Microscopic analysis of order parameters in nuclear quantum phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Z. P.; Niksic, T.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.
2009-01-01
Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape phase transitions in Nd isotopes are studied using excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a five-dimensional Hamiltonian for quadrupole vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom, with parameters determined by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. As a function of the physical control parameter, the number of nucleons, energy gaps between the ground state and the excited vibrational states with zero angular momentum, isomer shifts, and monopole transition strengths exhibit sharp discontinuities at neutron number N=90, which is characteristic of a first-order quantum phase transition.
Transport Properties of the Nuclear Pasta Phase with Quantum Molecular Dynamics
Nandi, Rana; Schramm, Stefan
2018-01-01
We study the transport properties of nuclear pasta for a wide range of density, temperature, and proton fractions, relevant for different astrophysical scenarios adopting a quantum molecular dynamics model. In particular, we estimate the values of shear viscosity as well as electrical and thermal conductivities by calculating the static structure factor S(q) using simulation data. In the density and temperature range where the pasta phase appears, the static structure factor shows irregular behavior. The presence of a slab phase greatly enhances the peak in S(q). However, the effect of irregularities in S(q) on the transport coefficients is not very dramatic. The values of all three transport coefficients are found to have the same orders of magnitude as found in theoretical calculations for the inner crust matter of neutron stars without the pasta phase; therefore, the values are in contrast to earlier speculations that a pasta layer might be highly resistive, both thermally and electrically.
Nuclear quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-mass systems
Quan, S.; Li, Z. P.; Vretenar, D.; Meng, J.
2018-03-01
Microscopic signatures of nuclear ground-state shape-phase transitions in odd-mass Eu isotopes are explored starting from excitation spectra and collective wave functions obtained by diagonalization of a core-quasiparticle coupling Hamiltonian based on energy density functionals. As functions of the physical control parameter—the number of nucleons—theoretical low-energy spectra, two-neutron separation energies, charge isotope shifts, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E 2 reduced transition matrix elements accurately reproduce available data and exhibit more-pronounced discontinuities at neutron number N =90 compared with the adjacent even-even Sm and Gd isotopes. The enhancement of the first-order quantum phase transition in odd-mass systems can be attributed to a shape polarization effect of the unpaired proton which, at the critical neutron number, starts predominantly coupling to Gd core nuclei that are characterized by larger quadrupole deformation and weaker proton pairing correlations compared with the corresponding Sm isotopes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sachdev, S.
1999-01-01
Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)
Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy
Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.
2017-05-01
Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.
A molecular dynamics study of nuclear quantum effect on the diffusion of hydrogen in condensed phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagashima, Hiroki; Tokumasu, Takashi; Tsuda, Shin-ichi; Tsuboi, Nobuyuki; Koshi, Mitsuo; Hayashie, A. Koichi
2014-01-01
In this paper, the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule on its diffusivity is analyzed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) method. The path integral centroid MD (CMD) method is applied for the reproduction method of time evolution of the molecules. The diffusion coefficient of liquid hydrogen is calculated using the Green-Kubo method. The simulation is performed at wide temperature region and the temperature dependence of the quantum effect of hydrogen molecule is addressed. The calculation results are compared with those of classical MD results. As a result, it is confirmed that the diffusivity of hydrogen molecule is changed depending on temperature by the quantum effect. It is clarified that this result can be explained that the dominant factor by quantum effect on the diffusivity of hydrogen changes from the swollening the potential to the shallowing the potential well around 30 K. Moreover, it is found that this tendency is related to the temperature dependency of the ratio of the quantum kinetic energy and classical kinetic energy
Phase transitions and quantum entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Portesi, M.; Rossignoli, R.
1990-01-01
An examination is made of the possibility to predict phase transitions of the fundamental state of finite quantum system, knowing the quantum entropy of these states, defined on the basis of the information theory. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs
Quantum computers in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miquel, Cesar; Paz, Juan Pablo; Saraceno, Marcos
2002-01-01
We represent both the states and the evolution of a quantum computer in phase space using the discrete Wigner function. We study properties of the phase space representation of quantum algorithms: apart from analyzing important examples, such as the Fourier transform and Grover's search, we examine the conditions for the existence of a direct correspondence between quantum and classical evolutions in phase space. Finally, we describe how to measure directly the Wigner function in a given phase-space point by means of a tomographic method that, itself, can be interpreted as a simple quantum algorithm
Preface: Special Topic on Nuclear Quantum Effects.
Tuckerman, Mark; Ceperley, David
2018-03-14
Although the observable universe strictly obeys the laws of quantum mechanics, in many instances, a classical description that either ignores quantum effects entirely or accounts for them at a very crude level is sufficient to describe a wide variety of phenomena. However, when this approximation breaks down, as is often the case for processes involving light nuclei, a full quantum treatment becomes indispensable. This Special Topic in The Journal of Chemical Physics showcases recent advances in our understanding of nuclear quantum effects in condensed phases as well as novel algorithmic developments and applications that have enhanced the capability to study these effects.
Preface: Special Topic on Nuclear Quantum Effects
Tuckerman, Mark; Ceperley, David
2018-03-01
Although the observable universe strictly obeys the laws of quantum mechanics, in many instances, a classical description that either ignores quantum effects entirely or accounts for them at a very crude level is sufficient to describe a wide variety of phenomena. However, when this approximation breaks down, as is often the case for processes involving light nuclei, a full quantum treatment becomes indispensable. This Special Topic in The Journal of Chemical Physics showcases recent advances in our understanding of nuclear quantum effects in condensed phases as well as novel algorithmic developments and applications that have enhanced the capability to study these effects.
Schleich, Wolfgang P.
2001-04-01
Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book - an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.
Revealing novel quantum phases in quantum antiferromagnets on random lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum magnets represent an ideal playground for the controlled realization of novel quantum phases and of quantum phase transitions. The Hamiltonian of the system can be indeed manipulated by applying a magnetic field or pressure on the sample. When doping the system with non-magnetic impurities, novel inhomogeneous phases emerge from the interplay between geometric randomness and quantum fluctuations. In this paper we review our recent work on quantum phase transitions and novel quantum phases realized in disordered quantum magnets. The system inhomogeneity is found to strongly affect phase transitions by changing their universality class, giving the transition a novel, quantum percolative nature. Such transitions connect conventionally ordered phases to unconventional, quantum disordered ones - quantum Griffiths phases, magnetic Bose glass phases - exhibiting gapless spectra associated with low-energy localized excitations.
Geometric phases and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vedral, V.
2005-01-01
Full text: In my lectures I will talk about the notion of the geometric phase and explain its relevance for both fundamental quantum mechanics as well as quantum computation. The phase will be at first introduced via the idea of Pancharatnam which involves interference of three or more light beams. This notion will then be generalized to the evolving quantum systems. I will discuss both pure and mixed states as well as unitary and non-unitary evolutions. I will also show how the concept of the vacuum induced geometric phase arises in quantum optics. A simple measurement scheme involving a Mach Zehnder interferometer will be presented and will be used to illustrate all the concepts in the lecture. Finally, I will expose a simple generalization of the geometric phase to evolving degenerate states. This will be seen to lead to the possibility of universal quantum computation using geometric effects only. Moreover, this contains a promise of intrinsically fault tolerant quantum information processing, whose prospects will be outlined at the end of the lecture. (author)
New 'phase' of quantum gravity.
Wang, Charles H-T
2006-12-15
The emergence of loop quantum gravity over the past two decades has stimulated a great resurgence of interest in unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics. Among a number of appealing features of this approach is the intuitive picture of quantum geometry using spin networks and powerful mathematical tools from gauge field theory. However, the present form of loop quantum gravity suffers from a quantum ambiguity, owing to the presence of a free (Barbero-Immirzi) parameter. Following the recent progress on conformal decomposition of gravitational fields, we present a new phase space for general relativity. In addition to spin-gauge symmetry, the new phase space also incorporates conformal symmetry making the description parameter free. The Barbero-Immirzi ambiguity is shown to occur only if the conformal symmetry is gauge fixed prior to quantization. By withholding its full symmetries, the new phase space offers a promising platform for the future development of loop quantum gravity. This paper aims to provide an exposition, at a reduced technical level, of the above theoretical advances and their background developments. Further details are referred to cited references.
Quantum rewinding via phase estimation
Tabia, Gelo Noel
2015-03-01
In cryptography, the notion of a zero-knowledge proof was introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff. An interactive proof system is said to be zero-knowledge if any verifier interacting with an honest prover learns nothing beyond the validity of the statement being proven. With recent advances in quantum information technologies, it has become interesting to ask if classical zero-knowledge proof systems remain secure against adversaries with quantum computers. The standard approach to show the zero-knowledge property involves constructing a simulator for a malicious verifier that can be rewinded to a previous step when the simulation fails. In the quantum setting, the simulator can be described by a quantum circuit that takes an arbitrary quantum state as auxiliary input but rewinding becomes a nontrivial issue. Watrous proposed a quantum rewinding technique in the case where the simulation's success probability is independent of the auxiliary input. Here I present a more general quantum rewinding scheme that employs the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This work was funded by institutional research grant IUT2-1 from the Estonian Research Council and by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund.
Quantum discord and quantum phase transition in spin chains
Dillenschneider, Raoul
2008-01-01
Quantum phase transitions of the transverse Ising and antiferromagnetic XXZ spin S=1/2 chains are studied using quantum discord. Quantum discord allows the measure of quantum correlations present in many-body quantum systems. It is shown that the amount of quantum correlations increases close to the critical points. The observations are in agreement with the information provided by the concurrence which measures the entanglement of the many-body system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugahara, M.; Ando, N.; Kaneda, H.; Nagai, M.; Ogawa, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.
1985-01-01
Theoretical and Experimental study on granular superconductors shows that they are classified into two groups; fixed-phase superconductor (theta-superconductor) and fixed-pair-number superconductor (N-superconductor) and that a new macroscopic quantum device with conjugate property to Josephson effect can be made by use of N-superconductors
Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2003-01-01
Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...
Nuclear spectroscopy and quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakata, Fumihiko; Marumori, Toshio; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tsukuma, Hidehiko; Iwasawa, Kazuo.
1990-05-01
In this paper, a recent development of INS-TSUKUBA joint research project on large-amplitude collective motion is summerized. The classical theory of nuclear collective dynamics formulated within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory is recapitulated and decisive role of the level crossing in the single-particle dynamics on the order-to-chaos transition of collective motion is discussed in detail. Extending the basic idea of the classical theory, we discuss a quantum theory of nuclear collective dynamics which allows us to properly define a concept of quantum chaos for each eigenfunction. By using numerical calculation, we illustrate what the quantum chaos for each eigenfunction means and its relation to usual definition based on the random matrix theory. (author)
Erlingsson, S.I.
2003-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,
Fermion condensation quantum phase transition versus conventional quantum phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaginyan, V.R.; Han, J.G.; Lee, J.
2004-01-01
The main features of fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), which are distinctive in several aspects from that of conventional quantum phase transition (CQPT), are considered. We show that in contrast to CQPT, whose physics in quantum critical region is dominated by thermal and quantum fluctuations and characterized by the absence of quasiparticles, the physics of a Fermi system near FCQPT or undergone FCQPT is controlled by the system of quasiparticles resembling the Landau quasiparticles. Contrary to the Landau quasiparticles, the effective mass of these quasiparticles strongly depends on the temperature, magnetic fields, density, etc. This system of quasiparticles having general properties determines the universal behavior of the Fermi system in question. As a result, the universal behavior persists up to relatively high temperatures comparatively to the case when such a behavior is determined by CQPT. We analyze striking recent measurements of specific heat, charge and heat transport used to study the nature of magnetic field-induced QCP in heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn 5 and show that the observed facts are in good agreement with our scenario based on FCQPT and certainly seem to rule out the critical fluctuations related with CQPT. Our general consideration suggests that FCQPT and the emergence of novel quasiparticles near and behind FCQPT and resembling the Landau quasiparticles are distinctive features intrinsic to strongly correlated substances
Quantum mechanics in phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Frank
1984-01-01
A reformulation of quantum mechanics for a finite system is given using twisted multiplication of functions on phase space and Tomita's theory of generalized Hilbert algebras. Quantization of a classical observable h is achieved when the twisted exponential Exp0(-h) is defined as a tempered....... Generalized Weyl-Wigner maps related to the notion of Hamiltonian weight are studied and used in the formulation of a twisted spectral theory for functions on phase space. Some inequalities for Wigner functions on phase space are proven. A brief discussion of the classical limit obtained through dilations...
Quantum chromodynamics: A theory of the nuclear force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craigie, N.S.
1980-06-01
A brief outline is given of a possible theory of the nuclear force and the strong interactions between elementary particles, which is supposed responsible for nuclear matter. The theory is known as quantum chromodynamics because of its association with a new kind of nuclear charge called colour and its resemblance to quantum electrodynamics. Early ideas on the nuclear force and the emergence of the quark model and the QCD Lagrangian are described first. Then properties of this theory and the problem of quark confinement, the perturbative phase of QCD, and the non-perturbative or confinement phase of QCD and the description of hadrons and their interactions are discussed
Quantum algorithms for computational nuclear physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Višňák Jakub
2015-01-01
Full Text Available While quantum algorithms have been studied as an efficient tool for the stationary state energy determination in the case of molecular quantum systems, no similar study for analogical problems in computational nuclear physics (computation of energy levels of nuclei from empirical nucleon-nucleon or quark-quark potentials have been realized yet. Although the difference between the above mentioned studies might seem negligible, it will be examined. First steps towards a particular simulation (on classical computer of the Iterative Phase Estimation Algorithm for deuterium and tritium nuclei energy level computation will be carried out with the aim to prove algorithm feasibility (and extensibility to heavier nuclei for its possible practical realization on a real quantum computer.
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rotter, Ingrid
2012-01-01
1936 Niels Bohr: In the atom and in the nucleus we have indeed to do with two extreme cases of mechanical many-body problems for which a procedure of approximation resting on a combination of one-body problems, so effective in the former case, loses any validity in the latter where we, from the very beginning, have to do with essential collective aspects of the interplay between the constituent particles. 1963: Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen received the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure. State of the art 2011: - The nucleus is an open quantum system described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator with complex eigenvalues. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane ('exceptional points'), the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By this, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system. The dynamical phase transition starts at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of he low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model) and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles) differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr for compound nucleus states at high level density is not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic) states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different systems, including PT-symmetric ones, by varying one or more parameters
Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.
Developments in quantum information processing by nuclear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
qubits, the 2n energy levels of the spin-system can be treated as an n-qubit system. ... Quantum information processing; qubit; nuclear magnetic resonance quantum comput- ing. ..... The equilibrium spectrum has theoretical intensities in the ra-.
Microscopic study of nuclear 'pasta' by quantum molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2002-01-01
Structure of cold dense matter at subnuclear densities is investigated by quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. We succeeded in showing that the phases with slab-like and rod-like nuclei etc. and be formed dynamically from hot uniform nuclear matter without any assumptions on nuclear shape. We also observe intermediate phases, which has complicated nuclear shapes. Geometrical structures of matter are analyzed with Minkowski functionals, and it is found out that intermediate phases can be characterized as ones with negative Euler characteristic. Our result suggests the existence of these kinds of phases in addition to the simple 'pasta' phases in neutron star crusts. (author)
Topological phases: Wormholes in quantum matter
Schoutens, K.
2009-01-01
Proliferation of so-called anyonic defects in a topological phase of quantum matter leads to a critical state that can be visualized as a 'quantum foam', with topology-changing fluctuations on all length scales.
Phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Heng; Imai, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2003-01-01
We study the phase-covariant quantum cloning machine for qudits, i.e., the input states in a d-level quantum system have complex coefficients with arbitrary phase but constant module. A cloning unitary transformation is proposed. After optimizing the fidelity between input state and single qudit reduced density operator of output state, we obtain the optimal fidelity for 1 to 2 phase-covariant quantum cloning of qudits and the corresponding cloning transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fechner, Susanne
2008-01-01
The von Neumann-representation introduced in this thesis describes each laser pulse in a one-to-one manner as a sum of bandwidth-limited, Gaussian laser pulses centered around different points in phase space. These pulses can be regarded as elementary building blocks from which every single laser pulse can be constructed. The von Neumann-representation combines different useful properties for applications in quantum control. First, it is a one-to-one map between the degrees of freedom of the pulse shaper and the phase-space representation of the corresponding shaped laser pulse. In other words: Every possible choice of pulse shaper parameters corresponds to exactly one von Neumann-representation and vice versa. Moreover, since temporal and spectral structures become immediately sizable, the von Neumann-representation, as well as the Husimi- or the Wigner-representations, allows for an intuitive interpretation of the represented laser pulse. (orig.)
Quantum hadrodynamic and nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serot, B.D.
1984-01-01
The properties of infinite nuclear matter are studied in the model relativistic quantum field theory of Walecka. Neutral scalar and vector meson exchange reproduces the basic Lorentz structure of the observed nucleon-nucleon interaction, and the consequences of this structure are studied in detail. In the mean-field approximation, nuclear saturation involves a cancellation between large attractive and repulsive components in the average potential energy. The attractive scalar field decreases the nucleon mass significantly, and the strong vector repulsion implies a stiff high-density equation of state. Corrections to the mean-field approach arising from vacuum fluctuations, self-consistent nucleon exchange, and two-nucleon correlations are examined. These have a small effect on the condensed meson fields but may produce significant changes in the binding energy. Corrections to the mean-field equation of state are small at high density
Driven Phases of Quantum Matter
Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Lazarides, Achilleas; Moessner, Roderich; Sondhi, Shivaji
Clean and interacting periodically driven quantum systems are believed to exhibit a single, trivial ``infinite-temperature'' Floquet-ergodic phase. By contrast, I will show that their disordered Floquet many-body localized counterparts can exhibit distinct ordered phases with spontaneously broken symmetries delineated by sharp transitions. Some of these are analogs of equilibrium states, while others are genuinely new to the Floquet setting. I will show that a subset of these novel phases are absolutely stableto all weak local deformations of the underlying Floquet drives, and spontaneously break Hamiltonian dependent emergent symmetries. Strikingly, they simultaneously also break the underlying time-translation symmetry of the Floquet drive and the order parameter exhibits oscillations at multiples of the fundamental period. This ``time-crystallinity'' goes hand in hand with spatial symmetry breaking and, altogether, these phases exhibit a novel form of simultaneous long-range order in space and time. I will describe how this spatiotemporal order can be detected in experiments involving quenches from a broad class of initial states.
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory
Kotas, Ronald
2016-03-01
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/
Operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, O; Heydari, H
2013-01-01
The geometric phase has found a broad spectrum of applications in both classical and quantum physics, such as condensed matter and quantum computation. In this paper, we introduce an operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states, based on spectral weighted traces of holonomies, and we prove that it generalizes the standard definition of the geometric phase for mixed states, which is based on quantum interferometry. We also introduce higher order geometric phases, and prove that under a fairly weak, generically satisfied, requirement, there is always a well-defined geometric phase of some order. Our approach applies to general unitary evolutions of both non-degenerate and degenerate mixed states. Moreover, since we provide an explicit formula for the geometric phase that can be easily implemented, it is particularly well suited for computations in quantum physics. (paper)
Exploring topological phases with quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitagawa, Takuya; Rudner, Mark S.; Berg, Erez; Demler, Eugene
2010-01-01
The quantum walk was originally proposed as a quantum-mechanical analog of the classical random walk, and has since become a powerful tool in quantum information science. In this paper, we show that discrete-time quantum walks provide a versatile platform for studying topological phases, which are currently the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. In particular, we demonstrate that recent experimental realizations of quantum walks with cold atoms, photons, and ions simulate a nontrivial one-dimensional topological phase. With simple modifications, the quantum walk can be engineered to realize all of the topological phases, which have been classified in one and two dimensions. We further discuss the existence of robust edge modes at phase boundaries, which provide experimental signatures for the nontrivial topological character of the system.
The quantum phase-transitions of water
Fillaux, François
2017-08-01
It is shown that hexagonal ices and steam are macroscopically quantum condensates, with continuous spacetime-translation symmetry, whereas liquid water is a quantum fluid with broken time-translation symmetry. Fusion and vaporization are quantum phase-transitions. The heat capacities, the latent heats, the phase-transition temperatures, the critical temperature, the molar volume expansion of ice relative to water, as well as neutron scattering data and dielectric measurements are explained. The phase-transition mechanisms along with the key role of quantum interferences and that of Hartley-Shannon's entropy are enlightened. The notions of chemical bond and force-field are questioned.
Dynamics of a quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zurek, W.H.
2005-01-01
We present two approaches to the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quench-induced phase transition in quantum Ising model. First approach retraces steps of the standard calculation to thermodynamic second order phase transitions in the quantum setting. The second calculation is purely quantum, based on the Landau-Zener formula for transition probabilities in processes that involve avoided level crossings. We show that the two approaches yield compatible results for the scaling of the defect density with the quench rate. We exhibit similarities between them, and comment on the insights they give into dynamics of quantum phase transitions. (author)
Multiparametric quantum symplectic phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parashar, P.; Soni, S.K.
1992-07-01
We formulate a consistent multiparametric differential calculus on the quadratic coordinate algebra of the quantum vector space and use this as a tool to obtain a deformation of the associated symplectic phase space involving n(n-1)/2+1 deformation parameters. A consistent calculus on the relation subspace is also constructed. This is achieved with the help of a restricted ansatz and solving the consistency conditions to directly arrive at the main commutation structures without any reference to the R-matrix. However, the non-standard R-matrices for GL r,qij (n) and Sp r,qij (2n) can be easily read off from the commutation relations involving coordinates and derivatives. (author). 9 refs
Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration
Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.
2018-04-01
We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions in the quantum Potts chain
Karrasch, C.; Schuricht, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284690
2017-01-01
We analyze the dynamics of the return amplitude following a sudden quench in the three-state quantum Potts chain. For quenches crossing the quantum critical point from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic phase, the corresponding rate function is non-analytic at critical times and behaves linearly
Nuclear physics and ideas of quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelevinsky, V.G.
2002-01-01
The field nowadays called 'many-body quantum chaos' was started in 1939 with the article by I.I. Gurevich studying the regularities of nuclear spectra. The field has been extensively developed recently, both mathematically and in application to mesoscopic systems and quantum fields. We argue that nuclear physics and the theory of quantum chaos are mutually beneficial. Many ideas of quantum chaos grew up from the factual material of nuclear physics; this enrichment still continues to take place. On the other hand, many phenomena in nuclear structure and reactions, as well as the general problem of statistical physics of finite strongly interacting systems, can be understood much deeper with the help of ideas and methods borrowed from the field of quantum chaos. A brief review of the selected topics related to the recent development is presented
Synthesis of quantum chromodynamics and nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1980-08-01
The asymptotic freedom behavior of quantum chromodynamics allows the rigorous calculation of hadronic and nuclear amplitudes at short distances by perturbative methods. The implications of QCD for large-momentum-transfer nuclear form factors and scattering processes, as well as for the structure of nuclear wave functions and nuclear interactions at short distances, are discussed. The necessity for color-polarized internal nuclear states is also discussed. 6 figures
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christ, H.
2008-01-24
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Quantum computation with nuclear spins in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, H.
2008-01-01
The role of nuclear spins for quantum information processing in quantum dots is theoretically investigated in this thesis. Building on the established fact that the most strongly coupled environment for the potential electron spin quantum bit are the surrounding lattice nuclear spins interacting via the hyperfine interaction, we turn this vice into a virtue by designing schemes for harnessing this strong coupling. In this perspective, the ensemble of nuclear spins can be considered an asset, suitable for an active role in quantum information processing due to its intrinsic long coherence times. We present experimentally feasible protocols for the polarization, i.e. initialization, of the nuclear spins and a quantitative solution to our derived master equation. The polarization limiting destructive interference effects, caused by the collective nature of the nuclear coupling to the electron spin, are studied in detail. Efficient ways of mitigating these constraints are presented, demonstrating that highly polarized nuclear ensembles in quantum dots are feasible. At high, but not perfect, polarization of the nuclei the evolution of an electron spin in contact with the spin bath can be efficiently studied by means of a truncation of the Hilbert space. It is shown that the electron spin can function as a mediator of universal quantum gates for collective nuclear spin qubits, yielding a promising architecture for quantum information processing. Furthermore, we show that at high polarization the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins resembles the celebrated Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics. This result opens the door for transfer of knowledge from the mature field of quantum computation with atoms and photons. Additionally, tailored specifically for the quantum dot environment, we propose a novel scheme for the generation of highly squeezed collective nuclear states. Finally we demonstrate that even an unprepared completely mixed nuclear spin
Relativistic implications of the quantum phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, Stephen G
2012-01-01
The quantum phase leads to projective representations of symmetry groups in quantum mechanics. The projective representations are equivalent to the unitary representations of the central extension of the group. A celebrated example is Wigner's formulation of special relativistic quantum mechanics as the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. However, Wigner's formulation makes no mention of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and the hermitian representation of its algebra that are the Heisenberg commutation relations fundamental to quantum physics. We put aside the relativistic symmetry and show that the maximal quantum symmetry that leaves the Heisenberg commutation relations invariant is the projective representations of the conformally scaled inhomogeneous symplectic group. The Weyl-Heisenberg group and noncommutative structure arises directly because the quantum phase requires projective representations. We then consider the relativistic implications of the quantum phase that lead to the Born line element and the projective representations of an inhomogeneous unitary group that defines a noninertial quantum theory. (Understanding noninertial quantum mechanics is a prelude to understanding quantum gravity.) The remarkable properties of this symmetry and its limits are studied.
Scaling of the local quantum uncertainty at quantum phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coulamy, I.B.; Warnes, J.H.; Sarandy, M.S.; Saguia, A.
2016-01-01
We investigate the local quantum uncertainty (LQU) between a block of L qubits and one single qubit in a composite system of n qubits driven through a quantum phase transition (QPT). A first-order QPT is analytically considered through a Hamiltonian implementation of the quantum search. In the case of second-order QPTs, we consider the transverse-field Ising chain via a numerical analysis through density matrix renormalization group. For both cases, we compute the LQU for finite-sizes as a function of L and of the coupling parameter, analyzing its pronounced behavior at the QPT. - Highlights: • LQU is suitable for the analysis of block correlations. • LQU exhibits pronounced behavior at quantum phase transitions. • LQU exponentially saturates in the quantum search. • Concavity of LQU indicates criticality in the Ising chain.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review
Heyl, Markus
2018-05-01
Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions: a review.
Heyl, Markus
2018-05-01
Quantum theory provides an extensive framework for the description of the equilibrium properties of quantum matter. Yet experiments in quantum simulators have now opened up a route towards the generation of quantum states beyond this equilibrium paradigm. While these states promise to show properties not constrained by equilibrium principles, such as the equal a priori probability of the microcanonical ensemble, identifying the general properties of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics remains a major challenge, especially in view of the lack of conventional concepts such as free energies. The theory of dynamical quantum phase transitions attempts to identify such general principles by lifting the concept of phase transitions to coherent quantum real-time evolution. This review provides a pedagogical introduction to this field. Starting from the general setting of nonequilibrium dynamics in closed quantum many-body systems, we give the definition of dynamical quantum phase transitions as phase transitions in time with physical quantities becoming nonanalytic at critical times. We summarize the achieved theoretical advances as well as the first experimental observations, and furthermore provide an outlook to major open questions as well as future directions of research.
Characterizing quantum phase transition by teleportation
Wu, Meng-He; Ling, Yi; Shu, Fu-Wen; Gan, Wen-Cong
2018-04-01
In this paper we provide a novel way to explore the relation between quantum teleportation and quantum phase transition. We construct a quantum channel with a mixed state which is made from one dimensional quantum Ising chain with infinite length, and then consider the teleportation with the use of entangled Werner states as input qubits. The fidelity as a figure of merit to measure how well the quantum state is transferred is studied numerically. Remarkably we find the first-order derivative of the fidelity with respect to the parameter in quantum Ising chain exhibits a logarithmic divergence at the quantum critical point. The implications of this phenomenon and possible applications are also briefly discussed.
Quantum phase transitions in semilocal quantum liquids
Iqbal, Nabil; Liu, Hong; Mezei, Márk
2015-01-01
We consider several types of quantum critical phenomena from finite-density gauge-gravity duality which to different degrees lie outside the Landau-Ginsburg-Wilson paradigm. These include: (i) a "bifurcating" critical point, for which the order parameter remains gapped at the critical point, and thus is not driven by soft order parameter fluctuations. Rather it appears to be driven by "confinement" which arises when two fixed points annihilate and lose conformality. On the condensed side, there is an infinite tower of condensed states and the nonlinear response of the tower exhibits an infinite spiral structure; (ii) a "hybridized" critical point which can be described by a standard Landau-Ginsburg sector of order parameter fluctuations hybridized with a strongly coupled sector; (iii) a "marginal" critical point which is obtained by tuning the above two critical points to occur together and whose bosonic fluctuation spectrum coincides with that postulated to underly the "Marginal Fermi Liquid" description of the optimally doped cuprates.
Relativistic nuclear physics and quantum chromodynamics. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
The data of investigations on problems of high energy physics are given. Special attention pays to quantum chromodynamics at large distances, cumulative processes, multiquark states and relativistic nuclear collisions
Quantum interference vs. quantum chaos in the nuclear shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernández, Gerardo; Hautefeuille, M; Velázquez, V; Hernández, Edna M; Landa, E; Morales, I O; Frank, A; Fossion, R; Vargas, C E
2015-01-01
In this paper we study the complexity of the nuclear states in terms of a two body quadupole-quadrupole interaction. Energy distributions and eigenvectors composition exhibit a visible interference pattern which is dependent on the intensity of the interaction. In analogy with optics, the visibility of the interference is related to the purity of the states, therefore, we show that the fluctuations associated with quantum chaos have as their origin the remaining quantum coherence with a visibility magnitude close to 5%
Deep Neural Network Detects Quantum Phase Transition
Arai, Shunta; Ohzeki, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki
2018-03-01
We detect the quantum phase transition of a quantum many-body system by mapping the observed results of the quantum state onto a neural network. In the present study, we utilized the simplest case of a quantum many-body system, namely a one-dimensional chain of Ising spins with the transverse Ising model. We prepared several spin configurations, which were obtained using repeated observations of the model for a particular strength of the transverse field, as input data for the neural network. Although the proposed method can be employed using experimental observations of quantum many-body systems, we tested our technique with spin configurations generated by a quantum Monte Carlo simulation without initial relaxation. The neural network successfully identified the strength of transverse field only from the spin configurations, leading to consistent estimations of the critical point of our model Γc = J.
A concise treatise on quantum mechanics in phase space
Curtright, Thomas L; Zachos, Cosmas K
2014-01-01
This is a text on quantum mechanics formulated simultaneously in terms of position and momentum, i.e. in phase space. It is written at an introductory level, drawing on the remarkable history of the subject for inspiration and motivation. Wigner functions density -- matrices in a special Weyl representation -- and star products are the cornerstones of the formalism. The resulting framework is a rich source of physical intuition. It has been used to describe transport in quantum optics, structure and dynamics in nuclear physics, chaos, and decoherence in quantum computing. It is also of importance in signal processing and the mathematics of algebraic deformation. A remarkable aspect of its internal logic, pioneered by Groenewold and Moyal, has only emerged in the last quarter-century: it furnishes a third, alternative way to formulate and understand quantum mechanics, independent of the conventional Hilbert space or path integral approaches to the subject. In this logically complete and self-standing formula...
Stochastic inflation: Quantum phase-space approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habib, S.
1992-01-01
In this paper a quantum-mechanical phase-space picture is constructed for coarse-grained free quantum fields in an inflationary universe. The appropriate stochastic quantum Liouville equation is derived. Explicit solutions for the phase-space quantum distribution function are found for the cases of power-law and exponential expansions. The expectation values of dynamical variables with respect to these solutions are compared to the corresponding cutoff regularized field-theoretic results (we do not restrict ourselves only to left-angle Φ 2 right-angle). Fair agreement is found provided the coarse-graining scale is kept within certain limits. By focusing on the full phase-space distribution function rather than a reduced distribution it is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the stochastic formalism faces several difficulties (e.g., there is no fluctuation-dissipation theorem). The coarse graining does not guarantee an automatic classical limit as quantum correlations turn out to be crucial in order to get results consistent with standard quantum field theory. Therefore, the method does not by itself constitute an explanation of the quantum to classical transition in the early Universe. In particular, we argue that the stochastic equations do not lead to decoherence
Ultrafast quantum random number generation based on quantum phase fluctuations.
Xu, Feihu; Qi, Bing; Ma, Xiongfeng; Xu, He; Zheng, Haoxuan; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2012-05-21
A quantum random number generator (QRNG) can generate true randomness by exploiting the fundamental indeterminism of quantum mechanics. Most approaches to QRNG employ single-photon detection technologies and are limited in speed. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an ultrafast QRNG at a rate over 6 Gbits/s based on the quantum phase fluctuations of a laser operating near threshold. Moreover, we consider a potential adversary who has partial knowledge on the raw data and discuss how one can rigorously remove such partial knowledge with postprocessing. We quantify the quantum randomness through min-entropy by modeling our system and employ two randomness extractors--Trevisan's extractor and Toeplitz-hashing--to distill the randomness, which is information-theoretically provable. The simplicity and high-speed of our experimental setup show the feasibility of a robust, low-cost, high-speed QRNG.
Linear entropy in quantum phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosales-Zarate, Laura E. C.; Drummond, P. D.
2011-01-01
We calculate the quantum Renyi entropy in a phase-space representation for either fermions or bosons. This can also be used to calculate purity and fidelity, or the entanglement between two systems. We show that it is possible to calculate the entropy from sampled phase-space distributions in normally ordered representations, although this is not possible for all quantum states. We give an example of the use of this method in an exactly soluble thermal case. The quantum entropy cannot be calculated at all using sampling methods in classical symmetric (Wigner) or antinormally ordered (Husimi) phase spaces, due to inner-product divergences. The preferred method is to use generalized Gaussian phase-space methods, which utilize a distribution over stochastic Green's functions. We illustrate this approach by calculating the reduced entropy and entanglement of bosonic or fermionic modes coupled to a time-evolving, non-Markovian reservoir.
Linear entropy in quantum phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosales-Zarate, Laura E. C.; Drummond, P. D. [Centre for Atom Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne 3122 (Australia)
2011-10-15
We calculate the quantum Renyi entropy in a phase-space representation for either fermions or bosons. This can also be used to calculate purity and fidelity, or the entanglement between two systems. We show that it is possible to calculate the entropy from sampled phase-space distributions in normally ordered representations, although this is not possible for all quantum states. We give an example of the use of this method in an exactly soluble thermal case. The quantum entropy cannot be calculated at all using sampling methods in classical symmetric (Wigner) or antinormally ordered (Husimi) phase spaces, due to inner-product divergences. The preferred method is to use generalized Gaussian phase-space methods, which utilize a distribution over stochastic Green's functions. We illustrate this approach by calculating the reduced entropy and entanglement of bosonic or fermionic modes coupled to a time-evolving, non-Markovian reservoir.
Quantum mechanics and dynamics in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlatev, I.S.
1979-01-01
Attention is paid to formal similarity of quantum mechanics and classical statistical physics. It is supposed that quantum mechanics can be reformulated by means of the quasiprobabilistic distributions (QPD). The procedure of finding a possible dynamics of representative points in a phase space is described. This procedure would lead to an equation of the Liouville type for the given QPD. It is shown that there is always a dynamics for which the phase volume is preserved and there is another dynamics for which the equations of motion are ''canonical''. It follows from the paper that in terms of the QPD the quantum mechanics is analogous to the classical statistical mechanics and it can be interpreted as statistics of phase points, their motion obeying the canonical equations. The difference consists in the fact that in the classical statistical physics constructed is statistics of points in a phase space which depict real, existing, observable states of the system under consideration. In the quantum mechanics constructed is statistics of points in a phase space which correspond to the ''substrate'' of quantum-mechanical objects which have no any physical sense and cannot be observed separately
Quantum algorithms for phase-space tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Saraceno, Marcos
2004-01-01
We present efficient circuits that can be used for the phase-space tomography of quantum states. The circuits evaluate individual values or selected averages of the Wigner, Kirkwood, and Husimi distributions. These quantum gate arrays can be programmed by initializing appropriate computational states. The Husimi circuit relies on a subroutine that is also interesting in its own right: the efficient preparation of a coherent state, which is the ground state of the Harper Hamiltonian
Thermodynamics and phases in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husain, Viqar; Mann, R B
2009-01-01
We give an approach for studying quantum gravity effects on black hole thermodynamics. This combines a quantum framework for gravitational collapse with quasi-local definitions of energy and surface gravity. Our arguments suggest that (i) the specific heat of a black hole becomes positive after a phase transition near the Planck scale,(ii) its entropy acquires a logarithmic correction and (iii) the mass loss rate is modified such that Hawking radiation stops near the Planck scale. These results are due essentially to a realization of fundamental discreteness in quantum gravity, and are in this sense potentially theory independent.
Nuclear fission as a macroscopic quantum tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takigawa, N.
1995-01-01
We discuss nuclear fission from the point of view of a macroscopic quantum tunneling, one of whose major interests is to study the effects of environments on the tunneling rate of a macroscopic variable. We show that a vibrational excitation of the fissioning nucleus significantly enhances the fission rate. We show this effect by two different methods. The one is to treat the vibrational excitation as an environmental degree of freedom, the other treats the fission as a two dimensional quantum tunneling. (author)
Quantum chaos and nuclear mass systematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, Jorge G.; Velazquez, Victor; Frank, Alejandro
2004-01-01
The presence of quantum chaos in nuclear mass systematics is analyzed by considering the differences between measured and calculated nuclear masses as a time series described by the power law 1fα. While for the liquid droplet model plus shell corrections a quantum chaotic behavior α∼1 is found, errors in the microscopic mass formula have α∼0.5, closer to white noise. The chaotic behavior seems to arise from many body effects not included in the mass formula
The geometric phase in quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohm, A.
1993-03-01
After an explanatory introduction, a quantum system in a classical time-dependent environment is discussed; an example is a magnetic moment in a classical magnetic field. At first, the general abelian case is discussed in the adiabatic approximation. Then the geometric phase for nonadiabatic change of the environment (Anandan--Aharonov phase) is introduced, and after that general cyclic (nonadiabatic) evolution is discussed. The mathematics of fiber bundles is introduced, and some of its results are used to describe the relation between the adiabatic Berry phase and the geometric phase for general cyclic evolution of a pure state. The discussion is restricted to the abelian, U(1) phase
Quantum phase from s-parametrized quasidistributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perinova, V; Luks, A
2005-01-01
It is familiar that a well behaved operator of the harmonic oscillator phase does not exist. Therefore, Turski's phase operator and the operator of Garrison and Wong may be at most defined in an interesting fashion and yield useful quantum expectation values. In this paper we touch on a recent incomplete definition of a phase operator which has also failed in the respect that it can be completed only to a definition of an 'incomplete' phase operator. We discuss, however, a possibility of completion of the definition and a relationship to the phase operator from an s-parametrized quasidistribution
Entropic Phase Maps in Discrete Quantum Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin F. Dribus
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Path summation offers a flexible general approach to quantum theory, including quantum gravity. In the latter setting, summation is performed over a space of evolutionary pathways in a history configuration space. Discrete causal histories called acyclic directed sets offer certain advantages over similar models appearing in the literature, such as causal sets. Path summation defined in terms of these histories enables derivation of discrete Schrödinger-type equations describing quantum spacetime dynamics for any suitable choice of algebraic quantities associated with each evolutionary pathway. These quantities, called phases, collectively define a phase map from the space of evolutionary pathways to a target object, such as the unit circle S 1 ⊂ C , or an analogue such as S 3 or S 7 . This paper explores the problem of identifying suitable phase maps for discrete quantum gravity, focusing on a class of S 1 -valued maps defined in terms of “structural increments” of histories, called terminal states. Invariants such as state automorphism groups determine multiplicities of states, and induce families of natural entropy functions. A phase map defined in terms of such a function is called an entropic phase map. The associated dynamical law may be viewed as an abstract combination of Schrödinger’s equation and the second law of thermodynamics.
Quantum trajectory phase transitions in the micromaser.
Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D; Lesanovsky, Igor
2011-08-01
We study the dynamics of the single-atom maser, or micromaser, by means of the recently introduced method of thermodynamics of quantum jump trajectories. We find that the dynamics of the micromaser displays multiple space-time phase transitions, i.e., phase transitions in ensembles of quantum jump trajectories. This rich dynamical phase structure becomes apparent when trajectories are classified by dynamical observables that quantify dynamical activity, such as the number of atoms that have changed state while traversing the cavity. The space-time transitions can be either first order or continuous, and are controlled not just by standard parameters of the micromaser but also by nonequilibrium "counting" fields. We discuss how the dynamical phase behavior relates to the better known stationary-state properties of the micromaser.
Novel Quantum Phases at Interfaces
2014-12-12
defined quasiparticle and the system cannot be adequately described by an electronic band structure. The chief theoretical challenges for the study of...electronic quasiparticle weight is proportional to the expectation value of the rotor field. The resulting theory typically has two dis- tinct stable phases...band structure is well defined, while in the strongly interacting phase the quasiparticle weight vanishes due to strong rotor fluc- tuations
Quantum gyroscope based on Berry phase of spins in diamond
Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi
2018-02-01
Gyroscope is the crucial sensor of the inertial navigation system, there is always high demand to improve the sensitivity and reduce the size of the gyroscopes. Using the NV center electronic spin and nuclear spin qubits in diamond, we introduce the research of new types of quantum gyroscopes based on the Berry phase shifts of the spin states during the rotation of the sensor systems. Compared with the performance of the traditional MEMS gyroscope, the sensitivity of the new types of quantum gyroscopes was highly improved and the spatial resolution was reduced to nano-scale. With the help of micro-manufacturing technology in the semiconductor industry, the quantum gyroscopes introduced here can be further integrated into chip-scale sensors.
Quantum disentanglement and phase measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buzek, V.; Hillery, M.
