demonstrate that the emulsions K.5 through K.0 to K-1 are 1-or-more hit detectors, while K-2 is an 8-or-more hit detector. We have no data for K-3 emulsion. It would appear that emulsions of intermediate hittedness might be produced by an intermediate desensitization, to mimic or match the RBE-LET variations of biological cells, perhaps to produce a ''rem-dosimeter''. In the K-2 emulsion no developable gains are produced by stopping H, He, and Li ions. The emulsion has ''threshold-like'' properties, resembling etchable track detectors. It should prove useful in the measurement of high LET dose in a strong low LET background, as for pions or neutrons. Since it can be expected to accumulate and repair ''sub-lethal damage'', to display the ion-kill and gamma-kill inactivation modes, the grain-count and track width regimes, it may serve to model biological effects. (auth)

  5. Radiation and nuclear technologies in the Institute for Nuclear Research NAS of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevs'kij, Yi.M.; Gajdar, G.P.; Kovalenko, O.V.; Kovalyins'ka, T.V.; Kolomyijets', M.F.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Sakhno, V.Yi.; Shevel', V.M.

    2014-01-01

    The monograph describes some of the important developments of radiation and nuclear technology, made in INR NAS Ukraine. The first section describes radiation producing new materials and services using electrons with energies up to 5 MeV and Bremsstrahlung X-rays. We describe the original technology using ion emissions of the low and very low energies. In the second section the nuclear technologies, where ions, neutrons and other high-energy particles with energies are used, provide modification of the structure of matter nuclei in particular - radioactive isotopes for industrial and medical supplies and devices based on them.

  6. Rubella virus detection by ELISA method in exposed radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianmei; Zhu Bo; Zhu Youming; Shao Jinhui; Wu Weiping; Han Jinxiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A rapid diagnosis method was developed to detect Rubella virus infection in radiation workers. Methods: Modified ELISA method was used to detect the level of lgG and lgM antibodies in 514 in Jinan district. Results: 90.47% of 514 cases was shown to be resistant against Rubella virus; 6.42% were sensitive type; 0.78% belonged to be reinfected. Conclusion: Detection of Rubella virus in exposed radiation workers was imperative, and vaccine against Rubella virus was also needed to eliminate the infection risk. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  8. Advancing capabilities for detecting undeclared nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baute, J.

    2013-01-01

    When a country presents a consistent, transparent and predictable picture of its nuclear programme that is supported by the analysis of all information, IAEA inspectors do not need to go there as frequently for routine verification activities. Rather IAEA can redirect those resources to addressing safeguards issues in the state posing real proliferation concerns. The point is how to establish a coherent picture of a nuclear program and how to identify early warnings of safeguard breaches. A key element is the exploitation of all the information available (open sources, inspection report, satellite imagery, state declarations,...) through effective and quick information analysis. This document is made up of the slides of the presentation

  9. Pediatric radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neshandar Asli, I.; Tabeie, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of a nationwide survey to estimate population exposure to radiation from diagnostic nuclear medicine in Iran, this paper presents the pediatric population radiation exposure due to nuclear medicine examinations in Tehran. Patients and methods: the effective dose equivalent, H E , was used to calculate the collective effective dose in pediatric patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures, and the corresponding data were obtained from thirty out of thirty seven active nuclear medicine departments in Tehran. Results: annually about 5.26% of nuclear medicine examinations were performed on patients under 15 years of age in Tehran. The most frequent was renal examinations (38.2%), followed y thyroid (27.4%) and bone (26.7%). The annual collective H E for patients under 15 was 19.03 human-Sv, which contributed 3.96% to the collective H E for all patients. The contribution of renal, bone and thyroid examinations to the pediatric collective H E were 24.6% 48.8% and 13.5% respectively. The mean effective dose equivalent per pediatric patient was 3.75 mSv.Conclusion: Among the three most frequent examinations, the bone with a relative frequency of 27.4% constituted 48.8% of the collective H E , which was the highest absorbed dose per examination. The mean effective dose per examination for patients younger than 15 years was 67.9% of the adults