1995-01-01
A 50:50 beam splitter disentangles a two-mode squeezed vacuum state into two single-mode squeezed vacuum states. With the proper choice of parameters these two single-mode states will be identical. If one is passed through a device which shifts its phase, then the phases of the shifted and reference (unshifted) modes can be determined by the Vogel-Schleich technique. In this way the phase difference, i.e. the phase shift, can be measured to an accuracy of 1/N, where N is the total number of photons coming into the beam splitter. An improved scheme is also proposed involving the disentanglement of a shifted two-mode squeezed vacuum state. This leads to two shifted squeezed vacuum states at the output of the beam splitter. If one of these is passed through the phase shifter, then by performing homodyne measurements on the shifted and unshifted modes the phase shift can again be determined to an accuracy of 1/N. (author) 4 figs., 14 refs
Foundations of phase-space quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guz, W.
1984-01-01
In the present paper a general concept of a phase-space representation of the ordinary Hilbert-space quantum theory is formulated, and then, by using some elementary facts of functional analysis, several equivalent forms of that concept are analyzed. Several important physical examples are presented in Section 3 of the paper. (author)
Quantum phase transitions in atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zamfir, N.V.
2005-01-01
Studies of quantum phase transitions in mesoscopic systems and applications to atomic nuclei are presented. Analysis in terms of the Interacting Boson Model shows that the main features persist even for moderate number of particles. Experimental evidence in rare-earth nuclei is discussed. New order and control parameters for systems with the same number of particles are proposed. (author)
Quantum information processing and nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, H.K.
2001-01-01
Quantum computers are information processing devices which operate by and exploit the laws of quantum mechanics, potentially allowing them to solve problems which are intractable using classical computers. This dissertation considers the practical issues involved in one of the more successful implementations to date, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Techniques for dealing with systematic errors are presented, and a quantum protocol is implemented. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to quantum computation. The physical basis of its efficiency and issues involved in its implementation are discussed. NMR quantum information processing is reviewed in more detail in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 considers some of the errors that may be introduced in the process of implementing an algorithm, and high-level ways of reducing the impact of these errors by using composite rotations. Novel general expressions for stabilising composite rotations are presented in Chapter 4 and a new class of composite rotations, tailored composite rotations, presented in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 describes some of the advantages and pitfalls of combining composite rotations. Experimental evaluations of the composite rotations are given in each case. An actual implementation of a quantum information protocol, approximate quantum cloning, is presented in Chapter 7. The dissertation ends with appendices which contain expansions of some equations and detailed calculations of certain composite rotation results, as well as spectrometer pulse sequence programs. (author)
Quantum algebras in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonatsos, D.; Daskaloyannis, C.
1995-01-01
Quantum algebras is a mathematical tool which provides us with a class of symmetries wider than that of Lie algebras, which are contained in the former as a special case. After a self-contained introduction through the necessary mathematical tools (q-numbers, q-analysis, q-oscillators, q-algebras), the su q (2) rotator model and its extensions, the construction of deformed exactly soluble models (Interacting Boson Model, Moszkowski model), the use of deformed bosons in the description of pairing correlations, and the symmetries of the anisotropic quantum harmonic oscillator with rational ratios of frequencies, which underline the structure of superdeformed and hyperdeformed nuclei are discussed in some details. A brief description of similar applications to molecular structure and an outlook are also given. (author) 2 Tabs., 324 Refs
Berry phase via quantum Zeno effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascazio, S.; Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari
1999-01-01
Full text: The 'quantum Zeno effect' is an interesting quantum phenomenon, deeply rooted in some fundamental features of the quantum mechanical laws. It consists in the hindrance of the temporal evolution of a quantum system due to a frequent series of measurements. During the last few years there has been much interest in this issue, mainly because of an idea due to Cook, who proposed using two-level systems to check this effect, and the subsequent experiment performed by Itano et al. Most of the work on this subject has dealt with what might be called the 'static' version of the quantum Zeno effect. However, the most potent action of the observer is not only to stop time evolution (e.g., by repeatedly checking if a system has decayed), but to guide it. In this talk we will be concerned with a 'dynamical' version of the phenomenon: we will show how guiding a system through a closed loop in its state space (projective Hilbert space) leads to a geometrical phase. This was predicted on general grounds by Aharonov and Anandan, but here we use a specific implementation on a neutron spin and propose a particular experimental context in which to see this effect. However, our proposal is valid for any system with the same two-level structure. It is remarkable that the Berry phase to be discussed is due to measurements only: no Hamiltonian is needed. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society
Nuclear spin states and quantum logical operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlova, T.A.; Rasulov, E.N.
2006-01-01
Full text: To build a really functional quantum computer, researchers need to develop logical controllers known as 'gates' to control the state of q-bits. In this work , equal quantum logical operations are examined with the emphasis on 1-, 2-, and 3-q-bit gates.1-q-bit quantum logical operations result in Boolean 'NOT'; the 'NOT' and '√NOT' operations are described from the classical and quantum perspective. For the 'NOT' operation to be performed, there must be a means to switch the state of q-bits from to and vice versa. For this purpose either a light or radio pulse of a certain frequency can be used. If the nucleus has the spin-down state, the spin will absorb a portion of energy from electromagnetic current and switch into the spin-up state, and the radio pulse will force it to switch into state. An operation thus described from purely classical perspective is clearly understood. However, operations not analogous to the classical type may also be performed. If the above mentioned radio pulses are only half the frequency required to cause a state switch in the nuclear spin, the nuclear spin will enter the quantum superposition state of the ground state (↓) and excited states (↑). A recurring radio pulse will then result in an operation equivalent to 'NOT', for which reason the described operation is called '√NOT'. Such an operation allows for the state of quantum superposition in quantum computing, which enables parallel processing of several numbers. The work also treats the principles of 2-q-bit logical operations of the controlled 'NOT' type (CNOT), 2-q-bit (SWAP), and the 3-q-bit 'TAFFOLI' gate. (author)
Study of incommensurable phases in quantum chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollmer, J.
1990-12-01
The phases of quantum chains with spin-1/2 and spin-1-respresentations of the SU(2) algebra and the phases of a mixed spin-1/2 / spin-1 chain are reported and investigated. These chains are models with an XX-interaction in a magnetic field. In a certain range of the magnetic field the groundstate magnetisation depends continuously on the magnetic field and the energy gaps vanish, this is a so called 'floating phase'. Within this phase the energy spectrum is a conformal spectrum, comparable to the spectrum of the Gauss-model, but the momenta have a macroscopic part. These macroscopic momenta are connected to oscillating correlation functions, whose periods are determined by the magnetic field. The transition from the floating phase to an existing phase with constant groundstate magnetisation is a Pokrovsky-Talapov-transition, it is a universal transition in all three models. (orig.) [de
Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1987-08-01
Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs
Phase transitions in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glendenning, N.K.
1984-11-01
The rather general circumstances under which a phase transition in hadronic matter at finite temperature to an abnormal phase in which baryon effective masses become small and in which copious baryon-antibaryon pairs appear is emphasized. A preview is also given of a soliton model of dense matter, in which at a density of about seven times nuclear density, matter ceases to be a color insulator and becomes increasingly color conducting. 22 references
Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Topological Quantum Wires.
Cho, Jaeyoon; Kim, Kun Woo
2017-06-05
We investigate the quantum phase transition of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model by inspecting the two-site entanglements in the ground state. It is shown that the topological phase transition of the SSH model is signified by a nonanalyticity of local entanglement, which becomes discontinuous for finite even system sizes, and that this nonanalyticity has a topological origin. Such a peculiar singularity has a universal nature in one-dimensional topological phase transitions of noninteracting fermions. We make this clearer by pointing out that an analogous quantity in the Kitaev chain exhibiting the identical nonanalyticity is the local electron density. As a byproduct, we show that there exists a different type of phase transition, whereby the pattern of the two-site entanglements undergoes a sudden change. This transition is characterised solely by quantum information theory and does not accompany the closure of the spectral gap. We analyse the scaling behaviours of the entanglement in the vicinities of the transition points.
Casimir amplitudes in topological quantum phase transitions.
Griffith, M A; Continentino, M A
2018-01-01
Topological phase transitions constitute a new class of quantum critical phenomena. They cannot be described within the usual framework of the Landau theory since, in general, the different phases cannot be distinguished by an order parameter, neither can they be related to different symmetries. In most cases, however, one can identify a diverging length at these topological transitions. This allows us to describe them using a scaling approach and to introduce a set of critical exponents that characterize their universality class. Here we consider some relevant models of quantum topological transitions associated with well-defined critical exponents that are related by a quantum hyperscaling relation. We extend to these models a finite-size scaling approach based on techniques for calculating the Casimir force in electromagnetism. This procedure allows us to obtain universal Casimir amplitudes at their quantum critical points. Our results verify the validity of finite-size scaling in these systems and confirm the values of the critical exponents obtained previously.
The nuclear quantum liquid off equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjoernholm, S.
1986-01-01
Fusion, fission, quasifission and deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions sample the behaviour of the nuclear quantum liquid when it is far from equilibrium. This considerably augments the picture of nuclei obtained on the basis of specific perturbative disturbances of the equilibrium configurations, and from compound nucleus decay. Some peculiar properties of a quantum liquid composed of fermions ( 3 He or nucleons) with a mean free path that exceeds the dimensions of the system are reviewed and discussed in relation to measurements of mass asymmetry relaxation in quasifission. It is concluded that heavy ion reactions are especially well suited for studying quantum liquids in the limit where interactions between the particles and the self-consistent surface dominate the dissipative behaviour and where dissipation-fluctuation correlations are important. (orig.)
Quantum self-organization and nuclear collectivities
Otsuka, T.; Tsunoda, Y.; Togashi, T.; Shimizu, N.; Abe, T.
2018-02-01
The quantum self-organization is introduced as one of the major underlying mechanisms of the quantum many-body systems. In the case of atomic nuclei as an example, two types of the motion of nucleons, single-particle states and collective modes, dominate the structure of the nucleus. The outcome of the collective mode is determined basically by the balance between the effect of the mode-driving force (e.g., quadrupole force for the ellipsoidal deformation) and the resistance power against it. The single-particle energies are one of the sources to produce such resistance power: a coherent collective motion is more hindered by larger gaps between relevant single particle states. Thus, the single-particle state and the collective mode are “enemies” each other. However, the nuclear forces are demonstrated to be rich enough so as to enhance relevant collective mode by reducing the resistance power by changing singleparticle energies for each eigenstate through monopole interactions. This will be verified with the concrete example taken from Zr isotopes. Thus, when the quantum self-organization occurs, single-particle energies can be self-organized, being enhanced by (i) two quantum liquids, e.g., protons and neutrons, (ii) two major force components, e.g., quadrupole interaction (to drive collective mode) and monopole interaction (to control resistance). In other words, atomic nuclei are not necessarily like simple rigid vases containing almost free nucleons, in contrast to the naïve Fermi liquid picture. Type II shell evolution is considered to be a simple visible case involving excitations across a (sub)magic gap. The quantum self-organization becomes more important in heavier nuclei where the number of active orbits and the number of active nucleons are larger. The quantum self-organization is a general phenomenon, and is expected to be found in other quantum systems.
Scaling of quantum Fisher information close to the quantum phase transition in the XY spin chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, En-Jia, E-mail: yeenjia@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wu, Wei [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2016-12-01
The quantum phase transition of an XY spin chain is investigated by employing the quantum Fisher information encoded in the ground state. It is shown that the quantum Fisher information is an effective tool for characterizing the quantum criticality. The quantum Fisher information, its first and second derivatives versus the transverse field display the phenomena of sudden transition, sudden jump and divergence, respectively. Besides, the analysis of finite size scaling for the second derivative of quantum Fisher information is performed.
Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition
Costantini, G.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2007-07-01
A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.
Multipartite entanglement characterization of a quantum phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costantini, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Facchi, P [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2007-07-13
A probability density characterization of multipartite entanglement is tested on the one-dimensional quantum Ising model in a transverse field. The average and second moment of the probability distribution are numerically shown to be good indicators of the quantum phase transition. We comment on multipartite entanglement generation at a quantum phase transition.
On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
space representations of quantum mechanics using Glauber coherent states. DIÓGENES CAMPOS. Research Article Volume 87 Issue 2 August ... Keywords. Phase-space quantum mechanics, coherent states, Husimi function, Wigner function ...
Generation of phase-covariant quantum cloning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karimipour, V.; Rezakhani, A.T.
2002-01-01
It is known that in phase-covariant quantum cloning, the equatorial states on the Bloch sphere can be cloned with a fidelity higher than the optimal bound established for universal quantum cloning. We generalize this concept to include other states on the Bloch sphere with a definite z component of spin. It is shown that once we know the z component, we can always clone a state with a fidelity higher than the universal value and that of equatorial states. We also make a detailed study of the entanglement properties of the output copies and show that the equatorial states are the only states that give rise to a separable density matrix for the outputs
Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warren, W.S.
1980-11-01
The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible
Selectivity in multiple quantum nuclear magnetic resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warren, Warren Sloan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Sciences Division
1980-11-01
The observation of multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance transitions in isotropic or anisotropic liquids is shown to give readily interpretable information on molecular configurations, rates of motional processes, and intramolecular interactions. However, the observed intensity of high multiple-quantum transitions falls off dramatically as the number of coupled spins increases. The theory of multiple-quantum NMR is developed through the density matrix formalism, and exact intensities are derived for several cases (isotropic first-order systems and anisotropic systems with high symmetry) to shown that this intensity decrease is expected if standard multiple-quantum pulse sequences are used. New pulse sequences are developed which excite coherences and produce population inversions only between selected states, even though other transitions are simultaneously resonant. One type of selective excitation presented only allows molecules to absorb and emit photons in groups of n. Coherent averaging theory is extended to describe these selective sequences, and to design sequences which are selective to arbitrarily high order in the Magnus expansion. This theory and computer calculations both show that extremely good selectivity and large signal enhancements are possible.
Trajectory phases of a quantum dot model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genway, Sam; Hickey, James M; Garrahan, Juan P; Armour, Andrew D
2014-01-01
We present a thermodynamic formalism to study the trajectories of charge transport through a quantum dot coupled to two leads in the resonant-level model. We show that a close analogue of equilibrium phase transitions exists for the statistics of transferred charge; by tuning an appropriate ‘counting field’, crossovers to different trajectory phases are possible. Our description reveals a mapping between the statistics of a given device and current measurements over a range of devices with different dot–lead coupling strengths. Furthermore insight into features of the trajectory phases are found by studying the occupation of the dot conditioned on the transported charge between the leads; this is calculated from first principles using a trajectory biased two-point projective measurement scheme. (paper)
Phase space approach to quantum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leboeuf, P.
1991-03-01
The Schroedinger equation for the time propagation of states of a quantised two-dimensional spherical phase space is replaced by the dynamics of a system of N particles lying in phase space. This is done through factorization formulae of analytic function theory arising in coherent-state representation, the 'particles' being the zeros of the quantum state. For linear Hamiltonians, like a spin in a uniform magnetic field, the motion of the particles is classical. However, non-linear terms induce interactions between the particles. Their time propagation is studied and it is shown that, contrary to integrable systems, for chaotic maps they tend to fill, as their classical counterpart, the whole phase space. (author) 13 refs., 3 figs
The issue of phases in quantum measurement theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pati, Arun Kumar
1999-01-01
The issue of phases is always very subtle in quantum world and many of the curious phenomena are due to the existence of the phase of the quantum mechanical wave function. We investigate the issue of phases in quantum measurement theory and predict a new effect of fundamental importance. We call a quantum system under goes a quantum Zeno dynamics when the unitary evolution of a quantum system is interrupted by a sequence of measurements. In particular, we investigate the effect of repeated measurements on the geometric phase and show that the quantum Zeno dynamics can inhibit its development under a large number of measurement pulses. It is interesting to see that neither the total phase nor the dynamical phase goes to zero under large number of measurements. This new effect we call as the 'quantum Zeno Phase effect' in analogous to the quantum Zeno effect where the repeated measurements inhibit the transition probability. This 'quantum Zeno Phase effect' can be proved within von Neumann's collapse mechanism as well as using a continuous measurement model. So the effect is really independent of any particular measurement model considered. Since the geometric phase attributes a memory to a quantum system our results also proves that the path dependent memory of a system can be erased by a sequence of measurements. The quantum Zeno Phase effect provides a way to control and manipulate the phase of a wave function in an interference set up. Finally, we stress that the quantum Zeno Phase effect can be tested using neutron, photon and atom interference experiments with the presently available technology. (Author)
Quantum mechanics in coherent algebras on phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesche, B.; Seligman, T.H.
1986-01-01
Quantum mechanics is formulated on a quantum mechanical phase space. The algebra of observables and states is represented by an algebra of functions on phase space that fulfills a certain coherence condition, expressing the quantum mechanical superposition principle. The trace operation is an integration over phase space. In the case where the canonical variables independently run from -infinity to +infinity the formalism reduces to the representation of quantum mechanics by Wigner distributions. However, the notion of coherent algebras allows to apply the formalism to spaces for which the Wigner mapping is not known. Quantum mechanics of a particle in a plane in polar coordinates is discussed as an example. (author)
The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pascazio, S
2003-01-01
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke 'after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is
Nuclear dynamics in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Toro, M.
1984-07-01
We present a unified semiclassical picture of nuclear dynamics, from collective states to heavy ion physics, based on a study of the time evolution of the Wigner distribution function. We discuss in particular the mean field dynamics, in this ''quantal'' phase space, which is ruled by the nuclear Vlasov equation. Simple approximate solutions are worked out for rotational and vibrational collective motions. Giant resonances are shown to be quite well described as scaling modes, which are equivalent to a lowest multipole (up to 1sub(max)=2) distortions of the momentum distribution. Applications are shown to heavy ion physics to study giant resonances on high spin states and dynamical collective effects in subthreshold π-production. Several possible extensions and in particular the inclusion of two-body collision terms are finally discussed
Quantum erasers and probing classifications of entanglement via nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teklemariam, G.; Fortunato, E.M.; Pravia, M.A.; Sharf, Y.; Havel, T.F.; Cory, D.G.; Bhattaharyya, A.; Hou, J.
2002-01-01
We report the implementation of two- and three-spin quantum erasers using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Quantum erasers provide a means of manipulating quantum entanglement, an important resource for quantum information processing. Here, we first use a two-spin system to illustrate the essential features of quantum erasers. The extension to a three-spin 'disentanglement eraser' shows that entanglement in a subensemble can be recovered if a proper measurement of the ancillary system is carried out. Finally, we use the same pair of orthogonal decoherent operations used in quantum erasers to probe the two classes of entanglement in tripartite quantum systems: the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and the W state. A detailed presentation is given of the experimental decoherent control methods that emulate the loss of phase information in strong measurements, and the use of NMR decoupling techniques to implement partial trace operations
Quantum disordered phase in a doped antiferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuebert, C.; Muramatsu, A.
1995-01-01
A quantitative description of the transition to a quantum disordered phase in a doped antiferromagnet is obtained for the long-wavelength limit of the spin-fermion model, which is given by the O(3) non-linear σ model, a free fermionic part and current-current interactions. By choosing local spin quantization axes for the fermionic spinor we show that the low-energy limit of the model is equivalent to a U(1) gauge theory, where both the bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom are minimally coupled to a vector gauge field. Within a large-N expansion, the strength of the gauge fields is found to be determined by the gap in the spin-wave spectrum, which is dynamically generated. The explicit doping dependence of the spin-gap is determined as a function of the parameters of the original model. As a consequence of the above, the gauge-fields mediate a long-range interaction among dopant holes and S-1/2 magnetic excitations only in the quantum disordered phase. The possible bound-states in this regime correspond to charge-spin separation and pairing
Lattice quantum phase space and Yang-Baxter equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djemai, A.E.F.
1995-04-01
In this work, we show that it is possible to construct the quantum group which preserves the quantum symplectic structure introduced in the context of the matrix Hamiltonian formalism. We also study the braiding existing behind the lattice quantum phase space, and present another type of non-trivial solution to the resulting Yang-Baxter equation. (author). 20 refs, 1 fig
Discontinuity of maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Jianxin; Ji, Zhengfeng; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei; Li, Chi-Kwong; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Duanlu
2015-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the connection between two genuinely quantum phenomena—the discontinuity of quantum maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions at zero temperature. It is shown that the discontinuity of the maximum entropy inference of local observable measurements signals the non-local type of transitions, where local density matrices of the ground state change smoothly at the transition point. We then propose to use the quantum conditional mutual information of the ground state as an indicator to detect the discontinuity and the non-local type of quantum phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit. (paper)
Quantum scaling in many-body systems an approach to quantum phase transitions
Continentino, Mucio
2017-01-01
Quantum phase transitions are strongly relevant in a number of fields, ranging from condensed matter to cold atom physics and quantum field theory. This book, now in its second edition, approaches the problem of quantum phase transitions from a new and unifying perspective. Topics addressed include the concepts of scale and time invariance and their significance for quantum criticality, as well as brand new chapters on superfluid and superconductor quantum critical points, and quantum first order transitions. The renormalisation group in real and momentum space is also established as the proper language to describe the behaviour of systems close to a quantum phase transition. These phenomena introduce a number of theoretical challenges which are of major importance for driving new experiments. Being strongly motivated and oriented towards understanding experimental results, this is an excellent text for graduates, as well as theorists, experimentalists and those with an interest in quantum criticality.
Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet in an Optically Excited Quantum Dot
Korenev, V. L.
2007-12-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei shifts the optical transition energy close to resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of the quantum dot electron. As a result the optically selected single quantum dot represents a tiny magnet with the ferromagnetic ordering of nuclear spins—the nuclear spin nanomagnet.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Matrix Product States
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jing-Min, Zhu
2008-01-01
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2008-01-01
We present a new general and much simpler scheme to construct various quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states. By use of the scheme we take into account one kind of matrix product state (MPS) QPT and provide a concrete model. We also study the properties of the concrete example and show that a kind of QPT appears, accompanied by the appearance of the discontinuity of the parity absent block physical observable, diverging correlation length only for the parity absent block operator, and other properties which are that the fixed point of the transition point is an isolated intermediate-coupling fixed point of renormalization flow and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain is discontinuous. (authors)
Quantum phase transition of light as a control of the entanglement between interacting quantum dots
Barragan, Angela; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Mondragon-Shem, Ian
We study coupled quantum dots arranged in a photonic crystal, interacting with light which undergoes a quantum phase transition. At the mean-field level for the infinite lattice, we compute the concurrence of the quantum dots as a measure of their entanglement. We find that this quantity smoothly
Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid
2013-01-01
Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hui, Ning-Ju [Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Xu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Hu, Zheng-Da, E-mail: huyuanda1112@jiangnan.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Research Center of Light Industrial Optoelectronic Engineering and Technology, School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)
2017-04-01
We investigate the properties of geometric quantum coherence in the XY spin-1/2 chain with staggered Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction via the quantum renormalization-group approach. It is shown that the geometric quantum coherence and its coherence susceptibility are effective to detect the quantum phase transition. In the thermodynamic limit, the geometric quantum coherence exhibits a sudden jump. The coherence susceptibilities versus the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction are infinite and vanishing, respectively, illustrating the distinct roles of the anisotropy parameter and the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction in quantum phase transition. Moreover, we also explore the finite-size scaling behaviors of the coherence susceptibilities. For a finite-size chain, the coherence susceptibility versus the phase-transition parameter is always maximal at the critical point, indicating the dramatic quantum fluctuation. Besides, we show that the correlation length can be revealed by the scaling exponent for the coherence susceptibility versus the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Phase transition and frustration in nuclear physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasnaoui, K.
2008-10-01
The thermodynamics of nuclear matter which constitutes the crust of proto-neutron stars and neutron stars is studied in this thesis. Obtaining information on the star matter thermodynamics will enhance the understanding of physical phenomena involved in the cooling of proto-neutron stars, and in the formation of type II supernovae. One of the main goals is to extract the star-matter phase diagram in order to determine if instabilities and/or critical points are present. The work is divided into two parts: in the first one classical approaches are developed, while the second one presents a quantum approach. The classical approaches are based on the Ising model and on the renormalisation group. They give us qualitative information on the phenomenology of phase transitions for star matter, and allow a discussion on the properties of the phase diagram under the generic phenomenon of Coulomb frustration. The quantum approach is based on a fermionic molecular dynamics model that we have developed from the density functional formalism, and numerically implemented using Skyrme forces optimized on neutron rich nuclei and neutron matter. This thesis work shows some first applications to the study the thermodynamics of finite nuclear systems, as well as nuclear structure calculations for light nuclei. A new formalism based on the molecular dynamics model is sketched which will ultimately allow treating the numerical quantum problem for the infinite star matter. (author)
Cyclotomy and Ramanujan sums in quantum phase locking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Planat, Michel; Rosu, Haret C.
2003-01-01
Phase-locking governs the phase noise in classical clocks through effects described in precise mathematical terms. We seek here a quantum counterpart of these effects by working in a finite Hilbert space. We use a coprimality condition to define phase-locked quantum states and the corresponding Pegg-Barnett type phase operator. Cyclotomic symmetries in matrix elements are revealed and related to Ramanujan sums in the theory of prime numbers. The employed mathematical procedures also emphasize the isomorphism between algebraic number theory and the theory of quantum entanglement
Phase space quantum mechanics and maximal acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caianiello, E.
1989-01-01
My presentation is a synopsis of work done since 1979 in search of connections among information theory, systems theory, quantum mechanics and other matters. The aim was 'to extract geometry from quantum mechanics'. (orig./HSI)
Quantum adiabatic approximation and the geometric phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostafazadeh, A.
1997-01-01
A precise definition of an adiabaticity parameter ν of a time-dependent Hamiltonian is proposed. A variation of the time-dependent perturbation theory is presented which yields a series expansion of the evolution operator U(τ)=summation scr(l) U (scr(l)) (τ) with U (scr(l)) (τ) being at least of the order ν scr(l) . In particular, U (0) (τ) corresponds to the adiabatic approximation and yields Berry close-quote s adiabatic phase. It is shown that this series expansion has nothing to do with the 1/τ expansion of U(τ). It is also shown that the nonadiabatic part of the evolution operator is generated by a transformed Hamiltonian which is off-diagonal in the eigenbasis of the initial Hamiltonian. This suggests the introduction of an adiabatic product expansion for U(τ) which turns out to yield exact expressions for U(τ) for a large number of quantum systems. In particular, a simple application of the adiabatic product expansion is used to show that for the Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a magnetic dipole in an arbitrarily changing magnetic field, there exists another Hamiltonian with the same eigenvectors for which the Schroedinger equation is exactly solvable. Some related issues concerning geometric phases and their physical significance are also discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Np Incorporation into Uranyl Alteration Phases: A Quantum Mechanical Approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L.C. Huller; R.C. Win; U.Ecker
2006-01-01
Neptunium is a major contributor to the long-term radioactivity in a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) due to its long half-life (2.1 million years). The mobility of Np may be decreased by incorporation into the U 6+ phases that form during the corrosion of SNF. The ionic radii of Np (0.089nm) and U (0.087nm) are similar, as is their chemistry. Experimental studies have shown Np can be incorporated into uranyl phases at concentrations of ∼ 100 ppm. The low concentration of Np in the uranyl phases complicates experimental detection and presents a significant challenge for determining the incorporation mechanism. Therefore, we have used quantum mechanical calculations to investigate incorporation mechanisms and evaluate the energetics of Np substituting for U. CASTEP, a density functional theory based code that uses plane waves and pseudo-potentials, was used to calculate optimal H positions, relaxed geometry, and energy of different uranyl phases. The incorporation energy for Np in uranyl alteration phases was calculated for studtite, [(UO 2 )O 2 (H 2 O) 2 ](H 2 ) 2 , and boltwoodite, HK(UO 2 )(SiO 4 )* 1.5(H 2 O). Studtite is the rare case of a stable uranyl hydroxyl-peroxide mineral that forms in the presence of H 2 O 2 from the radiolysis of H 2 O. For studtite, two incorporation mechanisms were evaluated: (1) charge-balanced substitution of Np 5+ and H + for one U 6+ , and (2) direct substitution of Np 6+ for U 6+ . For boltwoodite, the H atomic positions prior to Np incorporation were determined, as well as the Np incorporation mechanisms and the corresponding substitution energies. The preferential incorporation of Np into different structure types of U 6+ minerals was also investigated. Quantum mechanical substitution energies have to be derived at Np concentrations higher than the ones found in experiments or expected in a repository. However, the quantum mechanical results are crucial for subsequent empirical force-field and Monte
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng
2014-01-01
Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2017-01-01
The quantum shielding effects on the nuclear fusion reaction process are investigated in quantum plasmas. The closed expression of the classical turning point for the Gamow penetration factor in quantum plasmas is obtained by the Lambert W-function. The closed expressions of the Gamow penetration factor and the cross section for the nuclear fusion reaction in quantum plasmas are obtained as functions of the plasmon energy and the relative kinetic energy by using the effective interaction potential with the WKB analysis. It is shown that the influence of quantum screening suppresses the Sommerfeld reaction factor. It is also shown that the Gamow penetration factor increases with an increase of the plasmon energy. It is also shown that the quantum shielding effect enhances the deuterium formation by the proton-proton reaction in quantum plasmas. In addition, it is found that the energy dependences on the reaction cross section and the Gamow penetration factor are more significant in high plasmon-energy domains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Jinwu; Chen, Yan
2013-01-01
By using the dual vortex method (DVM), we develop systematically a simple and effective scheme to use the vortex degree of freedoms on dual lattices to characterize the symmetry breaking patterns of the boson insulating states in the direct lattices. Then we apply our scheme to study quantum phases and phase transitions in an extended boson Hubbard model slightly away from 1/3 (2/3) filling on frustrated lattices such as triangular and Kagome lattice. In a triangular lattice at 1/3, we find a X-CDW, a stripe CDW phase which was found previously by a density operator formalism (DOF). Most importantly, we also find a new CDW-VB phase which has both local CDW and local VB orders, in sharp contrast to a bubble CDW phase found previously by the DOF. In the Kagome lattice at 1/3, we find a VBS phase and a 6-fold CDW phase. Most importantly, we also identify a CDW-VB phase which has both local CDW and local VB orders which was found in previous QMC simulations. We also study several other phases which are not found by the DVM. By analyzing carefully the saddle point structures of the dual gauge fields in the translational symmetry breaking sides and pushing the effective actions slightly away from the commensurate filling f=1/3(2/3), we classified all the possible types of supersolids and analyze their stability conditions. In a triangular lattice, there are X-CDW supersolid, stripe CDW supersolid, but absence of any valence bond supersolid (VB-SS). There are also a new kind of supersolid: CDW-VB supersolid. In a Kagome lattice, there are 6-fold CDW supersolid, stripe CDW supersolid, but absence of any valence bond supersolid (VB-SS). There are also a new kind of supersolid: CDW-VB supersolid. We show that independent of the types of the SS, the quantum phase transitions from solids to supersolids driven by a chemical potential are in the same universality class as that from a Mott insulator to a superfluid, therefore have exact exponents z=2, ν=1/2, η=0 (with
Quantum Phase Transitions in Conventional Matrix Product Systems
Zhu, Jing-Min; Huang, Fei; Chang, Yan
2017-02-01
For matrix product states(MPSs) of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate a new kind of conventional quantum phase transition(QPT). We find that the system has two different ferromagnetic phases; on the line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally, the system in the thermodynamic limit is in an isolated mediate-coupling state described by a paramagnetic state and is in the same state as the renormalization group fixed point state, the expectation values of the physical quantities are discontinuous, and any two spin blocks of the system have the same geometry quantum discord(GQD) within the range of open interval (0,0.25) and the same classical correlation(CC) within the range of open interval (0,0.75) compared to any phase having no any kind of correlation. We not only realize the control of QPTs but also realize the control of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems on the critical line by adjusting the environment parameters, which may have potential application in quantum information fields and is helpful to comprehensively and deeply understand the quantum correlation, and the organization and structure of quantum correlation especially for long-range quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.
Quantum phase transitions of strongly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imada, Masatoshi
1998-01-01
Interacting electrons in solids undergo various quantum phase transitions driven by quantum fluctuations. The quantum transitions take place at zero temperature by changing a parameter to control quantum fluctuations rather than thermal fluctuations. In contrast to classical phase transitions driven by thermal fluctuations, the quantum transitions have many different features where quantum dynamics introduces a source of intrinsic fluctuations tightly connected with spatial correlations and they have been a subject of recent intensive studies as we see below. Interacting electron systems cannot be fully understood without deep analyses of the quantum phase transitions themselves, because they are widely seen and play essential roles in many phenomena. Typical and important examples of the quantum phase transitions include metal-insulator transitions, (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) metal-superconductor transitions, superconductor-insulator transitions, magnetic transitions to antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic phases in metals as well as in Mott insulators, and charge ordering transitions. Here, we focus on three different types of transitions
Quantum Nuclear Extension of Electron Nuclear Dynamics on Folded Effective-Potential Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hall, B.; Deumens, E.; Ohrn, Y.
2014-01-01
A perennial problem in quantum scattering calculations is accurate theoretical treatment of low energy collisions. We propose a method of extracting a folded, nonadiabatic, effective potential energy surface from electron nuclear dynamics (END) trajectories; we then perform nuclear wave packet...
Phase-sensitive atomic dynamics in quantum light
Balybin, S. N.; Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.
2018-05-01
Interaction between a quantum electromagnetic field and a model Ry atom with possible transitions to the continuum and to the low-lying resonant state is investigated. Strong sensitivity of atomic dynamics to the phase of applied coherent and squeezed vacuum light is found. Methods to extract the quantum field phase performing the measurements on the atomic system are proposed. In the case of the few-photon coherent state high accuracy of the phase determination is demonstrated, which appears to be much higher in comparison to the usually used quantum-optical methods such as homodyne detection.
Entanglement in a simple quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, Tobias J.; Nielsen, Michael A.
2002-01-01
What entanglement is present in naturally occurring physical systems at thermal equilibrium? Most such systems are intractable and it is desirable to study simple but realistic systems that can be solved. An example of such a system is the one-dimensional infinite-lattice anisotropic XY model. This model is exactly solvable using the Jordan-Wigner transform, and it is possible to calculate the two-site reduced density matrix for all pairs of sites. Using the two-site density matrix, the entanglement of formation between any two sites is calculated for all parameter values and temperatures. We also study the entanglement in the transverse Ising model, a special case of the XY model, which exhibits a quantum phase transition. It is found that the next-nearest-neighbor entanglement (though not the nearest-neighbor entanglement) is a maximum at the critical point. Furthermore, we show that the critical point in the transverse Ising model corresponds to a transition in the behavior of the entanglement between a single site and the remainder of the lattice
Chaotic Dynamical Ferromagnetic Phase Induced by Nonequilibrium Quantum Fluctuations
Lerose, Alessio; Marino, Jamir; Žunkovič, Bojan; Gambassi, Andrea; Silva, Alessandro
2018-03-01
We investigate the robustness of a dynamical phase transition against quantum fluctuations by studying the impact of a ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin interaction in one spatial dimension on the nonequilibrium dynamical phase diagram of the fully connected quantum Ising model. In particular, we focus on the transient dynamics after a quantum quench and study the prethermal state via a combination of analytic time-dependent spin wave theory and numerical methods based on matrix product states. We find that, upon increasing the strength of the quantum fluctuations, the dynamical critical point fans out into a chaotic dynamical phase within which the asymptotic ordering is characterized by strong sensitivity to the parameters and initial conditions. We argue that such a phenomenon is general, as it arises from the impact of quantum fluctuations on the mean-field out of equilibrium dynamics of any system which exhibits a broken discrete symmetry.
Quantum phase transition and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K.
1998-01-01
We intend to describe briefly the generic features associated with the zero temperature transition in quantum mechanical systems. We elucidate the discussion of the introductory section using the very common example of Ising model in a transverse field. We discuss the method of fermionisation for one dimensional systems. The quantum-classical correspondence is discussed using Suzuki-Trotter method. We then introduce the quantum rotor model and discuss its spherical limit. We finally discuss novel features arising due to the presence of quenched randomness in the quantum Ising and rotor systems. (author)
Quantum entanglement and quantum phase transitions in frustrated Majumdar-Ghosh model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Guanghua; Wang Chunhai; Deng Xiaoyan
2011-01-01
By using the density matrix renormalization group technique, the quantum phase transitions in the frustrated Majumdar-Ghosh model are investigated. The behaviors of the conventional order parameter and the quantum entanglement entropy are analyzed in detail. The order parameter is found to peak at J 2 ∼0.58, but not at the Majumdar-Ghosh point (J 2 =0.5). Although, the quantum entanglements calculated with different subsystems display dissimilarly, the extremes of their first derivatives approach to the same critical point. By finite size scaling, this quantum critical point J C 2 converges to around 0.301 in the thermodynamic limit, which is consistent with those predicted previously by some authors (Tonegawa and Harada, 1987 ; Kuboki and Fukuyama, 1987 ; Chitra et al., 1995 ). Across the J C 2 , the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from a gapless spin-fluid phase to a gapped dimerized phase.
Quantum phase transition of a magnet in a spin bath
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønnow, H.M.; Parthasarathy, R.; Jensen, J.
2005-01-01
The excitation spectrum of a model magnetic system, LiHoF(4), was studied with the use of neutron spectroscopy as the system was tuned to its quantum critical point by an applied magnetic field. The electronic mode softening expected for a quantum phase transition was forestalled by hyperfine...
Integrability and nonintegrability of quantum systems. II. Dynamics in quantum phase space
Zhang, Wei-Min; Feng, Da Hsuan; Yuan, Jian-Min
1990-12-01
Based on the concepts of integrability and nonintegrability of a quantum system presented in a previous paper [Zhang, Feng, Yuan, and Wang, Phys. Rev. A 40, 438 (1989)], a realization of the dynamics in the quantum phase space is now presented. For a quantum system with dynamical group scrG and in one of its unitary irreducible-representation carrier spaces gerhΛ, the quantum phase space is a 2MΛ-dimensional topological space, where MΛ is the quantum-dynamical degrees of freedom. This quantum phase space is isomorphic to a coset space scrG/scrH via the unitary exponential mapping of the elementary excitation operator subspace of scrg (algebra of scrG), where scrH (⊂scrG) is the maximal stability subgroup of a fixed state in gerhΛ. The phase-space representation of the system is realized on scrG/scrH, and its classical analogy can be obtained naturally. It is also shown that there is consistency between quantum and classical integrability. Finally, a general algorithm for seeking the manifestation of ``quantum chaos'' via the classical analogy is provided. Illustrations of this formulation in several important quantum systems are presented.
Phase transitions in nuclear physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
1997-08-01
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented.
Phase transitions in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.
1997-08-01
A critical overview of the low energy phase transitions in nuclei is presented with particular attention to the 2nd (1st) order pairing phase transitions, and to the 1st order liquid-vapor phase transition. The role of fluctuations in washing out these transitions is discussed and illustrated with examples. A robust indicator of phase coexistence in multifragmentation is presented
Long lived quantum memory with nuclear atomic spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinatra, A.; Reinaudi, G.; Dantan, A.; Giacobino, E.; Pinard, M.
2005-01-01
We propose store non-classical states of light into the macroscopic collective nuclear spin (10 18 atoms) of a 3 He vapor, using metastability exchange collisions. We show that these collisions currently used to transfer orientation from the metastable state 2 3 S 1 to the ground state state of 3 He, may conserve quantum correlations and give a possible experimental scheme to perfectly map a squeezed vacuum field state onto a nuclear spin state, which should allow for extremely long storage times (hours). In addition to the apparent interest for quantum information, the scheme offers the intriguing possibility to create a long-lived non classical state for spins. During a metastability exchange collision an atom in the ground state state and an atom in the metastable triplet state 2 3 S exchange their electronic spin variables. The ground state atom is then brought into the metastable state and vice-versa. A laser transition is accessible from the metastable state so that the metastable atoms are coupled with light. This, together with metastability exchange collisions, provides an effective coupling between ground state atoms and light. In our scheme, a coherent field and a squeezed vacuum field excite a Raman transition between Zeeman sublevels of the metastable state, after the system is prepared in the fully polarized state by preliminary optical pumping. According to the intensity of the coherent field, which acts as a control parameter, the squeezing of the field can be selectively transferred either to metastable or to ground state atoms. Once it is encoded in the purely nuclear spin of the ground state of 3 He, which is 20 eV apart from the nearest excited state and interacts very little with the environment, the quantum state can survive for times as long as several hours. By lighting up only the coherent field in the same configuration as for the 'writing' phase, the nuclear spin memory can be 'read' after a long delay, the squeezing being transferred
Quantum Phase Spase Representation for Double Well Potential
Babyuk, Dmytro
2002-01-01
A behavior of quantum states (superposition of two lowest eigenstates, Gaussian wave packet) in phase space is studied for one and two dimensional double well potential. Two dimensional potential is constructed from double well potential coupled linearly and quadratically to harmonic potential. Quantum trajectories are compared with classical ones. Preferable tunneling path in phase space is found. An influence of energy of initial Gaussian wave packet and trajectory initial condition on tunn...
Quantum trajectory approach to the geometric phase: open bipartite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, X X; Liu, D P; Wang, W
2005-01-01
Through the quantum trajectory approach, we calculate the geometric phase acquired by a bipartite system subjected to decoherence. The subsystems that compose the bipartite system interact with each other and then are entangled in the evolution. The geometric phase due to the quantum jump for both the bipartite system and its subsystems is calculated and analysed. As an example, we present two coupled spin-1/2 particles to detail the calculations
Controlling quantum interference in phase space with amplitude
Xue, Yinghong; Li, Tingyu; Kasai, Katsuyuki; Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Zhang, Yun
2017-01-01
We experimentally show a quantum interference in phase space by interrogating photon number probabilities (n?=?2, 3, and 4) of a displaced squeezed state, which is generated by an optical parametric amplifier and whose displacement is controlled by amplitude of injected coherent light. It is found that the probabilities exhibit oscillations of interference effect depending upon the amplitude of the controlling light field. This phenomenon is attributed to quantum interference in phase space a...
On quantum mechanical phase-space wave functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wlodarz, Joachim J.
1994-01-01
An approach to quantum mechanics based on the notion of a phase-space wave function is proposed within the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal representation. It is shown that the Schrodinger equation for the phase-space wave function is equivalent to the quantum Liouville equation for the Wigner distribution...... function. The relationship to the recent results by Torres-Vega and Frederick [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 3103 (1993)] is also discussed....