  10. Occupational radiation exposures at radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.; Pardo, G.; Melis, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of occupational radiation exposures at relevant radioactive and nuclear facilities in Argentina, for 1996. The facilities send this information to the Nuclear Regulatory Authority due to the requirements included in their operation licenses and authorizations. Dose distributions of 1891 workers and their parameters are presented. The analysis is performed for each type of the following practices: nuclear power plants, research reactors, radioisotope production, fuel fabrication, industrial irradiation and research in the nuclear fuel cycle. Trends of occupational exposure in different practices are analysed and the highest doses have been identified. Following the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 60), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina updated the dose limits for workers in 1995. The individual dose limits are 20 mSv per year averaged over five consecutive years (100 mSv in 5 years), not exceeding 50 mSv in a single year. To evaluate the occupational radiation exposure trend, without taking into account practices, an analysis of the distribution of individual doses accumulated in the period 1995/96, for all workers, is performed. Individual doses received during 1996 were all below 50 mSv and doses accumulated in the period 1995/96 were below 100 mSv. (author). 7 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Radiation doses to the staff of a nuclear cardiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapaki, V.; Koutelou, M.; Theodorakos, A.; Kouzoumi, A.; Kitziri, S.; Tsiblouli, S.; Vardalaki, E.; Kyrozi, E.; Kouttou, S.

    2002-01-01

    The last years, new radiopharmaceuticals are used in a Nuclear Medicine (NM) Department. Nowadays, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) is a method of routine imaging, a fact that has required increased levels of radioactivity in certain patient examinations. The staff that is more likely to receive the greatest radiation dose in a NM Department is the technologist who deals with performance of patient examination and injection of radioactive material and the nurse who is caring for the patients visiting the Department some of which being totally helpless. The fact that each NM Dept possesses equipment with certain specifications, deals with various kind of patients, has specific design and radiation protection measures which can differ from other NM Depts and uses various examination protocols, makes essential the need to investigate the radiation doses received by each member of the staff, so as to continuously monitor doses and take protective measures if required, control less experienced staff and ensure that radiation dose levels are kept as low as possible at all times. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate radiation dose to the nuclear cardiology department staff by thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) placed on the the skin at thyroid and abdominal region as well as evaluating protection measures taken currently in the Dept

  12. Radiation resistant polymers and coatings for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Mallika, C.; Lawrence, Falix

    2014-01-01

    Polymer based materials are extensively used in the nuclear industry for the reprocessing of spent fuels in highly radioactive and corrosive environment. Hence, these polymer materials are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation, resulting in the degradation in properties. Polymers containing aromatic molecules generally possess higher resistance to radiation degradation than the aliphatic polymers. For improving the radiation resistance of polymers various methods are reported in the literature. Among the aromatic polymers, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has the radiation tolerance up to 10 Mega Grey (MGy). To explore the possibility of enhancing the radiation resistance of PEEK, a study was initiated to develop PEEK - ceramic composites and evaluate the effect of radiation on the properties of the composites. PEEK and PEEK - alumina (micron size) composites were irradiated in a gamma chamber using 60 Co source and the degradation in mechanical, structural, electrical and thermal properties, gel fraction, coefficient of friction and morphology were investigated. The degradation in the mechanical properties owing to radiation could be reduced by adding alumina filler to PEEK. Nano alumina filler was observed to be more effective in suppressing the damage caused by radiation on the polymer, when compared to micron alumina filler. For the protection of aluminium components in the manipulators and the rotors and stators of the motors of the centrifugal extractors employed in the plant from the attack by nitric acid vapour, PEEK coating based on liquid dispersion was developed, which has resistance to radiation, chemicals and wear. The effect of radiation and chemical vapour on the properties of the PEEK coating was estimated. The performance of the coating in the plant was evaluated and the coating was found to give adequate protection to the motors of centrifugal extractors against corrosion. (author)

  13. An integrated circuit/microsystem/nano-enhanced four species radiation sensor for inexpensive fissionable material detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, Randy Paul

    2011-12-01

    Small scale radiation detectors sensitive to alpha, beta, electromagnetic, neutron radiation are needed to combat the threat of nuclear terrorism and maintain national security. There are many types of radiation detectors on the market, and the type of detector chosen is usually determined by the type of particle to be detected. In the case of fissionable material, an ideal detector needs to detect all four types of radiation, which is not the focus of many detectors. For fissionable materials, the two main types of radiation that must be detected are gamma rays and neutrons. Our detector uses a glass or quartz scintillator doped with 10B nanoparticles to detect all four types of radiation particles. Boron-10 has a thermal neutron cross section of 3,840 barns. The interaction between the neutron and boron results in a secondary charge particle in the form of an alpha particle to be emitted, which is detectable by the scintillator. Radiation impinging on the scintillator matrix produces varying optical pulses dependent on the energy of the particles. The optical pulses are then detected by a photomultiplier (PM) tube, creating a current proportional to the energy of the particle. Current pulses from the PM tube are differentiated by on-chip pulse height spectroscopy, allowing for source discrimination. The pulse height circuitry has been fabricated with discrete circuits and designed into an integrated circuit package. The ability to replace traditional PM tubes with a smaller, less expensive photomultiplier will further reduce the size of the device and enhance the cost effectiveness and portability of the detector.

  14. Radiation protection in connection with the decommissioning of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This document presents the SSI preliminary views and position concerning the decommissioning of nuclear plants. To prevent the exposure of the decommissioning personnel and the general public to unacceptable levels of radiation and to protect the environment and future generations, it is SSI's task to formulate and issue the necessary terms and regulations with which the reactor licensees must comply during the decommissioning work. The views and principles presented here are the basis of SSI's continued work on guidelines and regulations for the decommissioning of nuclear plants

  15. Radiation processing program at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Zaman

    2007-01-01

    Radiation processing technology has been proven to enhance industrial efficiency and productivity, improve product quality and competitiveness. For many years, variety of radiation crosslinkable materials based on synthetic polymers have been studied at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency either in the form of thermoplastic resins, polymer blends or composites. At present, effort is focused towards developing new materials based on natural polymers such as natural rubber and rubber based products, palm oil and palm oil based products and polysaccharide. In this respect, the most challenging issues are to develop new materials/products that have commercial value and to bring the products from laboratory to market. (author)

  16. Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Safety Guide deals with the provisions to be made in the design of thermal neutron reactor power plants to protect site personnel and the public from undue exposure to ionizing radiation during operational states and accident conditions. The effective radiation protection is a combination of good design, high quality construction and proper operation. The document gives guidance on how to satisfy the objectives contained in Subsection 2.2 and Section 9 of the Code of Practice on Design for Safety of Nuclear Power Plants

  17. Possible radiation injury at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, L.C.J.; De Villiers, B.; Van Zyl, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    Any injured patient from Koeberg Nuclear Power Station will be treated in the conventional manner as an acute surgical emergency; this has priority over decontamination. The ideal situation is decontamination at Koeberg before ambulance transferral to the Tygerberg Radiation Casualty Facility, but if this is not possible or complete, decontamination can be accomplished by a trained team in the unit. Teamwork is the essence at the place of injury, during transfer, in the decontamination area, in the operating theatre and during the postoperative phase. No surgical management is appropriate or complete without the very necessary guidance and advice from a physicist and the Advisory Group for Radiation Casualties

  18. DNA-nuclear matrix interactions and ionizing radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The association between inherent ionizing radiation sensitivity and DNA supercoil unwinding in mammalian cells suggests that the organization of the DNA in chromosomes plays an important role in radiation responses. In this paper, a model is proposed which suggests that these DNA unwinding alterations reflect differences in the attachment of DNA to the nuclear matrix. In radioresistant cells, the MAR structure might exist in a more stable, open configuration, limiting DNA unwinding following strand break induction and influencing the rate and nature of DNA double-strand break rejoining

  19. DNA-nuclear matrix interactions and ionizing radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.L.; Chicago Univ., IL; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The association between inherent ionizing radiation sensitivity and DNA supercoil unwinding in mammalian cells suggests that the DNA-nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) plays an important role in radiation response. In radioresistant cells, the MAR structure may exist in a more stable, open configuration, limiting DNA unwinding following strand break induction and maintaining DNA ends in close proximity for more rapid and accurate rejoining. In addition, the open configuration at these matrix attachment sites may serve to facilitate rapid DNA processing of breaks by providing (1) sites for repair proteins to collect and (2) energy to drive enzymatic reactions