Entangled trajectories Hamiltonian dynamics for treating quantum nuclear effects
Smith, Brendan; Akimov, Alexey V.
2018-04-01
A simple and robust methodology, dubbed Entangled Trajectories Hamiltonian Dynamics (ETHD), is developed to capture quantum nuclear effects such as tunneling and zero-point energy through the coupling of multiple classical trajectories. The approach reformulates the classically mapped second-order Quantized Hamiltonian Dynamics (QHD-2) in terms of coupled classical trajectories. The method partially enforces the uncertainty principle and facilitates tunneling. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by studying the dynamics in symmetric double well and cubic metastable state potentials. The methodology is validated using exact quantum simulations and is compared to QHD-2. We illustrate its relationship to the rigorous Bohmian quantum potential approach, from which ETHD can be derived. Our simulations show a remarkable agreement of the ETHD calculation with the quantum results, suggesting that ETHD may be a simple and inexpensive way of including quantum nuclear effects in molecular dynamics simulations.
Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices.
Abolins, B P; Zillich, R E; Whaley, K B
2018-03-14
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.
Quantum phases of dipolar rotors on two-dimensional lattices
Abolins, B. P.; Zillich, R. E.; Whaley, K. B.
2018-03-01
The quantum phase transitions of dipoles confined to the vertices of two-dimensional lattices of square and triangular geometry is studied using path integral ground state quantum Monte Carlo. We analyze the phase diagram as a function of the strength of both the dipolar interaction and a transverse electric field. The study reveals the existence of a class of orientational phases of quantum dipolar rotors whose properties are determined by the ratios between the strength of the anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, the strength of the applied transverse field, and the rotational constant. For the triangular lattice, the generic orientationally disordered phase found at zero and weak values of both dipolar interaction strength and applied field is found to show a transition to a phase characterized by net polarization in the lattice plane as the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction is increased, independent of the strength of the applied transverse field, in addition to the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. The square lattice is also found to exhibit a transition from a disordered phase to an ordered phase as the dipole-dipole interaction strength is increased, as well as the expected transition to a transverse polarized phase as the electric field strength increases. In contrast to the situation with a triangular lattice, on square lattices, the ordered phase at high dipole-dipole interaction strength possesses a striped ordering. The properties of these quantum dipolar rotor phases are dominated by the anisotropy of the interaction and provide useful models for developing quantum phases beyond the well-known paradigms of spin Hamiltonian models, implementing in particular a novel physical realization of a quantum rotor-like Hamiltonian that possesses an anisotropic long range interaction.
Non-commutative geometry on quantum phase-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, M.
1995-06-01
A non-commutative analogue of the classical differential forms is constructed on the phase-space of an arbitrary quantum system. The non-commutative forms are universal and are related to the quantum mechanical dynamics in the same way as the classical forms are related to classical dynamics. They are constructed by applying the Weyl-Wigner symbol map to the differential envelope of the linear operators on the quantum mechanical Hilbert space. This leads to a representation of the non-commutative forms considered by A. Connes in terms of multiscalar functions on the classical phase-space. In an appropriate coincidence limit they define a quantum deformation of the classical tensor fields and both commutative and non-commutative forms can be studied in a unified framework. We interprete the quantum differential forms in physical terms and comment on possible applications. (orig.)
A precise error bound for quantum phase estimation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James M Chappell
Full Text Available Quantum phase estimation is one of the key algorithms in the field of quantum computing, but up until now, only approximate expressions have been derived for the probability of error. We revisit these derivations, and find that by ensuring symmetry in the error definitions, an exact formula can be found. This new approach may also have value in solving other related problems in quantum computing, where an expected error is calculated. Expressions for two special cases of the formula are also developed, in the limit as the number of qubits in the quantum computer approaches infinity and in the limit as the extra added qubits to improve reliability goes to infinity. It is found that this formula is useful in validating computer simulations of the phase estimation procedure and in avoiding the overestimation of the number of qubits required in order to achieve a given reliability. This formula thus brings improved precision in the design of quantum computers.
Quantum critical matter. Quantum phase transitions with multiple dynamics and Weyl superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Tobias
2012-01-01
In this PhD thesis, the physics of quantum critical matter and exotic quantum state close to quantum phase transitions is investigated. We will focus on three different examples that highlight some of the interesting phenomena related to quantum phase transitions. Firstly, we discuss the physics of quantum phase transitions in quantum wires as a function of an external gate voltage when new subbands are activated. We find that at these transitions, strong correlations lead to the formation of an impenetrable gas of polarons, and identify criteria for possible instabilities in the spin- and charge sectors of the model. Our analysis is based on the combination of exact resummations, renormalization group techniques and Luttinger liquid approaches. Secondly, we turn to the physics of multiple divergent time scales close to a quantum critical point. Using an appropriately generalized renormalization group approach, we identify that the presence of multiple dynamics at a quantum phase transition can lead to the emergence of new critical scaling exponents and thus to the breakdown of the usual scaling schemes. We calculate the critical behavior of various thermodynamic properties and detail how unusual physics can arise. It is hoped that these results might be helpful for the interpretation of experimental scaling puzzles close to quantum critical points. Thirdly, we turn to the physics of topological transitions, and more precisely the physics of Weyl superconductors. The latter are the superconducting variant of the topologically non-trivial Weyl semimetals, and emerge at the quantum phase transition between a topological superconductor and a normal insulator upon perturbing the transition with a time reversal symmetry breaking perturbation, such as magnetism. We characterize the topological properties of Weyl superconductors and establish a topological phase diagram for a particular realization in heterostructures. We discuss the physics of vortices in Weyl
Quantum magnification of classical sub-Planck phase space features
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hensinger, W.K.; Heckenberg, N.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.; Delande, D.
2002-01-01
Full text: To understand the relationship between quantum mechanics and classical physics a crucial question to be answered is how distinct classical dynamical phase space features translate into the quantum picture. This problem becomes even more interesting if these phase space features occupy a much smaller volume than ℎ in a phase space spanned by two non-commuting variables such as position and momentum. The question whether phase space structures in quantum mechanics associated with sub-Planck scales have physical signatures has recently evoked a lot of discussion. Here we will show that sub-Planck classical dynamical phase space structures, for example regions of regular motion, can give rise to states whose phase space representation is of size ℎ or larger. This is illustrated using period-1 regions of regular motion (modes of oscillatory motion of a particle in a modulated well) whose volume is distinctly smaller than Planck's constant. They are magnified in the quantum picture and appear as states whose phase space representation is of size h or larger. Cold atoms provide an ideal test bed to probe such fundamental aspects of quantum and classical dynamics. In the experiment a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded into a far detuned optical lattice. The lattice depth is modulated resulting in the emergence of regions of regular motion surrounded by chaotic motion in the phase space spanned by position and momentum of the atoms along the standing wave. Sub-Planck scaled phase space features in the classical phase space are magnified and appear as distinct broad peaks in the atomic momentum distribution. The corresponding quantum analysis shows states of size Ti which can be associated with much smaller classical dynamical phase space features. This effect may considered as the dynamical equivalent of the Goldstone and Jaffe theorem which predicts the existence of at least one bound state at a bend in a two or three dimensional spatial potential
Computational Nuclear Quantum Many-Body Problem: The UNEDF Project
Bogner, Scott; Bulgac, Aurel; Carlson, Joseph A.; Engel, Jonathan; Fann, George; Furnstahl, Richard J.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Hagen, Gaute; Horoi, Mihai; Johnson, Calvin W.; Kortelainen, Markus; Lusk, Ewing; Maris, Pieter; Nam, Hai Ah; Navratil, Petr
2013-01-01
The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.
Theory of coherent dynamic nuclear polarization in quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neder, Izhar; Rudner, Mark Spencer; Halperin, Bertrand
2014-01-01
We consider the production of dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNP) in a two-electron double quantum dot, in which the electronic levels are repeatedly swept through a singlet-triplet avoided crossing. Our analysis helps to elucidate the intriguing interplay between electron-nuclear hyperfine...
Effect of hyperons on nuclear phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.
2016-01-01
Phase transition of nuclear system in heavy ion-collisions at intermediate energy has been studied well for many years and it has also been extended to strange nuclear matter. Recently, using the Canonical Thermodynamical Model (CTM), detailed work on multiplicity distribution of fragments produced from fragmentation of hypernuclear system shows the existence of phase transition or phase coexistence in strange system with Λ-hyperons. In present work we want to continue the investigation on phase transition with respect to some other thermodynamic observables like free energy, specific heat etc. in order to be confirmed about the nature of the transition
Covariant phase difference observables in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka
2003-01-01
Covariant phase difference observables are determined in two different ways, by a direct computation and by a group theoretical method. A characterization of phase difference observables which can be expressed as the difference of two phase observables is given. The classical limits of such phase difference observables are determined and the Pegg-Barnett phase difference distribution is obtained from the phase difference representation. The relation of Ban's theory to the covariant phase theories is exhibited
Chirality Quantum Phase Transition in Noncommutative Dirac Oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shao-Hua; Hou Yu-Long; Jing Jian; Wang Qing; Long Zheng-Wen
2014-01-01
The charged Dirac oscillator on a noncommutative plane coupling to a uniform perpendicular magnetic held is studied in this paper. We map the noncommutative plane to a commutative one by means of Bopp shift and study this problem on the commutative plane. We find that this model can be mapped onto a quantum optics model which contains Anti—Jaynes—Cummings (AJC) or Jaynes—Cummings (JC) interactions when a dimensionless parameter ζ (which is the function of the intensity of the magnetic held) takes values in different regimes. Furthermore, this model behaves as experiencing a chirality quantum phase transition when the dimensionless parameter ζ approaches the critical point. Several evidences of the chirality quantum phase transition are presented. We also study the non-relativistic limit of this model and find that a similar chirality quantum phase transition takes place in its non-relativistic limit. (physics of elementary particles and fields)
Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assali, S.; Laehnemann, J.; Vu, Thi Thu Trang
2017-01-01
One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc......-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement...... of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier...
Quantum phase transitions in random XY spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunder, J.E.; McKenzie, R.H.
2000-01-01
Full text: The XY spin chain in a transverse field is one of the simplest quantum spin models. It is a reasonable model for heavy fermion materials such as CeCu 6-x Au x . It has two quantum phase transitions: the Ising transition and the anisotropic transition. Quantum phase transitions occur at zero temperature. We are investigating what effect the introduction of randomness has on these quantum phase transitions. Disordered systems which undergo quantum phase transitions can exhibit new universality classes. The universality class of a phase transition is defined by the set of critical exponents. In a random system with quantum phase transitions we can observe Griffiths-McCoy singularities. Such singularities are observed in regions which have no long range order, so they are not classified as critical regions, yet they display phenomena normally associated with critical points, such as a diverging susceptibility. Griffiths-McCoy phases are due to rare regions with stronger than! average interactions and may be present far from the quantum critical point. We show how the random XY spin chain may be mapped onto a random Dirac equation. This allows us to calculate the density of states without making any approximations. From the density of states we can describe the conditions which should allow a Griffiths-McCoy phase. We find that for the Ising transition the dynamic critical exponent, z, is not universal. It is proportional to the disorder strength and inversely proportional to the energy gap, hence z becomes infinite at the critical point where the energy gap vanishes
Realization of quantum state privacy amplification in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, Liang; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu
2010-01-01
Quantum state privacy amplification (QSPA) is the quantum analogue of classical privacy amplification. If the state information of a series of single-particle states has some leakage, QSPA reduces this leakage by condensing the state information of two particles into the state of one particle. Recursive applications of the operations will eliminate the quantum state information leakage to a required minimum level. In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of a quantum state privacy amplification protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrices of the states are constructed in the experiment, and the experimental results agree well with theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shoichi
2009-01-01
Nuclear matter is considered to be inhomogeneous at subnuclear densities that are realized in supernova cores and neutron star crusts, and the structures of nuclear matter change from spheres to cylinders, slabs, cylindrical holes, and spherical holes as the density increases. In this Letter, we discuss other possible structures, that is, gyroid and double-diamond morphologies, which are periodic bicontinuous structures discovered in a block copolymer. Utilizing the compressible liquid drop model, we show that there is a chance of gyroid appearance near the transition point from a cylinder to a slab and the volume fraction at this point is also similar for nuclear and polymer systems. Although the five shapes listed initially have been long thought to be the only major constituents of so-called nuclear pasta at subnuclear densities, our findings imply that this belief needs to be reconsidered.
Two phase transitions in Nuclear Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bes, D.R.
1985-01-01
The status of the art of the problem associated with two phase transitions in the nuclear matter, viz.: the disappearance of the nuclear superfluiditiy with the raising of the rotation velocity and the appearance of an octupolar deformation in the actinide zone, is presented. (L.C.) [pt
Complex quantum network geometries: Evolution and phase transitions
Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph; Wu, Zhihao
2015-08-01
Networks are topological and geometric structures used to describe systems as different as the Internet, the brain, or the quantum structure of space-time. Here we define complex quantum network geometries, describing the underlying structure of growing simplicial 2-complexes, i.e., simplicial complexes formed by triangles. These networks are geometric networks with energies of the links that grow according to a nonequilibrium dynamics. The evolution in time of the geometric networks is a classical evolution describing a given path of a path integral defining the evolution of quantum network states. The quantum network states are characterized by quantum occupation numbers that can be mapped, respectively, to the nodes, links, and triangles incident to each link of the network. We call the geometric networks describing the evolution of quantum network states the quantum geometric networks. The quantum geometric networks have many properties common to complex networks, including small-world property, high clustering coefficient, high modularity, and scale-free degree distribution. Moreover, they can be distinguished between the Fermi-Dirac network and the Bose-Einstein network obeying, respectively, the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics. We show that these networks can undergo structural phase transitions where the geometrical properties of the networks change drastically. Finally, we comment on the relation between quantum complex network geometries, spin networks, and triangulations.
Quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model on scale-free networks.
Yi, Hangmo
2015-01-01
I investigate the quantum phase transition of the transverse-field quantum Ising model in which nearest neighbors are defined according to the connectivity of scale-free networks. Using a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation method and the finite-size scaling analysis, I identify the quantum critical point and study its scaling characteristics. For the degree exponent λ=6, I obtain results that are consistent with the mean-field theory. For λ=4.5 and 4, however, the results suggest that the quantum critical point belongs to a non-mean-field universality class. Further simulations indicate that the quantum critical point remains mean-field-like if λ>5, but it continuously deviates from the mean-field theory as λ becomes smaller.
Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.
2007-07-01
The nuclear quadrupole interaction eliminates the restrictions imposed by hyperfine interaction on the spin coherence of an electron and nuclei in a quantum dot. The strain-induced nuclear quadrupole interaction suppresses the nuclear spin flip and makes possible the zero-field dynamic nuclear polarization in self-organized InP/InGaP quantum dots. The direction of the effective nuclear magnetic field is fixed in space, thus quenching the magnetic depolarization of the electron spin in the quantum dot. The quadrupole interaction suppresses the zero-field electron spin decoherence also for the case of nonpolarized nuclei. These results provide a new vision of the role of the nuclear quadrupole interaction in nanostructures: it elongates the spin memory of the electron-nuclear system.
Study on a phase space representation of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Raoelina Andriambololona; Hanitriarivo, R.; Raboanary, R.
2013-01-01
A study on a method for the establishment of a phase space representation of quantum theory is presented. The approach utilizes the properties of Gaussian distribution, the properties of Hermite polynomials, Fourier analysis and the current formulation of quantum mechanics which is based on the use of Hilbert space and linear operators theory. Phase space representation of quantum states and wave functions in phase space are introduced using properties of a set of functions called harmonic Gaussian functions. Then, new operators called dispersion operators are defined and identified as the operators which admit as eigenstates the basis states of the phase space representation. Generalization of the approach for multidimensional cases is shown. Examples of applications are given.
Optimal Measurements for Simultaneous Quantum Estimation of Multiple Phases.
Pezzè, Luca; Ciampini, Mario A; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Humphreys, Peter C; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A; Barbieri, Marco; Sciarrino, Fabio; Smerzi, Augusto
2017-09-29
A quantum theory of multiphase estimation is crucial for quantum-enhanced sensing and imaging and may link quantum metrology to more complex quantum computation and communication protocols. In this Letter, we tackle one of the key difficulties of multiphase estimation: obtaining a measurement which saturates the fundamental sensitivity bounds. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for projective measurements acting on pure states to saturate the ultimate theoretical bound on precision given by the quantum Fisher information matrix. We apply our theory to the specific example of interferometric phase estimation using photon number measurements, a convenient choice in the laboratory. Our results thus introduce concepts and methods relevant to the future theoretical and experimental development of multiparameter estimation.
Optimal Measurements for Simultaneous Quantum Estimation of Multiple Phases
Pezzè, Luca; Ciampini, Mario A.; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Humphreys, Peter C.; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.; Barbieri, Marco; Sciarrino, Fabio; Smerzi, Augusto
2017-09-01
A quantum theory of multiphase estimation is crucial for quantum-enhanced sensing and imaging and may link quantum metrology to more complex quantum computation and communication protocols. In this Letter, we tackle one of the key difficulties of multiphase estimation: obtaining a measurement which saturates the fundamental sensitivity bounds. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for projective measurements acting on pure states to saturate the ultimate theoretical bound on precision given by the quantum Fisher information matrix. We apply our theory to the specific example of interferometric phase estimation using photon number measurements, a convenient choice in the laboratory. Our results thus introduce concepts and methods relevant to the future theoretical and experimental development of multiparameter estimation.
Quantum Potential and Symmetries in Extended Phase Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadollah Nasiri
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The behavior of the quantum potential is studied for a particle in a linear and a harmonic potential by means of an extended phase space technique. This is done by obtaining an expression for the quantum potential in momentum space representation followed by the generalization of this concept to extended phase space. It is shown that there exists an extended canonical transformation that removes the expression for the quantum potential in the dynamical equation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates that changes the physical potential to an effective one. The representation where the quantum potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form, is one in which the dynamical equation turns out to be the Wigner equation.
Phases, quantum interferences and effective vector meson masses in nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soyeur, M.
1996-12-31
We discuss the prospects for observing the mass of {rho}- and {omega}-mesons around nuclear matter density by studying their coherent photoproduction in nuclear targets and subsequent in-medium decay into e{sup +}e{sup -}pairs. The quantum interference of {rho} and {omega}-mesons in the e{sup +}e{sup -}channel and the interference between Bethe-Heitler pairs and dielectrons from vector meson decays are of particular interest. (author). 21 refs.
Quantum-deformed geometry on phase-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gozzi, E.; Reuter, M.
1992-12-01
In this paper we extend the standard Moyal formalism to the tangent and cotangent bundle of the phase-space of any hamiltonian mechanical system. In this manner we build the quantum analog of the classical hamiltonian vector-field of time evolution and its associated Lie-derivative. We also use this extended Moyal formalism to develop a quantum analog of the Cartan calculus on symplectic manifolds. (orig.)
Quantum information generation, storage and transmission based on nuclear spins
Zaharov, V. V.; Makarov, V. I.
2018-05-01
A new approach to quantum information generation, storage and transmission is proposed. It is shown that quantum information generation and storage using an ensemble of N electron spins encounter unresolvable implementation problems (at least at the present time). As an alternative implementation we discuss two promising radical systems, one with N equivalent nuclear spins and another with N nonequivalent nuclear spins. Detailed analysis shows that only the radical system containing N nonequivalent nuclei is perfectly matched for quantum information generation, storage and transmission. We develop a procedure based on pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and we apply it to the radical system with the set of nonequivalent nuclei. The resulting EPR spectrum contains 2N transition lines, where N is the number of the atoms with the nuclear spin 1/2, and each of these lines may be encoded with a determined qudit sequence. For encoding the EPR lines we propose to submit the radical system to two magnetic pulses in the direction perpendicular to the z axis of the reference frame. As a result, the radical system impulse response may be measured, stored and transmitted through the communications channel. Confirming our development, the ab initio analysis of the system with three anion radicals was done showing matching between the simulations and the theoretical predictions. The developed method may be easily adapted for quantum information generation, storage, processing and transmission in quantum computing and quantum communications applications.
Phase matching in quantum searching and the improved Grover algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Guilu; Li Yansong; Xiao Li; Tu Changcun; Sun Yang
2004-01-01
The authors briefly introduced some of our recent work related to the phase matching condition in quantum searching algorithms and the improved Grover algorithm. When one replaces the two phase inversions in the Grover algorithm with arbitrary phase rotations, the modified algorithm usually fails in searching the marked state unless a phase matching condition is satisfied between the two phases. the Grover algorithm is not 100% in success rate, an improved Grover algorithm with zero-failure rate is given by replacing the phase inversions with angles that depends on the size of the database. Other aspects of the Grover algorithm such as the SO(3) picture of quantum searching, the dominant gate imperfections in the Grover algorithm are also mentioned. (author)
Crystal Phase Quantum Well Emission with Digital Control.
Assali, S; Lähnemann, J; Vu, T T T; Jöns, K D; Gagliano, L; Verheijen, M A; Akopian, N; Bakkers, E P A M; Haverkort, J E M
2017-10-11
One of the major challenges in the growth of quantum well and quantum dot heterostructures is the realization of atomically sharp interfaces. Nanowires provide a new opportunity to engineer the band structure as they facilitate the controlled switching of the crystal structure between the zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) phases. Such a crystal phase switching results in the formation of crystal phase quantum wells (CPQWs) and quantum dots (CPQDs). For GaP CPQWs, the inherent electric fields due to the discontinuity of the spontaneous polarization at the WZ/ZB junctions lead to the confinement of both types of charge carriers at the opposite interfaces of the WZ/ZB/WZ structure. This confinement leads to a novel type of transition across a ZB flat plate barrier. Here, we show digital tuning of the visible emission of WZ/ZB/WZ CPQWs in a GaP nanowire by changing the thickness of the ZB barrier. The energy spacing between the sharp emission lines is uniform and is defined by the addition of single ZB monolayers. The controlled growth of identical quantum wells with atomically flat interfaces at predefined positions featuring digitally tunable discrete emission energies may provide a new route to further advance entangled photons in solid state quantum systems.
Quantum field theoretic properties of nonabelian phase factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wieczorek, E.
1984-01-01
The paper is concerned with quantum field theoretical properies of nonabelian phase factors. The phase factors defining parallel transport in fiber bundle space are the necessary tool for the construction of gauge invariant nonlocal operators describing bound states in QCD. General structures of such operators are discussed and renormalization properties as well as relations between meson and baryon operators are obtained from a study of the underlying phase factors
Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Jiangfeng; Li Hui; Xu Xiaodong; Zhou Xianyi; Han Rongdian
2003-01-01
The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour
Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, Á.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.
Phase space view of quantum mechanical systems and Fisher information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagy, Á., E-mail: anagy@madget.atomki.hu
2016-06-17
Highlights: • Phase-space Fisher information coming from the canonical distribution is derived for the ground state of quantum mechanical systems. • Quantum mechanical phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. • A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator. - Abstract: Pennini and Plastino showed that the form of the Fisher information generated by the canonical distribution function reflects the intrinsic structure of classical mechanics. Now, a quantum mechanical generalization of the Pennini–Plastino theory is presented based on the thermodynamical transcription of the density functional theory. Comparing to the classical case, the phase-space Fisher information contains an extra term due to the position dependence of the temperature. However, for the special case of constant temperature, the expression derived bears resemblance to the classical one. A complete analogy to the classical case is demonstrated for the linear harmonic oscillator.
Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, S; Parkins, A S
2008-01-01
We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)
Phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games
Du Jiang Feng; Xu Xiao Dong; Zhou Xian Yi; Han Rong Dian
2003-01-01
The discontinuous dependence of the properties of a quantum game on its entanglement has been shown to be very much like phase transitions viewed in the entanglement-payoff diagram (J Du et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 137902). In this paper we investigate such phase-transition-like behaviour of quantum games, by suggesting a method which would help to illuminate the origin of such a kind of behaviour. For the particular case of the generalized Prisoners' Dilemma, we find that, for different settings of the numerical values in the payoff table, even though the classical game behaves the same, the quantum game exhibits different and interesting phase-transition-like behaviour.
Computational nuclear quantum many-body problem: The UNEDF project
Bogner, S.; Bulgac, A.; Carlson, J.; Engel, J.; Fann, G.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Gandolfi, S.; Hagen, G.; Horoi, M.; Johnson, C.; Kortelainen, M.; Lusk, E.; Maris, P.; Nam, H.; Navratil, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Ng, E.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Ormand, E.; Papenbrock, T.; Pei, J.; Pieper, S. C.; Quaglioni, S.; Roche, K. J.; Sarich, J.; Schunck, N.; Sosonkina, M.; Terasaki, J.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.
2013-10-01
The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. The primary focus of the project was on constructing, validating, and applying an optimized nuclear energy density functional, which entailed a wide range of pioneering developments in microscopic nuclear structure and reactions, algorithms, high-performance computing, and uncertainty quantification. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomimatsu, Toru; Shirai, Shota; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Sato, Ken; Hirayama, Yoshiro
2015-01-01
Electric-field-induced nuclear resonance (NER: nuclear electric resonance) involving quantum Hall states (QHSs) was studied at various filling factors by exploiting changes in nuclear spins polarized at quantum Hall breakdown. Distinct from the magnetic dipole interaction in nuclear magnetic resonance, the interaction of the electric-field gradient with the electric quadrupole moment plays the dominant role in the NER mechanism. The magnitude of the NER signal strongly depends on whether electronic states are localized or extended. This indicates that NER is sensitive to the screening capability of the electric field associated with QHSs
Anomalous phase shift in a twisted quantum loop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taira, Hisao; Shima, Hiroyuki
2010-01-01
The coherent motion of electrons in a twisted quantum ring is considered to explore the effect of torsion inherent to the ring. Internal torsion of the ring composed of helical atomic configuration yields a non-trivial quantum phase shift in the electrons' eigenstates. This torsion-induced phase shift causes novel kinds of persistent current flow and an Aharonov-Bohm-like conductance oscillation. The two phenomena can occur even when no magnetic flux penetrates inside the twisted ring, thus being in complete contrast with the counterparts observed in untwisted rings.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)
2012-07-15
In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.
Nuclear physics, symmetries, and quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunakov, V.E.
1999-01-01
The reasons why the problem of chaos is of great topical interest in modern physics are briefly summarized, and it is indicated that ambiguities in the concept of quantum chaos present the greatest difficulties in these realms. The theory of random matrices and strength functions are generalized to demonstrate that chaotization of a system is associated with the violation of its symmetries. A criterion of quantum chaoticity is formulated in terms of the spreading width Γ spr . In the classical limit, this criterion reduces to Lyapunov's stability criteria. It is shown that the proposed criterion is applicable to standard problems of the modern theory of dynamical chaos
Phasing out nuclear power, the swedish experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fredriksson, Y.
2000-01-01
This article presents the chronological steps in the phasing-out of nuclear energy in Sweden. In 1980 a consultative referendum was held and it was decided that: i) no further expansion of nuclear capacity beyond the 12 reactors in operation or already under construction, ii) all nuclear power plants should be decommissioned by the year 2010. In 1988, as a consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the Swedish parliament decided that one reactor should be closed down in 1995 and a second in 1996. In 1991 the parliament proposed a new energy program for a 5 year period. The main measure was a huge financial support for increasing energy efficiency and for developing environmental sound technologies. At the same time the parliament repealed the 1991 decision of closing 1 reactor in 1995 and made the phase-out process dependent on the results of the new energy policy. In 1994 a parliamentary Commission was appointed to estimate the results of 1991 energy policy. The results were meager and disappointing so the Commission considered that a number of objectives (the climate issue, employment, welfare and competitiveness) remained unresolved if all nuclear power generation should be phased out by 2010. However, the Commission also considered it important to start the phasing-out process at an early stage and stated that one reactor could be closed down without noticeably affecting the power balance. The Barsebaeck reactor is to be closed before the end of november 1999. (A.C.)
Non-stoquastic Hamiltonians in quantum annealing via geometric phases
Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.
2017-09-01
We argue that a complete description of quantum annealing implemented with continuous variables must take into account the non-adiabatic Aharonov-Anandan geometric phase that arises when the system Hamiltonian changes during the anneal. We show that this geometric effect leads to the appearance of non-stoquasticity in the effective quantum Ising Hamiltonians that are typically used to describe quantum annealing with flux qubits. We explicitly demonstrate the effect of this geometric non-stoquasticity when quantum annealing is performed with a system of one and two coupled flux qubits. The realization of non-stoquastic Hamiltonians has important implications from a computational complexity perspective, since it is believed that in many cases quantum annealing with stoquastic Hamiltonians can be efficiently simulated via classical algorithms such as Quantum Monte Carlo. It is well known that the direct implementation of non-stoquastic Hamiltonians with flux qubits is particularly challenging. Our results suggest an alternative path for the implementation of non-stoquasticity via geometric phases that can be exploited for computational purposes.
Energy transition and phasing out nuclear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laponche, Bernard
2013-05-01
In the first part of this report, the author outlines and comments the need of an energy transition in the world: overview of world challenges (world energy consumption and its constraints, a necessary energy transition, new actors and new responsibilities), and describes the German example of an energy transition policy. In the second part, he presents and discusses the main reasons for phasing out nuclear: description of a nuclear plant operation (fission and chain reaction, heat production, production of radioactive elements, how to stop a nuclear reactor), safety and risk issues (protection arrangements, risk and consequence of a nuclear accident), issue of radioactive wastes, relationship between civil techniques and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In a third part, the author proposes an overview of the energy issue in France: final energy consumption, electricity production and consumption, primary energy consumption, characteristics of the French energy system (oil dependency, electricity consumption, and high share of nuclear energy in electricity production). In a last part, the author addresses the issue of energy transition in a perspective of phasing out nuclear: presentation of the Negawatt scenario, assessments made by Global Chance, main programmes of energy transition
Quantum Phases of Matter in Optical Lattices
2015-06-30
3.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 Tin-Lun Ho, Biao Huang. Local spin structure of large spin fermions, Physical Review A, (4 2015): 0. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA...APS March Meeting, 2013 Eliot Kapit , Erich Mueller, A Vector Potential for Flux Qbits, APS March Meeting, 2013 Yariv Yanay, Erich Mueller...34Bogoliubov- de Gennes Study of Trapped Superfluid Fermi Gas", Workshop on Mathematical and Numerical Methods for Quantum, Kinetic and Nonlocal
Quantum phases for a charged particle and electric/magnetic dipole in an electromagnetic field
Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga
2017-11-01
We point out that the known quantum phases for an electric/magnetic dipole moving in an electromagnetic field must be composed from more fundamental quantum phases emerging for moving elementary charges. Using this idea, we have found two new fundamental quantum phases, next to the known magnetic and electric Aharonov-Bohm phases, and discuss their general properties and physical meaning.
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
From the secrets of nuclear shapes into quantum nuclear phyics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudek, J.
1988-01-01
After a few 'historical remarks' related to the evolution of our knowledge on nuclear shape effects, recent events in super-deformation studies are commented from the point of view of their general importance for nuclear physics. 12 refs
An endohedral fullerene-based nuclear spin quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju Chenyong; Suter, Dieter; Du Jiangfeng
2011-01-01
We propose a new scalable quantum computer architecture based on endohedral fullerene molecules. Qubits are encoded in the nuclear spins of the endohedral atoms, which posses even longer coherence times than the electron spins which are used as the qubits in previous proposals. To address the individual qubits, we use the hyperfine interaction, which distinguishes two modes (active and passive) of the nuclear spin. Two-qubit quantum gates are effectively implemented by employing the electronic dipolar interaction between adjacent molecules. The electron spins also assist in the qubit initialization and readout. Our architecture should be significantly easier to implement than earlier proposals for spin-based quantum computers, such as the concept of Kane [B.E. Kane, Nature 393 (1998) 133]. - Research highlights: → We propose an endohedral fullerene-based scalable quantum computer architecture. → Qubits are encoded on nuclear spins, while electron spins serve as auxiliaries. → Nuclear spins are individually addressed using the hyperfine interaction. → Two-qubit gates are implemented through the medium of electron spins.
QUANTUM TRANSPORT-THEORY OF NUCLEAR-MATTER
BOTERMANS, W; MALFLIET, R
1990-01-01
Quantum kinetic equations are derived using the Keldysh Green's function formalism to describe non-equilibrium processes in nuclear matter and nucleus-nucleus collisions. A general transport equation is proposed which includes energy spreading effects. We discuss a number of specific kinetic
Scaling and Universality at Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions.
Heyl, Markus
2015-10-02
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) at critical times appear as nonanalyticities during nonequilibrium quantum real-time evolution. Although there is evidence for a close relationship between DQPTs and equilibrium phase transitions, a major challenge is still to connect to fundamental concepts such as scaling and universality. In this work, renormalization group transformations in complex parameter space are formulated for quantum quenches in Ising models showing that the DQPTs are critical points associated with unstable fixed points of equilibrium Ising models. Therefore, these DQPTs obey scaling and universality. On the basis of numerical simulations, signatures of these DQPTs in the dynamical buildup of spin correlations are found with an associated power-law scaling determined solely by the fixed point's universality class. An outlook is given on how to explore this dynamical scaling experimentally in systems of trapped ions.
Experimental studies of the quantum chromodynamics phase ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-05-06
BES) ... Experimental studies of the QCD phase diagram at the STAR experiment .... However, the observed difference between v2 of particles and antiparticles could .... The grey band at the right corresponds to systematic.
Computational models for the berry phase in semiconductor quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prabhakar, S., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca; Melnik, R. V. N., E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.ca [M2NeT Lab, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); Sebetci, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mevlana University, 42003, Konya (Turkey)
2014-10-06
By developing a new model and its finite element implementation, we analyze the Berry phase low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures, focusing on quantum dots (QDs). In particular, we solve the Schrödinger equation and investigate the evolution of the spin dynamics during the adiabatic transport of the QDs in the 2D plane along circular trajectory. Based on this study, we reveal that the Berry phase is highly sensitive to the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit lengths.
Zak Phase in Discrete-Time Quantum Walks
Puentes, G.; Santillán, O.
2015-01-01
We report on a simple scheme that may present a non-trivial geometric Zak phase ($\\Phi_{Zak}$) structure, which is based on a discrete-time quantum walk architecture. By detecting the Zak phase difference between two trajectories connecting adjacent Dirac points where the quasi-energy gap closes for opposite values of quasi-momentum ($k$), it is possible to identify geometric invariants. These geometric invariants correspond to $|\\Phi_{Zak}^{+(-)}-\\Phi_{Zak}^{-(+)}|=\\pi$ and $|\\Phi_{Zak}^{+(-...
Deformation quantization: Quantum mechanics lives and works in phase space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zachos Cosmas K.
2014-01-01
A sampling of such intriguing techniques and methods has already been published in C. K. Zachos, Int Jou Mod Phys A17 297-316 (2002, and T. L. Curtright, D. B. Fairlie, and C. K. Zachos, A Concise Treatise on Quantum Mechanics in Phase Space, (Imperial Press & World Scientific, 2014.
Phase-space treatment of the driven quantum harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A recent phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics in terms of the Glauber coherent states is applied to study the interaction of a one-dimensional harmonic oscillator with an arbitrary time-dependent force. Wave functions of the simultaneous values of position q and momentum p are deduced, which in turn give the ...
Lie algebra symmetries and quantum phase transitions in nuclei
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-05
Apr 5, 2014 ... 743–755. Lie algebra symmetries and quantum phase transitions in nuclei .... Applications of this CS to QPT in sdgIBM model will be briefly ..... as a linear combination of ˆC2, ˆC3 and ˆC4 of SUsdg(5) and similarly also for the.
Multiply Degenerate Exceptional Points and Quantum Phase Transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Borisov, D.; Růžička, František; Znojil, Miloslav
2015-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 12 (2015), s. 4293-4305 ISSN 0020-7748 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * Cryptohermitian observbles * spectra and pseudospectra * real exceptional points * phase transitions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2015
Photon Cascade from a Single Crystal Phase Nanowire Quantum Dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bouwes Bavinck, Maaike; Jöns, Klaus D; Zieliński, Michal
2016-01-01
. We notice that the emission spectra consist often of two peaks close in energy, which we explain with a comprehensive theory showing that the symmetry of the system plays a crucial role for the hole levels forming hybridized orbitals. Our results state that crystal phase quantum dots have promising...
Effective Hamiltonians in quantum physics: resonances and geometric phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rau, A R P; Uskov, D
2006-01-01
Effective Hamiltonians are often used in quantum physics, both in time-dependent and time-independent contexts. Analogies are drawn between the two usages, the discussion framed particularly for the geometric phase of a time-dependent Hamiltonian and for resonances as stationary states of a time-independent Hamiltonian
Rounding by disorder of first-order quantum phase transitions: emergence of quantum critical points.
Goswami, Pallab; Schwab, David; Chakravarty, Sudip
2008-01-11
We give a heuristic argument for disorder rounding of a first-order quantum phase transition into a continuous phase transition. From both weak and strong disorder analysis of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model in one spatial dimension, we find that, for N > or =3, the first-order transition is rounded to a continuous transition and the physical picture is the same as the random transverse field Ising model for a limited parameter regime. The results are strikingly different from the corresponding classical problem in two dimensions where the fate of the renormalization group flows is a fixed point corresponding to N-decoupled pure Ising models.
Distinguishing quantum from classical oscillations in a driven phase qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shevchenko, S N; Omelyanchouk, A N; Zagoskin, A M; Savel'ev, S; Nori, Franco
2008-01-01
Rabi oscillations are coherent transitions in a quantum two-level system under the influence of a resonant drive, with a much lower frequency dependent on the perturbation amplitude. These serve as one of the signatures of quantum coherent evolution in mesoscopic systems. It was shown recently (Groenbech-Jensen N and Cirillo M 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 067001) that in phase qubits (current-biased Josephson junctions) this effect can be mimicked by classical oscillations arising due to the anharmonicity of the effective potential. Nevertheless, we find qualitative differences between the classical and quantum effects. Firstly, while the quantum Rabi oscillations can be produced by the subharmonics of the resonant frequency ω 10 (multiphoton processes), the classical effect also exists when the system is excited at the overtones, nω 10 . Secondly, the shape of the resonance is, in the classical case, characteristically asymmetric, whereas quantum resonances are described by symmetric Lorentzians. Thirdly, the anharmonicity of the potential results in the negative shift of the resonant frequency in the classical case, in contrast to the positive Bloch-Siegert shift in the quantum case. We show that in the relevant range of parameters these features allow us to distinguish confidently the bona fide Rabi oscillations from their classical Doppelgaenger
New Approaches to Quantum Computing using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colvin, M; Krishnan, V V
2003-01-01
The power of a quantum computer (QC) relies on the fundamental concept of the superposition in quantum mechanics and thus allowing an inherent large-scale parallelization of computation. In a QC, binary information embodied in a quantum system, such as spin degrees of freedom of a spin-1/2 particle forms the qubits (quantum mechanical bits), over which appropriate logical gates perform the computation. In classical computers, the basic unit of information is the bit, which can take a value of either 0 or 1. Bits are connected together by logic gates to form logic circuits to implement complex logical operations. The expansion of modern computers has been driven by the developments of faster, smaller and cheaper logic gates. As the size of the logic gates become smaller toward the level of atomic dimensions, the performance of such a system is no longer considered classical but is rather governed by quantum mechanics. Quantum computers offer the potentially superior prospect of solving computational problems that are intractable to classical computers such as efficient database searches and cryptography. A variety of algorithms have been developed recently, most notably Shor's algorithm for factorizing long numbers into prime factors in polynomial time and Grover's quantum search algorithm. The algorithms that were of only theoretical interest as recently, until several methods were proposed to build an experimental QC. These methods include, trapped ions, cavity-QED, coupled quantum dots, Josephson junctions, spin resonance transistors, linear optics and nuclear magnetic resonance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely capable of constructing small QCs and several algorithms have been implemented successfully. NMR-QC differs from other implementations in one important way that it is not a single QC, but a statistical ensemble of them. Thus, quantum computing based on NMR is considered as ensemble quantum computing. In NMR quantum computing, the spins with
Dynamical quantum phase transitions in extended transverse Ising models
Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Dutta, Amit
2018-04-01
We study the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the subsequent unitary dynamics of an extended Ising model with an additional three spin interactions following a sudden quench. Revisiting the equilibrium phase diagram of the model, where different quantum phases are characterized by different winding numbers, we show that in some situations the winding number may not change across a gap closing point in the energy spectrum. Although, usually there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the change in winding number and the number of critical time scales associated with DQPTs, we show that the extended nature of interactions may lead to unusual situations. Importantly, we show that in the limit of the cluster Ising model, three critical modes associated with DQPTs become degenerate, thereby leading to a single critical time scale for a given sector of Fisher zeros.
Quantum phase space with a basis of Wannier functions
Fang, Yuan; Wu, Fan; Wu, Biao
2018-02-01
A quantum phase space with Wannier basis is constructed: (i) classical phase space is divided into Planck cells; (ii) a complete set of Wannier functions are constructed with the combination of Kohn’s method and Löwdin method such that each Wannier function is localized at a Planck cell. With these Wannier functions one can map a wave function unitarily onto phase space. Various examples are used to illustrate our method and compare it to Wigner function. The advantage of our method is that it can smooth out the oscillations in wave functions without losing any information and is potentially a better tool in studying quantum-classical correspondence. In addition, we point out that our method can be used for time-frequency analysis of signals.
Quantum phases of spinful Fermi gases in optical cavities
Colella, E.; Citro, R.; Barsanti, M.; Rossini, D.; Chiofalo, M.-L.
2018-04-01
We explore the quantum phases emerging from the interplay between spin and motional degrees of freedom of a one-dimensional quantum fluid of spinful fermionic atoms, effectively interacting via a photon-mediating mechanism with tunable sign and strength g , as it can be realized in present-day experiments with optical cavities. We find the emergence, in the very same system, of spin- and atomic-density wave ordering, accompanied by the occurrence of superfluidity for g >0 , while cavity photons are seen to drive strong correlations at all g values, with fermionic character for g >0 , and bosonic character for g analysis.
Implementation of Quantum Private Queries Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Chuan; Hao Liang; Zhao Lian-Jie
2011-01-01
We present a modified protocol for the realization of a quantum private query process on a classical database. Using one-qubit query and CNOT operation, the query process can be realized in a two-mode database. In the query process, the data privacy is preserved as the sender would not reveal any information about the database besides her query information, and the database provider cannot retain any information about the query. We implement the quantum private query protocol in a nuclear magnetic resonance system. The density matrix of the memory registers are constructed. (general)
Phase diagram of nuclear 'pasta' and its uncertainties in supernova cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonoda, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Gentaro; Sato, Katsuhiko; Yasuoka, Kenji; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu
2008-01-01
We examine the model dependence of the phase diagram of inhomogeneous nulcear matter in supernova cores using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). Inhomogeneous matter includes crystallized matter with nonspherical nuclei--''pasta'' phases--and the liquid-gas phase-separating nuclear matter. Major differences between the phase diagrams of the QMD models can be explained by the energy of pure neutron matter at low densities and the saturation density of asymmetric nuclear matter. We show the density dependence of the symmetry energy is also useful to understand uncertainties of the phase diagram. We point out that, for typical nuclear models, the mass fraction of the pasta phases in the later stage of the collapsing cores is higher than 10-20%
Quantum renormalization group approach to geometric phases in spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jafari, R.
2013-01-01
A relation between geometric phases and criticality of spin chains are studied using the quantum renormalization-group approach. I have shown how the geometric phase evolve as the size of the system becomes large, i.e., the finite size scaling is obtained. The renormalization scheme demonstrates how the first derivative of the geometric phase with respect to the field strength diverges at the critical point and maximum value of the first derivative, and its position, scales with the exponent of the system size
Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution using coherent light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, K.; Waks, E.; Yamamoto, Y.
2003-01-01
Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution based on two nonorthogonal states is described. A weak coherent pulse train is sent from Alice to Bob, in which the phase of each pulse is randomly modulated by {0,π}. Bob measures the differential phase by a one-bit delay circuit. The system has a simple configuration without the need for an interferometer and a bright reference pulse in Alice's site, unlike the conventional QKD system based on two nonorthogonal states, and has an advantage of improved communication efficiency. The principle of the operation is successfully demonstrated in experiments
Quantum phase transitions of a disordered antiferromagnetic topological insulator
Baireuther, P.; Edge, J. M.; Fulga, I. C.; Beenakker, C. W. J.; Tworzydło, J.
2014-01-01
We study the effect of electrostatic disorder on the conductivity of a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic insulator (a stack of quantum anomalous Hall layers with staggered magnetization). The phase diagram contains regions where the increase of disorder first causes the appearance of surface conduction (via a topological phase transition), followed by the appearance of bulk conduction (via a metal-insulator transition). The conducting surface states are stabilized by an effective time-reversal symmetry that is broken locally by the disorder but restored on long length scales. A simple self-consistent Born approximation reliably locates the boundaries of this so-called "statistical" topological phase.
Quantum phases of AB2 fermionic chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murcia-Correa, L S; Franco, R; Silva-Valencia, J
2016-01-01
A fermionic chain is a one-dimensional system with fermions that interact locally and can jump between sites in the lattice, in particular an AB n chain type, where A and B are sites that exhibit a difference in energy level of Δ and site B is repeated n-times, such that the unit cell has n +1 sites. A limit case of this model, called the ionic Hubbard model (n = 1), has been widely studied due to its interesting physics and applications. In this paper, we study the ground state of an AB 2 chain, which describes the material R 4 [Pt 2 (P 2 O 5 H 2 ) 4 X] · nH 2 O. Specifically, we consider a filling with two electrons per unit cell, and using the density matrix renormalization group method we found that the system exhibits the band insulator and Mott correlated insulator phases, as well as an intermediate phase between them. For couplings of Δ = 2,10 and 20, we estimate the critical points that separate these phases through the structure factor and the energy gap in the sector of charge and spin, finding that the position of the critical point rises as a function of Δ. (paper)
Song, Xuerui; Wang, Liujun; Feng, Fupan; Lou, Liren; Diao, Wenting; Duan, Chongdi
2018-03-01
Developing gyroscopes based on quantum systems are important for inertial sensing applications, and its underlying physics is of fundamental interest. In this paper, we proposed a new type of gyroscope based on the Berry phase generated during rotation of the quantum system by using a single 13C nuclear spin coupled with a nearby nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. Due to the atom-scale size of the quantum system, rotation information can be obtained with high spatial resolution. The gyroscope can be manipulated at room temperature and without the need for a strong magnetic field, which is also beneficial to its further applications.
Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt
2015-01-01
of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...... noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing....
Wüst, Gunter Johannes
2015-01-01
Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QD) are excellent single photon sources and possible hosts for electron spin qubits, which can be initialized, manipulated and read-out optically. The nuclear spins in nano-structured semiconductors play a central role in quantum applications. The nuclear spins represent a useful resource for generating local magnetic fields but nuclear spin noise represents a major source of dephasing for spin qubits. Controlling the nuclear spins enhances the resou...
Phasing out nuclear, a credible scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatelain, C.; Mulot, R.; Chauveau, L.; Hait, J.F.
2011-01-01
Based on data from different companies, institutions and associations involved in nuclear energy (either in its production or in its critic), this article comments the possible energy savings (50 to 64%) that may be reached in the different sectors, and more particularly in the building sector and in electrical equipment. It discusses the potential production from solar, wind and biogas energy. It notices that phasing out nuclear is possible by 2030-2050, but would entail an increase of electricity prices. The German approach is presented. An article comments the anger of Fukushima Japanese farmers and evokes the slow building up of a solidarity network between France and Japan. A last article comments the authorization given to a further exploitation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant (ten more years)
Policies to phase in or out nuclear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leveque, Francois
2013-07-01
The author first outlines that national nuclear policies are very different as some countries decided or now decide to develop atomic energy, while others decide to give up. He also comments how the graphite-gas technology was adopted and later given up by France. He discusses the motivations of countries which yesterday decided and today decide to develop this technology of electricity production. He shows that these motivations are almost the same. In a second part, he comments the decision of Germany of an accelerated nuclear phasing out, and the choice of a premature closure of the French Fessenheim nuclear power station. He states that the age of a power station is not a good criterion for reactor ranking in terms of danger, and that such decisions of premature closing are economically very costly
Quantum Walks on the Line with Phase Parameters
Villagra, Marcos; Nakanishi, Masaki; Yamashita, Shigeru; Nakashima, Yasuhiko
In this paper, a study on discrete-time coined quantum walks on the line is presented. Clear mathematical foundations are still lacking for this quantum walk model. As a step toward this objective, the following question is being addressed: Given a graph, what is the probability that a quantum walk arrives at a given vertex after some number of steps? This is a very natural question, and for random walks it can be answered by several different combinatorial arguments. For quantum walks this is a highly non-trivial task. Furthermore, this was only achieved before for one specific coin operator (Hadamard operator) for walks on the line. Even considering only walks on lines, generalizing these computations to a general SU(2) coin operator is a complex task. The main contribution is a closed-form formula for the amplitudes of the state of the walk (which includes the question above) for a general symmetric SU(2) operator for walks on the line. To this end, a coin operator with parameters that alters the phase of the state of the walk is defined. Then, closed-form solutions are computed by means of Fourier analysis and asymptotic approximation methods. We also present some basic properties of the walk which can be deducted using weak convergence theorems for quantum walks. In particular, the support of the induced probability distribution of the walk is calculated. Then, it is shown how changing the parameters in the coin operator affects the resulting probability distribution.
Quantum phase transitional patterns of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dai Lianrong; Wang Lixing; Pan Feng; Zhong Weiwei; Liu Qi
2013-01-01
With the framework of Interacting Boson Model (IBM), transitional patterns from the spherical to the axially deformed limit of the IBM with a schematic Hamiltonian are studied by replacing the SU (3) quadrupole-quadrupole term with O (6) cubic interaction. But, we use the two schemes to investigate some energy ratios and B (E2) ratios for different bosons N = 8 and N = 20. The results show that with the increasing of the numbers of bosons, the transitional behaviors can be enhanced; the transitional behaviors are very similar in the two schemes. However, there are some distinctive differences for some quantities across the entire transitional region, such as energy levels and ratios, B (E2) values and ratios, and expectation values of the shape variables. Generally speaking, the transition is smoother and the nuclear shape is less well defined in the new scheme. Then we apply the two schemes to the critical point symmetry candidate, such as 152 Sm, and find the overall fitting quality of the UQ scheme is better than that of the U (5)-SU (3) scheme, especially for the inter-band E2 transitions in 152 Sm. (authors)
Quantum field theory and nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Celenza, L.S.; Goulard, B.; Shakin, C.M.
1981-01-01
We discuss recent successful calculations of the properties of nuclear matter within the context of theories exhibiting mass generation through spontaneous symmetry breaking. We start with the sigma model of Gell-Mann and Levy and introduce the nucleon mass (in a vacuum) in the usual manner. We relate the expectation value of the sigma field in a vacuum to a finite value of the scalar density. If the vacuum is now filled with nucleons (nuclear matter) the scalar density is increased and the new value for the nucleon mass must be determined. We exhibit the equation whose solution determines the new mass, and we also define a perturbative scheme for the determination of this mass. This scheme involves an expansion of the various quantities of the theory in terms of matrix elements calculated with positive- and negative-energy spinors parametrized with the vacuum mass. Although the decrease in the mass upon going from vacuum to nuclear matter at the equilibrium density is quite large (approx.400 MeV), we are still able to exhibit a small parameter which allows for a perturbative expansion of the binding energy and other observables. The leading term in such an expansion reproduces the approximation widely used in other calculations of the properties of nuclear matter. The truncation of the expansion at the leading term is inadequate and this fact accounts for the lack of success in previous calculations using the standard formalism. We proceed to make a transformation to the Weinberg Lagrangian retaining the fluctuating parts of the sigma field. We further make a small-oscillation approximation, dropping the nonlinear terms in this Lagrangian
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of alpha-RuCl3
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zhengxin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-01-01
$\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ is a leading candidate material for theobservation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the $ab$ plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result...
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α -RuCl3
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-12-01
α -RuCl3 is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α -RuCl3 undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the a b plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α -RuCl3 .
Quantum phase transition in strongly correlated many-body system
You, Wenlong
The past decade has seen a substantial rejuvenation of interest in the study of quantum phase transitions (QPTs), driven by experimental advance on the cuprate superconductors, the heavy fermion materials, organic conductors, Quantum Hall effect, Fe-As based superconductors and other related compounds. It is clear that strong electronic interactions play a crucial role in the systems of current interest, and simple paradigms for the behavior of such systems near quantum critical points remain unclear. Furthermore, the rapid progress in Feshbach resonance and optical lattice provides a flexible platform to study QPT. Quantum Phase Transition (QPT) describes the non-analytic behaviors of the ground-state properties in a many-body system by varying a physical parameter at absolute zero temperature - such as magnetic field or pressure, driven by quantum fluctuations. Such quantum phase transitions can be first-order phase transition or continuous. The phase transition is usually accompanied by a qualitative change in the nature of the correlations in the ground state, and describing this change shall clearly be one of our major interests. We address this issue from three prospects in a few strong correlated many-body systems in this thesis, i.e., identifying the ordered phases, studying the properties of different phases, characterizing the QPT points. In chapter 1, we give an introduction to QPT, and take one-dimensional XXZ model as an example to illustrate the QPT therein. Through this simple example, we would show that when the tunable parameter is varied, the system evolves into different phases, across two quantum QPT points. The distinct phases exhibit very different behaviors. Also a schematic phase diagram is appended. In chapter 2, we are engaged in research on ordered phases. Originating in the work of Landau and Ginzburg on second-order phase transition, the spontaneous symmetry breaking induces nonzero expectation of field operator, e.g., magnetization M
From quantum to semiclassical kinetic equations: Nuclear matter estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galetti, D.; Mizrahi, S.S.; Nemes, M.C.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1985-01-01
Starting from the exact microscopic time evolution of the quantum one body density associated with a many fermion system semiclassical approximations are derived to it. In the limit where small momentum transfer two body collisions are dominant we get a Fokker-Planck equation and work out friction and diffusion tensors explicitly for nuclear matter. If arbitrary momentum transfers are considered a Boltzmann equation is derived and used to calculate the viscosity coefficient of nuclear matter. A derivation is given of the collision term used by Landau to describe the damping of zero sound waves at low temperature in Plasmas. Memory effects are essential for this. The damping of zero sound waves in nuclear matter is also calculated and the value so obtained associated with the bulk value of the damping of giant resonances in finite nuclei. The bulk value is estimated to be quite small indicating the importance of the nuclear surface for the damping. (Author) [pt
Entanglement measures in embedding quantum simulators with nuclear spins
Xin, Tao; Pedernales, Julen S.; Solano, Enrique; Long, Gui-Lu
2018-02-01
We implement an embedding quantum simulator (EQS) in nuclear spin systems. The experiment consists of a simulator of up to three qubits, plus a single ancillary qubit, where we are able to efficiently measure the concurrence and the three-tangle of two-qubit and three-qubit systems as they undergo entangling dynamics. The EQS framework allows us to drastically reduce the number of measurements needed for this task, which otherwise would require full-state reconstruction of the qubit system. Our simulator is built of the nuclear spins of four 13C atoms in a molecule of trans-crotonic acid manipulated with NMR techniques.
Quantum de Finetti theorem in phase-space representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leverrier, Anthony; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2009-01-01
The quantum versions of de Finetti's theorem derived so far express the convergence of n-partite symmetric states, i.e., states that are invariant under permutations of their n parties, toward probabilistic mixtures of independent and identically distributed (IID) states of the form σ xn . Unfortunately, these theorems only hold in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, and their direct generalization to infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces is known to fail. Here, we address this problem by considering invariance under orthogonal transformations in phase space instead of permutations in state space, which leads to a quantum de Finetti theorem particularly relevant to continuous-variable systems. Specifically, an n-mode bosonic state that is invariant with respect to this continuous symmetry in phase space is proven to converge toward a probabilistic mixture of IID Gaussian states (actually, n identical thermal states).
Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.
2017-12-01
Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions.We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of newmaterials exhibiting negative thermal expansion
One-Way Deficit and Quantum Phase Transitions in XX Model
Wang, Yao-Kun; Zhang, Yu-Ran
2018-02-01
Quantum correlations including entanglement and quantum discord have drawn much attention in characterizing quantum phase transitions. Quantum deficit originates in questions regarding work extraction from quantum systems coupled to a heat bath (Oppenheim et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 180402, 2002). It links quantum thermodynamics with quantum correlations and provides a new standpoint for understanding quantum non-locality. In this paper, we evaluate the one-way deficit of two adjacent spins in the bulk for the XX model. In the thermodynamic limit, the XX model undergoes a first order transition from fully polarized to a critical phase with quasi-long-range order with decrease of quantum parameter. We find that the one-way deficit becomes nonzero after the critical point. Therefore, the one-way deficit characterizes the quantum phase transition in the XX model.
Nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories: phase transitions and confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yankielowicz, S.
1976-08-01
Lectures are given on a nonperturbative approach to quantum field theories. Phenomena are discussed for which the usual weak coupling perturbative approach in terms of Feynman diagrams is of no assistance. Properties associated with large distance behavior, i.e., phase transitions, low lying spectra, coherent excitations which are presumably built out of the long wave structure of the theory are described. These methods are important for the study of strong coupling field theories and the question of quarks confinement. 25 references
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics, phase equivalence, and low energy scattering anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.
1991-01-01
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics links two Hamiltonians with the same scattering (phase equivalence) but different number of bound states. We examine the Green's functions for these Hamiltonians as a prelude to embedding the two-body dynamics in a many-body system. We study the effect of the elimination of a two-body bound state near zero energy for the Efimov effect and Beg's theorem
Hermitian-to-quasi-Hermitian quantum phase transitions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
Roč. 97, č. 4 ( 2018 ), č. článku 042117. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum phase transition * PT-symmetric * Herimiticity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016
The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields
Chung D.-Y.; Krasnoholovets V.
2006-01-01
We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment spac...
Experimental asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning of polarization qubits
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.
2008-01-01
Roč. 78, č. 5 (2008), 052323/1-052323/7 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:GAMŠk(CZ) LC06007 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : phase-covariant cloning * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.908, year: 2008
Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi
2007-01-01
Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by the classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided
The Quantum Space Phase Transitions for Particles and Force Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung D.-Y.
2006-07-01
Full Text Available We introduce a phenomenological formalism in which the space structure is treated in terms of attachment space and detachment space. Attachment space attaches to an object, while detachment space detaches from the object. The combination of these spaces results in three quantum space phases: binary partition space, miscible space and binary lattice space. Binary lattice space consists of repetitive units of alternative attachment space and detachment space. In miscible space, attachment space is miscible to detachment space, and there is no separation between attachment space and detachment spaces. In binary partition space, detachment space and attachment space are in two separat continuous regions. The transition from wavefunction to the collapse of wavefuction under interference becomes the quantum space phase transition from binary lattice space to miscible space. At extremely conditions, the gauge boson force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to a "hedge boson force field", consisting of a "vacuum" core surrounded by a hedge boson shell, like a bubble with boundary.
Equivariant topological quantum field theory and symmetry protected topological phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kapustin, Anton [Division of Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Turzillo, Alex [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, State University of New York,Stony Brook, NY, 11794 (United States)
2017-03-01
Short-Range Entangled topological phases of matter are closely related to Topological Quantum Field Theory. We use this connection to classify Symmetry Protected Topological phases in low dimensions, including the case when the symmetry involves time-reversal. To accomplish this, we generalize Turaev’s description of equivariant TQFT to the unoriented case. We show that invertible unoriented equivariant TQFTs in one or fewer spatial dimensions are classified by twisted group cohomology, in agreement with the proposal of Chen, Gu, Liu and Wen. We also show that invertible oriented equivariant TQFTs in spatial dimension two or fewer are classified by ordinary group cohomology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Beni
2011-01-01
Searches for possible new quantum phases and classifications of quantum phases have been central problems in physics. Yet, they are indeed challenging problems due to the computational difficulties in analyzing quantum many-body systems and the lack of a general framework for classifications. While frustration-free Hamiltonians, which appear as fixed point Hamiltonians of renormalization group transformations, may serve as representatives of quantum phases, it is still difficult to analyze and classify quantum phases of arbitrary frustration-free Hamiltonians exhaustively. Here, we address these problems by sharpening our considerations to a certain subclass of frustration-free Hamiltonians, called stabilizer Hamiltonians, which have been actively studied in quantum information science. We propose a model of frustration-free Hamiltonians which covers a large class of physically realistic stabilizer Hamiltonians, constrained to only three physical conditions; the locality of interaction terms, translation symmetries and scale symmetries, meaning that the number of ground states does not grow with the system size. We show that quantum phases arising in two-dimensional models can be classified exactly through certain quantum coding theoretical operators, called logical operators, by proving that two models with topologically distinct shapes of logical operators are always separated by quantum phase transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zheng
2014-09-01
The advent of free electron lasers and high harmonic sources enables the investigation of electronic and nuclear dynamics of molecules and solids with atomic spatial resolution and femtosecond/attosecond time resolution, using bright and ultrashort laser pulses of frequency from terahertz to hard x-ray range. With the help of ultrashort laser pulses, the nuclear and electronic dynamics can be initiated, monitored and actively controlled at the typical time scale in the femtosecond to attosecond realm. Meanwhile, theoretical tools are required to describe the underlying mechanism. This doctoral thesis focuses on the development of theoretical tools based on full quantum mechanical multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) and mixed quantum classical approaches, which can be applied to describe the dynamical behavior of gas phase molecules and strongly correlated solids in the presence of ultrashort laser pulses. In the first part of this thesis, the focus is on the motion of electron holes in gas phase molecular ions created by extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photoionization and watched by spectroscopic approaches. The XUV photons create electron-hole in the valence orbitals of molecules by photoionization, the electron hole, as a positively charged quasi-particle, can then interact with the nuclei and the rest of electrons, leading to coupled non-Born-Oppenheimer dynamics. I present our study on electron-hole relaxation dynamics in valence ionized molecular ions of moderate size, using quantum wave packet and mixed quantum-classical approaches, using photoionized [H + (H 2 O) n ] + molecular ion as example. We have shown that the coupled motion of the electron-hole and the nuclei can be mapped out with femtosecond resolution by core-level x-ray transient absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, in specific cases, the XUV photon can create a coherent electron hole, that can maintain its coherence to time scales of ∝ 1 picosecond. Employing XUV pump - IR probe
Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kemp, A.
2006-01-01
In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)
Quantum and thermal phase escape in extended Josephson systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kemp, A.
2006-07-12
In this work I examine phase escape in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions. The sine-Gordon equation governs the dynamics of the phase variable along the junction. This equation supports topological soliton solutions, which correspond to quanta of magnetic flux trapped in the junction barrier. For such Josephson vortices an effective potential is formed by an external magnetic field, while a bias current acts as a driving force. Both together form a metastable potential well, which the vortex is trapped in. When the driving force exceeds the pinning force of the potential, the vortex escapes and the junction switches to the voltage state. At a finite temperature the driving force fluctuates. If the junction's energy scale is small, the phase variable can undergo a macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) process at temperatures below the crossover temperature. Without a vortex trapped, the metastable state is not a potential minimum in space, but a potential minimum at zero phase difference. (orig.)
Wang, Shengtao
The ability to precisely and coherently control atomic systems has improved dramatically in the last two decades, driving remarkable advancements in quantum computation and simulation. In recent years, atomic and atom-like systems have also been served as a platform to study topological phases of matter and non-equilibrium many-body physics. Integrated with rapid theoretical progress, the employment of these systems is expanding the realm of our understanding on a range of physical phenomena. In this dissertation, I draw on state-of-the-art experimental technology to develop several new ideas for controlling and applying atomic systems. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose several novel schemes to realize, detect, and probe topological phases in atomic and atom-like systems. We first theoretically study the intriguing properties of Hopf insulators, a peculiar type of topological insulators beyond the standard classification paradigm of topological phases. Using a solid-state quantum simulator, we report the first experimental observation of Hopf insulators. We demonstrate the Hopf fibration with fascinating topological links in the experiment, showing clear signals of topological phase transitions for the underlying Hamiltonian. Next, we propose a feasible experimental scheme to realize the chiral topological insulator in three dimensions. They are a type of topological insulators protected by the chiral symmetry and have thus far remained unobserved in experiment. We then introduce a method to directly measure topological invariants in cold-atom experiments. This detection scheme is general and applicable to probe of different topological insulators in any spatial dimension. In another study, we theoretically discover a new type of topological gapless rings, dubbed a Weyl exceptional ring, in three-dimensional dissipative cold atomic systems. In the second part of this dissertation, we focus on the application of atomic systems in quantum computation
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-05-18
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips.
Fukushima, phasing out nuclear and missed opportunities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabouret, Christophe
2012-01-01
The author discusses information about casualties of the Fukushima accident and health consequences of this accident. He notably evokes the 'disappearance' of more than 200 and finally 840 Tepco workers from the company registers, thyroid and health problems noticed on children near Fukushima and near Tokyo, cases of deathly acute leukaemia near for people working in Fukushima, and so on. He also evokes incidents or accident which occurred earlier in a Japanese nuclear plant after an earthquake which were followed by statements calling for an improvement of Japanese nuclear plants to face such natural events. In this respect, in 2004, Tepco had been informed of a risk of a very strong tsunami, but decided that additional safety measures were useless. The author addresses the case of Japanese temporary workers who were said to be the most exposed to contamination. He outlines the relationships between politicians, elected representatives and Tepco managers. He comments how some Japanese have refused either the installation or the restart of nuclear installations on their territory. However, Japanese people finally did not elect any person in favour or phasing out nuclear
Phases of kinky holographic nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Sutcliffe, Paul; Zamaklar, Marija [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham (United Kingdom)
2016-10-17
Holographic QCD at finite baryon number density and zero temperature is studied within the five-dimensional Sakai-Sugimoto model. We introduce a new approximation that models a smeared crystal of solitonic baryons by assuming spatial homogeneity to obtain an effective kink theory in the holographic direction. The kink theory correctly reproduces a first order phase transition to lightly bound nuclear matter. As the density is further increased the kink splits into a pair of half-kink constituents, providing a concrete realization of the previously suggested dyonic salt phase, where the bulk soliton splits into constituents at high density. The kink model also captures the phenomenon of baryonic popcorn, in which a first order phase transition generates an additional soliton layer in the holographic direction. We find that this popcorn transition takes place at a density below the dyonic salt phase, making the latter energetically unfavourable. However, the kink model predicts only one pop, rather than the sequence of pops suggested by previous approximations. In the kink model the two layers produced by the single pop form the surface of a soliton bag that increases in size as the baryon chemical potential is increased. The interior of the bag is filled with abelian electric potential and the instanton charge density is localized on the surface of the bag. The soliton bag may provide a holographic description of a quarkyonic phase.
Control of the spin geometric phase in semiconductor quantum rings.
Nagasawa, Fumiya; Frustaglia, Diego; Saarikoski, Henri; Richter, Klaus; Nitta, Junsaku
2013-01-01
Since the formulation of the geometric phase by Berry, its relevance has been demonstrated in a large variety of physical systems. However, a geometric phase of the most fundamental spin-1/2 system, the electron spin, has not been observed directly and controlled independently from dynamical phases. Here we report experimental evidence on the manipulation of an electron spin through a purely geometric effect in an InGaAs-based quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By applying an in-plane magnetic field, a phase shift of the Aharonov-Casher interference pattern towards the small spin-orbit-coupling regions is observed. A perturbation theory for a one-dimensional Rashba ring under small in-plane fields reveals that the phase shift originates exclusively from the modulation of a pure geometric-phase component of the electron spin beyond the adiabatic limit, independently from dynamical phases. The phase shift is well reproduced by implementing two independent approaches, that is, perturbation theory and non-perturbative transport simulations.
Macroscopic Quantum States and Quantum Phase Transition in the Dicke Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lian Jin-Ling; Zhang Yuan-Wei; Liang Jiu-Qing
2012-01-01
The energy spectrum of Dicke Hamiltonians with and without the rotating wave approximation for an arbitrary atom number is obtained analytically by means of the variational method, in which the effective pseudo-spin Hamiltonian resulting from the expectation value in the boson-field coherent state is diagonalized by the spin-coherent-state transformation. In addition to the ground-state energy, an excited macroscopic quantum-state is found corresponding to the south- and north-pole gauges of the spin-coherent states, respectively. Our results of ground-state energies in exact agreement with various approaches show that these models exhibit a zero-temperature quantum phase transition of the second order for any number of atoms, which was commonly considered as a phenomenon of the thermodynamic limit with the atom number tending to infinity. The critical behavior of the geometric phase is analyzed. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue, Liyuan; Yu, Yanxia; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We find that the Pancharatnam phases include the information of quantum correlations. • We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement is original in the transition of Pancharatnam phase. • We find that the faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. • We find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state. • Our results provide a useful approach experimentally to implement the time-dependent geometric quantum computation. - Abstract: We investigate time-dependent Pancharatnam phases and the relations between such geometric phases and quantum correlations, i.e., quantum discord and concurrence, of superconducting two-qubit coupling system in dissipative environment with the mixture effects of four different eigenstates of density matrix. We find that the time-dependent Pancharatnam phases not only keep the motion memory of such a two-qubit system, but also include the information of quantum correlations. We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement are intrinsic in the transition of Pancharatnam phase in the X-state and the complex oscillations of Pancharatnam phase in the Y-state. The faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. In particular, we find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state by choosing suitable coupling parameters between two-qubit system and its environment, or initial conditions.
Classical and quantum phases of low-dimensional dipolar systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cartarius, Florian
2016-09-22
In this thesis we present a detailed study of the phase diagram of ultracold bosonic atoms confined along a tight atomic wave guide, along which they experience an optical lattice potential. In this quasi-one dimensional model we analyse the interplay between interactions and quantum fluctuations in (i) determining the non-equilibrium steady state after a quench and (ii) giving rise to novel equilibrium phases, when the interactions combine the s-wave contact interaction and the anisotropic long range dipole-dipole interactions. In detail, in the first part of the thesis we study the depinning of a gas of impenetrable bosons following the sudden switch of of the optical lattice. By means of a Bose-Fermi mapping we infer the exact quantum dynamical evolution and show that in the thermodynamic limit the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state without quasi-long range order. In the second part of the thesis, we study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the linear-zigzag instability in the ground state of ultracold dipolar bosons, as a function of the strength of the transverse confinement. We first analyse the linear-zigzag instability in the classical regime, and then use our results to develop a multi-mode Bose-Hubbard model for the system. We then develop several numerical methods, to determine the ground state.
Phase-controlled coherent population trapping in superconducting quantum circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Guang-Ling; Wang Yi-Ping; Chen Ai-Xi
2015-01-01
We investigate the influences of the-applied-field phases and amplitudes on the coherent population trapping behavior in superconducting quantum circuits. Based on the interactions of the microwave fields with a single Δ-type three-level fluxonium qubit, the coherent population trapping could be obtainable and it is very sensitive to the relative phase and amplitudes of the applied fields. When the relative phase is tuned to 0 or π, the maximal atomic coherence is present and coherent population trapping occurs. While for the choice of π/2, the atomic coherence becomes weak. Meanwhile, for the fixed relative phase π/2, the value of coherence would decrease with the increase of Rabi frequency of the external field coupled with two lower levels. The responsible physical mechanism is quantum interference induced by the control fields, which is indicated in the dressed-state representation. The microwave coherent phenomenon is present in our scheme, which will have potential applications in optical communication and nonlinear optics in solid-state devices. (paper)
Hyperons in the nuclear pasta phase
Menezes, Débora P.; Providência, Constança
2017-10-01
We have investigated under which conditions hyperons (particularly Λ s and Σ-s ) can be found in the nuclear pasta phase. As the density and temperature are larger and the electron fraction is smaller, the probability is greater that these particles appear, but always in very small amounts. Λ hyperons only occur in gas and in smaller amounts than would occur if matter were homogeneous, never with abundancies above 10-5. The amount of Σ- in the gas is at least two orders of magnitude smaller and can be disregarded in practical calculations.
Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la
1997-12-31
The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author). 34 refs.
Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; Mota, V. de la.
1997-01-01
The description of transport phenomena in nuclear matter is addressed in a new approach based on the mathematical theory of wavelets and the projection methods of statistical physics. The advantage of this framework is to offer the opportunity to use information concepts common to both the formulation of physical properties and the mathematical description. This paper focuses on two features, the extraction of relevant informations using the geometrical properties of the underlying phase space and the optimization of the theoretical and numerical treatments based on convenient choices of the representation spaces. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frohlich, J.
1976-01-01
We prove that a Symanzik--Nelson positive quantum field theory, i.e., a quantum field theory derived from a Euclidean field theory, has a unique decomposition into pure phases which preserves Symanzik--Nelson positivity and Poincare covariance. We derive useful sufficient conditions for the breakdown of an internal symmetry of such a theory in its pure phases, for the self-adjointness and nontrivially (in the sense of Borchers classes) of its quantum fields, and the existence of time-ordered and retarded products. All these general results are then applied to the P (phi) 2 and the phi 3 4 quantum field models
Quantum phase slips and voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Semenov, Andrew G. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikin, Andrei D. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)
2017-06-15
We argue that quantum phase slips (QPS) may generate non-equilibrium voltage fluctuations in superconducting nanowires. In the low frequency limit we evaluate all cumulants of the voltage operator which obey Poisson statistics and show a power law dependence on the external bias. We specifically address quantum shot noise which power spectrum S{sub Ω} may depend non-monotonously on temperature. In the long wire limit S{sub Ω} decreases with increasing frequency Ω and vanishes beyond a threshold value of Ω at T → 0. Our predictions can be directly tested in future experiments with superconducting nanowires. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Experiments on Quantum Hall Topological Phases in Ultra Low Temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du, Rui-Rui
2015-01-01
This project is to cool electrons in semiconductors to extremely low temperatures and to study new states of matter formed by low-dimensional electrons (or holes). At such low temperatures (and with an intense magnetic field), electronic behavior differs completely from ordinary ones observed at room temperatures or regular low temperature. Studies of electrons at such low temperatures would open the door for fundamental discoveries in condensed matter physics. Present studies have been focused on topological phases in the fractional quantum Hall effect in GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor heterostructures, and the newly discovered (by this group) quantum spin Hall effect in InAs/GaSb materials. This project consists of the following components: 1) Development of efficient sample cooling techniques and electron thermometry: Our goal is to reach 1 mK electron temperature and reasonable determination of electron temperature; 2) Experiments at ultra-low temperatures: Our goal is to understand the energy scale of competing quantum phases, by measuring the temperature-dependence of transport features. Focus will be placed on such issues as the energy gap of the 5/2 state, and those of 12/5 (and possible 13/5); resistive signature of instability near 1/2 at ultra-low temperatures; 3) Measurement of the 5/2 gaps in the limit of small or large Zeeman energies: Our goal is to gain physics insight of 5/2 state at limiting experimental parameters, especially those properties concerning the spin polarization; 4) Experiments on tuning the electron-electron interaction in a screened quantum Hall system: Our goal is to gain understanding of the formation of paired fractional quantum Hall state as the interaction pseudo-potential is being modified by a nearby screening electron layer; 5) Experiments on the quantized helical edge states under a strong magnetic field and ultralow temperatures: our goal is to investigate both the bulk and edge states in a quantum spin Hall insulator under
Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol
2010-01-01
Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.
Nuclear quantum effects and hydrogen bond fluctuations in water
Ceriotti, Michele; Cuny, Jérôme; Parrinello, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E.
2013-01-01
The hydrogen bond (HB) is central to our understanding of the properties of water. However, despite intense theoretical and experimental study, it continues to hold some surprises. Here, we show from an analysis of ab initio simulations that take proper account of nuclear quantum effects that the hydrogen-bonded protons in liquid water experience significant excursions in the direction of the acceptor oxygen atoms. This generates a small but nonnegligible fraction of transient autoprotolysis events that are not seen in simulations with classical nuclei. These events are associated with major rearrangements of the electronic density, as revealed by an analysis of the computed Wannier centers and 1H chemical shifts. We also show that the quantum fluctuations exhibit significant correlations across neighboring HBs, consistent with an ephemeral shuttling of protons along water wires. We end by suggesting possible implications for our understanding of how perturbations (solvated ions, interfaces, and confinement) might affect the HB network in water. PMID:24014589
Quarks and gluons in the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Welzbacher, Christian Andreas
2016-07-14
In this dissertation we study the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter by approaching the theory of quantum chromodynamics in the functional approach of Dyson-Schwinger equations. With these quantum (field) equations of motions we calculate the non-perturbative quark propagator within the Matsubara formalism. We built up on previous works and extend the so-called truncation scheme, which is necessary to render the infinite tower of Dyson-Schwinger equations finite and study phase transitions of chiral symmetry and the confinement/deconfinement transition. In the first part of this thesis we discuss general aspects of quantum chromodynamics and introduce the Dyson-Schwinger equations in general and present the quark Dyson-Schwinger equation together with its counterpart for the gluon. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is introduced which is necessary to perform two-body bound state calculations. A view on the phase diagram of quantum chromodynamics is given, including the discussion of order parameter for chiral symmetry and confinement. Here we also discuss the dependence of the phase structure on the masses of the quarks. In the following we present the truncation and our results for an unquenched N{sub f} = 2+1 calculation and compare it to previous studies. We highlight some complementary details for the quark and gluon propagator and discus the resulting phase diagram, which is in agreement with previous work. Results for an equivalent of the Columbia plot and the critical surface are discussed. A systematically improved truncation, where the charm quark as a dynamical quark flavour is added, will be presented in Ch. 4. An important aspect in this investigation is the proper adjustment of the scales. This is done by matching vacuum properties of the relevant pseudoscalar mesons separately for N{sub f} = 2+1 and N f = 2+1+1 via a solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation. A comparison of the resulting N{sub f} = 2+1 and N{sub f} = 2+1+1 phase diagram indicates
Adaptive phase measurements in linear optical quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralph, T C; Lund, A P; Wiseman, H M
2005-01-01
Photon counting induces an effective non-linear optical phase shift in certain states derived by linear optics from single photons. Although this non-linearity is non-deterministic, it is sufficient in principle to allow scalable linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The most obvious way to encode a qubit optically is as a superposition of the vacuum and a single photon in one mode-so-called 'single-rail' logic. Until now this approach was thought to be prohibitively expensive (in resources) compared to 'dual-rail' logic where a qubit is stored by a photon across two modes. Here we attack this problem with real-time feedback control, which can realize a quantum-limited phase measurement on a single mode, as has been recently demonstrated experimentally. We show that with this added measurement resource, the resource requirements for single-rail LOQC are not substantially different from those of dual-rail LOQC. In particular, with adaptive phase measurements an arbitrary qubit state α vertical bar 0>+β vertical bar 1> can be prepared deterministically
Implementing phase-covariant cloning in circuit quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Meng-Zheng [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei 235000 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: yeliu@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)
2016-10-15
An efficient scheme is proposed to implement phase-covariant quantum cloning by using a superconducting transmon qubit coupled to a microwave cavity resonator in the strong dispersive limit of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). By solving the master equation numerically, we plot the Wigner function and Poisson distribution of the cavity mode after each operation in the cloning transformation sequence according to two logic circuits proposed. The visualizations of the quasi-probability distribution in phase-space for the cavity mode and the occupation probability distribution in the Fock basis enable us to penetrate the evolution process of cavity mode during the phase-covariant cloning (PCC) transformation. With the help of numerical simulation method, we find out that the present cloning machine is not the isotropic model because its output fidelity depends on the polar angle and the azimuthal angle of the initial input state on the Bloch sphere. The fidelity for the actual output clone of the present scheme is slightly smaller than one in the theoretical case. The simulation results are consistent with the theoretical ones. This further corroborates our scheme based on circuit QED can implement efficiently PCC transformation.
Quantum mechanical force fields for condensed phase molecular simulations
Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.
2017-09-01
Molecular simulations are powerful tools for providing atomic-level details into complex chemical and physical processes that occur in the condensed phase. For strongly interacting systems where quantum many-body effects are known to play an important role, density-functional methods are often used to provide the model with the potential energy used to drive dynamics. These methods, however, suffer from two major drawbacks. First, they are often too computationally intensive to practically apply to large systems over long time scales, limiting their scope of application. Second, there remain challenges for these models to obtain the necessary level of accuracy for weak non-bonded interactions to obtain quantitative accuracy for a wide range of condensed phase properties. Quantum mechanical force fields (QMFFs) provide a potential solution to both of these limitations. In this review, we address recent advances in the development of QMFFs for condensed phase simulations. In particular, we examine the development of QMFF models using both approximate and ab initio density-functional models, the treatment of short-ranged non-bonded and long-ranged electrostatic interactions, and stability issues in molecular dynamics calculations. Example calculations are provided for crystalline systems, liquid water, and ionic liquids. We conclude with a perspective for emerging challenges and future research directions.
Wavelet analysis of the nuclear phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jouault, B.; Sebille, F.; De La Mota, V.
1997-01-01
The description of complex systems requires to select and to compact the relevant information. The wavelet theory constitutes an appropriate framework for defining adapted representation bases obtained from a controlled hierarchy of approximations. The optimization of the wavelet analysis depend mainly on the chosen analysis method and wavelet family. Here the analysis of the harmonic oscillator wave function was carried out by considering a Spline bi-orthogonal wavelet base which satisfy the symmetry requirements and can be approximated by simple analytical functions. The goal of this study was to determine a selection criterion allowing to minimize the number of elements considered for an optimal description of the analysed functions. An essential point consists in utilization of the wavelet complementarity and of the scale functions in order to reproduce the oscillating and peripheral parts of the wave functions. The wavelet base representation allows defining a sequence of approximations of the density matrix. Thus, this wavelet representation of the density matrix offers an optimal base for describing both the static nuclear configurations and their time evolution. This information compacting procedure is performed in a controlled manner and preserves the structure of the system wave functions and consequently some of its quantum properties
Quantum statistical model of nuclear multifragmentation in the canonical ensemble method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toneev, V.D.; Ploszajczak, M.; Parvant, A.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Parvant, A.S.
1999-01-01
A quantum statistical model of nuclear multifragmentation is proposed. The recurrence equation method used the canonical ensemble makes the model solvable and transparent to physical assumptions and allows to get results without involving the Monte Carlo technique. The model exhibits the first order phase transition. Quantum statistics effects are clearly seen on the microscopic level of occupation numbers but are almost washed out for global thermodynamic variables and the averaged observables studied. In the latter case, the recurrence relations for multiplicity distributions of both intermediate-mass and all fragments are derived and the specific changes in the shape of multiplicity distributions in the narrow region of the transition temperature is stressed. The temperature domain favorable to search for the HBT effect is noted. (authors)
Quantum statistical model of nuclear multifragmentation in the canonical ensemble method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toneev, V.D.; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Parvant, A.S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Moldova Academy of Sciences, MD Moldova (Ukraine); Parvant, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)
1999-07-01
A quantum statistical model of nuclear multifragmentation is proposed. The recurrence equation method used the canonical ensemble makes the model solvable and transparent to physical assumptions and allows to get results without involving the Monte Carlo technique. The model exhibits the first order phase transition. Quantum statistics effects are clearly seen on the microscopic level of occupation numbers but are almost washed out for global thermodynamic variables and the averaged observables studied. In the latter case, the recurrence relations for multiplicity distributions of both intermediate-mass and all fragments are derived and the specific changes in the shape of multiplicity distributions in the narrow region of the transition temperature is stressed. The temperature domain favorable to search for the HBT effect is noted. (authors)
Interaction effects and quantum phase transitions in topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varney, Christopher N.; Sun Kai; Galitski, Victor; Rigol, Marcos
2010-01-01
We study strong correlation effects in topological insulators via the Lanczos algorithm, which we utilize to calculate the exact many-particle ground-state wave function and its topological properties. We analyze the simple, noninteracting Haldane model on a honeycomb lattice with known topological properties and demonstrate that these properties are already evident in small clusters. Next, we consider interacting fermions by introducing repulsive nearest-neighbor interactions. A first-order quantum phase transition was discovered at finite interaction strength between the topological band insulator and a topologically trivial Mott insulating phase by use of the fidelity metric and the charge-density-wave structure factor. We construct the phase diagram at T=0 as a function of the interaction strength and the complex phase for the next-nearest-neighbor hoppings. Finally, we consider the Haldane model with interacting hard-core bosons, where no evidence for a topological phase is observed. An important general conclusion of our work is that despite the intrinsic nonlocality of topological phases their key topological properties manifest themselves already in small systems and therefore can be studied numerically via exact diagonalization and observed experimentally, e.g., with trapped ions and cold atoms in optical lattices.