  20. Radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Copps, T.P.; Morash, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we have measured radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope of Chinese hamster V-79 and mouse L cells to produce a quantifiable radiation endpoint on a membrane system. In the dose ranges measured (800 to 3000 rad in L cells and 1270 to 5700 rad in V-79 cells), the amount of invagination increased with dose and continued to develop in intact cells for up to 72 hr after the original population was irradiated. Small vacuoles, which sometimes appeared in the nuclei of L cells, were also more numerous in irradiated cells and increased with dose and incubation time in a similar fashion to invagination development

  1. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  2. Atoms, radiation, and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes basic atomic and nuclear structure, the physical processes that result in the emission of ionizing radiations, and external and internal radiation protection criteria, standards, and practices from the standpoint of their underlying physical and biological basis. The sources and properties of ionizing radiation-charged particles, photons, and neutrons-and their interactions with matter are discussed in detail. The underlying physical principles of radiation detection and systems for radiation dosimetry are presented. Topics considered include atomic physics and radiation; atomic structure and radiation; the nucleus and nuclear radiation; interaction of heavy charged particles with matter; interaction of beta particles with matter; phenomena associated with charged-particle tracks; interaction of photons with matter; neutrons, fission and criticality; methods of radiation detection; radiation dosimetry; chemical and biological effects of radiation; radiation protection criteria and standards; external radiation protection; and internal dosimetry and radiation protection

  3. Delay-Line Three-Dimensional Position Sensitive Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Manhee

    High-resistivity silicon(Si) in large volumes and with good charge carrier transport properties has been produced and achieved success as a radiation detector material over the past few years due to its relatively low cost as well as the availability of well-established processing technologies. One application of that technology is in the fabrication of various position-sensing topologies from which the incident radiation's direction can be determined. We have succeeded in developing the modeling tools for investigating different position-sensing schemes and used those tools to examine both amplitude-based and time-based methods, an assessment that indicates that fine position-sensing can be achieved with simpler readout designs than are conventionally deployed. This realization can make ubiquitous and inexpensive deployment of special nuclear materials (SNM) detecting technology becomes more feasible because if one can deploy position-sensitive semiconductor detectors with only one or two contacts per side. For this purpose, we have described the delay-line radiation detector and its optimized fabrication. The semiconductor physics were simulated, the results from which guided the fabrication of the guard ring structure and the detector electrode, both of which included metal-field-plates. The measured improvement in the leakage current was confirmed with the fabricated devices, and the structures successfully suppressed soft-breakdown. We also demonstrated that fabricating an asymmetric strip-line structure successfully minimizing the pulse shaping and increases the distance through which one can propagate the information of the deposited charge distribution. With fabricated delay-line detectors we can acquire alpha spectra (Am-241) and gamma spectra (Ba-133, Co-57 and Cd-109). The delay-line detectors can therefore be used to extract the charge information from both ion and gamma-ray interactions. Furthermore, standard charge-sensitive circuits yield high SNR

  4. Standard guide for application of radiation monitors to the control and physical security of special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This guide briefly describes the state-of-the-art of radiation monitors for detecting special nuclear material (SNM) in order to establish the context in which to write performance standards for the monitors. This guide extracts information from technical documentation to provide information for selecting, calibrating, testing, and operating such radiation monitors when they are used for the control and protection of SNM. This guide offers an unobtrusive means of searching pedestrians, packages, and motor vehicles for concealed SNM as one part of a nuclear material control or security plan for nuclear materials. The radiation monitors can provide an efficient, sensitive, and reliable means of detecting the theft of small quantities of SNM while maintaining a low likelihood of nuisance alarms

  5. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial

  6. The EPR detection of radiation treated foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.; Ostrowski, K.; Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1993-01-01

    The short paper by a Polish study group describes the results of the use of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy in the detection of irradiation to food. Pultry, fresh-water fish and sea fish as well as various fruits and yellow boletus are dealt with in some detail. (VHE) [de

  7. Radiation burden of population in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.

    The significance is discussed of the determination of the radiobiological consequences of normal operation and design basis accidents in nuclear power plant siting. The basic diagram and brief description is given of the programme for calculating the radiation load of the population in the surroundings of the nuclear power plant. The programme consists of two subprogrammes, i.e., the dispersion of radioactive gases (for normal operation and for accidents), the main programme for the determination of biological consequences and one auxiliary programme (the distribution of the population in the surroundings of the power plant). The four most important types of exposure to ionizing radiation are considered, namely inhalation, external irradiation from a cloud, ingestion (water, milk, vegetables), external irradiation from the deposit. (B.S.)