Majarshin, A. Jalili; Sabri, H.
2018-06-01
It is interesting that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition. This paper studies the quantum phase transition of the U(5) to SO(6) in the interacting boson model (IBM) on the finite number N of bosons. This paper explores the well-known distinctive signatures of transition from spherical vibrational to γ-soft shape phase in the IBM with the variation of a control parameter. Quantum phase transitions occur as a result of properties of ground and excited states levels. We apply an affine \\widehat {SU(1,1)} approach to numerically solve non-linear Bethe Ansatz equation and point out what observables are particularly sensitive to the transition. The main aim of this work is to describe the most prominent observables of QPT by using IBM in shape coexistence configuration. We calculate energies of excited states and signatures of QPT as energy surface, energy ratio, energy differences, quadrupole electric transition rates and expectation values of boson number operators and show their behavior in QPT. These observables are calculated and examined for 98 - 102Mo isotopes.
Quantum phases of electric dipole ensembles in atom chips
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pachos, Jiannis K.
2005-01-01
We present how a phase factor is generated when an electric dipole moves along a closed trajectory inside a magnetic field gradient. The similarity of this situation with charged particles in a magnetic field can be employed to simulate condensed matter models, such as the quantum Hall effect and chiral spin Hamiltonians, with ultra cold atoms integrated on atom chips. To illustrate this we consider a triangular configuration of a two-dimensional optical lattice, where the chiral spin Hamiltonian σ-> i -bar σ-> j xσ-> k can be generated between any three neighbours on a lattice yielding an experimentally implementable chiral ground state
Unconventional transformation of spin Dirac phase across a topological quantum phase transition
Xu, Su-Yang; Neupane, Madhab; Belopolski, Ilya; Liu, Chang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Jia, Shuang; Landolt, Gabriel; Slomski, Batosz; Dil, J. Hugo; Shibayev, Pavel P.; Basak, Susmita; Chang, Tay-Rong; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Cava, Robert J.; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Hasan, M. Zahid
2015-01-01
The topology of a topological material can be encoded in its surface states. These surface states can only be removed by a bulk topological quantum phase transition into a trivial phase. Here we use photoemission spectroscopy to image the formation of protected surface states in a topological insulator as we chemically tune the system through a topological transition. Surprisingly, we discover an exotic spin-momentum locked, gapped surface state in the trivial phase that shares many important properties with the actual topological surface state in anticipation of the change of topology. Using a spin-resolved measurement, we show that apart from a surface bandgap these states develop spin textures similar to the topological surface states well before the transition. Our results offer a general paradigm for understanding how surface states in topological phases arise from a quantum phase transition and are suggestive for the future realization of Weyl arcs, condensed matter supersymmetry and other fascinating phenomena in the vicinity of a quantum criticality. PMID:25882717
Reordering of Nuclear Quantum States in Rare Isotopes
Flanagan, Kieran
2010-02-01
A key question in modern nuclear physics relates to the ordering of quantum states, and whether the predictions made by the shell model hold true far from stability. Recent innovations in technology and techniques at radioactive beam facilities have allowed access to rare isotopes previously inaccessible to experimentalists. Measurements that have been performed in several regions of the nuclear chart have yielded surprising and dramatic changes in nuclear structure, where level ordering is quite different than expected from previous theoretical descriptions. In order to reconcile the difference between experiment and theory, new shell-model interactions have been proposed, which include the role of the tensor force as part of the monopole term from the expansion of the residual proton-neutron interaction. This has motivated a series of laser spectroscopy experiments that have studied the neutron-rich copper and gallium isotopes at the ISOLDE facility. This work has deduced without nuclear-model dependence the spin, moments and charge radii. The results of this work and their implications for nuclear structure near ^78Ni will be discussed. )
BOOK REVIEW: The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems
Pascazio, S.
2003-12-01
The discovery of the geometric phase is one of the most interesting and intriguing findings of the last few decades. It led to a deeper understanding of the concept of phase in quantum mechanics and motivated a surge of interest in fundamental quantum mechanical issues, disclosing unexpected applications in very diverse fields of physics. Although the key ideas underlying the existence of a purely geometrical phase had already been proposed in 1956 by Pancharatnam, it was Michael Berry who revived this issue 30 years later. The clarity of Berry's seminal paper, in 1984, was extraordinary. Research on the topic flourished at such a pace that it became difficult for non-experts to follow the many different theoretical ideas and experimental proposals which ensued. Diverse concepts in independent areas of mathematics, physics and chemistry were being applied, for what was (and can still be considered) a nascent arena for theory, experiments and technology. Although collections of papers by different authors appeared in the literature, sometimes with ample introductions, surprisingly, to the best of my knowledge, no specific and exhaustive book has ever been written on this subject. The Geometric Phase in Quantum Systems is the first thorough book on geometric phases and fills an important gap in the physical literature. Other books on the subject will undoubtedly follow. But it will take a fairly long time before other authors can cover that same variety of concepts in such a comprehensive manner. The book is enjoyable. The choice of topics presented is well balanced and appropriate. The appendices are well written, understandable and exhaustive - three rare qualities. I also find it praiseworthy that the authors decided to explicitly carry out most of the calculations, avoiding, as much as possible, the use of the joke `after a straightforward calculation, one finds...' This was one of the sentences I used to dislike most during my undergraduate studies. A student is
Photonic quantum simulator for unbiased phase covariant cloning
Knoll, Laura T.; López Grande, Ignacio H.; Larotonda, Miguel A.
2018-01-01
We present the results of a linear optics photonic implementation of a quantum circuit that simulates a phase covariant cloner, using two different degrees of freedom of a single photon. We experimentally simulate the action of two mirrored 1→ 2 cloners, each of them biasing the cloned states into opposite regions of the Bloch sphere. We show that by applying a random sequence of these two cloners, an eavesdropper can mitigate the amount of noise added to the original input state and therefore, prepare clones with no bias, but with the same individual fidelity, masking its presence in a quantum key distribution protocol. Input polarization qubit states are cloned into path qubit states of the same photon, which is identified as a potential eavesdropper in a quantum key distribution protocol. The device has the flexibility to produce mirrored versions that optimally clone states on either the northern or southern hemispheres of the Bloch sphere, as well as to simulate optimal and non-optimal cloning machines by tuning the asymmetry on each of the cloning machines.
Non-cyclic phases for neutrino oscillations in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasone, Massimo; Capolupo, Antonio; Celeghini, Enrico; Vitiello, Giuseppe
2009-01-01
We show the presence of non-cyclic phases for oscillating neutrinos in the context of quantum field theory. Such phases carry information about the non-perturbative vacuum structure associated with the field mixing. By subtracting the condensate contribution of the flavor vacuum, the previously studied quantum mechanics geometric phase is recovered.
Nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum calculations of the Jones polynomial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marx, Raimund; Spoerl, Andreas; Pomplun, Nikolas; Schulte-Herbrueggen, Thomas; Glaser, Steffen J.; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Myers, John M.
2010-01-01
The repertoire of problems theoretically solvable by a quantum computer recently expanded to include the approximate evaluation of knot invariants, specifically the Jones polynomial. The experimental implementation of this evaluation, however, involves many known experimental challenges. Here we present experimental results for a small-scale approximate evaluation of the Jones polynomial by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); in addition, we show how to escape from the limitations of NMR approaches that employ pseudopure states. Specifically, we use two spin-1/2 nuclei of natural abundance chloroform and apply a sequence of unitary transforms representing the trefoil knot, the figure-eight knot, and the Borromean rings. After measuring the nuclear spin state of the molecule in each case, we are able to estimate the value of the Jones polynomial for each of the knots.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Veis, Libor; Višňák, Jakub; Nishizawa, H.; Nakai, H.; Pittner, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 116, č. 18 (2016), s. 1328-1336 ISSN 0020-7608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0626 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Born-Oppenheimer approximation * nuclear orbital plus molecular orbital method * phase estimation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.920, year: 2016
Identifying quantum phase transitions with adversarial neural networks
Huembeli, Patrick; Dauphin, Alexandre; Wittek, Peter
2018-04-01
The identification of phases of matter is a challenging task, especially in quantum mechanics, where the complexity of the ground state appears to grow exponentially with the size of the system. Traditionally, physicists have to identify the relevant order parameters for the classification of the different phases. We here follow a radically different approach: we address this problem with a state-of-the-art deep learning technique, adversarial domain adaptation. We derive the phase diagram of the whole parameter space starting from a fixed and known subspace using unsupervised learning. This method has the advantage that the input of the algorithm can be directly the ground state without any ad hoc feature engineering. Furthermore, the dimension of the parameter space is unrestricted. More specifically, the input data set contains both labeled and unlabeled data instances. The first kind is a system that admits an accurate analytical or numerical solution, and one can recover its phase diagram. The second type is the physical system with an unknown phase diagram. Adversarial domain adaptation uses both types of data to create invariant feature extracting layers in a deep learning architecture. Once these layers are trained, we can attach an unsupervised learner to the network to find phase transitions. We show the success of this technique by applying it on several paradigmatic models: the Ising model with different temperatures, the Bose-Hubbard model, and the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with disorder. The method finds unknown transitions successfully and predicts transition points in close agreement with standard methods. This study opens the door to the classification of physical systems where the phase boundaries are complex such as the many-body localization problem or the Bose glass phase.
Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.
2010-01-01
We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.
Entanglement scaling at first order quantum phase transitions
Yuste, A.; Cartwright, C.; De Chiara, G.; Sanpera, A.
2018-04-01
First order quantum phase transitions (1QPTs) are signalled, in the thermodynamic limit, by discontinuous changes in the ground state properties. These discontinuities affect expectation values of observables, including spatial correlations. When a 1QPT is crossed in the vicinity of a second order one, due to the correlation length divergence of the latter, the corresponding ground state is modified and it becomes increasingly difficult to determine the order of the transition when the size of the system is finite. Here we show that, in such situations, it is possible to apply finite size scaling (FSS) to entanglement measures, as it has recently been done for the order parameters and the energy gap, in order to recover the correct thermodynamic limit (Campostrini et al 2014 Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 070402). Such a FSS can unambiguously discriminate between first and second order phase transitions in the vicinity of multicritical points even when the singularities displayed by entanglement measures lead to controversial results.
Polarons and Mobile Impurities Near a Quantum Phase Transition
Shadkhoo, Shahriar
This dissertation aims at improving the current understanding of the physics of mobile impurities in highly correlated liquid-like phases of matter. Impurity problems pose challenging and intricate questions in different realms of many-body physics. For instance, the problem of ''solvation'' of charged solutes in polar solvents, has been the subject of longstanding debates among chemical physicists. The significant role of quantum fluctuations of the solvent, as well as the break down of linear response theory, render the ordinary treatments intractable. Inspired by this complicated problem, we first attempt to understand the role of non-specific quantum fluctuations in the solvation process. To this end, we calculate the dynamic structure factor of a model polar liquid, using the classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We verify the failure of linear response approximation in the vicinity of a hydrated electron, by comparing the outcomes of MD simulations with the predictions of linear response theory. This nonlinear behavior is associated with the pronounced peaks of the structure factor, which reflect the strong fluctuations of the local modes. A cavity picture is constructed based on heuristic arguments, which suggests that the electron, along with the surrounding polarization cloud, behave like a frozen sphere, for which the linear response theory is broken inside and valid outside. The inverse radius of the spherical region serves as a UV momentum cutoff for the linear response approximation to be applicable. The problem of mobile impurities in polar liquids can be also addressed in the framework of the ''polaron'' problem. Polaron is a quasiparticle that typically acquires an extended state at weak couplings, and crossovers to a self-trapped state at strong couplings. Using the analytical fits to the numerically obtained charge-charge structure factor, a phenomenological approach is proposed within the Leggett's influence functional formalism, which
Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.
2018-03-01
We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.
Quantum field theory and phase transitions: universality and renormalization group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
2003-08-01
In the quantum field theory the problem of infinite values has been solved empirically through a method called renormalization, this method is satisfying only in the framework of renormalization group. It is in the domain of statistical physics and continuous phase transitions that these issues are the easiest to discuss. Within the framework of a course in theoretical physics the author introduces the notions of continuous limits and universality in stochastic systems operating with a high number of freedom degrees. It is shown that quasi-Gaussian and mean field approximation are unable to describe phase transitions in a satisfying manner. A new concept is required: it is the notion of renormalization group whose fixed points allow us to understand universality beyond mean field. The renormalization group implies the idea that long distance correlations near the transition temperature might be described by a statistical field theory that is a quantum field in imaginary time. Various forms of renormalization group equations are presented and solved in particular boundary limits, namely for fields with high numbers of components near the dimensions 4 and 2. The particular case of exact renormalization group is also introduced. (A.C.)
Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S
2007-10-18
We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.
Song, Chao; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Kai; Zhang, Libo; Guo, Qiujiang; Liu, Wuxin; Xu, Da; Deng, Hui; Huang, Keqiang; Zheng, Dongning; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, H
2017-10-20
Geometric phase, associated with holonomy transformation in quantum state space, is an important quantum-mechanical effect. Besides fundamental interest, this effect has practical applications, among which geometric quantum computation is a paradigm, where quantum logic operations are realized through geometric phase manipulation that has some intrinsic noise-resilient advantages and may enable simplified implementation of multi-qubit gates compared to the dynamical approach. Here we report observation of a continuous-variable geometric phase and demonstrate a quantum gate protocol based on this phase in a superconducting circuit, where five qubits are controllably coupled to a resonator. Our geometric approach allows for one-step implementation of n-qubit controlled-phase gates, which represents a remarkable advantage compared to gate decomposition methods, where the number of required steps dramatically increases with n. Following this approach, we realize these gates with n up to 4, verifying the high efficiency of this geometric manipulation for quantum computation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Saburov, Mansoor
2010-06-01
In the present paper we study forward Quantum Markov Chains (QMC) defined on a Cayley tree. Using the tree structure of graphs, we give a construction of quantum Markov chains on a Cayley tree. By means of such constructions we prove the existence of a phase transition for the XY-model on a Cayley tree of order three in QMC scheme. By the phase transition we mean the existence of two distinct QMC for the given family of interaction operators {K }. (author)
Solid-state nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, G. P.; Doolen, G. D.; Hammel, P. C.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.
2000-01-01
We propose a nuclear-spin quantum computer based on magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). It is shown that an MRFM single-electron spin measurement provides three essential requirements for quantum computation in solids: (a) preparation of the ground state, (b) one- and two-qubit quantum logic gates, and (c) a measurement of the final state. The proposed quantum computer can operate at temperatures up to 1 K. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capmany, Jose; Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R
2011-01-01
Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone Ω can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of ℎΩ. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F 1 , the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F 1 is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.
Spectral decomposition of single-tone-driven quantum phase modulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capmany, Jose [ITEAM Research Institute, Univ. Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Fernandez-Pousa, Carlos R, E-mail: c.pousa@umh.es [Signal Theory and Communications, Department of Physics and Computer Science, Univ. Miguel Hernandez, 03202 Elche (Spain)
2011-02-14
Electro-optic phase modulators driven by a single radio-frequency tone {Omega} can be described at the quantum level as scattering devices where input single-mode radiation undergoes energy changes in multiples of {h_bar}{Omega}. In this paper, we study the spectral representation of the unitary, multimode scattering operator describing these devices. The eigenvalue equation, phase modulation being a process preserving the photon number, is solved at each subspace with definite number of photons. In the one-photon subspace F{sub 1}, the problem is equivalent to the computation of the continuous spectrum of the Susskind-Glogower cosine operator of the harmonic oscillator. Using this analogy, the spectral decomposition in F{sub 1} is constructed and shown to be equivalent to the usual Fock-space representation. The result is then generalized to arbitrary N-photon subspaces, where eigenvectors are symmetrized combinations of N one-photon eigenvectors and the continuous spectrum spans the entire unit circle. Approximate normalizable one-photon eigenstates are constructed in terms of London phase states truncated to optical bands. Finally, we show that synchronous ultrashort pulse trains represent classical field configurations with the same structure as these approximate eigenstates, and that they can be considered as approximate eigenvectors of the classical formulation of phase modulation.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-04-26
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Sabeeh, K.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Crossover between the dense electron-hole phase and the BCS excitonic phase in quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, B.A.; Gonzalez, A.; Quiroga, L.; Capote, R.; Rodriguez, F.J.
1999-09-01
Second order perturbation theory and a Lipkin-Nogami scheme combined with an exact Monte Carlo projection after variation are applied to compute the ground-state energy of 6 ≤ N ≤ 210 electron-hole pairs confined in a parabolic two-dimensional quantum dot. The energy shows nice scaling properties as N or the confinement strength is varied. A crossover from the high-density electron-hole phase to the BCS excitonic phase is found at a density which is roughly four times the close-packing density of excitons. (author)
Brorsen, Kurt R; Yang, Yang; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2017-08-03
Nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy play a critical role in computational chemistry and often are included as energetic corrections following geometry optimizations. The nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) multicomponent density functional theory (DFT) method treats select nuclei, typically protons, quantum mechanically on the same level as the electrons. Electron-proton correlation is highly significant, and inadequate treatments lead to highly overlocalized nuclear densities. A recently developed electron-proton correlation functional, epc17, has been shown to provide accurate nuclear densities for molecular systems. Herein, the NEO-DFT/epc17 method is used to compute the proton affinities for a set of molecules and to examine the role of nuclear quantum effects on the equilibrium geometry of FHF - . The agreement of the computed results with experimental and benchmark values demonstrates the promise of this approach for including nuclear quantum effects in calculations of proton affinities, pK a 's, optimized geometries, and reaction paths.
Rossi, Mariana; Liu, Hanchao; Paesani, Francesco; Bowman, Joel; Ceriotti, Michele
2014-11-14
Including quantum mechanical effects on the dynamics of nuclei in the condensed phase is challenging, because the complexity of exact methods grows exponentially with the number of quantum degrees of freedom. Efforts to circumvent these limitations can be traced down to two approaches: methods that treat a small subset of the degrees of freedom with rigorous quantum mechanics, considering the rest of the system as a static or classical environment, and methods that treat the whole system quantum mechanically, but using approximate dynamics. Here, we perform a systematic comparison between these two philosophies for the description of quantum effects in vibrational spectroscopy, taking the Embedded Local Monomer model and a mixed quantum-classical model as representatives of the first family of methods, and centroid molecular dynamics and thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics as examples of the latter. We use as benchmarks D2O doped with HOD and pure H2O at three distinct thermodynamic state points (ice Ih at 150 K, and the liquid at 300 K and 600 K), modeled with the simple q-TIP4P/F potential energy and dipole moment surfaces. With few exceptions the different techniques yield IR absorption frequencies that are consistent with one another within a few tens of cm(-1). Comparison with classical molecular dynamics demonstrates the importance of nuclear quantum effects up to the highest temperature, and a detailed discussion of the discrepancies between the various methods let us draw some (circumstantial) conclusions about the impact of the very different approximations that underlie them. Such cross validation between radically different approaches could indicate a way forward to further improve the state of the art in simulations of condensed-phase quantum dynamics.
Two dimensional kicked quantum Ising model: dynamical phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pineda, C; Prosen, T; Villaseñor, E
2014-01-01
Using an efficient one and two qubit gate simulator operating on graphical processing units, we investigate ergodic properties of a quantum Ising spin 1/2 model on a two-dimensional lattice, which is periodically driven by a δ-pulsed transverse magnetic field. We consider three different dynamical properties: (i) level density, (ii) level spacing distribution of the Floquet quasienergy spectrum, and (iii) time-averaged autocorrelation function of magnetization components. Varying the parameters of the model, we found transitions between ordered (non-ergodic) and quantum chaotic (ergodic) phases, but the transitions between flat and non-flat spectral density do not correspond to transitions between ergodic and non-ergodic local observables. Even more surprisingly, we found good agreement of level spacing distribution with the Wigner surmise of random matrix theory for almost all values of parameters except where the model is essentially non-interacting, even in regions where local observables are not ergodic or where spectral density is non-flat. These findings question the versatility of the interpretation of level spacing distribution in many-body systems and stress the importance of the concept of locality. (paper)
Twist effects in quantum vortices and phase defects
Zuccher, Simone; Ricca, Renzo L.
2018-02-01
In this paper we show that twist, defined in terms of rotation of the phase associated with quantum vortices and other physical defects effectively deprived of internal structure, is a property that has observable effects in terms of induced axial flow. For this we consider quantum vortices governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and perform a number of test cases to investigate and compare the effects of twist in two different contexts: (i) when this is artificially superimposed on an initially untwisted vortex ring; (ii) when it is naturally produced on the ring by the simultaneous presence of a central straight vortex. In the first case large amplitude perturbations quickly develop, generated by the unnatural setting of the initial condition that is not an analytical solution of the GPE. In the second case much milder perturbations emerge, signature of a genuine physical process. This scenario is confirmed by other test cases performed at higher twist values. Since the second setting corresponds to essential linking, these results provide new evidence of the influence of topology on physics.
Holographic RG flows on curved manifolds and quantum phase transitions
Ghosh, J. K.; Kiritsis, E.; Nitti, F.; Witkowski, L. T.
2018-05-01
Holographic RG flows dual to QFTs on maximally symmetric curved manifolds (dS d , AdS d , and S d ) are considered in the framework of Einstein-dilaton gravity in d + 1 dimensions. A general dilaton potential is used and the flows are driven by a scalar relevant operator. The general properties of such flows are analyzed and the UV and IR asymptotics computed. New RG flows can appear at finite curvature which do not have a zero curvature counterpart. The so-called `bouncing' flows, where the β-function has a branch cut at which it changes sign, are found to persist at finite curvature. Novel quantum first-order phase transitions are found, triggered by a variation in the d-dimensional curvature in theories allowing multiple ground states.
Frame transforms, star products and quantum mechanics on phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aniello, P; Marmo, G; Man'ko, V I
2008-01-01
Using the notions of frame transform and of square integrable projective representation of a locally compact group G, we introduce a class of isometries (tight frame transforms) from the space of Hilbert-Schmidt operators in the carrier Hilbert space of the representation into the space of square integrable functions on the direct product group G x G. These transforms have remarkable properties. In particular, their ranges are reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces endowed with a suitable 'star product' which mimics, at the level of functions, the original product of operators. A 'phase space formulation' of quantum mechanics relying on the frame transforms introduced in the present paper, and the link of these maps with both the Wigner transform and the wavelet transform are discussed
Slowing Quantum Decoherence by Squeezing in Phase Space
Le Jeannic, H.; Cavaillès, A.; Huang, K.; Filip, R.; Laurat, J.
2018-02-01
Non-Gaussian states, and specifically the paradigmatic cat state, are well known to be very sensitive to losses. When propagating through damping channels, these states quickly lose their nonclassical features and the associated negative oscillations of their Wigner function. However, by squeezing the superposition states, the decoherence process can be qualitatively changed and substantially slowed down. Here, as a first example, we experimentally observe the reduced decoherence of squeezed optical coherent-state superpositions through a lossy channel. To quantify the robustness of states, we introduce a combination of a decaying value and a rate of decay of the Wigner function negativity. This work, which uses squeezing as an ancillary Gaussian resource, opens new possibilities to protect and manipulate quantum superpositions in phase space.
Two-point entanglement near a quantum phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Han-Dong
2007-01-01
In this work, we study the two-point entanglement S(i, j), which measures the entanglement between two separated degrees of freedom (ij) and the rest of system, near a quantum phase transition. Away from the critical point, S(i, j) saturates with a characteristic length scale ξ E , as the distance |i - j| increases. The entanglement length ξ E agrees with the correlation length. The universality and finite size scaling of entanglement are demonstrated in a class of exactly solvable one-dimensional spin model. By connecting the two-point entanglement to correlation functions in the long range limit, we argue that the prediction power of a two-point entanglement is universal as long as the two involved points are separated far enough
Bruno, Patrick
2012-06-01
The (Berry-Aharonov-Anandan) geometric phase acquired during a cyclic quantum evolution of finite-dimensional quantum systems is studied. It is shown that a pure quantum state in a (2J+1)-dimensional Hilbert space (or, equivalently, of a spin-J system) can be mapped onto the partition function of a gas of independent Dirac strings moving on a sphere and subject to the Coulomb repulsion of 2J fixed test charges (the Majorana stars) characterizing the quantum state. The geometric phase may be viewed as the Aharonov-Bohm phase acquired by the Majorana stars as they move through the gas of Dirac strings. Expressions for the geometric connection and curvature, for the metric tensor, as well as for the multipole moments (dipole, quadrupole, etc.), are given in terms of the Majorana stars. Finally, the geometric formulation of the quantum dynamics is presented and its application to systems with exotic ordering such as spin nematics is outlined.
Programmable quantum-state discriminator by nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopinath, T.; Das, Ranabir; Kumar, Anil
2005-01-01
A programmable quantum-state discriminator is implemented by using nuclear magnetic resonance. We use a two-qubit spin-1/2 system, one for the data qubit and one for the ancilla (program) qubit. This device does the unambiguous (error-free) discrimination of a pair of states of the data qubit that are symmetrically located about a fixed state. The device is used to discriminate both linearly polarized states and elliptically polarized states. The maximum probability of successful discrimination is achieved by suitably preparing the ancilla qubit. It is also shown that the probability of discrimination depends on the angle of the unitary operator of the protocol and ellipticity of the data qubit state
Magneto-transport study of quantum phases in wide GaAs quantum wells
Liu, Yang
In this thesis we study several quantum phases in very high quality two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) confined to GaAs single wide quantum wells (QWs). In these systems typically two electric subbands are occupied. By controlling the electron density as well as the QW symmetry, we can fine tune the cyclotron and subband separation energies, so that Landau levels (LLs) belonging to different subbands cross at the Fermi energy EF. The additional subband degree of freedom enables us to study different quantum phases. Magneto-transport measurements at fixed electron density n and various QW symmetries reveal a remarkable pattern for the appearance and disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states at LL filling factors nu = 10/3, 11/3, 13/3, 14/3, 16/3, and 17/3. These q/3 states are stable and strong as long as EF lies in a ground-state (N = 0) LL, regardless of whether that level belongs to the symmetric or the anti-symmetric subband. We also observe subtle and distinct evolutions near filling factors nu = 5/2 and 7/2, as we change the density n, or the symmetry of the charge distribution. The even-denominator FQH states are observed at nu = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2 when EF lies in the N= 1 LLs of the symmetric subband (the S1 levels). As we increase n, the nu = 5/2 FQH state suddenly disappears and turns into a compressible state once EF moves to the spin-up, N = 0, anti-symmetric LL (the A0 ↑ level). The sharpness of this disappearance suggests a first-order transition from a FQH to a compressible state. Moreover, thanks to the renormalization of the susbband energy separation in a well with asymmetric change distribution, two LLs can get pinned to each other when they are crossing at E F. We observe a remarkable consequence of such pinning: There is a developing FQH state when the LL filling factor of the symmetric subband nuS equals 5/2 while the antisymmetric subband has filling 1 < nuA <2. Next, we study the evolution of the nu=5/2 and 7/2 FQH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Romain Maurand
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We study a carbon-nanotube quantum dot embedded in a superconducting-quantum-interference-device loop in order to investigate the competition of strong electron correlations with a proximity effect. Depending on whether local pairing or local magnetism prevails, a superconducting quantum dot will exhibit a positive or a negative supercurrent, referred to as a 0 or π Josephson junction, respectively. In the regime of a strong Coulomb blockade, the 0-to-π transition is typically controlled by a change in the discrete charge state of the dot, from even to odd. In contrast, at a larger tunneling amplitude, the Kondo effect develops for an odd-charge (magnetic dot in the normal state, and quenches magnetism. In this situation, we find that a first-order 0-to-π quantum phase transition can be triggered at a fixed valence when superconductivity is brought in, due to the competition of the superconducting gap and the Kondo temperature. The superconducting-quantum-interference-device geometry together with the tunability of our device allows the exploration of the associated phase diagram predicted by recent theories. We also report on the observation of anharmonic behavior of the current-phase relation in the transition regime, which we associate with the two accessible superconducting states. Our results finally demonstrate that the spin-singlet nature of the Kondo state helps to enhance the stability of the 0 phase far from the mixed-valence regime in odd-charge superconducting quantum dots.
Nuclear dynamics in the metastable phase of the solid acid caesium hydrogen sulfate.
Krzystyniak, Maciej; Drużbicki, Kacper; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix
2015-12-14
High-resolution spectroscopic measurements using thermal and epithermal neutrons and first-principles calculations within the framework of density-functional theory are used to investigate the nuclear dynamics of light and heavy species in the metastable phase of caesium hydrogen sulfate. Within the generalised-gradient approximation, extensive calculations show that both 'standard' and 'hard' formulations of the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional supplemented by Tkatchenko-Scheffler dispersion corrections provide an excellent description of the known structure, underlying vibrational density of states, and nuclear momentum distributions measured at 10 and 300 K. Encouraged by the agreement between experiment and computational predictions, we provide a quantitative appraisal of the quantum contributions to nuclear motions in this solid acid. From this analysis, we find that only the heavier caesium atoms reach the classical limit at room temperature. Contrary to naïve expectation, sulfur exhibits a more pronounced quantum character relative to classical predictions than the lighter oxygen atom. We interpret this hitherto unexplored nuclear quantum effect as arising from the tighter binding environment of this species in this technologically relevant material.
Quantum computational capability of a 2D valence bond solid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyake, Akimasa
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Our model is the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet. → Universal quantum computation is processed by measurements of quantum correlations. → An intrinsic complexity of strongly-correlated quantum systems could be a resource. - Abstract: Quantum phases of naturally-occurring systems exhibit distinctive collective phenomena as manifestation of their many-body correlations, in contrast to our persistent technological challenge to engineer at will such strong correlations artificially. Here we show theoretically that quantum correlations exhibited in the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet, modeled by Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb, and Tasaki (AKLT) as a precursor of spin liquids and topological orders, are sufficiently complex yet structured enough to simulate universal quantum computation when every single spin can be measured individually. This unveils that an intrinsic complexity of naturally-occurring 2D quantum systems-which has been a long-standing challenge for traditional computers-could be tamed as a computationally valuable resource, even if we are limited not to create newly entanglement during computation. Our constructive protocol leverages a novel way to herald the correlations suitable for deterministic quantum computation through a random sampling, and may be extensible to other ground states of various 2D valence bond phases beyond the AKLT state.
Strain-induced topological quantum phase transition in phosphorene oxide
Kang, Seoung-Hun; Park, Jejune; Woo, Sungjong; Kwon, Young-Kyun
Using ab initio density functional theory, we investigate the structural stability and electronic properties of phosphorene oxides (POx) with different oxygen compositions x. A variety of configurations are modeled and optimized geometrically to search for the equilibrium structure for each x value. Our electronic structure calculations on the equilibrium configuration obtained for each x reveal that the band gap tends to increase with the oxygen composition of x 0.5. We further explore the strain effect on the electronic structure of the fully oxidized phosphorene, PO, with x = 1. At a particular strain without spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is observed a band gap closure near the Γ point in the k space. We further find the strain in tandem with SOC induces an interesting band inversion with a reopened very small band gap (5 meV), and thus gives rise to a topological quantum phase transition from a normal insulator to a topological insulator. Such a topological phase transition is confirmed by the wave function analysis and the band topology identified by the Z2 invariant calculation.
Effect of quantum nuclear motion on hydrogen bonding
McKenzie, Ross H.; Bekker, Christiaan; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G.
2014-05-01
This work considers how the properties of hydrogen bonded complexes, X-H⋯Y, are modified by the quantum motion of the shared proton. Using a simple two-diabatic state model Hamiltonian, the analysis of the symmetric case, where the donor (X) and acceptor (Y) have the same proton affinity, is carried out. For quantitative comparisons, a parametrization specific to the O-H⋯O complexes is used. The vibrational energy levels of the one-dimensional ground state adiabatic potential of the model are used to make quantitative comparisons with a vast body of condensed phase data, spanning a donor-acceptor separation (R) range of about 2.4 - 3.0 Å, i.e., from strong to weak hydrogen bonds. The position of the proton (which determines the X-H bond length) and its longitudinal vibrational frequency, along with the isotope effects in both are described quantitatively. An analysis of the secondary geometric isotope effect, using a simple extension of the two-state model, yields an improved agreement of the predicted variation with R of frequency isotope effects. The role of bending modes is also considered: their quantum effects compete with those of the stretching mode for weak to moderate H-bond strengths. In spite of the economy in the parametrization of the model used, it offers key insights into the defining features of H-bonds, and semi-quantitatively captures several trends.
Effect of quantum nuclear motion on hydrogen bonding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenzie, Ross H.; Bekker, Christiaan; Athokpam, Bijyalaxmi; Ramesh, Sai G.
2014-01-01
This work considers how the properties of hydrogen bonded complexes, X–H⋯Y, are modified by the quantum motion of the shared proton. Using a simple two-diabatic state model Hamiltonian, the analysis of the symmetric case, where the donor (X) and acceptor (Y) have the same proton affinity, is carried out. For quantitative comparisons, a parametrization specific to the O–H⋯O complexes is used. The vibrational energy levels of the one-dimensional ground state adiabatic potential of the model are used to make quantitative comparisons with a vast body of condensed phase data, spanning a donor-acceptor separation (R) range of about 2.4 − 3.0 Å, i.e., from strong to weak hydrogen bonds. The position of the proton (which determines the X–H bond length) and its longitudinal vibrational frequency, along with the isotope effects in both are described quantitatively. An analysis of the secondary geometric isotope effect, using a simple extension of the two-state model, yields an improved agreement of the predicted variation with R of frequency isotope effects. The role of bending modes is also considered: their quantum effects compete with those of the stretching mode for weak to moderate H-bond strengths. In spite of the economy in the parametrization of the model used, it offers key insights into the defining features of H-bonds, and semi-quantitatively captures several trends
Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks.
Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L; Carr, Lincoln D
2017-12-01
We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z_{2}, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.
Quantifying Complexity in Quantum Phase Transitions via Mutual Information Complex Networks
Valdez, Marc Andrew; Jaschke, Daniel; Vargas, David L.; Carr, Lincoln D.
2017-12-01
We quantify the emergent complexity of quantum states near quantum critical points on regular 1D lattices, via complex network measures based on quantum mutual information as the adjacency matrix, in direct analogy to quantifying the complexity of electroencephalogram or functional magnetic resonance imaging measurements of the brain. Using matrix product state methods, we show that network density, clustering, disparity, and Pearson's correlation obtain the critical point for both quantum Ising and Bose-Hubbard models to a high degree of accuracy in finite-size scaling for three classes of quantum phase transitions, Z2, mean field superfluid to Mott insulator, and a Berzinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover.
Lima, L. S.
2017-06-01
We use the SU(3) Schwinger boson theory to study the spin transport properties of the two-dimensional anisotropic frustrated Heisenberg model in a honeycomb lattice at T = 0 with single ion anisotropy and third neighbor interactions. We have investigated the behavior of the spin conductivity for this model that presents exchange interactions J1 , J2 and J3 . We study the spin transport in the Bose-Einstein condensation regime where the bosons tz are condensed. Our results show an influence of the quantum phase transition point on the spin conductivity behavior. We also have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green-function and did not obtain any significant change of the results.
Quantum phase transition of light in the Rabi–Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schiró, M; Bordyuh, M; Öztop, B; Türeci, H E
2013-01-01
We discuss the physics of the Rabi–Hubbard model describing large arrays of coupled cavities interacting with two level atoms via a Rabi nonlinearity. We show that the inclusion of counter-rotating terms in the light–matter interaction, often neglected in theoretical descriptions based on Jaynes–Cumming models, is crucial to stabilize finite-density quantum phases of correlated photons with no need for an artificially engineered chemical potential. We show that the physical properties of these phases and the quantum phase transition occurring between them is remarkably different from those of interacting bosonic massive quantum particles. The competition between photon delocalization and Rabi nonlinearity drives the system across a novel Z 2 parity symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition between two gapped phases, a Rabi insulator and a delocalized super-radiant phase. (paper)
Remarks on the formulation of quantum mechanics on noncommutative phase spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muthukumar, Balasundaram
2007-01-01
We consider the probabilistic description of nonrelativistic, spinless one-particle classical mechanics, and immerse the particle in a deformed noncommutative phase space in which position coordinates do not commute among themselves and also with canonically conjugate momenta. With a postulated normalized distribution function in the quantum domain, the square of the Dirac delta density distribution in the classical case is properly realised in noncommutative phase space and it serves as the quantum condition. With only these inputs, we pull out the entire formalisms of noncommutative quantum mechanics in phase space and in Hilbert space, and elegantly establish the link between classical and quantum formalisms and between Hilbert space and phase space formalisms of noncommutative quantum mechanics. Also, we show that the distribution function in this case possesses 'twisted' Galilean symmetry
Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α-RuCl_{3}.
Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang
2017-12-01
α-RuCl_{3} is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α-RuCl_{3} undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the ab plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α-RuCl_{3}.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, L.J., E-mail: dinglinjie82@126.com; Zhong, Y.
2017-07-15
Highlights: • The quantum critical scaling is investigated by Green’s function theory. • The obtained power-law critical exponents (β, δ and α) obey the critical scaling relation α + β(1 + δ) = 2. • The scaling hypothesis equations are proposed to verify the scaling analysis. - Abstract: The quantum phase transition and thermodynamics of a periodic Anderson-like polymer chain in a magnetic field are investigated by Green’s function theory. The T-h phase diagram is explored, wherein a crossover temperature T{sup ∗} denoting the gapless phase crossover into quantum critical regimes, smoothly connects near the critical fields to the universal linear line T{sup ∗} ∼ (h − h{sub c,s}), and ends at h{sub c,s}, providing a new route to capture quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum critical scaling around QCPs is demonstrated by analyzing magnetization, specific heat and Grüneisen parameter Γ{sub h}, which provide direct access to distill the power-law critical exponents (β, δ and α) obeying the critical scaling relation α + β(1 + δ) = 2, analogous to the quantum spin system. Furthermore, scaling hypothesis equations are proposed to check the scaling analysis, for which all the data collapse onto a single curve or two independent branches for the plot against an appropriate scaling variable, indicating the self-consistency and reliability of the obtained critical exponents.
Phase locking and quantum statistics in a parametrically driven nonlinear resonator
Hovsepyan, G. H.; Shahinyan, A. R.; Chew, Lock Yue; Kryuchkyan, G. Yu.
2016-01-01
We discuss phase-locking phenomena at low-level of quanta for parametrically driven nonlinear Kerr resonator (PDNR) in strong quantum regime. Oscillatory mode of PDNR is created in the process of a degenerate down-conversion of photons under interaction with a train of external Gaussian pulses. We calculate the Wigner functions of cavity mode showing two-fold symmetry in phase space and analyse formation of phase-locked states in the regular as well as the quantum chaotic regime.
Deep learning the quantum phase transitions in random two-dimensional electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi
2016-01-01
Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed. (author)
Comparison of phase space dynamics of Kopenhagen and causal interpretations of quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tempel, Christoph; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2013-07-01
Recent publications pursue the attempt to reconstruct Bohm trajectories experimentally utilizing the technique of weak measurements. We study the phase space dynamics of a specific double slit setup in terms of the Bohm de-Broglie formulation of quantum mechanics. We want to compare the results of those Bohmian phase space dynamics to the usual quantum mechanical phase space formulation with the Wigner function as a quasi probability density.
The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.
2001-01-01
In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)
The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph
2001-07-01
In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)
Poltavsky, Igor; DiStasio, Robert A.; Tkatchenko, Alexandre
2018-03-01
Nuclear quantum effects (NQE), which include both zero-point motion and tunneling, exhibit quite an impressive range of influence over the equilibrium and dynamical properties of molecules and materials. In this work, we extend our recently proposed perturbed path-integral (PPI) approach for modeling NQE in molecular systems [I. Poltavsky and A. Tkatchenko, Chem. Sci. 7, 1368 (2016)], which successfully combines the advantages of thermodynamic perturbation theory with path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD), in a number of important directions. First, we demonstrate the accuracy, performance, and general applicability of the PPI approach to both molecules and extended (condensed-phase) materials. Second, we derive a series of estimators within the PPI approach to enable calculations of structural properties such as radial distribution functions (RDFs) that exhibit rapid convergence with respect to the number of beads in the PIMD simulation. Finally, we introduce an effective nuclear temperature formalism within the framework of the PPI approach and demonstrate that such effective temperatures can be an extremely useful tool in quantitatively estimating the "quantumness" associated with different degrees of freedom in the system as well as providing a reliable quantitative assessment of the convergence of PIMD simulations. Since the PPI approach only requires the use of standard second-order imaginary-time PIMD simulations, these developments enable one to include a treatment of NQE in equilibrium thermodynamic properties (such as energies, heat capacities, and RDFs) with the accuracy of higher-order methods but at a fraction of the computational cost, thereby enabling first-principles modeling that simultaneously accounts for the quantum mechanical nature of both electrons and nuclei in large-scale molecules and materials.
Probing phase transitions via energetic nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukacs, B.; Csernai, L.P.
1983-07-01
The possible effects of the nucleon-quark phase transition on the dynamics of heavy ion collisions are discussed. It is shown that the formation of the quark phase can be expected at recent experiments. Nevertheless, the compressibility of the two-phase mixture remains relatively low, thus the quark phase remains limited in both space and time, and the observables are not strongly affected. (author)
Quantum critical phase and Lifshitz transition in an extended periodic Anderson model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laad, M S; Koley, S; Taraphder, A
2012-01-01
We study the quantum phase transition in f-electron systems as a quantum Lifshitz transition driven by selective-Mott localization in a realistic extended Anderson lattice model. Using dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT), we find that a quantum critical phase with anomalous ω/T scaling separates a heavy Landau-Fermi liquid from ordered phase(s). This non-Fermi liquid state arises from a lattice orthogonality catastrophe originating from orbital-selective Mott localization. Fermi surface reconstruction occurs via the interplay between and penetration of the Green function zeros to the poles, leading to violation of Luttinger’s theorem in the strange metal. We show how this naturally leads to scale-invariant responses in transport. Thus, our work represents a specific DMFT realization of the hidden-FL and FL* theories, and holds promise for the study of ‘strange’ metal phases in quantum matter. (fast track communication)
Nuclear prehistory influence on irradiated metallic iron phase composition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, I.E.
2007-01-01
With application of different Moessbauer spectroscopy applications the phase composition of metallic iron after irradiation by both neutrons and charged particles were studied. Irradiation conditions, method of targets examination and phase composition of samples after irradiation were presented in tabular form. It is shown, that phase composition of irradiated metal is defined by nuclear prehistory. So, in a number of cases abnormals (stabilization of high- and low-temperature structural phases of iron at room temperature after irradiation end) were revealed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Qianshu; Lue Liqiang; Wei Gongmin
2004-01-01
This paper discusses the relationship between the Wigner function, along with other related quasiprobability distribution functions, and the probability density distribution function constructed from the wave function of the Schroedinger equation in quantum phase space, as formulated by Torres-Vega and Frederick (TF). At the same time, a general approach in solving the wave function of the Schroedinger equation of TF quantum phase space theory is proposed. The relationship of the wave functions between the TF quantum phase space representation and the coordinate or momentum representation is thus revealed
Nuclear many-body correlation dynamics--a nonperturbative approach in quantum many-body theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shunjin
1996-01-01
Based on the experimental results and theoretical experience in nuclear physics, the article has explored the basic physical ideas and theoretical methods in nuclear and quantum many-body correlation dynamics. The main theoretical results and important applications are introduced briefly. The paper addresses the fundamental ingredients and physical interpretation of theoretical results in a comprehensive way. Recent new results about correlation dynamics in quantum field theories are also presented. The perspectives of further application are viewed. (91 refs.)
Wang, Hai Tao; Cho, Sam Young
2015-01-14
In order to investigate the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional quantum compass model, we numerically calculate non-local string correlations, entanglement entropy and fidelity per lattice site by using the infinite matrix product state representation with the infinite time evolving block decimation method. In the whole range of the interaction parameters, we find that four distinct string orders characterize the four different Haldane phases and the topological quantum phase transition occurs between the Haldane phases. The critical exponents of the string order parameters β = 1/8 and the cental charges c = 1/2 at the critical points show that the topological phase transitions between the phases belong to an Ising type of universality classes. In addition to the string order parameters, the singularities of the second derivative of the ground state energies per site, the continuous and singular behaviors of the Von Neumann entropy and the pinch points of the fidelity per lattice site manifest that the phase transitions between the phases are of the second-order, in contrast to the first-order transition suggested in previous studies.
Force law in material media, hidden momentum and quantum phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.
2016-01-01
We address to the force law in classical electrodynamics of material media, paying attention on the force term due to time variation of hidden momentum of magnetic dipoles. We highlight that the emergence of this force component is required by the general theorem, deriving zero total momentum for any static configuration of charges/currents. At the same time, we disclose the impossibility to add this force term covariantly to the Lorentz force law in material media. We further show that the adoption of the Einstein–Laub force law does not resolve the issue, because for a small electric/magnetic dipole, the density of Einstein–Laub force integrates exactly to the same equation, like the Lorentz force with the inclusion of hidden momentum contribution. Thus, none of the available expressions for the force on a moving dipole is compatible with the relativistic transformation of force, and we support this statement with a number of particular examples. In this respect, we suggest applying the Lagrangian approach to the derivation of the force law in a magnetized/polarized medium. In the framework of this approach we obtain the novel expression for the force on a small electric/magnetic dipole, with the novel expression for its generalized momentum. The latter expression implies two novel quantum effects with non-topological phases, when an electric dipole is moving in an electric field, and when a magnetic dipole is moving in a magnetic field. These phases, in general, are not related to dynamical effects, because they are not equal to zero, when the classical force on a dipole is vanishing. The implications of the obtained results are discussed.
Titanium Loop Heat Pipes for Space Nuclear Radiators, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop titanium Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) that can be used in low-mass space nuclear radiators, such as...
Qinshan Phase III (CANDU) nuclear power project quality assurance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lingen; Du Jinxiang
2001-01-01
The completion and implementation of quality assurance system of Qinshan Phase III (CANDU) nuclear power project are presented. Some comments and understanding with consideration of the project characteristics are put forward
Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of nuclear fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagawa, Hiroaki; Fujino, Takeo; Tateno, Jun
1975-07-01
Phase relations, crystal structures and physical properties of the compounds for nuclear fuels are presented, including melting point, thermal expansion, diffusion and magnetic and electric properties. Emphasis is on oxides, carbides and nitrides of thorium, uranium and plutonium. (auth.)
Quantum quincunx for walk on circles in phase space with indirect coin flip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xue Peng; Sanders, Barry C
2008-01-01
The quincunx, or Galton board, has a long history as a tool for demonstrating and investigating random walk processes, but a quantum quincunx (QQ) for demonstrating a coined quantum walk (QW) is yet to be realized experimentally. We propose a variant of the QQ in cavity quantum electrodynamics, designed to eliminate the onerous requirement of directly flipping the coin. Instead, we propose driving the cavity in such a way that cavity field displacements are minimized and the coin is effectively flipped via this indirect process. An effect of this indirect flipping is that the walker's location is no longer confined to a single circle in the planar phase space, but we show that the phase distribution nonetheless shows quadratic enhancement of phase diffusion for the quantum versus classical walk despite this small complication. Thus our scheme leads to coined QW behaviour in cavity quantum electrodynamics without the need to flip the coin directly
Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Role of nuclear spin fluctuations
Kuznetsova, M. S.; Flisinski, K.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.
2013-01-01
The role of nuclear spin fluctuations in the dynamic polarization of nuclear spins by electrons is investigated in (In,Ga)As quantum dots. The photoluminescence polarization under circularly polarized optical pumping in transverse magnetic fields (Hanle effect) is studied. A weak additional magnetic field parallel to the optical axis is used to control the efficiency of nuclear spin cooling and the sign of nuclear spin temperature. The shape of the Hanle curve is drastically modified with cha...
Quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2014-01-01
We present a new model of quantum phase transitions in matrix product systems of one-dimensional spin-1 chains and study the phases coexistence phenomenon. We find that in the thermodynamic limit the proposed system has three different quantum phases and by adjusting the control parameters we are able to realize any phase, any two phases equal coexistence and the three phases equal coexistence. At every critical point the physical quantities including the entanglement are not discontinuous and the matrix product system has long-range correlation and N-spin maximal entanglement. We believe that our work is helpful for having a comprehensive understanding of quantum phase transitions in matrix product states of one-dimensional spin chains and of certain directive significance to the preparation and control of one-dimensional spin lattice models with stable coherence and N-spin maximal entanglement. (author)
Quantum coherent optical phase modulation in an ultrafast transmission electron microscope.
Feist, Armin; Echternkamp, Katharina E; Schauss, Jakob; Yalunin, Sergey V; Schäfer, Sascha; Ropers, Claus
2015-05-14
Coherent manipulation of quantum systems with light is expected to be a cornerstone of future information and communication technology, including quantum computation and cryptography. The transfer of an optical phase onto a quantum wavefunction is a defining aspect of coherent interactions and forms the basis of quantum state preparation, synchronization and metrology. Light-phase-modulated electron states near atoms and molecules are essential for the techniques of attosecond science, including the generation of extreme-ultraviolet pulses and orbital tomography. In contrast, the quantum-coherent phase-modulation of energetic free-electron beams has not been demonstrated, although it promises direct access to ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy with tailored electron pulses on the attosecond scale. Here we demonstrate the coherent quantum state manipulation of free-electron populations in an electron microscope beam. We employ the interaction of ultrashort electron pulses with optical near-fields to induce Rabi oscillations in the populations of electron momentum states, observed as a function of the optical driving field. Excellent agreement with the scaling of an equal-Rabi multilevel quantum ladder is obtained, representing the observation of a light-driven 'quantum walk' coherently reshaping electron density in momentum space. We note that, after the interaction, the optically generated superposition of momentum states evolves into a train of attosecond electron pulses. Our results reveal the potential of quantum control for the precision structuring of electron densities, with possible applications ranging from ultrafast electron spectroscopy and microscopy to accelerator science and free-electron lasers.
Phase transition from nuclear matter to color superconducting quark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bentz, W. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Horikawa, T.; Ishii, N.; Thomas, A.W
2003-06-02
We construct the nuclear and quark matter equations of state at zero temperature in an effective quark theory (the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model), and discuss the phase transition between them. The nuclear matter equation of state is based on the quark-diquark description of the single nucleon, while the quark matter equation of state includes the effects of scalar diquark condensation (color superconductivity). The effect of diquark condensation on the phase transition is discussed in detail.
Phasing out nuclear: shock statements by the EDF's CEO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benezet, E.; Mouchon, F.; Lomazzi, M.; Jeanne, M.
2011-01-01
While costs associated with phasing out nuclear or cancelling of nuclear programs are briefly evoked for different European countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy), the EDF Chairman, Mr Proglio, comments the decisions of these countries, outlines the various risks associated with such a decision in France (job losses, greenhouse gas emissions), also outlines EDF involvement in nuclear safety and evokes the issues of Fessenheim and of the EPR. Some French political aspects on that matter are also evoked
Quantum Phase Shift of a Moving Dipole under a Magnetic Field at a Distance
Lee, Kang-Ho; Kim, Young-Wan; Kang, Kicheon
2018-03-01
We predict a quantum phase shift of a moving electric dipole in the presence of an external magnetic field at a distance. On the basis of the Lorentz-covariant field interaction approach, we show that a phase shift appears in the internal dipole state under the condition that the dipole is moving in the field-free region, which is distinct from the topological He-McKellar-Wilkens phase generated by a direct overlap of the dipole and the field. We discuss the experimental feasibility of detecting this phase with atomic interferometry and argue that detection of this phase will resolve the question of the locality in quantum electromagnetic interaction.
Adiabatic evolution, quantum phases, and Landau-Zener transitions in strong radiation fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, H.P.; Dietz, K.; Holthaus, M.
1990-07-01
We develop a method that allows the investigation of adiabatic evolution in periodically driven quantum systems. It is shown how Berry's geometrical phase emerges in quantum optics. We analyse microwave experiments performed on Rydberg atoms and suggest a new, non-perturbative mechanism to produce excited atomic states. (orig.)
Observing a scale anomaly and a universal quantum phase transition in graphene.
Ovdat, O; Mao, Jinhai; Jiang, Yuhang; Andrei, E Y; Akkermans, E
2017-09-11
One of the most interesting predictions resulting from quantum physics, is the violation of classical symmetries, collectively referred to as anomalies. A remarkable class of anomalies occurs when the continuous scale symmetry of a scale-free quantum system is broken into a discrete scale symmetry for a critical value of a control parameter. This is an example of a (zero temperature) quantum phase transition. Such an anomaly takes place for the quantum inverse square potential known to describe 'Efimov physics'. Broken continuous scale symmetry into discrete scale symmetry also appears for a charged and massless Dirac fermion in an attractive 1/r Coulomb potential. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the universality of this quantum phase transition and to present convincing experimental evidence of its existence for a charged and massless fermion in an attractive Coulomb potential as realized in graphene.When the continuous scale symmetry of a quantum system is broken, anomalies occur which may lead to quantum phase transitions. Here, the authors provide evidence for such a quantum phase transition in the attractive Coulomb potential of vacancies in graphene, and further envision its universality for diverse physical systems.
Perturbation theory of a superconducting 0−π impurity quantum phase transition
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Žonda, M.; Pokorný, Vladislav; Janiš, Václav; Novotný, T.
2015-01-01
Roč. 5, Mar (2015), s. 8821 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP204/11/J042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum dot * superconductivity * Josephson current * quantum phase transition * perturbation expansion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2015
Topological analysis of nuclear pasta phases
Kycia, Radosław A.; Kubis, Sebastian; Wójcik, Włodzimierz
2017-08-01
In this article the analysis of the result of numerical simulations of pasta phases using algebraic topology methods is presented. These considerations suggest that some phases can be further split into subphases and therefore should be more refined in numerical simulations. The results presented in this article can also be used to relate the Euler characteristic from numerical simulations to the geometry of the phases. The Betti numbers are used as they provide finer characterization of the phases. It is also shown that different boundary conditions give different outcomes.
Mishmash, Ryan V.
Experiments on strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional electronic materials---for example, the high-temperature cuprate superconductors and the putative quantum spin liquids kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2---routinely reveal highly mysterious quantum behavior which cannot be explained in terms of weakly interacting degrees of freedom. Theoretical progress thus requires the introduction of completely new concepts and machinery beyond the traditional framework of the band theory of solids and its interacting counterpart, Landau's Fermi liquid theory. In full two dimensions, controlled and reliable analytical approaches to such problems are severely lacking, as are numerical simulations of even the simplest of model Hamiltonians due to the infamous fermionic sign problem. Here, we attempt to circumvent some of these difficulties by studying analogous problems in quasi-one dimension. In this lower dimensional setting, theoretical and numerical tractability are on much stronger footing due to the methods of bosonization and the density matrix renormalization group, respectively. Using these techniques, we attack two problems: (1) the Mott transition between a Fermi liquid metal and a quantum spin liquid as potentially directly relevant to the organic compounds kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu 2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2] 2 and (2) non-Fermi liquid metals as strongly motivated by the strange metal phase observed in the cuprates. In both cases, we are able to realize highly exotic quantum phases as ground states of reasonable microscopic models. This lends strong credence to respective underlying slave-particle descriptions of the low-energy physics, which are inherently strongly interacting and also unconventional in comparison to weakly interacting alternatives. Finally, working in two dimensions directly, we propose a new slave-particle theory which explains in a universal way many of the intriguing experimental results of the triangular lattice organic spin
Rydberg phases of Hydrogen and low energy nuclear reactions
Olafsson, Sveinn; Holmlid, Leif
2016-03-01
For over the last 26 years the science of cold fusion/LENR has been researched around the world with slow pace of progress. Modest quantity of excess heat and signatures of nuclear transmutation and helium production have been confirmed in experiments and theoretical work has only resulted in a large flora of inadequate theoretical scenarios. Here we review current state of research in Rydberg matter of Hydrogen that is showing strong signature of nuclear processes. In the presentation experimental behavior of Rydberg matter of hydrogen is described. An extensive collaboration effort of surface physics, catalysis, atomic physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics and quantum information is need to tackle the surprising experimental results that have so far been obtained. Rydberg matter of Hydrogen is the only known state of matter that is able to bring huge collection of protons to so short distances and for so long time that tunneling becomes a reasonable process for making low energy nuclear reactions. Nuclear quantum entanglement can also become realistic process at theses conditions.
Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser
Baryshev, A.; Hovenier, J. N.; Adam, A. J. L.; Kašalynas, I.; Gao, J. R.; Klaassen, T. O.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.
2006-01-01
We have studied the phase locking and spectral linewidth of an ˜2.7THz quantum cascade laser by mixing its two lateral lasing modes. The beat signal at about 8GHz is compared with a microwave reference by applying conventional phase lock loop circuitry with feedback to the laser bias current. Phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. V. Vertsimakha
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Spreading of the potential profile for the charge carriers in quantum dots in binary semiconductors and the shift of the quantum levels for electrons, holes and excitons under the nuclear irradiation has been investigated. The spreading occurs because of the redistribution of atoms of different kinds between the barrier and quantum dot due to radiationenhanced diffusion. It is shown that in semimagnetic semiconductors (e.g. CdTe/(Cd, MnTe, in which a giant magnetic splitting of exciton levels exists, the redistribution of magnetic ions under irradiation causes significant increase in the splitting of exciton levels in a magnetic field in a quantum dot.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octavian Dănilă
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Entanglement between two quantum elements is a phenomenon which presents a broad application spectrum, being used largely in quantum cryptography schemes and in physical characterisation of the universe. Commonly known entangled states have been obtained with photons and electrons, but other quantum elements such as quarks, leptons, and neutrinos have shown their informational potential. In this paper, we present the perspective of exploiting the phenomenon of entanglement that appears in nuclear particle interactions as a resource for quantum key distribution protocols.
Computing prime factors with a Josephson phase qubit quantum processor
Lucero, Erik; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; O'Malley, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Yin, Y.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.
2012-10-01
A quantum processor can be used to exploit quantum mechanics to find the prime factors of composite numbers. Compiled versions of Shor's algorithm and Gauss sum factorizations have been demonstrated on ensemble quantum systems, photonic systems and trapped ions. Although proposed, these algorithms have yet to be shown using solid-state quantum bits. Using a number of recent qubit control and hardware advances, here we demonstrate a nine-quantum-element solid-state quantum processor and show three experiments to highlight its capabilities. We begin by characterizing the device with spectroscopy. Next, we produce coherent interactions between five qubits and verify bi- and tripartite entanglement through quantum state tomography. In the final experiment, we run a three-qubit compiled version of Shor's algorithm to factor the number 15, and successfully find the prime factors 48% of the time. Improvements in the superconducting qubit coherence times and more complex circuits should provide the resources necessary to factor larger composite numbers and run more intricate quantum algorithms.
Relation between quantum phase transitions and classical instability points in the pairing model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reis, Mauricio; Terra Cunha, M.O.; Oliveira, Adelcio C.; Nemes, M.C.
2005-01-01
A quantum phase transition, characterized by an accumulation of energy levels in the espectrum of the model, is associated with a qualitative change in the corresponding classical dynamic obtained upon generalized coherent states of angular momentum
Valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
encountered for graphene, in particular the zero band gap and weak spin orbit interaction. We demonstrate a valley polarized quantum Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions. We use the Kubo formalism to discuss the Hall conductivity and address
The electron-nuclear spin system in (In,Ga)As quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auer, Thomas
2008-01-01
For a long time, the nuclear spins in quantum dots were virtually ignored. It was thought that the interaction strength was so small that the interaction between the nuclei and electrons could only be observed under very specific optical pumping conditions. Then, in the pursuit of long living electron spins as a building block for quantum information storage and processing, their destructive action on the lifetime of the electron spin became apparent. The nuclear spin system increasingly gained the attention of the quantum dot community. It seemed that the randomly oriented, fluctuating nuclear spins can only be counteracted by strong magnetic fields suppressing the depolarising effect of the random nuclear spin fluctuation fields on a single electron spin. Gradually, however, the work done thirty years before on the electron-nuclear spin system in bulk semiconductors attracted the notice of scientists again. Some of the old experiments could be performed with quantum dots as well. It could be shown that the nuclear spins in quantum dots may well be polarised by optical orientation and that their action is not always destructive at all. The nuclear spins in quantum dots are increasingly used in order to create and tailor a specific environment for a single electron in a quantum dot. In this way quantum dots contain their own ''nuclear nanomagnet''. This might be the future of the studies on the electron-nuclear spin system. The aim of this work is to shed some more light on the complex interdependent system formed of an electron spin and the nuclear spin ensemble in quantum dots. The effects are manifold, often unexpected, sometimes miraculous. Nevertheless, I believe that this work is another tiny step towards the understanding of this challenging system. I have shown that the randomly polarised nuclear spin system always affects the electron spin of a single electron in quantum dots. Further we have seen, however, that the nuclear spin system can easily be
Pion propagator in relativistic quantum field theories of the nuclear many-body problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, T.; Serot, B.D.
1982-01-01
Pion interactions in the nuclear medium are studied using renormalizable relativistic quantum field theories. Previous studies using pseudoscalar πN coupling encountered difficulties due to the large strength of the πNN vertex. We therefore formulate renormalizable field theories with pseudovector πN coupling using techniques introduced by Weinberg and Schwinger. Calculations are performed for two specific models; the scalar-vector theory of Walecka, extended to include π and rho mesons in a non-chiral fashion, and the linear sigma-model with an additional neutral vector meson. Both models qualitatively reproduce low-energy πN phenomenology and lead to nuclear matter saturation in the relativistic Hartree formalism, which includes baryon vacuum fluctuations. The pions propagator is evaluated in the one-nucleon-loop approximation, which corresponds to a relativistic random-phase approximation built on the Hartree ground state. Virtual NN-bar loops are included, and suitable renormalization techniques are illustrated. The local-density approximation is used to compare the threshold pion self-energy to the s-wave pion-nucleus optical potential. In the non-chiral model, s-wave pion-nucleus scattering is too large in both pseudoscalar and pseudovector calculations, indicating that additional constraints must be imposed on the Lagrangian. In the chiral model, the threshold self-energy vanishes automatically in the pseudovector case, but does so for pseudoscalar coupling only if the baryon effective mass is chosen self-consistently Since extrapolation from free space to nuclear density can lead to large effects, pion propagation in the medium can determine which πN coupling is more suitable for the relativistic nuclear many-body problem. Conversely, pion interactions constrain the model Lagrangian and the nuclear matter equation of state. An approximately chiral model with pseudovector coupling is favored
Phase transitions in nuclear matter and consequences for neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaempfer, B.
1983-04-01
Estimates of the minimal bombarding energy necessary to reach the quark gluon phase in heavy ion collisions are presented within a hydrodynamical scenario. Further, the consequences of first-order phase transitions from nuclear/neutron matter to pion-condensed matter or quark matter are discussed for neutron stars. (author)
Noise-Resilient Quantum Computing with a Nitrogen-Vacancy Center and Nuclear Spins.
Casanova, J; Wang, Z-Y; Plenio, M B
2016-09-23
Selective control of qubits in a quantum register for the purposes of quantum information processing represents a critical challenge for dense spin ensembles in solid-state systems. Here we present a protocol that achieves a complete set of selective electron-nuclear gates and single nuclear rotations in such an ensemble in diamond facilitated by a nearby nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center. The protocol suppresses internuclear interactions as well as unwanted coupling between the NV center and other spins of the ensemble to achieve quantum gate fidelities well exceeding 99%. Notably, our method can be applied to weakly coupled, distant spins representing a scalable procedure that exploits the exceptional properties of nuclear spins in diamond as robust quantum memories.
Repetitive readout of a single electronic spin via quantum logic with nuclear spin ancillae.
Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Maze, J R; Maurer, P; Taylor, J M; Cory, D G; Hemmer, P R; Walsworth, R L; Yacoby, A; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D
2009-10-09
Robust measurement of single quantum bits plays a key role in the realization of quantum computation and communication as well as in quantum metrology and sensing. We have implemented a method for the improved readout of single electronic spin qubits in solid-state systems. The method makes use of quantum logic operations on a system consisting of a single electronic spin and several proximal nuclear spin ancillae in order to repetitively readout the state of the electronic spin. Using coherent manipulation of a single nitrogen vacancy center in room-temperature diamond, full quantum control of an electronic-nuclear system consisting of up to three spins was achieved. We took advantage of a single nuclear-spin memory in order to obtain a 10-fold enhancement in the signal amplitude of the electronic spin readout. We also present a two-level, concatenated procedure to improve the readout by use of a pair of nuclear spin ancillae, an important step toward the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic- and nuclear-spin qubits. Our technique can be used to improve the sensitivity and speed of spin-based nanoscale diamond magnetometers.
An evaluation of the 'phasing out nuclear' cost in France
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
This document proposes a synthesis of an assessment of additional investments which would be needed when phasing out nuclear, as well as a study of impacts in terms of increase of electricity production cost, energy transmission and energy bill. It also addresses questions raised by a massive use of renewable energies. Two scenarios are compared to assess the cost of replacement of the nuclear fleet, at constant consumption: keeping a high level of nuclear energy with the development of photovoltaic and wind energy, or phasing out nuclear with a carbon constraint (progressive closing down of nuclear reactors by 2025). The study is based on an economic modelling of the electric system according to some principles and hypotheses which are presented in appendix
Quantum phase transitions in effective spin-ladder models for graphene zigzag nanoribbons
Koop, Cornelie; Wessel, Stefan
2017-10-01
We examine the magnetic correlations in quantum spin models that were derived recently as effective low-energy theories for electronic correlation effects on the edge states of graphene nanoribbons. For this purpose, we employ quantum Monte Carlo simulations to access the large-distance properties, accounting for quantum fluctuations beyond mean-field-theory approaches to edge magnetism. For certain chiral nanoribbons, antiferromagnetic interedge couplings were previously found to induce a gapped quantum disordered ground state of the effective spin model. We find that the extended nature of the intraedge couplings in the effective spin model for zigzag nanoribbons leads to a quantum phase transition at a large, finite value of the interedge coupling. This quantum critical point separates the quantum disordered region from a gapless phase of stable edge magnetism at weak intraedge coupling, which includes the ground states of spin-ladder models for wide zigzag nanoribbons. To study the quantum critical behavior, the effective spin model can be related to a model of two antiferromagnetically coupled Haldane-Shastry spin-half chains with long-ranged ferromagnetic intrachain couplings. The results for the critical exponents are compared also to several recent renormalization-group calculations for related long-ranged interacting quantum systems.
Phase-Sensitive Coherence and the Classical-Quantum Boundary in Ghost Imaging
Erkmen, Baris I.; Hardy, Nicholas D.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.
2011-01-01
The theory of partial coherence has a long and storied history in classical statistical optics. the vast majority of this work addresses fields that are statistically stationary in time, hence their complex envelopes only have phase-insensitive correlations. The quantum optics of squeezed-state generation, however, depends on nonlinear interactions producing baseband field operators with phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive correlations. Utilizing quantum light to enhance imaging has been a topic of considerable current interest, much of it involving biphotons, i.e., streams of entangled-photon pairs. Biphotons have been employed for quantum versions of optical coherence tomography, ghost imaging, holography, and lithography. However, their seemingly quantum features have been mimicked with classical-sate light, questioning wherein lies the classical-quantum boundary. We have shown, for the case of Gaussian-state light, that this boundary is intimately connected to the theory of phase-sensitive partial coherence. Here we present that theory, contrasting it with the familiar case of phase-insensitive partial coherence, and use it to elucidate the classical-quantum boundary of ghost imaging. We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that classical phase-sensitive light produces ghost imaging most closely mimicking those obtained in biphotons, and we derived the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of a standoff-sensing ghost imager, taking into account target-induced speckle.
Nuclear Phase-Out: myth or reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
Since the Fukushima accident, a new speech has come to enrich the energy debate, overtaking the one of the energy transition foreseen for 2025: it is possible to immediately get out of nuclear power. The proof put forward is that the Germans and the Japanese could do it. What is really going on in these countries and what comparison can be done with France is the purpose of this paper. In Japan, prior to the tsunami, nuclear production was representing only 27% of the overall power generation. In Germany, prior to the decision taken by Chancellor Merkel, nuclear energy was at a level even more lower: 22%. This is totally different from the 75% of the French energy mix, and even if the number of NPPs in Japan is close to the one of France (54 against 58), the power of Japanese NPPs reaches 47 GW (17% of the installed power), against 63 GW for the French nuclear park (52% of the total power). Moreover, the reflections about the German and Japanese situations were made on limited periods of time and cannot be extrapolated to longer periods
Decoherence in a dynamical quantum phase transition of the transverse Ising chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mostame, Sarah; Schaller, Gernot; Schuetzhold, Ralf
2007-01-01
For the prototypical example of the Ising chain in a transverse field, we study the impact of decoherence on the sweep through a second-order quantum phase transition. Apart from the advance in the general understanding of the dynamics of quantum phase transitions, these findings are relevant for adiabatic quantum algorithms due to the similarities between them. It turns out that (in contrast to first-order transitions studied previously) the impact of decoherence caused by a weak coupling to a rather general environment increases with system size (i.e., number of spins or qubits), which might limit the scalability of the system
Nuclear spin dynamics in double quantum dots : Fixed points, transients, and intermittency
Rudner, M.S.; Koppens, F.H.L.; Folk, J.A.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Levitov, L.S.
2011-01-01
Transport through spin-blockaded quantum dots provides a means for electrical control and detection of nuclear spin dynamics in the host material. Although such experiments have become increasingly popular in recent years, interpretation of their results in terms of the underlying nuclear spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raghavan, S.
1997-06-01
We extend our analysis of the effects of the interplay of quantum phases and nonlinearity to address saturation effects in small quantum systems. We find that initial phases dramatically control the dependence of self-trapping on initial asymmetry of quasiparticle population and can compete or act with nonlinearity as well as saturation effects. We find that there is a minimum finite saturation value in order to obtain self-trapping that crucially depends on the initial quasiparticle phases and present a detailed phase-diagram in terms of the control parameters of the system: nonlinearity and saturation. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs
Shen, Jian Qi; Gu, Jing
2018-04-01
Atomic phase coherence (quantum interference) in a multilevel atomic gas exhibits a number of interesting phenomena. Such an atomic quantum coherence effect can be generalized to a quantum-dot molecular dielectric. Two quantum dots form a quantum-dot molecule, which can be described by a three-level Λ-configuration model { |0> ,|1> ,|2> } , i.e., the ground state of the molecule is the lower level |0> and the highly degenerate electronic states in the two quantum dots are the two upper levels |1> ,|2> . The electromagnetic characteristics due to the |0>-|1> transition can be controllably manipulated by a tunable gate voltage (control field) that drives the |2>-|1> transition. When the gate voltage is switched on, the quantum-dot molecular state can evolve from one steady state (i.e., |0>-|1> two-level dressed state) to another steady state (i.e., three-level coherent-population-trapping state). In this process, the electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular dielectric, which is modified by the gate voltage, will also evolve. In this study, the transient evolutional behavior of the susceptibility of a quantum-dot molecular thin film and its reflection spectrum are treated by using the density matrix formulation of the multilevel systems. The present field-tunable and frequency-sensitive electromagnetic characteristics of a quantum-dot molecular thin film, which are sensitive to the applied gate voltage, can be utilized to design optical switching devices.
Pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions: An introduction to classical and quantum-mechanical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.
1999-01-01
In studies of light-ion induced nuclear reactions one distinguishes three different mechanisms: direct, compound and pre-equilibrium nuclear reactions. These reaction processes can be subdivided according to time scales or, equivalently, the number of intranuclear collisions taking place before emission. Furthermore, each mechanism preferably excites certain parts of the nuclear level spectrum and is characterized by different types of angular distributions. This presentation includes description of the classical, exciton model, semi-classical models, with some selected results, and quantum mechanical models. A survey of classical versus quantum-mechanical pre-equilibrium reaction theory is presented including practical applications
Optical pumping of electron and nuclear spin in a negatively-charged quantum dot
Bracker, Allan; Gershoni, David; Korenev, Vladimir
2005-03-01
We report optical pumping of electron and nuclear spins in an individual negatively-charged quantum dot. With a bias-controlled heterostructure, we inject one electron into the quantum dot. Intense laser excitation produces negative photoluminescence polarization, which is easily erased by the Hanle effect, demonstrating optical pumping of a long-lived resident electron. The electron spin lifetime is consistent with the influence of nuclear spin fluctuations. Measuring the Overhauser effect in high magnetic fields, we observe a high degree of nuclear spin polarization, which is closely correlated to electron spin pumping.
High Efficiency Quantum Well Waveguide Solar Cells, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The long-term objective of this program is to develop flexible, lightweight, single-junction solar cells using quantum structured designs that can achieve ultra-high...
Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...
Assessment of a quantum phase-gate operation based on nonlinear optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rebic, S.; Ottaviani, C.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.; Tombesi, P.
2006-01-01
We analyze in detail the proposal for a two-qubit gate for travelling single-photon qubits recently presented by Ottaviani et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 010301(R) (2006)]. The scheme is based on an ensemble of five-level atoms coupled to two quantum and two classical light fields. The two quantum fields undergo cross-phase modulation induced by electromagnetically induced transparency. The performance of this two-qubit quantum phase gate for travelling single-photon qubits is thoroughly examined in the steady-state and transient regimes, by means of a full quantum treatment of the system dynamics. In the steady-state regime, we find a general trade-off between the size of the conditional phase shift and the fidelity of the gate operation. However, this trade-off can be bypassed in the transient regime, where a satisfactory gate operation is found to be possible, significantly reducing the gate operation time
Quantum phase-space analysis of the pendular cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, M.K.; Melo, A.B.; Dechoum, K.; Khoury, A.Z.
2004-01-01
We perform a quantum-mechanical analysis of the pendular cavity, using the positive-P representation, showing that the quantum state of the moving mirror, a macroscopic object, has noticeable effects on the dynamics. This system has previously been proposed as a candidate for the quantum-limited measurement of small displacements of the mirror due to radiation pressure, for the production of states with entanglement between the mirror and the field, and even for superposition states of the mirror. However, when we treat the oscillating mirror quantum mechanically, we find that it always oscillates, has no stationary steady state, and exhibits uncertainties in position and momentum which are typically larger than the mean values. This means that previous linearized fluctuation analyses which have been used to predict these highly quantum states are of limited use. We find that the achievable accuracy in measurement is far worse than the standard quantum limit due to thermal noise, which, for typical experimental parameters, is overwhelming even at 2 mK
Imaginary geometric phases of quantum trajectories in high-order terahertz sideband generation
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2014-03-01
Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be described by a small number of quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integral. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand the high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG) in semiconductors. Due to the nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials, the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors can accumulate geometric phases under the driving of an elliptically polarized THz field. We find that the geometric phase of the stationary trajectory is generally complex with both real and imaginary parts. In monolayer MoS2, the imaginary parts of the geometric phase leads to a changing of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband. We further show that the imaginary part originates from the quantum interference of many trajectories with different phases. Thus the observation of the polarization ellipticity of the sideband shall be a good indication of the quantum nature of the stationary trajectory. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.
Analysis of geometric phase effects in the quantum-classical Liouville formalism.
Ryabinkin, Ilya G; Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond; Izmaylov, Artur F
2014-02-28
We analyze two approaches to the quantum-classical Liouville (QCL) formalism that differ in the order of two operations: Wigner transformation and projection onto adiabatic electronic states. The analysis is carried out on a two-dimensional linear vibronic model where geometric phase (GP) effects arising from a conical intersection profoundly affect nuclear dynamics. We find that the Wigner-then-Adiabatic (WA) QCL approach captures GP effects, whereas the Adiabatic-then-Wigner (AW) QCL approach does not. Moreover, the Wigner transform in AW-QCL leads to an ill-defined Fourier transform of double-valued functions. The double-valued character of these functions stems from the nontrivial GP of adiabatic electronic states in the presence of a conical intersection. In contrast, WA-QCL avoids this issue by starting with the Wigner transform of single-valued quantities of the full problem. As a consequence, GP effects in WA-QCL can be associated with a dynamical term in the corresponding equation of motion. Since the WA-QCL approach uses solely the adiabatic potentials and non-adiabatic derivative couplings as an input, our results indicate that WA-QCL can capture GP effects in two-state crossing problems using first-principles electronic structure calculations without prior diabatization or introduction of explicit phase factors.
Analysis of geometric phase effects in the quantum-classical Liouville formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Ontario M1C 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Kapral, Raymond [Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)
2014-02-28
We analyze two approaches to the quantum-classical Liouville (QCL) formalism that differ in the order of two operations: Wigner transformation and projection onto adiabatic electronic states. The analysis is carried out on a two-dimensional linear vibronic model where geometric phase (GP) effects arising from a conical intersection profoundly affect nuclear dynamics. We find that the Wigner-then-Adiabatic (WA) QCL approach captures GP effects, whereas the Adiabatic-then-Wigner (AW) QCL approach does not. Moreover, the Wigner transform in AW-QCL leads to an ill-defined Fourier transform of double-valued functions. The double-valued character of these functions stems from the nontrivial GP of adiabatic electronic states in the presence of a conical intersection. In contrast, WA-QCL avoids this issue by starting with the Wigner transform of single-valued quantities of the full problem. As a consequence, GP effects in WA-QCL can be associated with a dynamical term in the corresponding equation of motion. Since the WA-QCL approach uses solely the adiabatic potentials and non-adiabatic derivative couplings as an input, our results indicate that WA-QCL can capture GP effects in two-state crossing problems using first-principles electronic structure calculations without prior diabatization or introduction of explicit phase factors.
About many-quantum transitions in nuclear magnetic resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saganowski, S.
1982-01-01
A new method of NMR, in which the many-quantum transitions are observed is described. In the method some theoretical aspects of impulsed methods and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy are taken into account what allows to observe indirectly many-quantum effects. (L.I.)
German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-11-01
The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)
Mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade laser by direct phase synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maussang, K.; Maysonnave, J.; Jukam, N.; Freeman, J. R.; Cavalié, P.; Dhillon, S. S.; Tignon, J.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.
2013-01-01
Mode-locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is achieved using multimode injection seeding. Contrary to standard methods that rely on gain modulation, here a fixed phase relationship is directly imprinted to the laser modes. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of 9 ps phase mode-locked pulses around 2.75 THz. A direct measurement of the emitted field phase shows that it results from the phase of the initial injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Osung; Lee, Min-Soo; Woo, Min Ki; Park, Byung Kwon; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Yong-Su; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung
2015-01-01
We characterized a polarization-independent phase modulation method, called double phase modulation, for a practical plug and play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Following investigation of theoretical backgrounds, we applied the method to the practical QKD system and characterized the performance through comparing single phase modulation (SPM) and double phase modulation. Consequently, we obtained repeatable and accurate phase modulation confirmed by high visibility single photon interference even for input signals with arbitrary polarization. Further, the results show that only 80% of the bias voltage required in the case of single phase modulation is needed to obtain the target amount of phase modulation. (paper)
Problem of phase transitions in nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharff-Goldhaber, G.
1980-01-01
Phase transitions between rotational and vibrational nuclei are discussed from the point of view of the variable moment of inertia model. A three-dimensional plot of the ground-state moments of inertia of even-even nuclei vs N and Z is shown. 3 figures
After Chernobyl. Possibilities of phasing out nuclear power in Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
According to the currently applicable Parliamentary decision, the phasing out of nuclear power in Sweden must be completed by the year 2010. The National Energy Administration has analyzed the following questions. If it were to become evident that operating several or all of the Swedish nuclear power plants entailed serious risks, what possibilities would there be of phasing them out in the short term or over a longer period. And what would the consequences be with regard to the national economy and the environment? First we report the consequences of a rapid phase-out. Here, it is assumed that several or all nuclear plants would be taken out of operation within a period of two years. Available compensatory resources would be limited to more intensive utilization of existing hydropower, back-pressure plants, combined power and heating plants and oil-fired plants. The second alternative is a phase-out in ten years. Moreover, a case is discussed in which phase-out is planned and implemented from 1987 to 2005. Such a plan would provide industry more time to adjust, while a number of alternative techniques and fuels could be used to replace nuclear power. The consequences of the different phase-out alternatives can be described only within a framework of certain assumptions regarding the worldwide development. Important factors here include fuel prices and economic trends. Environmental restrictions comprise another important prerequisite
Phase transition with trivial quantum criticality in an anisotropic Weyl semimetal
Li, Xin; Wang, Jing-Rong; Liu, Guo-Zhu
2018-05-01
When a metal undergoes continuous quantum phase transition, the correlation length diverges at the critical point and the quantum fluctuation of order parameter behaves as a gapless bosonic mode. Generically, the coupling of this boson to fermions induces a variety of unusual quantum critical phenomena, such as non-Fermi liquid behavior and various emergent symmetries. Here, we perform a renormalization group analysis of the semimetal-superconductor quantum criticality in a three-dimensional anisotropic Weyl semimetal. Surprisingly, distinct from previously studied quantum critical systems, the anomalous dimension of anisotropic Weyl fermions flows to zero very quickly with decreasing energy, and the quasiparticle residue takes a nonzero value. These results indicate that the quantum fluctuation of superconducting order parameter is irrelevant at low energies, and a simple mean-field calculation suffices to capture the essential physics of the superconducting transition. We thus obtain a phase transition that exhibits trivial quantum criticality, which is unique comparing to other invariably nontrivial quantum critical systems. Our theoretical prediction can be experimentally verified by measuring the fermion spectral function and specific heat.
The Montaigne Institute makes an issue of phasing out nuclear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brezet, Gabriel; Thouverez, Pierre
2017-01-01
The author discusses some data published by the Montaigne Institute to assess a nuclear phasing out program proposed by B. Hamon, the socialist candidate to the French 2017 presidential election. According to the Institute, the cost of this phasing out program is assessed to reach 217 billions euros between 2018 and 2035. This figure comprises a major part for CSPE reimbursement (179 billions), compensations to EDF shareholders, compensations for the giving up of the Flamanville EPR, and expenses to adapt the electric grid to renewable energies. The author more particularly discusses some biases in the CSPE assessment as Hamon's proposal of phasing out nuclear was to take place over 25 years and not 18. He also shows that a share of CSPE reimbursements should not be counted, that staying nuclear has also a cost, and that hypotheses regarding CSPE reimbursement can be criticised. He also briefly discusses the level of compensations to EDF shareholders, and the impact of a higher electricity price
Quantum phase transitions in spin-1 X X Z chains with rhombic single-ion anisotropy
Ren, Jie; Wang, Yimin; You, Wen-Long
2018-04-01
We explore numerically the inverse participation ratios in the ground state of one-dimensional spin-1 X X Z chains with the rhombic single-ion anisotropy. By employing the techniques of density-matrix renormalization group, effects of the rhombic single-ion anisotropy on various information theoretical measures are investigated, such as the fidelity susceptibility, the quantum coherence, and the entanglement entropy. Their relations with the quantum phase transitions are also analyzed. The phase transitions from the Y -Néel phase to the large-Ex or the Haldane phase can be well characterized by the fidelity susceptibility. The second-order derivative of the ground-state energy indicates all the transitions are of second order. We also find that the quantum coherence, the entanglement entropy, the Schmidt gap, and the inverse participation ratios can be used to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions. Results drawn from these quantum information observables agree well with each other. Finally we provide a ground-state phase diagram as functions of the exchange anisotropy Δ and the rhombic single-ion anisotropy E .