  8. Double gated-integrator for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, J.

    2001-01-01

    A new shaper, the double gated-integrator, for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The double gated-integrator consists of a pre-filter and two cascaded gated integrators. Two kinds of pre-filters were considered: a rectangular one and an exponential one. The results of the theoretical calculation show that the best figure of demerit for the double gated-integrator with exponential pre-filter is 1.016. This means that its noise to signal ratio is only 1.6% worse than that it is for infinite cusp shaping. The practical realization of the exponential pre-filter and that of the double gated integrator, both in analogue and in digital way, is very simple. Therefore, the double gated-integrator with exponential pre-filter could be a promising solution for shaping nuclear radiation detector signals

  9. Thermal radiation in gas core nuclear reactors for space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Gauntt, R.O.; Harms, G.A.; Latham, T.; Roman, W.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    A diffusive model of the radial transport of thermal radiation out of a cylindrical core of fissioning plasma is presented. The diffusion approximation is appropriate because the opacity of uranium is very high at the temperatures of interest (greater than 3000 K). We make one additional simplification of assuming constant opacity throughout the fuel. This allows the complete set of solutions to be expressed as a single function. This function is approximated analytically to facilitate parametric studies of the performance of a test module of the nuclear light bulb gas-core nuclear-rocket-engine concept, in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories. Our findings indicate that radiation temperatures in range of 4000-6000 K are attainable, which is sufficient to test the high specific impulse potential (approximately 2000 s) of this concept. 15 refs

  10. to control the nuclear safety and the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Bordarier, Ph.; Saint-Raymond, Ph.; Repussard, J.; Gouze, J.R.; Degos, L.; Massart, S.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G.; Cahen, B.; Hubert, I.; Wiroth, P.; Thezee, Ch.; Petit, G.; Kaufer, B.; Taniguchi, T.; Revol, H.

    2005-01-01

    Publishing this dossier, the aim is to present the principles and the variety of issues linked to nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision, and the main strategic choices made to use efficiently and effectively A.S.N. supervision means. A.S.N. is responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection supervision. A.S.N. has to be itself evaluated and supervised by external bodies. The Parliament Office for Evaluation of Scientific and Technological Options (O.P.E.C.S.T.) supervises it; the foreign peers watch and A.S.N. has to be the object of an international audit conducted by its peers under the leadership of I.A.E.A. by the beginning of 2007. (N.C.)

  11. Nuclear radiation monitoring instruments for personnel in nuclear disaster for defence needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.K.; Vaijapurkar, S.G.; Yadav, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the tragedy of nuclear device exploding over Japan by USA in 1945 awareness exists amongst the armed forces personnel all over the world that a requirement of implementing radiological protection is imminent. Towards this adoption of radiological safety programme is a criterion. In a nuclear war disaster scenario, one encounters initial nuclear radiation (gamma and neutron radiations), gamma radiations from fallout, heat and blast. At certain distances Tanks/ armoured vehicles will survive and 4 R/s radiation level sensing to actuate relays for closing the ports of vehicles is essential, leading to reduction in inhalation, ingestion of fallout radioactivity and reduction in radiation dose received by occupants of the vehicle. Towards this sturdy radiation monitors to indicate gamma dose rate of the order of 1000 R/h, gamma and neutron dosimeters of the order of 1000 cGy with reading instruments are to be developed. These must work in harsh environment and sustain JSS 55555 conditions of army. Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur over past one decade has been involved in developing personnel, area and field monitoring instruments like dosimeters, survey meters, which are useful, acceptable to army personnel, armoured and personnel carrier vehicles, field structures/shelters. Technology transfer after satisfaction of armed forces, product ionisation and supply, maintenance, training has been the endeavor of the DRDO. Herein it is proposed to highlight the techno electronics nuclear radiation monitoring sensors and associated electronics systems developed first time in the country and productionised in bulk for Services for implementing personnel protection. The sensors developed and described are - Radiophotoluminescent Glass (RPLG) for gamma radiation dosimetry , neutron sensitive PIN diode for fast neutron dosimetry, gamma radiation sensitive PIN diode, superheated liquid neutron and gamma sensors. The dosimeter, dose rate meter and field/area instruments are