Possible hazard reduction by using distributed phased nuclear explosions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chilton, Frank [Theoretical Physics Program, Stanford Research Institute, Menio Park, CA (United States); [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Cheney, James A [Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1970-05-15
The use of two or more nuclear devices, phased together in order to constructively add their respective particle velocities, is proposed herein. By directing the seismic waves of the nuclear explosions to make them more efficient in accomplishing the intended construction, we hope to be able to reduce the radioactivity, seismic, and airblast hazards substantially. Experiments are being performed with one gram charges of PETN. (author)
Nuclear 'pasta phase' and its consequences on neutrino opacities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alloy, M. D.; Menezes, D. P.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we calculate the diffusion coefficients that are related to the neutrino opacities considering the formation of nuclear pasta and homogeneous matter at low densities. Our results show that the mean-free paths are significantly altered by the presence of nuclear pasta in stellar matter when compared with the results obtained with homogeneous matter. These differences in neutrino opacities certainly influence the Kelvin-Helmholtz phase of protoneutron stars and consequently the results of supernova explosion simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, Robson; Hoff, Diego A; Rego, Luis G C
2015-01-01
Charge and excitonic-energy transfer phenomena are fundamental for energy conversion in solar cells as well as artificial photosynthesis. Currently, much interest is being paid to light-harvesting and energy transduction processes in supramolecular structures, where nuclear dynamics has a major influence on electronic quantum dynamics. For this reason, the simulation of long range electron transfer in supramolecular structures, under environmental conditions described within an atomistic framework, has been a difficult problem to study. This work describes a coupled quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method that aims at describing long range charge transfer processes in supramolecular systems, taking into account the atomistic details of large molecular structures, the underlying nuclear motion, and environmental effects. The method is applied to investigate the relevance of electron–nuclei interaction on the mechanisms for photo-induced electron–hole pair separation in dye-sensitized interfaces as well as electronic dynamics in molecular structures. (paper)
Cadiz, Fabian; Djeffal, Abdelhak; Lagarde, Delphine; Balocchi, Andrea; Tao, Bingshan; Xu, Bo; Liang, Shiheng; Stoffel, Mathieu; Devaux, Xavier; Jaffres, Henri; George, Jean-Marie; Hehn, Michel; Mangin, Stephane; Carrere, Helene; Marie, Xavier; Amand, Thierry; Han, Xiufeng; Wang, Zhanguo; Urbaszek, Bernhard; Lu, Yuan; Renucci, Pierre
2018-04-11
The emission of circularly polarized light from a single quantum dot relies on the injection of carriers with well-defined spin polarization. Here we demonstrate single dot electroluminescence (EL) with a circular polarization degree up to 35% at zero applied magnetic field. The injection of spin-polarized electrons is achieved by combining ultrathin CoFeB electrodes on top of a spin-LED device with p-type InGaAs quantum dots in the active region. We measure an Overhauser shift of several microelectronvolts at zero magnetic field for the positively charged exciton (trion X + ) EL emission, which changes sign as we reverse the injected electron spin orientation. This is a signature of dynamic polarization of the nuclear spins in the quantum dot induced by the hyperfine interaction with the electrically injected electron spin. This study paves the way for electrical control of nuclear spin polarization in a single quantum dot without any external magnetic field.
The nuclear phase-out and its consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ludwigs, Markus
2016-01-01
As a lesson from the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a radical change has taken place in climate and energy policy in Germany since 2011. This is characterized by the phase-out of the nuclear energy, which is fixed by the 13th Atomic Enforcement Act, by the end of 2022. This entails a multitude of complex legal questions and subsequent problems. The latest decisions are the forthcoming decisions of the BVerfG on the constitutional consistency of the nuclear phase-out law and nuclear fuel tax, Vattenfall's much discussed arbitration award before the ICSID arbitration court, and controversial legal questions both in the context of the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants and the disposal of highly radioactive waste. In addition, the moral-ethical evaluation of the nuclear phase-out and the power turn-around is the focus of the interdisciplinary approach. The problem clusters are analyzed by the contributions of the anthology. He documents a conference organized by Professor Dr. Markus Ludwig, which took place on April 8, 2016, at the University of Wuerzburg, within the framework of a project funded by the Fritz Thyssen Stiftung (''The Law of the Energy Transition''). [de
Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser
Baryshev, A.; Hovenier, J.N.; Adam, A.J.L.; Kaalynas, I.; Gao, J.R.; Klaassen, T.O.; Williams, B.S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.
2006-01-01
We have studied the phase locking and spectral linewidth of an ? 2.7?THz quantum cascade laser by mixing its two lateral lasing modes. The beat signal at about 8?GHz is compared with a microwave reference by applying conventional phase lock loop circuitry with feedback to the laser bias current.
Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xiaobao; Tang Zhilie; Liao Changjun; Lu Yiqun; Zhao Feng; Liu Songhao
2006-01-01
We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45 o , 135 o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers
Manifestations of classical phase space structures in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohigas, O.; Ullmo, D.; Tomsovic, S.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay
1992-11-01
Using two coupled quartic oscillators for illustration, the quantum mechanics of simple systems whose classical analogues have varying degrees of non-integrability is investigated. By taking advantage of discrete symmetries and dynamical quasidegeneracies it is shown that Percival's semiclassical classification scheme, i.e. eigenstates may be separated into a regular or an irregular group, basically works. Some observations of intermediate status states are made. Generalized ensembles are constructed which apply equally well to both spectral and eigenstate properties. They typically show non-universal, but nevertheless characteristic level fluctuations. In addition, they predict 'semiclassical localization' of eigenfunctions and 'quantum suppression of chaos' which are quantitatively borne out in the quantum systems. (author) 101 refs.; 27 figs.; 6 tabs
Decoy state method for quantum cryptography based on phase coding into faint laser pulses
Kulik, S. P.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-12-01
We discuss the photon number splitting attack (PNS) in systems of quantum cryptography with phase coding. It is shown that this attack, as well as the structural equations for the PNS attack for phase encoding, differs physically from the analogous attack applied to the polarization coding. As far as we know, in practice, in all works to date processing of experimental data has been done for phase coding, but using formulas for polarization coding. This can lead to inadequate results for the length of the secret key. These calculations are important for the correct interpretation of the results, especially if it concerns the criterion of secrecy in quantum cryptography.
Phasing out nuclear in Germany: scenarios of energy policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knopf, Brigitte; Pahle, Michael; Kondziella, Hendrik; Goetz, Mario; Bruckner, Thomas; Edenhofer, Ottmar; Stark, Hans; Rittelmeyer, Yann-Sven; Wissmann, Nele; Vitasse, Thomas
2012-02-01
After the German decision taken in 2011 to phase out nuclear, the authors analyse different scenarios of energy transition, and study the consequences of this phasing out in terms of energy needs provided by fossil fuel plants, of electricity price for households and for industries, and of CO 2 emissions. Independently from the development of renewable energies, the different effects of gas and coal plants replacing nuclear energy have been calculated and compared, and other possible scenarios have been explored. The author also discuss requirements in terms of governance for grid development, for a coordinated European policy of energy and climate, and for transparency and scientific follow-up
Lectures notes on phase transformations in nuclear matter
López, Jorge A
2000-01-01
The atomic nucleus, despite of being one of the smallest objects found in nature, appears to be large enough to experience phase transitions. The book deals with the liquid and gaseous phases of nuclear matter, as well as with the experimental routes to achieve transformation between them.Theoretical models are introduced from the ground up and with increasing complexity to describe nuclear matter from a statistical and thermodynamical point of view. Modern critical phenomena, heavy ion collisions and computational techniques are presented while establishing a linkage to experimental data.The
Nuclear phase-out in Switzerland. Rationality first
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leidinger, Tobias
2017-01-01
Just a few months ago, the Swiss voters have rejected the initiative of the Green Party to accelerate the nuclear phase-out in Switzerland with an impressive majority. Once again, it becomes clear that in Switzerland on issues of energy policy rationality and not ideology is leading. With their vote against an accelerated nuclear phase-out, the Swiss citizens underlined that they have no sympathy for radical, ideologically proposals for solutions, which on closer inspection are expensive, risky and immature. The majority has understood that the extensive expansion of renewable energies and power grids is burdened with numerous risks and uncertainties.
Deterministic quantum controlled-PHASE gates based on non-Markovian environments
Zhang, Rui; Chen, Tian; Wang, Xiang-Bin
2017-12-01
We study the realization of the quantum controlled-PHASE gate in an atom-cavity system beyond the Markovian approximation. The general description of the dynamics for the atom-cavity system without any approximation is presented. When the spectral density of the reservoir has the Lorentz form, by making use of the memory backflow from the reservoir, we can always construct the deterministic quantum controlled-PHASE gate between a photon and an atom, no matter the atom-cavity coupling strength is weak or strong. While, the phase shift in the output pulse hinders the implementation of quantum controlled-PHASE gates in the sub-Ohmic, Ohmic or super-Ohmic reservoirs.
Evidence of a fractional quantum Hall nematic phase in a microscopic model
Regnault, N.; Maciejko, J.; Kivelson, S. A.; Sondhi, S. L.
2017-07-01
At small momenta, the Girvin-MacDonald-Platzman (GMP) mode in the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) effect can be identified with gapped nematic fluctuations in the isotropic FQH liquid. This correspondence would be exact as the GMP mode softens upon approach to the putative point of a quantum phase transition to a FQH nematic. Motivated by these considerations as well as by suggestive evidence of an FQH nematic in tilted field experiments, we have sought evidence of such a nematic FQHE in a microscopic model of interacting electrons in the lowest Landau level at filling factor 1/3. Using a family of anisotropic Laughlin states as trial wave functions, we find a continuous quantum phase transition between the isotropic Laughlin liquid and the FQH nematic. Results of numerical exact diagonalization also suggest that rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken, and that the phase diagram of the model contains both a nematic and a stripe phase.
A scheme of measurement of quantum-vacuum geometric phases in a noncoplanar fibre system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jianqi
2004-01-01
We study the quantum-vacuum geometric phases resulting from the vacuum fluctuation of photon fields in a Tomita-Chiao-Wu noncoplanar curved fibre system, and suggest a scheme to test for the potential existence of such a vacuum effect. Since the signs of the quantum-vacuum geometric phases of left- and right-handed (LRH) circularly polarized light are opposite, the sum of the geometric phases at the vacuum level is necessarily zero in the fibre experiments performed previously by other authors. By using the present approach where a fibre made of gyroelectric media is employed, the quantum-vacuum geometric phases of LRH light cannot be exactly cancelled, and it may therefore be possible to test this experimentally. (letter to the editor)
Event-phase-space structure: an alternative to quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guz, W.
1980-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to examine two new possibilities in the axiomatic foundations of quantum mechanics: first, the possibility of introducing a non-symmetric transition probability between pure states, and second, showing that the concept of orthocomplementation in the logic of events is unnecessary and of secondary importance. Presented here is an axiomatic scheme, which does not involve the concept of orthocomplementation and yet has all the advantages of the well-known quantum logic axiomatics, because the generalised logic of events admits an extension, which is a complete orthocomplemented orthomodular lattice with the covering law holding in it. (author)
Kumar, S Santhosh; Shankaranarayanan, S
2017-11-17
In a bipartite set-up, the vacuum state of a free Bosonic scalar field is entangled in real space and satisfies the area-law- entanglement entropy scales linearly with area of the boundary between the two partitions. In this work, we show that the area law is violated in two spatial dimensional model Hamiltonian having dynamical critical exponent z = 3. The model physically corresponds to next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbour coupling terms on a lattice. The result reported here is the first of its kind of violation of area law in Bosonic systems in higher dimensions and signals the evidence of a quantum phase transition. We provide evidence for quantum phase transition both numerically and analytically using quantum Information tools like entanglement spectra, quantum fidelity, and gap in the energy spectra. We identify the cause for this transition due to the accumulation of large number of angular zero modes around the critical point which catalyses the change in the ground state wave function due to the next-to-next-to-next nearest neighbor coupling. Lastly, using Hubbard-Stratanovich transformation, we show that the effective Bosonic Hamiltonian can be obtained from an interacting fermionic theory and provide possible implications for condensed matter systems.
Geometric approach to nuclear pasta phases
Kubis, Sebastian; Wójcik, Włodzimierz
2016-12-01
By use of the variational methods and differential geometry in the framework of the liquid drop model we formulate appropriate equilibrium equations for pasta phases with imposed periodicity. The extension of the Young-Laplace equation in the case of charged fluid is obtained. The β equilibrium and virial theorem are also generalized. All equations are shown in gauge invariant form. For the first time, the pasta shape stability analysis is carried out. The proper stability condition in the form of the generalized Jacobi equation is derived. The presented formalism is tested on some particular cases.
In-plane nuclear field formation investigated in single self-assembled quantum dots
Yamamoto, S.; Matsusaki, R.; Kaji, R.; Adachi, S.
2018-02-01
We studied the formation mechanism of the in-plane nuclear field in single self-assembled In0.75Al0.25As /Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum dots. The Hanle curves with an anomalously large width and hysteretic behavior at the critical transverse magnetic field were observed in many single quantum dots grown in the same sample. In order to explain the anomalies in the Hanle curve indicating the formation of a large nuclear field perpendicular to the photo-injected electron spin polarization, we propose a new model based on the current phenomenological model for dynamic nuclear spin polarization. The model includes the effects of the nuclear quadrupole interaction and the sign inversion between in-plane and out-of-plane components of nuclear g factors, and the model calculations reproduce successfully the characteristics of the observed anomalies in the Hanle curves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, Yuji
2017-01-01
In Sweden, fossil fuels cannot be produced domestically, and most of them depend on foreign imports. For this reason, together with hydropower generation using abundant water resources, nuclear power generation was introduced and used since the early stage. Nuclear power generation in 2015 reached 35% of total generated power energy. As of 2016, Sweden was steadily constructing the world's second final disposal site of high-level radioactive waste. On the other hand, this country is known as the one that decided nuclear phase-out policy earliest in the world. However, the country's nuclear policy is swaying together with changes in political party power due to election results. In 1980, they decided the policy of abolishing all nuclear power generation by 2010. Thereafter, the nuclear phase-out policy was frozen and maximum 10 units of nuclear plants were accepted. The goal of the latest policy is to allow new construction up to 10 units as replacement, and to use 100% of renewable energy in 2040. However, the year of 2040 is not a deadline for the abolishment of nuclear power generation. In Sweden's public opinion on nuclear power generation, the early abolition was dominant at about 50% during 1986∼1995, but this opinion decreased to about 10% in the 2000s. There is an increasing number of opinions saying that the existing nuclear plants should be continuously operated for a while, and phased out step by step in the future. (A.O.)
Quantum chaos, thermalization and dissipation in nuclear systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
as a partition function for equilibrium positions of charged particles on a line with a neutralizing background ... With the advance- ment of our .... Quantum mechanically, the difficulty is in showing that the energy distribution,η´Eµ, defined below.
Quantum Chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, B.
1993-01-01
This report discusses research in the following topics: Hadron structure physics; relativistic heavy ion collisions; finite- temperature QCD; real-time lattice gauge theory; and studies in quantum field theory
States in the Hilbert space formulation and in the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tosiek, J.; Brzykcy, P.
2013-01-01
We consider the problem of testing whether a given matrix in the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics or a function considered in the phase space formulation of quantum theory represents a quantum state. We propose several practical criteria for recognising states in these two versions of quantum physics. After minor modifications, they can be applied to check positivity of any operators acting in a Hilbert space or positivity of any functions from an algebra with a ∗-product of Weyl type. -- Highlights: ► Methods of testing whether a given matrix represents a quantum state. ► The Stratonovich–Weyl correspondence on an arbitrary symplectic manifold. ► Criteria for checking whether a function on a symplectic space is a Wigner function
Electron-nuclear interaction in 13C nanotube double quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Churchill, H O H; Bestwick, A J; Harlow, J W
2009-01-01
For coherent electron spins, hyperfine coupling to nuclei in the host material can either be a dominant source of unwanted spin decoherence or, if controlled effectively, a resource enabling storage and retrieval of quantum information. To investigate the effect of a controllable nuclear...... environment on the evolution of confined electron spins, we have fabricated and measured gate-defined double quantum dots with integrated charge sensors made from single-walled carbon nanotubes with a variable concentration of 13C (nuclear spin I=1/2) among the majority zero-nuclear-spin 12C atoms. We observe...... strong isotope effects in spin-blockaded transport, and from the magnetic field dependence estimate the hyperfine coupling in 13C nanotubes to be of the order of 100 ¿µeV, two orders of magnitude larger than anticipated. 13C-enhanced nanotubes are an interesting system for spin-based quantum information...
Compact and highly stable quantum dots through optimized aqueous phase transfer
Tamang, Sudarsan; Beaune, Grégory; Poillot, Cathy; De Waard, Michel; Texier-Nogues, Isabelle; Reiss, Peter
2011-03-01
A large number of different approaches for the aqueous phase transfer of quantum dots have been proposed. Surface ligand exchange with small hydrophilic thiols, such as L-cysteine, yields the lowest particle hydrodynamic diameter. However, cysteine is prone to dimer formation, which limits colloidal stability. We demonstrate that precise pH control during aqueous phase transfer dramatically increases the colloidal stability of InP/ZnS quantum dots. Various bifunctional thiols have been applied. The formation of disulfides, strongly diminishing the fluorescence QY has been prevented through addition of appropriate reducing agents. Bright InP/ZnS quantum dots with a hydrodynamic diameter <10 nm and long-term stability have been obtained. Finally we present in vitro studies of the quantum dots functionalized with the cell-penetrating peptide maurocalcine.
Medium-Energy Nuclear Data Library (MENDLIB): Phase 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siciliano, E.R.; Arthur, E.D.
1987-10-01
This document describes an initial step towards the formation of a computerized on-line data library, which would contain published medium-energy experimental data, and which would serve the basic and applied needs of the medium-energy nuclear physics community. The data emphasized in this project will be from measured charged-particle and meson induced nuclear scattering and reactions; an area for which no such data base presently exists. Access to the data will be through a menu-driven program in a user-friendly environment. The project is divided into three phases: Phase 1 involves compilation of Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) data from nucleon and pion induced reactions, Phase 2 includes nucleon and pion data from other medium-energy facilities, and Phase 3 includes electron, light-ion, and possibly kaon and anti-nucleon data. The initial goals, the manner in which they would be pursued, and the resources needed to implement Phase 1 (the pilot phase) are discussed in detail. Possible expansion of Phase 1 to attain the envisioned goals of Phase 2 and 3 are briefly outlined. During all stages of the project, input from the community will be sought via the various facility user groups and the American Physical Society Division of Nuclear Physics. It is proposed that the Applied Nuclear Science Group (T-2) of the Los Alamos National Laboratory oversees the development and implementation of this project, and the LAMPF VAX computers be used as the host computers for on-line access
Optical Pumping of the Electronic and Nuclear Spin of Single Charge-Tunable Quantum Dots
Bracker, A. S.; Stinaff, E. A.; Gammon, D.; Ware, M. E.; Tischler, J. G.; Shabaev, A.; Efros, Al. L.; Park, D.; Gershoni, D.; Korenev, V. L.; Merkulov, I. A.
2005-02-01
We present a comprehensive examination of optical pumping of spins in individual GaAs quantum dots as we change the net charge from positive to neutral to negative with a charge-tunable heterostructure. Negative photoluminescence polarization memory is enhanced by optical pumping of ground state electron spins, which we prove with the first measurements of the Hanle effect on an individual quantum dot. We use the Overhauser effect in a high longitudinal magnetic field to demonstrate efficient optical pumping of nuclear spins for all three charge states of the quantum dot.
Nuclear magnetic resonance. Advanced concepts and applications to quantum materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohlrautz, Jonas
2017-01-01
In this thesis, three separate topics were presented. These include the development of novel experimental NMR methods and data analysis, as well as their application to current topics of condensed matter research. The first part concerns NMR at the highest magnetic fields, i.e., in time-dependent pulsed high-field magnets. After a discussion of consequences for NMR, a method to acquire broad spectra was presented. Here, an intensity-correction for off-resonance effects was applied and the Fourier transform was modified to use time-dependent base functions. Subsequently, the method was tested with a Knight shift measurement of metallic aluminum using a second compound as a shift reference. It could be shown that signal averaging of a weak signal is possible, even across multiple field pulses. Thus, in principle, the signal-to-noise ratio can always be increased at the cost of measurement time, despite the inherently limited reproducibility of subsequent field high-field pulses. In another set of experiments, the feasibility of T 1 measurements was shown. Here, a weak radio frequency field was used to perform an adiabatic inversion of the spin system in the time-dependent field. Ensuing small-angle RF pulses monitored the relaxation process. Using a mathematical model, T 1 was then determined. Finally, this method was applied for the investigation of the spin-dimer antiferromagnet SrCu 2 (BO 3 ) 2 . Evidence for a field-induced change in the ground state of the material was found. This appears to be the first convincing observation of a field-induced phenomenon with pulsed field NMR. It proves that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the highest fields is able to produce unique insights into quantum materials. The second part of the thesis concerns NMR investigations and analysis of cuprate high-temperature superconductors in conventional static field measurements. Results on HgBa 2 CuO 4+δ for underdoped, optimally doped, and overdoped materials revealed
Nuclear magnetic resonance. Advanced concepts and applications to quantum materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohlrautz, Jonas
2017-05-22
In this thesis, three separate topics were presented. These include the development of novel experimental NMR methods and data analysis, as well as their application to current topics of condensed matter research. The first part concerns NMR at the highest magnetic fields, i.e., in time-dependent pulsed high-field magnets. After a discussion of consequences for NMR, a method to acquire broad spectra was presented. Here, an intensity-correction for off-resonance effects was applied and the Fourier transform was modified to use time-dependent base functions. Subsequently, the method was tested with a Knight shift measurement of metallic aluminum using a second compound as a shift reference. It could be shown that signal averaging of a weak signal is possible, even across multiple field pulses. Thus, in principle, the signal-to-noise ratio can always be increased at the cost of measurement time, despite the inherently limited reproducibility of subsequent field high-field pulses. In another set of experiments, the feasibility of T{sub 1} measurements was shown. Here, a weak radio frequency field was used to perform an adiabatic inversion of the spin system in the time-dependent field. Ensuing small-angle RF pulses monitored the relaxation process. Using a mathematical model, T{sub 1} was then determined. Finally, this method was applied for the investigation of the spin-dimer antiferromagnet SrCu{sub 2}(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Evidence for a field-induced change in the ground state of the material was found. This appears to be the first convincing observation of a field-induced phenomenon with pulsed field NMR. It proves that nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at the highest fields is able to produce unique insights into quantum materials. The second part of the thesis concerns NMR investigations and analysis of cuprate high-temperature superconductors in conventional static field measurements. Results on HgBa{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+δ} for underdoped, optimally doped, and
Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Ferrier, M.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.
2018-05-01
In a quantum dot hybrid superconducting junction, the behavior of the supercurrent is dominated by Coulomb blockade physics, which determines the magnetic state of the dot. In particular, in a single level quantum dot singly occupied, the sign of the supercurrent can be reversed, giving rise to a π-junction. This 0 - π transition, corresponding to a singlet-doublet transition, is then driven by the gate voltage or by the superconducting phase in the case of strong competition between the superconducting proximity effect and Kondo correlations. In a two-level quantum dot, such as a clean carbon nanotube, 0- π transitions exist as well but, because more cotunneling processes are allowed, are not necessarily associated to a magnetic state transition of the dot. In this proceeding, after a review of 0- π transitions in Josephson junctions, we present measurements of current-phase relation in a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot, in the single and two-level regimes. In the single level regime, close to orbital degeneracy and in a regime of strong competition between local electronic correlations and superconducting proximity effect, we find that the phase diagram of the phase-dependent transition is a universal characteristic of a discontinuous level-crossing quantum transition at zero temperature. In the case where the two levels are involved, the nanotube Josephson current exhibits a continuous 0 - π transition, independent of the superconducting phase, revealing a different physical mechanism of the transition.
Dynamics of a quantum two-level system under the action of phase-diffusion field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobakinskaya, E.A. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Pankratov, A.L., E-mail: alp@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Vaks, V.L. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation)
2012-01-09
We study a behavior of quantum two-level system, interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. The dynamics is shown to split into two regimes, determined by the coherence time of the phase-diffusion field. For both regimes we present a model of quantum system behavior and discuss possible applications of the obtained effect for spectroscopy. In particular, the obtained analytical formula for the macroscopic polarization demonstrates that the phase-diffusion field does not affect the absorption line shape, which opens up an intriguing possibility of noisy spectroscopy, based on broadband sources with Lorentzian line shape. -- Highlights: ► We study dynamics of quantum system interacting with noisy phase-diffusion field. ► At short times the phase-diffusion field induces polarization in the quantum system. ► At long times the noise leads to polarization decay and heating of a quantum system. ► Simple model of interaction is derived. ► Application of the described effects for spectroscopy is discussed.
Quantum and classical mechanics in the phase space representation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shirokov, Yu.M.
1979-01-01
The theory of the hamiltonian mechanical systems has been formulated in terms of only such physical and mathematical concepts which are meaningful in both mechanics. For instance the observables in both mechanics are represented as c-number functions of coordinates and momenta. The operations of the usual multiplication of observables as well as Poisson bracket (also treated as a sort of multiplication) are singled out as separate objects which can possess their own structure including h-dependence. This leads to the conclusion that the only primary distinction between classical and quantum mechanics is reduced to the distinction in the form of the algebraic identity for the multiplication operations. All other distinctions are proved to be of the secondary origin. The formalism developed in the paper is especially useful for quantizations and for the transitions (including partial ones) to the classical limits. The transitions in both directions are transparent and accessible for analysis for any quantity at any step of calculations. The unified quantum-classical scattering theory is constructed. The integral quantum Lippman-Schwinder type equation is derived where the free solution term is replaced by the solution of the corresponding classical problem. The iteration of this equation gives the quantum corrections to the classical solution
Broken dynamical symmetries in quantum mechanics and phase transition phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, N.J.
1979-12-01
This thesis describes applications of dynamical symmetries to problems in quantum mechanics and many-body physics where the latter is formulated as a Euclidean scalar field theory in d-space dimensions. By invoking the concept of a dynamical symmetry group a unified understanding of apparently disparate results is achieved. (author)
Novel interference effects and a new quantum phase in mesoscopic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mesoscopic systems have provided an opportunity to study quantum effects beyond the ... tance [2], normal electron persistent currents [3], non-local current and voltage relations .... If both Б½ and Б¾ are positive or flow in the same direction of the potential drop then the ..... Fermi distribution function ¼(¯) = (1 + exp[(¯ - ) М]).
Characterization of the Quantized Hall Insulator Phase in the Quantum Critical Regime
Song, Juntao; Prodan, Emil
2013-01-01
The conductivity $\\sigma$ and resistivity $\\rho$ tensors of the disordered Hofstadter model are mapped as functions of Fermi energy $E_F$ and temperature $T$ in the quantum critical regime of the plateau-insulator transition (PIT). The finite-size errors are eliminated by using the non-commutative Kubo-formula. The results reproduce all the key experimental characteristics of this transition in Integer Quantum Hall (IQHE) systems. In particular, the Quantized Hall Insulator (QHI) phase is det...
Zhang, C.; Yuan, H.; Tang, Z.; Quan, W.; Fang, J. C.
2016-12-01
Rotation measurement in an inertial frame is an important technology for modern advanced navigation systems and fundamental physics research. Inertial rotation measurement with atomic spin has demonstrated potential in both high-precision applications and small-volume low-cost devices. After rapid development in the last few decades, atomic spin gyroscopes are considered a promising competitor to current conventional gyroscopes—from rate-grade to strategic-grade applications. Although it has been more than a century since the discovery of the relationship between atomic spin and mechanical rotation by Einstein [Naturwissenschaften, 3(19) (1915)], research on the coupling between spin and rotation is still a focus point. The semi-classical Larmor precession model is usually adopted to describe atomic spin gyroscope measurement principles. More recently, the geometric phase theory has provided a different view of the rotation measurement mechanism via atomic spin. The theory has been used to describe a gyroscope based on the nuclear spin ensembles in diamond. A comprehensive understanding of inertial rotation measurement principles based on atomic spin would be helpful for future applications. This work reviews different atomic spin gyroscopes and their rotation measurement principles with a historical overlook. In addition, the spin-rotation coupling mechanism in the context of the quantum phase theory is presented. The geometric phase is assumed to be the origin of the measurable rotation signal from atomic spins. In conclusion, with a complete understanding of inertial rotation measurements using atomic spin and advances in techniques, wide application of high-performance atomic spin gyroscopes is expected in the near future.
Q-learning-based adjustable fixed-phase quantum Grover search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Ying; Shi Wensha; Wang Yijun; Hu, Jiankun
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that the rotation phase can be suitably chosen to increase the efficiency of the phase-based quantum search algorithm, leading to a dynamic balance between iterations and success probabilities of the fixed-phase quantum Grover search algorithm with Q-learning for a given number of solutions. In this search algorithm, the proposed Q-learning algorithm, which is a model-free reinforcement learning strategy in essence, is used for performing a matching algorithm based on the fraction of marked items λ and the rotation phase α. After establishing the policy function α = π(λ), we complete the fixed-phase Grover algorithm, where the phase parameter is selected via the learned policy. Simulation results show that the Q-learning-based Grover search algorithm (QLGA) enables fewer iterations and gives birth to higher success probabilities. Compared with the conventional Grover algorithms, it avoids the optimal local situations, thereby enabling success probabilities to approach one. (author)
On a phase space quantum description of the spherical 2-brane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordero, R; Turrubiates, F J; Vera, J C
2014-01-01
The quantum properties of the two-dimensional relativistic spherical membrane in phase space are analyzed using the Wigner function. Specifically, the true vacuum and rigid bubble nucleation cases are treated. Inspired by quantum cosmology, the Hartle–Hawking, Linde and Vilenkin boundary conditions are employed to calculate the bubble wave functions and their corresponding Wigner functions. Furthermore, the asymptotic behavior of the wave function using three different methods is explored and the Wigner functions are calculated numerically. Some aspects of the semiclassical properties for each boundary condition and their possible implications for quantum cosmology are discussed. (papers)
Giorgi, Gian Luca; Galve, Fernando; Zambrini, Roberta
2015-08-01
Quantum Darwinism explains the emergence of a classical description of objects in terms of the creation of many redundant registers in an environment containing their classical information. This amplification phenomenon, where only classical information reaches the macroscopic observer and through which different observers can agree on the objective existence of such object, has been revived lately for several types of situations, successfully explaining classicality. We explore quantum Darwinism in the setting of an environment made of two level systems which are initially prepared in the ground state of the XX model, which exhibits different phases; we find that the different phases have different abilities to redundantly acquire classical information about the system, the "ferromagnetic phase" being the only one able to complete quantum Darwinism. At the same time we relate this ability to how non-Markovian the system dynamics is, based on the interpretation that non-Markovian dynamics is associated with backflow of information from environment to system, thus spoiling the information transfer needed for Darwinism. Finally, we explore mixing of bath registers by allowing a small interaction among them, finding that this spoils the stored information as previously found in the literature.
Nuclear quantum effects on adsorption of H2 and isotopologues on metal ions
Savchenko, Ievgeniia; Gu, Bing; Heine, Thomas; Jakowski, Jacek; Garashchuk, Sophya
2017-02-01
The nuclear quantum effects on the zero-point energy (ZPE), influencing adsorption of H2 and isotopologues on metal ions, are examined using normal mode analysis of ab initio electronic structure results for complexes with 17 metal cations. The lightest metallic nuclei, Li and Be, are found to be the most 'quantum'. The largest selectivity in adsorption is predicted for Cu, Ni and Co ions. Analysis of the nuclear wavepacket dynamics on the ground state electronic potential energy surfaces (PES) performed for complexes of Li+ and Cu+2 with H2/D2/HD shows that the PES anharmonicity changes the ZPE by up to 9%.
On the role of complex phases in the quantum statistics of weak measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, Holger F
2011-01-01
Weak measurements carried out between quantum state preparation and post-selection result in complex values for self-adjoint operators, corresponding to complex conditional probabilities for the projections on specific eigenstates. In this paper it is shown that the complex phases of these weak conditional probabilities describe the dynamic response of the system to unitary transformations. Quantum mechanics thus unifies the statistical overlap of different states with the dynamical structure of transformations between these states. Specifically, it is possible to identify the phase of weak conditional probabilities directly with the action of a unitary transform that maximizes the overlap of initial and final states. This action provides a quantitative measure of how much quantum correlations can diverge from the deterministic relations between physical properties expected from classical physics or hidden variable theories. In terms of quantum information, the phases of weak conditional probabilities thus represent the logical tension between sets of three quantum states that is at the heart of quantum paradoxes. (paper)
Nuclear criticality safety basics for personnel working with nuclear fissionable materials. Phase I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vausher, A.L.
1984-10-01
DOE order 5480.1A, Chapter V, ''Safety of Nuclear Facilities,'' establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. The ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Basic Program - Phase I'' is documented in this report. The revised program has been developed to clearly illustrate the concept of nuclear safety and to help the individual employee incorporate safe behavior in his daily work performance. Because of this, the subject of safety has been approached through its three fundamentals: scientific basis, engineering criteria, and administrative controls. Only basics of these three elements were presented. 5 refs
Nuclear and particle physics applications of the Bohm picture of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, A
2009-01-01
Aproximation methods for calculating individual particle/field motions in spacetime at the quantum level of accuracy (a key feature of the Bohm picture (BP) of quantum mechanics) are studied. This sharply illuminates not only the deep quantum structures underlying any observable quantum statistical laws of motion of particles and fields in spacetime, but also how the continuous merging of the so-called classical and quantal modes of description actually occurs, with no breaks anywhere. Modern textbook presentations of Quantum Theory are used throughout, but only to provide the necessary, already existing, tested formalisms and calculational techniques. New coherent insights, reinterpretations of old solutions and results, and new (in principle testable) quantitative and qualitative predictions can be obtained on the basis of the BP that complete the standard type of postdictions and predictions. Most of the dead wood still cluttering discussions on the meaning of Quantum Theory and the role of the BP is by-passed. We shall try to draw attention to the physics of this unfortunately hardly known novel formulation of Quantum Theory by giving additional illustrative examples inspired from the daily practices of contemporary Nuclear and Particle Physics, subjects that as yet have not been thoroughly reinterpreted within the BP. These fields of research offer excellent oppurtunities for explaining and illustrating the significance of time in quantum transitions, as well as the closely related features of quantum non-locality and quantum wholeness, as hard physical facts. We claim that in addition we can obtain a substantial gain in predictive powers of the underlying, all-encompassing, Quantum Theory.
Quantum phase transition of Bose-Einstein condensates on a nonlinear ring lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Zhengwei; Zhang Shaoliang; Zhou Xiangfa; Guo Guangcan; Zhou Xingxiang; Pu Han
2011-01-01
We study the phase transitions in a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate on a ring whose atomic scattering length is modulated periodically along the ring. By using a modified Bogoliubov method to treat such a nonlinear lattice in the mean-field approximation, we find that the phase transitions are of different orders when the modulation period is 2 and greater than 2. We further perform a full quantum mechanical treatment based on the time-evolving block decimation algorithm which confirms the mean-field results and reveals interesting quantum behavior of the system. Our studies yield important knowledge of competing mechanisms behind the phase transitions and the quantum nature of this system.
Nonclassical disordered phase in the strong quantum limit of frustrated antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceccatto, H.A.; Gazza, C.J.; Trumper, A.E.
1992-07-01
The Schwinger boson approach to quantum helimagnets is discussed. It is shown that in order to get quantitative agreement with exact results on finite lattices, parity-breaking pairing of bosons must be allowed. The so-called J 1 - J 2 - J 3 model is studied, particularly on the special line J 2 = 2J 3 . A quantum disordered phase is found between the Neel and spiral phases, though notably only in the strong quantum limit S = 1/2, and for the third-neighbor coupling J 3 ≥ 0.038 J 1 . For spins S≥1 the spiral phase goes continuously to an antiferromagnetic order. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs
The cost of the nuclear energy-turnaround. An early nuclear phase-out and its consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baran, Metin
2013-01-01
The booklet on the consequences of an early nuclear phase-out includes a description of the value creation strategy in the electricity market and the basic relations of the electricity price formation and a survey and evaluation of selected studies. The analysis was performed for the following studies: Energy policy scenarios for a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Economic consequences of a nuclear phase-out in Germany; Transformation of the electricity production systems with a forced nuclear phase-out - a contribution on sustainable energy systems following the reactor accident of Fukushima; Cost of a nuclear phase-out until 2022 in Germany and Bavaria.
Quantum revivals, geometric phases and circle map recurrences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seshadri, S.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
1999-01-01
Revivals of the coherent states of a deformed, adiabatically and cyclically varying oscillator Hamiltonian are examined. The revival time distribution is exactly that of Poincare recurrences for a rotation map: only three distinct revival times can occur, with specified weights. A link is thus established between quantum revivals and recurrences in a coarse-grained discrete-time dynamical system. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Quantum Riemannian geometry of phase space and nonassociativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beggs Edwin J.
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Noncommutative or ‘quantum’ differential geometry has emerged in recent years as a process for quantizing not only a classical space into a noncommutative algebra (as familiar in quantum mechanics but also differential forms, bundles and Riemannian structures at this level. The data for the algebra quantisation is a classical Poisson bracket while the data for quantum differential forms is a Poisson-compatible connection. We give an introduction to our recent result whereby further classical data such as classical bundles, metrics etc. all become quantised in a canonical ‘functorial’ way at least to 1st order in deformation theory. The theory imposes compatibility conditions between the classical Riemannian and Poisson structures as well as new physics such as typical nonassociativity of the differential structure at 2nd order. We develop in detail the case of ℂℙn where the commutation relations have the canonical form [wi, w̄j] = iλδij similar to the proposal of Penrose for quantum twistor space. Our work provides a canonical but ultimately nonassociative differential calculus on this algebra and quantises the metric and Levi-Civita connection at lowest order in λ.
German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heuser, F.W.
1989-01-01
The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de
The phase of an oscillator in quantum theory. What is it 'in reality'?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorontsov, Yurii I
2002-01-01
An analysis of the current theory of the quantum oscillator phase is presented. Predictions using existing approaches to the phase problem differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. The question in the title has not yet been given a generally accepted answer. However, it is logical to argue that all the theoretically predicted properties of the phase are physically meaningful if appropriate measurements are possible. Current phase measurement methods either involve the simultaneous (approximate) measurement of the amplitude and the phase or rely on the simultaneous measurement of quadrature amplitudes. (reviews of topical problems)
The phase of an oscillator in quantum theory. What is in reality?
Vorontsov, Y I
2002-01-01
An analysis of the current theory of the quantum oscillator phase is presented. Predictions using existing approaches to the phase problem differ not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. The question in the title has not yet been given a generally accepted answer. However, it is logical to argue that all the theoretically predicted properties of the phase are physically meaningful if appropriate measurements are possible. Current phase measurement methods either involve the simultaneous (approximate) measurement of the amplitude and the phase or rely on the simultaneous measurement of quadrature amplitudes
Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji
2010-01-01
We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)
Microstructural modelling of nuclear graphite using multi-phase models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berre, C.; Fok, S.L.; Marsden, B.J.; Mummery, P.M.; Marrow, T.J.; Neighbour, G.B.
2008-01-01
This paper presents a new modelling technique using three-dimensional multi-phase finite element models in which meshes representing the microstructure of thermally oxidised nuclear graphite were generated from X-ray micro-tomography images. The density of the material was related to the image greyscale using Beer-Lambert's law, and multiple phases could thus be defined. The local elastic and non-linear properties of each phase were defined as a function of density and changes in Young's modulus, tensile and compressive strength with thermal oxidation were calculated. Numerical predictions compared well with experimental data and with other numerical results obtained using two-phase models. These models were found to be more representative of the actual microstructure of the scanned material than two-phase models and, possibly because of pore closure occurring during compression, compressive tests were also predicted to be less sensitive to the microstructure geometry than tensile tests
Quantum phase diagram of the integrable px+ipy fermionic superfluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rombouts, Stefan; Dukelsky, Jorge; Ortiz, Gerardo
2010-01-01
transition, separating a strong-pairing from a weak-pairing phase. The mean-field solution allows to connect these results to other models with px+ipy pairing order. We define an experimentally accessible characteristic length scale, associated with the size of the Cooper pairs, that diverges......We determine the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram of a px+ipy pairing model based on the exactly solvable hyperbolic Richardson-Gaudin model. We present analytical and large-scale numerical results for this model. In the continuum limit, the exact solution exhibits a third-order quantum phase...... at the transition point, indicating that the phase transition is of a confinement-deconfinement type without local order parameter. We propose an experimental measurement to detect the transition. We show that this phase transition is not limited to the px+ipy pairing model but can be found in any representation...
Low-pressure phase diagram of crystalline benzene from quantum Monte Carlo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azadi, Sam, E-mail: s.azadi@ucl.ac.uk [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Thomas Young Center, London Centre for Nanotechnology, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cohen, R. E. [Extreme Materials Initiative, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Department of Earth- and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig Maximilians Universität, Munich 80333 (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-08-14
We studied the low-pressure (0–10 GPa) phase diagram of crystalline benzene using quantum Monte Carlo and density functional theory (DFT) methods. We performed diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations to obtain accurate static phase diagrams as benchmarks for modern van der Waals density functionals. Using density functional perturbation theory, we computed the phonon contributions to the free energies. Our DFT enthalpy-pressure phase diagrams indicate that the Pbca and P2{sub 1}/c structures are the most stable phases within the studied pressure range. The DMC Gibbs free-energy calculations predict that the room temperature Pbca to P2{sub 1}/c phase transition occurs at 2.1(1) GPa. This prediction is consistent with available experimental results at room temperature. Our DMC calculations give 50.6 ± 0.5 kJ/mol for crystalline benzene lattice energy.
Ferromagnetic quantum criticality: New aspects from the phase diagram of LaCrGe3
Taufour, Valentin; Kaluarachchi, Udhara S.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Canfield, Paul C.
2018-05-01
Recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that ferromagnetic quantum criticality is always avoided in clean systems. Two possibilities have been identified. In the first scenario, the ferromagnetic transition becomes of the first order at a tricritical point before being suppressed. A wing structure phase diagram is observed indicating the possibility of a new type of quantum critical point under magnetic field. In a second scenario, a transition to a modulated magnetic phase occurs. Our recent studies on the compound LaCrGe3 illustrate a third scenario where not only a new magnetic phase occurs, but also a change of order of the transition at a tricritical point leading to a wing-structure phase diagram. Careful experimental study of the phase diagram near the tricritical point also illustrates new rules near this type of point.