  12. [Socio-psychological and ecological aspects within the system of nuclear radiation risk mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, B I; Ushakov, I B; Zuev, V G

    2004-01-01

    The authors bring into light several aspects of nuclear radiation risks, i.e. physical safety of nuclear technologies and ecology, place of operator within the nuclear radiation safety system (proficiency, protective culture, safety guides) and consider approaches to the human factor quantification within the system of mitigation of risks from nuclear technologies, and IAEA recommendations on probable risk estimation. Future investigations should be aimed at extension of the radiation sensitivity threshold, personnel selection as by psychological so genetic testing for immunity to ionizing radiation, development of pharmachemical and physical protectors and methods of enhancing nonspecific resistance to extreme, including radiation, environments, and building of radiation event simulators for training.

  13. Development of radiation shielding standards in the American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubey, D.K.

    1975-11-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) is a standards-writing organization-member of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The ANS Standards Committee has a subcommittee denoted ANS-6, Shielding, whose charge is to establish standards in connection with radiation protection and shielding, to provide shielding information to other standards writing groups, and to prepare recommended sets of shielding data and test problems. This paper is a progress report of this subcommittee

  14. Study concerning an integrated radiation monitoring systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, M.; Cerga, V.; Pirvu, V; Badea, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated radiation monitoring system designed to assess the effects of nuclear accidents and to provide a basis for making right decisions and countermeasures in order to reduce health damages. The system implies a number of stationary monitoring equipment, data processing unit and a communication network. The system meets the demands of efficiency and reliability, providing the needed tools to easily create programs able to process simple input data filling the information management system. (author). 10 refs

  15. Supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Mingyan

    2013-01-01

    Through literature and documents, the basis, content and implementation of the supervision of radiation environment management of nuclear facilities were defined. Such supervision was extensive and complicated with various tasks and overlapping duties, and had large social impact. Therefore, it was recommend to make further research on this supervision should be done, clarify and specify responsibilities of the executor of the supervision so as to achieve institutionalization, standardization and routinization of the supervision. (author)

  16. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    The new 1985 regulations and guidance on radiation protection in the U.K. are discussed in relation to the needs for controlled areas in the nuclear medicine department and patient wards, admittance to hospital to comply with legislation, classification of workers, patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy and breast feeding. (U.K.)

  17. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  18. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated

  19. Results of activities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety in state supervision of nuclear safety of nuclear facilities and radiation protection in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovar, P.

    2004-01-01

    The report summarises results of activities of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SUJB) in the supervision of nuclear safety and radiation protection in the Czech Republic. The first part of the report evaluates nuclear safety of nuclear installations and contains information concerning the results of supervision of radiation protection in 2003 in the Czech Republic. The second part of the report describes new responsibilities of the SUJB in the domain of nuclear, chemical, bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons ban. (author)

  20. Detection method for nuclear reactor material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Motoyuki.

    1995-01-01

    A fine state of a test piece taken out of a reactor core is analyzed upon periodical inspection, and a new test piece previously reproducing the state described above at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon completion of the periodical inspection. Further, a fine state of the material at a time preceding to the operation time at a certain periodical inspection is forecast, and a test piece reproducing the state at the outside of the reactor is disposed to the reactor core upon the completion of the periodical inspection. Since a test piece previously reproducing the change of the state up to a certain periodical inspection by a method other than irradiation of neutrons is newly disposed, radiation of the test piece is not extremely increased even after an extremely long period of summed up reactor operation time, to provide substantially constant radiation level on every test piece. (T.M.)