Ohtsuki, Tomi; Ohtsuki, Tomoki
2017-04-01
Three-dimensional random electron systems undergo quantum phase transitions and show rich phase diagrams. Examples of the phases are the band gap insulator, Anderson insulator, strong and weak topological insulators, Weyl semimetal, and diffusive metal. As in the previous paper on two-dimensional quantum phase transitions [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 123706 (2016)], we use an image recognition algorithm based on a multilayered convolutional neural network to identify which phase the eigenfunction belongs to. The Anderson model for localization-delocalization transition, the Wilson-Dirac model for topological insulators, and the layered Chern insulator model for Weyl semimetal are studied. The situation where the standard transfer matrix approach is not applicable is also treated by this method.
Resonant Pump-dump Quantum Control of Solvated Dye Molecules with Phase Jumps
Konar, Arkaprabha; Lozovoy, Vadim; Dantus, Marcos
2014-03-01
Quantum coherent control of two photon and multiphoton excitation processes in atomic and condensed phase systems employing phase jumps has been well studied and understood. Here we demonstrate coherent quantum control of a two photon resonant pump-dump process in a complex solvated dye molecule. Phase jump in the frequency domain via a pulse shaper is employed to coherently enhance the stimulated emission by an order of magnitude when compared to transform limited pulses. Red shifted stimulated emission from successive low energy Stokes shifted excited states leading to narrowband emission are observed upon scanning the pi step across the excitation spectrum. A binary search space routine was also employed to investigate the effects of other types of phase jumps on stimulated emission and to determine the optimum phase that maximizes the emission. Understanding the underlying mechanism of this kind of enhancement will guide us in designing pulse shapes for enhancing stimulated emission, which can be further applied in the field of imaging.
First-Order Quantum Phase Transition for Dicke Model Induced by Atom-Atom Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xiu-Qin; Liu Ni; Liang Jiu-Qing
2017-01-01
In this article, we use the spin coherent state transformation and the ground state variational method to theoretically calculate the ground function. In order to consider the influence of the atom-atom interaction on the extended Dicke model’s ground state properties, the mean photon number, the scaled atomic population and the average ground energy are displayed. Using the self-consistent field theory to solve the atom-atom interaction, we discover the system undergoes a first-order quantum phase transition from the normal phase to the superradiant phase, but a famous Dicke-type second-order quantum phase transition without the atom-atom interaction. Meanwhile, the atom-atom interaction makes the phase transition point shift to the lower atom-photon collective coupling strength. (paper)
Effects of systematic phase errors on optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yu-Chao; Bao Wan-Su; Wang Xiang; Fu Xiang-Qun
2015-01-01
This study investigates the effects of systematic errors in phase inversions on the success rate and number of iterations in the optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm. Using the geometric description of this algorithm, a model of the algorithm with phase errors is established, and the relationship between the success rate of the algorithm, the database size, the number of iterations, and the phase error is determined. For a given database size, we obtain both the maximum success rate of the algorithm and the required number of iterations when phase errors are present in the algorithm. Analyses and numerical simulations show that the optimized quantum random-walk search algorithm is more robust against phase errors than Grover’s algorithm. (paper)
Phase space and black-hole entropy of higher genus horizons in loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kloster, S; Brannlund, J; DeBenedictis, A
2008-01-01
In the context of loop quantum gravity, we construct the phase space of isolated horizons with genus greater than 0. Within the loop quantum gravity framework, these horizons are described by genus g surfaces with N punctures and the dimension of the corresponding phase space is calculated including the genus cycles as degrees of freedom. From this, the black-hole entropy can be calculated by counting the microstates which correspond to a black hole of fixed area. We find that the leading term agrees with the A/4 law and that the sub-leading contribution is modified by the genus cycles
Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System.
Jurcevic, P; Shen, H; Hauke, P; Maier, C; Brydges, T; Hempel, C; Lanyon, B P; Heyl, M; Blatt, R; Roos, C F
2017-08-25
The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.
Direct Observation of Dynamical Quantum Phase Transitions in an Interacting Many-Body System
Jurcevic, P.; Shen, H.; Hauke, P.; Maier, C.; Brydges, T.; Hempel, C.; Lanyon, B. P.; Heyl, M.; Blatt, R.; Roos, C. F.
2017-08-01
The theory of phase transitions represents a central concept for the characterization of equilibrium matter. In this work we study experimentally an extension of this theory to the nonequilibrium dynamical regime termed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs). We investigate and measure DQPTs in a string of ions simulating interacting transverse-field Ising models. During the nonequilibrium dynamics induced by a quantum quench we show for strings of up to 10 ions the direct detection of DQPTs by revealing nonanalytic behavior in time. Moreover, we provide a link between DQPTs and the dynamics of other quantities such as the magnetization, and we establish a connection between DQPTs and entanglement production.
CdZnTe quantum dots study: energy and phase relaxation process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viale, Yannick
2004-01-01
We present a study of the electron-hole pair energy and phase relaxation processes in a CdTe/ZnTe heterostructure, in which quantum dots are embedded. CdZnTe quantum wells with a high Zinc concentration, separated by ZnTe barriers, contain islands with a high cadmium concentration. In photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy experiments, we evidence two types of electron hole pair relaxation processes. After being excited in the CdZnTe quantum well, the pairs relax their energy by emitting a cascade of longitudinal optical phonons until they are trapped in the quantum dots. Before their radiative recombination follows an intra-dot relaxation, which is attributed to a lattice polarization mechanism of the quantum dots. It is related to the coupling between the electronic and the vibrational states. Both relaxation mechanisms are reinforced by the strong polar character of the chemical bond in II-VI compounds. Time resolved measurements of transmission variations in a pump-probe configuration allowed us to investigate the population dynamics of the electron-hole pairs during the relaxation process. We observe a relaxation time of about 2 ps for the longitudinal phonon emission cascade in the quantum well before a saturation of the quantum dot transition. We also measured an intra-box relaxation time of 25 ps. The comparison of various cascades allows us to estimate the emission time of a longitudinal optical phonon in the quantum well to be about 100 fs. In four waves mixing experiments, we observe oscillations that we attribute to quantum beats between excitonic and bi-excitonic transitions. The dephasing times that we measure as function of the density of photons shows that excitons are strongly localized in the quantum dots. The excitonic dephasing time is much shorter than the radiative lifetime and is thus controlled by the intra-dot relaxation time. (author) [fr
Quarks-bags phase transition in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorenshtejn, M.I.
1981-01-01
Phase transitions in the quark-gluon plasma are considered at finite temperatures and chemical potentials. A phenomenological account for a complicated structure of the QCD vacuum results in the necessity to use the formalism of isobaric ensembles to describe the system. The phase transition curve separating the regions of the quark-gluon plasma and the hadronic bag phase in the μT plane is calculated [ru
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Soubusta, Jan; Černoch, Antonín; Fiurášek, J.; Dušek, M.
2004-01-01
Roč. 69, č. 5 (2004), 052321/1-052321/7 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Grant - others:CHIC(XX) IST-2001-33578 Keywords : quantum measurement devices * unambiguous state discrimination * positive operator valued measure Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.902, year: 2004
Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.
2005-11-07
The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.
Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.
2005-01-01
The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.
Phase transition and field effect topological quantum transistor made of monolayer MoS2
Simchi, H.; Simchi, M.; Fardmanesh, M.; Peeters, F. M.
2018-06-01
We study topological phase transitions and topological quantum field effect transistor in monolayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) using a two-band Hamiltonian model. Without considering the quadratic (q 2) diagonal term in the Hamiltonian, we show that the phase diagram includes quantum anomalous Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, and spin quantum anomalous Hall effect regions such that the topological Kirchhoff law is satisfied in the plane. By considering the q 2 diagonal term and including one valley, it is shown that MoS2 has a non-trivial topology, and the valley Chern number is non-zero for each spin. We show that the wave function is (is not) localized at the edges when the q 2 diagonal term is added (deleted) to (from) the spin-valley Dirac mass equation. We calculate the quantum conductance of zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons by using the nonequilibrium Green function method and show how this device works as a field effect topological quantum transistor.
Abnormal screening in the quantum disordered phases of nonlinear σ-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, X.G.; Zee, A.
1989-01-01
We study some properties of the quantum disordered phase of nonlinear σ-models, focussing on the quantum numbers of the quasi-particles and possible experimental implications. We find that the quasi-particles in the quantum disordered phase may, in many cases, carry new quantum numbers which do not appear in any finite combination of the fundamental fields. We call this phenomenon abnormal screening. Abnormal screening is shown to appear in (1+1)-dimensional systems. Using a large N mean field approach to the quantum disordered state, we show that abnormal screening may also appear in (1+2)-dimensional nonlinear σ-models. In 1+2 dimensions abnormal screening is closely related to spin-charge separation, which was proposed to occur in the spin liquid state relevant in some theories of high T c superconductivity. We compare the mean field approach with bosonization and other exact results for (1+1)-dimensional systems and find exact agreement for the quantum numbers of the quasi-particles. This suggests that mean field analysis of high T c superconductivity may yield a qualitatively reliable picture. Our result also gives an alternative way of understanding some novel properties of the antiferromagnetic spin chain. We estimate the density and temperature at which deconfinement and abnormal screening occur. Finally, we suggest some experimental signatures for this phenomenon. (orig.)
Energy Market Impacts of Nuclear Power Phase-Out Policies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.
2013-01-01
After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)
Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.
2013-03-01
After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Hong [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2017-06-28
Majorana bound states in topological Josephson junctions induce a 4π period current-phase relation. Direct detection of the 4π periodicity is complicated by the quasiparticle poisoning. We reveal that Majorana bound states are also signaled by the anomalous enhancement on the critical current of the junction. We show the landscape of the critical current for a nanowire Josephson junction under a varying Zeeman field, and reveal a sharp step feature at the topological quantum phase transition point, which comes from the anomalous enhancement of the critical current at the topological regime. In multi-band wires, the anomalous enhancement disappears for an even number of bands, where the Majorana bound states fuse into Andreev bound states. This anomalous critical current enhancement directly signals the existence of the Majorana bound states, and also provides a valid signature for the topological quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We introduce the critical current step as a signal for the topological quantum phase transition. • We study the quantum phase transition in the topological nanowire under a rotating Zeeman field. • We show that the critical current anomaly gradually disappears for systems with more sub-bands.
Aiba, Akira; Demir, Firuz; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Kirczenow, George; Kiguchi, Manabu
2017-08-11
The thermoelectric voltage developed across an atomic metal junction (i.e., a nanostructure in which one or a few atoms connect two metal electrodes) in response to a temperature difference between the electrodes, results from the quantum interference of electrons that pass through the junction multiple times after being scattered by the surrounding defects. Here we report successfully tuning this quantum interference and thus controlling the magnitude and sign of the thermoelectric voltage by applying a mechanical force that deforms the junction. The observed switching of the thermoelectric voltage is reversible and can be cycled many times. Our ab initio and semi-empirical calculations elucidate the detailed mechanism by which the quantum interference is tuned. We show that the applied strain alters the quantum phases of electrons passing through the narrowest part of the junction and hence modifies the electronic quantum interference in the device. Tuning the quantum interference causes the energies of electronic transport resonances to shift, which affects the thermoelectric voltage. These experimental and theoretical studies reveal that Au atomic junctions can be made to exhibit both positive and negative thermoelectric voltages on demand, and demonstrate the importance and tunability of the quantum interference effect in the atomic-scale metal nanostructures.
From superconductivity near a quantum phase transition to superconducting graphite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. S. Saxena
2006-09-01
Full Text Available The collapse of antiferromagnetic order as a function of some quantum tuning parameter such as carrier density or hydrostatic pressure is often accompanied by a region of superconductivity. The corresponding phenomenon in the potentially simpler case of itinerant-electron ferromagnetism, however, remains more illusive. In this paper we consider the reasons why this may be so and summaries evidence suggesting that the obstacles to observing the phenomenon are apparently overcome in a few metallic ferromagnets. A new twist to the problem presented by the recent discoveries in ferroelectric symmetric systems and new graphite intercalate superconductors will also be discussed.
Nuclear quantum effects in ab initio dynamics: Theory and experiments for lithium imide
Ceriotti, Michele; Miceli, Giacomo; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Colognesi, Daniele; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Catti, Michele; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele
2010-11-01
Owing to their small mass, hydrogen atoms exhibit strong quantum behavior even at room temperature. Including these effects in first-principles calculations is challenging because of the huge computational effort required by conventional techniques. Here we present the first ab initio application of a recently developed stochastic scheme, which allows to approximate nuclear quantum effects inexpensively. The proton momentum distribution of lithium imide, a material of interest for hydrogen storage, was experimentally measured by inelastic neutron-scattering experiments and compared with the outcome of quantum thermostatted ab initio dynamics. We obtain favorable agreement between theory and experiments for this purely quantum-mechanical property, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to improve the modeling of complex hydrogen-containing materials without additional computational effort.
An elementary quantum network using robust nuclear spin qubits in diamond
Kalb, Norbert; Reiserer, Andreas; Humphreys, Peter; Blok, Machiel; van Bemmelen, Koen; Twitchen, Daniel; Markham, Matthew; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald
Quantum registers containing multiple robust qubits can form the nodes of future quantum networks for computation and communication. Information storage within such nodes must be resilient to any type of local operation. Here we demonstrate multiple robust memories by employing five nuclear spins adjacent to a nitrogen-vacancy defect centre in diamond. We characterize the storage of quantum superpositions and their resilience to entangling attempts with the electron spin of the defect centre. The storage fidelity is found to be limited by the probabilistic electron spin reset after failed entangling attempts. Control over multiple memories is then utilized to encode states in decoherence protected subspaces with increased robustness. Furthermore we demonstrate memory control in two optically linked network nodes and characterize the storage capabilities of both memories in terms of the process fidelity with the identity. These results pave the way towards multi-qubit quantum algorithms in a remote network setting.
Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies
Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard
2014-01-01
This is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Springer Netherlands. The final publication is available at link.springer.com via /https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-014-9558-3 Since the Fukushima disaster in Japan in March 2011, safety concerns have escalated and policies toward nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the upward pressure on regional electricity prices from nuclear power phase out in four scenarios with various leve...
Photons in dense nuclear matter: Random-phase approximation
Stetina, Stephan; Rrapaj, Ermal; Reddy, Sanjay
2018-04-01
We present a comprehensive and pedagogic discussion of the properties of photons in cold and dense nuclear matter based on the resummed one-loop photon self-energy. Correlations among electrons, muons, protons, and neutrons in β equilibrium that arise as a result of electromagnetic and strong interactions are consistently taken into account within the random phase approximation. Screening effects, damping, and collective excitations are systematically studied in a fully relativistic setup. Our study is relevant to the linear response theory of dense nuclear matter, calculations of transport properties of cold dense matter, and investigations of the production and propagation of hypothetical vector bosons such as the dark photons.
Phase space dynamics and control of the quantum particles associated to hypergraph states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berec Vesna
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As today’s nanotechnology focus becomes primarily oriented toward production and manipulation of materials at the subatomic level, allowing the performance and complexity of interconnects where the device density accepts more than hundreds devices on a single chip, the manipulation of semiconductor nanostructures at the subatomic level sets its prime tasks on preserving and adequate transmission of information encoded in specified (quantum states. The presented study employs the quantum communication protocol based on the hypergraph network model where the numerical solutions of equations of motion of quantum particles are associated to vertices (assembled with device chip, which follow specific controllable paths in the phase space. We address these findings towards ultimate quest for prediction and selective control of quantum particle trajectories. In addition, presented protocols could represent valuable tool for reducing background noise and uncertainty in low-dimensional and operationally meaningful, scalable complex systems.
Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages
Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.
2010-09-01
In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.113601 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.
Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.
2010-01-01
In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.
Classical and quantum investigations of four-dimensional maps with a mixed phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, Martin
2012-01-01
Systems with more than two degrees of freedom are of fundamental importance for the understanding of problems ranging from celestial mechanics to molecules. Due to the dimensionality the classical phase-space structure of such systems is more difficult to understand than for systems with two or fewer degrees of freedom. This thesis aims for a better insight into the classical as well as the quantum mechanics of 4D mappings representing driven systems with two degrees of freedom. In order to analyze such systems, we introduce 3D sections through the 4D phase space which reveal the regular and chaotic structures. We introduce these concepts by means of three example mappings of increasing complexity. After a classical analysis the systems are investigated quantum mechanically. We focus especially on two important aspects: First, we address quantum mechanical consequences of the classical Arnold web and demonstrate how quantum mechanics can resolve this web in the semiclassical limit. Second, we investigate the quantum mechanical tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic regions in phase space. We determine regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates numerically and extend the fictitious integrable system approach to higher dimensions for their prediction. Finally, we study resonance-assisted tunneling in 4D maps.
Quantum double-well chain: Ground-state phases and applications to hydrogen-bonded materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.; Campbell, D.K.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1994-01-01
Extrapolating the results of hybrid quantum Monte Carlo simulations to the zero temperature and infinite-chain-length limits, we calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a system of quantum particles on a chain of harmonically coupled, symmetric, quartic double-well potentials. We show that the ground state of this quantum chain depends on two parameters, formed from the ratios of the three natural energy scales in the problem. As a function of these two parameters, the quantum ground state can exhibit either broken symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all nonzero (as would be the case for a classical chain), or restored symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all zero (as would be the case for a single quantum particle). In addition to the phase diagram as a function of these two parameters, we calculate the ground-state energy, an order parameter related to the average position of the particle, and the susceptibility associated with this order parameter. Further, we present an approximate analytic estimate of the phase diagram and discuss possible physical applications of our results, emphasizing the behavior of hydrogen halides under pressure
Prospects and applications near ferroelectric quantum phase transitions: a key issues review
Chandra, P.; Lonzarich, G. G.; Rowley, S. E.; Scott, J. F.
2017-11-01
The emergence of complex and fascinating states of quantum matter in the neighborhood of zero temperature phase transitions suggests that such quantum phenomena should be studied in a variety of settings. Advanced technologies of the future may be fabricated from materials where the cooperative behavior of charge, spin and current can be manipulated at cryogenic temperatures. The progagating lattice dynamics of displacive ferroelectrics make them appealing for the study of quantum critical phenomena that is characterized by both space- and time-dependent quantities. In this key issues article we aim to provide a self-contained overview of ferroelectrics near quantum phase transitions. Unlike most magnetic cases, the ferroelectric quantum critical point can be tuned experimentally to reside at, above or below its upper critical dimension; this feature allows for detailed interplay between experiment and theory using both scaling and self-consistent field models. Empirically the sensitivity of the ferroelectric T c’s to external and to chemical pressure gives practical access to a broad range of temperature behavior over several hundreds of Kelvin. Additional degrees of freedom like charge and spin can be added and characterized systematically. Satellite memories, electrocaloric cooling and low-loss phased-array radar are among possible applications of low-temperature ferroelectrics. We end with open questions for future research that include textured polarization states and unusual forms of superconductivity that remain to be understood theoretically.
Experimental benchmarking of quantum control in zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance.
Jiang, Min; Wu, Teng; Blanchard, John W; Feng, Guanru; Peng, Xinhua; Budker, Dmitry
2018-06-01
Demonstration of coherent control and characterization of the control fidelity is important for the development of quantum architectures such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We introduce an experimental approach to realize universal quantum control, and benchmarking thereof, in zero-field NMR, an analog of conventional high-field NMR that features less-constrained spin dynamics. We design a composite pulse technique for both arbitrary one-spin rotations and a two-spin controlled-not (CNOT) gate in a heteronuclear two-spin system at zero field, which experimentally demonstrates universal quantum control in such a system. Moreover, using quantum information-inspired randomized benchmarking and partial quantum process tomography, we evaluate the quality of the control, achieving single-spin control for 13 C with an average fidelity of 0.9960(2) and two-spin control via a CNOT gate with a fidelity of 0.9877(2). Our method can also be extended to more general multispin heteronuclear systems at zero field. The realization of universal quantum control in zero-field NMR is important for quantum state/coherence preparation, pulse sequence design, and is an essential step toward applications to materials science, chemical analysis, and fundamental physics.
Experimental realization of Shor's quantum factoring algorithm using nuclear magnetic resonance.
Vandersypen, L M; Steffen, M; Breyta, G; Yannoni, C S; Sherwood, M H; Chuang, I L
The number of steps any classical computer requires in order to find the prime factors of an l-digit integer N increases exponentially with l, at least using algorithms known at present. Factoring large integers is therefore conjectured to be intractable classically, an observation underlying the security of widely used cryptographic codes. Quantum computers, however, could factor integers in only polynomial time, using Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. Although important for the study of quantum computers, experimental demonstration of this algorithm has proved elusive. Here we report an implementation of the simplest instance of Shor's algorithm: factorization of N = 15 (whose prime factors are 3 and 5). We use seven spin-1/2 nuclei in a molecule as quantum bits, which can be manipulated with room temperature liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. This method of using nuclei to store quantum information is in principle scalable to systems containing many quantum bits, but such scalability is not implied by the present work. The significance of our work lies in the demonstration of experimental and theoretical techniques for precise control and modelling of complex quantum computers. In particular, we present a simple, parameter-free but predictive model of decoherence effects in our system.
Atomic-scale investigation of nuclear quantum effects of surface water: Experiments and theory
Guo, Jing; Li, Xin-Zheng; Peng, Jinbo; Wang, En-Ge; Jiang, Ying
2017-12-01
Quantum behaviors of protons in terms of tunneling and zero-point motion have significant effects on the macroscopic properties, structure, and dynamics of water even at room temperature or higher. In spite of tremendous theoretical and experimental efforts, accurate and quantitative description of the nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) is still challenging. The main difficulty lies in that the NQEs are extremely susceptible to the structural inhomogeneity and local environments, especially when interfacial systems are concerned. In this review article, we will highlight the recent advances of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S), which allows the access to the quantum degree of freedom of protons both in real and energy space. In addition, we will also introduce recent development of ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) simulations at surfaces/interfaces, in which both the electrons and nuclei are treated as quantum particles in contrast to traditional ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). Then we will discuss how the combination of STM/S and PIMD are used to directly visualize the concerted quantum tunneling of protons within the water clusters and quantify the impact of zero-point motion on the strength of a single hydrogen bond (H bond) at a water/solid interface. Those results may open up the new possibility of exploring the exotic quantum states of light nuclei at surfaces, as well as the quantum coupling between the electrons and nuclei.
Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space: classical and quantum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen
2008-01-01
We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs the evolution from reactants to products in high dimensional systems. In the classical case this is the standard Poincaré–Birkhoff normal form. In the quantum case we develop a normal form based on the Weyl calculus and an explicit algorithm for computing this quantum normal form. The classical normal form allows us to discover and compute the phase space structures that govern classical reaction dynamics. From this knowledge we are able to provide a direct construction of an energy dependent dividing surface in phase space having the properties that trajectories do not locally 're-cross' the surface and the directional flux across the surface is minimal. Using this, we are able to give a formula for the directional flux through the dividing surface that goes beyond the harmonic approximation. We relate this construction to the flux–flux autocorrelation function which is a standard ingredient in the expression for the reaction rate in the chemistry community. We also give a classical mechanical interpretation of the activated complex as a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM), and further describe the structure of the NHIM. The quantum normal form provides us with an efficient algorithm to compute quantum reaction rates and we relate this algorithm to the quantum version of the flux–flux autocorrelation function formalism. The significance of the classical phase space structures for the quantum mechanics of reactions is elucidated by studying the phase space distribution of scattering states. The quantum normal form also provides an efficient way of computing Gamov–Siegert resonances. We relate these resonances to the lifetimes of the quantum activated
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olejnik, Lukasz [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland and Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Noskowskiego 12/14, PL-61-704 Poznan (Poland)
2011-08-15
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olejnik, Lukasz
2011-01-01
We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.
On the measurement of time-dependent quantum phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.; Klarsfeld, S.; Maric, Z.
1991-11-01
We have evaluated the exact (Pancharatnam) phase differences between the final state l ψ(t) > and various initial states for a spin 1/2-particle in a rotating magnetic field B(t). For the initial states l n; B ef (0) >, which are eigenstates of the spin component along the direction of the initial effective field B ef (0), the exact phase has an energy dependent part, and an energy independent part. It is shown that these states l n; B ef (0) > are cyclic and their corresponding Aharonov-Anandan phases are evaluated. In the adiabatic limit we discuss different choices of time-dependent bases and the relationship between the exact phase, the Born-Fock-Schiff phase and Berry's phase. We propose experiments (neutron) to verify separately the exact and the adiabatic evolution laws, as well as to measure the adiabatic phases associated with different choices of time-dependent basis vectors. (author). 37 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Quantum sensing of the phase-space-displacement parameters using a single trapped ion
Ivanov, Peter A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.
2018-03-01
We introduce a quantum sensing protocol for detecting the parameters characterizing the phase-space displacement by using a single trapped ion as a quantum probe. We show that, thanks to the laser-induced coupling between the ion's internal states and the motion mode, the estimation of the two conjugated parameters describing the displacement can be efficiently performed by a set of measurements of the atomic state populations. Furthermore, we introduce a three-parameter protocol capable of detecting the magnitude, the transverse direction, and the phase of the displacement. We characterize the uncertainty of the two- and three-parameter problems in terms of the Fisher information and show that state projective measurement saturates the fundamental quantum Cramér-Rao bound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Da-Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo
2015-01-01
We use an alternative method to investigate the quantum criticality at zero and finite temperature using trace distance along with the density matrix renormalization group. It is shown that the average correlation measured by the trace distance between the system block and environment block in a DMRG sweep is able to detect the critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite temperature. As illustrative examples, we study spin-1 XXZ chains with uniaxial single-ion-type anisotropy and the Heisenberg spin chain with staggered coupling and external magnetic field. It is found that the trace distance shows discontinuity at the critical points of quantum phase transition and can be used as an indicator of QPTs
Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.
1996-01-01
Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)
Mesoscopic effects in quantum phases of ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, L. D.; Schirmer, D. G.; Wall, M. L.; Brown, R. C.; Williams, J. E.; Clark, Charles W.
2010-01-01
We present a wide array of quantum measures on numerical solutions of one-dimensional Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonians for finite-size systems with open boundary conditions. Finite-size effects are highly relevant to ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, where an external trap creates smaller effective regions in the form of the celebrated 'wedding cake' structure and the local density approximation is often not applicable. Specifically, for the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we calculate number, quantum depletion, local von Neumann entropy, generalized entanglement or Q measure, fidelity, and fidelity susceptibility; for the Fermi-Hubbard Hamiltonian we also calculate the pairing correlations, magnetization, charge-density correlations, and antiferromagnetic structure factor. Our numerical method is imaginary time propagation via time-evolving block decimation. As part of our study we provide a careful comparison of canonical versus grand canonical ensembles and Gutzwiller versus entangled simulations. The most striking effect of finite size occurs for bosons: we observe a strong blurring of the tips of the Mott lobes accompanied by higher depletion, and show how the location of the first Mott lobe tip approaches the thermodynamic value as a function of system size.
Implementing adaptive phased management (APM) for Canada's used nuclear fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, F.
2008-01-01
This paper discusses the implementation of Adaptive Phased Management (APM) for Canada's used nuclear fuel. APM is a combination of technology and management system. The technology involves centralized containment and isolation in deep geological repository in a suitable rock formation, as well as shallow storage where used fuel remains retrievable. In both cases there is continuous monitoring. The management system consists of public engagement, phased decision-making, continuous learning and adaption, open and inclusive. Finally, it involves seeking an in formed willing host community
The Spacetime Memory of Geometric Phases and Quantum Computing
Binder, B
2002-01-01
Spacetime memory is defined with a holonomic approach to information processing, where multi-state stability is introduced by a non-linear phase-locked loop. Geometric phases serve as the carrier of physical information and geometric memory (of orientation) given by a path integral measure of curvature that is periodically refreshed. Regarding the resulting spin-orbit coupling and gauge field, the geometric nature of spacetime memory suggests to assign intrinsic computational properties to the electromagnetic field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-07-01
13. national conference on nuclear structure and 9. symposium on 'nuclear structure and quantum mechanics' was held by China Nuclear Physics Society in Chifeng, 25 to 30 July, 2010. The proceedings collects the abstracts of 102 articles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R.; Rakotoson, H.; Solofoarisina, W.C.
2015-04-01
We present a study on linear canonical transformation in the framework of a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced in our previous work. We begin with a brief recall about the so called phase space representation. We give the definition of linear canonical transformation with the transformation law of coordinate and momentum operators. We establish successively the transformation laws of mean values, dispersions, basis state and wave functions.Then we introduce the concept of isodispersion linear canonical transformation.
Quantum criticality of geometric phase in coupled optical cavity arrays under linear quench
Sarkar, Sujit
2013-01-01
The atoms trapped in microcavities and interacting through the exchange of virtual photons can be modeled as an anisotropic Heisenberg spin-1/2 lattice. We study the dynamics of the geometric phase of this system under the linear quenching process of laser field detuning which shows the XX criticality of the geometric phase in presence of single Rabi frequency oscillation. We also study the quantum criticality for different quenching rate in the presence of single or two Rabi frequencies osci...
Hydrogen atom in the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gracia-Bondia, J.M.
1984-01-01
Using a coordinate transformation which regularizes the classical Kepler problem, we show that the hydrogen-atom case may be analytically solved via the phase-space formulation of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. The problem is essentially reduced to that of a four-dimensional oscillator whose treatment in the phase-space formulation is developed. Furthermore, the method allows us to calculate the Green's function for the H atom in a surprisingly simple way
Intrinsically stable phase-modulated polarization encoding system for quantum key distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Xiaobao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liao Changjun [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)], E-mail: chliao@scnu.edu.cn; Mi Jinglong; Wang Jindong; Liu Songhao [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, School for Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)
2008-12-22
We demonstrate experimentally an intrinsically stable polarization coding and decoding system composed of optical-fiber Sagnac interferometers with integrated phase modulators for quantum key distribution. An interference visibility of 98.35% can be kept longtime during the experiment without any efforts of active compensation for coding all four desired polarization states.
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2013-03-01
Quantum evolution of particles under strong fields can be approximated by the quantum trajectories that satisfy the stationary phase condition in the Dirac-Feynmann path integrals. The quantum trajectories are the key concept to understand strong-field optics phenomena, such as high-order harmonic generation (HHG), above-threshold ionization (ATI), and high-order terahertz siedeband generation (HSG). The HSG in semiconductors may have a wealth of physics due to the possible nontrivial ``vacuum'' states of band materials. We find that in a spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor, the cyclic quantum trajectories of an electron-hole pair under a strong terahertz field accumulates nontrivial Berry phases. We study the monolayer MoS2 as a model system and find that the Berry phases are given by the Faraday rotation angles of the pulse emission from the material under short-pulse excitation. This result demonstrates an interesting Berry phase dependent effect in the extremely nonlinear optics of semiconductors. This work is supported by Hong Kong RGC/GRF 401512 and the CUHK Focused Investments Scheme.
Effect of Earth's rotation on the quantum mechanical phase of the neutron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werner, S.A.; Staudenmann, J.; Colella, R.
1979-01-01
Using a neutron interferometer of the type first developed by Bonse and Hart for x rays, we have observed the effect of Earth's rotation on the phase of the neutron wave function. This experiment is the quantum mechanical analog of the optical interferometry observations of Michelson, Gale, and Pearson
Wigner's dynamical transition state theory in phase space : classical and quantum
Waalkens, Holger; Schubert, Roman; Wiggins, Stephen
We develop Wigner's approach to a dynamical transition state theory in phase space in both the classical and quantum mechanical settings. The key to our development is the construction of a normal form for describing the dynamics in the neighbourhood of a specific type of saddle point that governs
Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces
Luis Aina, Alfredo
2004-01-01
We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas.
Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luis, Alfredo
2004-01-01
We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas
Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference
Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J.N.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Paveliev, D.G.; Williams, B.S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.; Klein, B.; Hesler, J.L.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal–metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain
Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference
Khosropanah, P.; Baryshev, A.; Zhang, W.; Jellema, W.; Hovenier, J. N.; Gao, J. R.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Paveliev, D. G.; Williams, B. S.; Kumar, S.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J. L.; Klein, B.; Hesler, J. L.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the phase locking of a 2.7 THz metal-metal waveguide quantum cascade laser (QCL) to an external microwave signal. The reference is the 15th harmonic, generated by a semiconductor superlattice nonlinear device, of a signal at 182 GHz, which itself is generated by a multiplier chain
Visualising Berry phase and diabolical points in a quantum exciton-polariton billiard.
Estrecho, E; Gao, T; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Truscott, A G; Ostrovskaya, E A
2016-11-25
Diabolical points (spectral degeneracies) can naturally occur in spectra of two-dimensional quantum systems and classical wave resonators due to simple symmetries. Geometric Berry phase is associated with these spectral degeneracies. Here, we demonstrate a diabolical point and the corresponding Berry phase in the spectrum of hybrid light-matter quasiparticles-exciton-polaritons in semiconductor microcavities. It is well known that sufficiently strong optical pumping can drive exciton-polaritons to quantum degeneracy, whereby they form a macroscopically populated quantum coherent state similar to a Bose-Einstein condensate. By pumping a microcavity with a spatially structured light beam, we create a two-dimensional quantum billiard for the exciton-polariton condensate and demonstrate a diabolical point in the spectrum of the billiard eigenstates. The fully reconfigurable geometry of the potential walls controlled by the optical pump enables a striking experimental visualization of the Berry phase associated with the diabolical point. The Berry phase is observed and measured by direct imaging of the macroscopic exciton-polariton probability densities.
Unusual vortex dynamics in the quantum-liquid phase of a-MoxSi1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
liquid (QVL) phase has been well-determined in the field–temperature plane, δV (t) origi- ... [19], the field-driven SI transition corresponds to the VG transition from the VG to ... DC current I were measured using a four-terminal method. ..... tions is determined by T/Tc0, for these 'high-Tc' materials the quantum fluctuation.
Wang, Jigang
2014-03-01
Research of non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons is built around addressing an outstanding challenge: how to achieve ultrafast manipulation of competing magnetic/electronic phases and reveal thermodynamically hidden orders at highly non-thermal, femtosecond timescales? Recently we reveal a new paradigm called quantum femtosecond magnetism-photoinduced femtosecond magnetic phase transitions driven by quantum spin flip fluctuations correlated with laser-excited inter-atomic coherent bonding. We demonstrate an antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) switching during about 100 fs laser pulses in a colossal magneto-resistive manganese oxide. Our results show a huge photoinduced femtosecond spin generation, measured by magnetic circular dichroism, with photo-excitation threshold behavior absent in the picosecond dynamics. This reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, while the optical polarization/coherence still interacts with the spins to initiate local FM correlations that compete with the surrounding AFM matrix. Our results thus provide a framework that explores quantum non-equilibrium kinetics to drive phase transitions between exotic ground states in strongly correlated elecrons, and raise fundamental questions regarding some accepted rules, such as free energy and adiabatic potential surface. This work is in collaboration with Tianqi Li, Aaron Patz, Leonidas Mouchliadis, Jiaqiang Yan, Thomas A. Lograsso, Ilias E. Perakis. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (contract no. DMR-1055352). Material synthesis at the Ames Laboratory was supported by the US Department of Energy-Basic Energy Sciences (contract no. DE-AC02-7CH11358).
Phase holonomy, zero-point energy cancellation and supersymmetric quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iida, Shinji; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi
1987-01-01
We show that the zero-point energy of bosons is cancelled out by the phase holonomy which is induced by the adiabatic deformation of a boson system coupled with a fermion. This mechanism results in a supersymmetric quantum mechanics as a special case and presents a possible dynamical origin of supersymmetry. (orig.)
Quantum percolation phase transition and magnetoelectric dipole glass in hexagonal ferrites
Rowley, S. E.; Vojta, T.; Jones, A. T.; Guo, W.; Oliveira, J.; Morrison, F. D.; Lindfield, N.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.
2017-07-01
Hexagonal ferrites not only have enormous commercial impact (£2 billion/year in sales) due to applications that include ultrahigh-density memories, credit-card stripes, magnetic bar codes, small motors, and low-loss microwave devices, they also have fascinating magnetic and ferroelectric quantum properties at low temperatures. Here we report the results of tuning the magnetic ordering temperature in PbF e12 -xG axO19 to zero by chemical substitution x . The phase transition boundary is found to vary as TN˜(1-x /xc ) 2 /3 with xc very close to the calculated spin percolation threshold, which we determine by Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that the zero-temperature phase transition is geometrically driven. We find that this produces a form of compositionally tuned, insulating, ferrimagnetic quantum criticality. Close to the zero-temperature phase transition, we observe the emergence of an electric dipole glass induced by magnetoelectric coupling. The strong frequency behavior of the glass freezing temperature Tm has a Vogel-Fulcher dependence with Tm finite, or suppressed below zero in the zero-frequency limit, depending on composition x . These quantum-mechanical properties, along with the multiplicity of low-lying modes near the zero-temperature phase transition, are likely to greatly extend applications of hexaferrites into the realm of quantum and cryogenic technologies.
Fiber-optics implementation of an asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloner
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bartůšková, L.; Dušek, M.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Fiurášek, J.
2007-01-01
Roč. 99, č. 12 (2007), 120505/1-120505/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : asymmetric phase-covariant cloner * Mach-Zehnder interferometer * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 6.944, year: 2007
Theory of phase-sensitive measurement of photon-assisted tunneling through a quantum dot
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Wingreen, Ned S.
1998-01-01
Recent double-slit interference experiments [Schuster et al., Nature (London) 385, 417 (1997)] have demonstrated the possibility of probing the phase of the complex transmission coefficient of a quantum dot via the Aharonov-Bohm effect. We propose an extension of these experiments: an ac voltage ...
Nuclear magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of single proteins using quantum logic.
Lovchinsky, I; Sushkov, A O; Urbach, E; de Leon, N P; Choi, S; De Greve, K; Evans, R; Gertner, R; Bersin, E; Müller, C; McGuinness, L; Jelezko, F; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D
2016-02-19
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the structural analysis of organic compounds and biomolecules but typically requires macroscopic sample quantities. We use a sensor, which consists of two quantum bits corresponding to an electronic spin and an ancillary nuclear spin, to demonstrate room temperature magnetic resonance detection and spectroscopy of multiple nuclear species within individual ubiquitin proteins attached to the diamond surface. Using quantum logic to improve readout fidelity and a surface-treatment technique to extend the spin coherence time of shallow nitrogen-vacancy centers, we demonstrate magnetic field sensitivity sufficient to detect individual proton spins within 1 second of integration. This gain in sensitivity enables high-confidence detection of individual proteins and allows us to observe spectral features that reveal information about their chemical composition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Quantum algebraic description of vibrational and transitional nuclear spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychev, P.P.; Roussev, R.P.; Inrne, D.
1995-01-01
A physically motivated extension of the SU q (2) model of rotational nuclear spectra is introduced, which is applicable in the vibrational and transitional regions as well. The deformation parameter is related to the centrifugal stretching effect, while the new parameter c allows the spectrum to be an expansion in terms of J(J+c) instead of J(J+1), thus describing nuclear anharmonicities in a way similar to the Interacting Boson Model and the Generalized Variable Moment of Inertia model
Quantum field theory and symmetries in nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldin, A.M.
2000-01-01
Nuclear physics embraces a wide area of knowledge ranging from fundamental problems of matter structure up to the origin of the universe. Applied aspects of this science bear a direct relation to the most urgent problems of people's life - ecology and energetics. The present talk deals with one of these aspects, namely, a possible description of the properties of nuclear matter by means of the methods of modern mathematical physics which N.N. Bogolyubov has greatly contributed to
Path-integral isomorphic Hamiltonian for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic dynamics
Tao, Xuecheng; Shushkov, Philip; Miller, Thomas F.
2018-03-01
We describe a path-integral approach for including nuclear quantum effects in non-adiabatic chemical dynamics simulations. For a general physical system with multiple electronic energy levels, a corresponding isomorphic Hamiltonian is introduced such that Boltzmann sampling of the isomorphic Hamiltonian with classical nuclear degrees of freedom yields the exact quantum Boltzmann distribution for the original physical system. In the limit of a single electronic energy level, the isomorphic Hamiltonian reduces to the familiar cases of either ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) or centroid molecular dynamics Hamiltonians, depending on the implementation. An advantage of the isomorphic Hamiltonian is that it can easily be combined with existing mixed quantum-classical dynamics methods, such as surface hopping or Ehrenfest dynamics, to enable the simulation of electronically non-adiabatic processes with nuclear quantum effects. We present numerical applications of the isomorphic Hamiltonian to model two- and three-level systems, with encouraging results that include improvement upon a previously reported combination of RPMD with surface hopping in the deep-tunneling regime.
Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gottwald, Tobias
2010-01-01
In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe
Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottwald, Tobias
2010-08-27
In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe
Thermodynamical modeling of nuclear glasses: coexistence of amorphous phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adjanor, G.
2007-11-01
Investigating the stability of borosilicate glasses used in the nuclear industry with respect to phase separation requires to estimate the Gibbs free energies of the various phases appearing in the material. In simulation, using current computational resources, a direct state-sampling of a glassy system with respect to its ensemble statistics is not ergodic and the estimated ensemble averages are not reliable. Our approach consists in generating, at a given cooling rate, a series of quenches, or paths connecting states of the liquid to states of the glass, and then in taking into account the probability to generate the paths leading to the different glassy states in ensembles averages. In this way, we introduce a path ensemble formalism and calculate a Landau free energy associated to a glassy meta-basin. This method was validated by accurately mapping the free energy landscape of a 38-atom glassy cluster. We then applied this approach to the calculation of the Gibbs free energies of binary amorphous Lennard-Jones alloys, and checked the correlation between the observed tendencies to order or to phase separate and the computed Gibbs free energies. We finally computed the driving force to phase separation in a simplified three-oxide nuclear glass modeled by a Born-Mayer-Huggins potential that includes a three-body term, and we compared the estimated quantities to the available experimental data. (author)
α particles and the ''pasta'' phase in nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avancini, S. S.; Barros, C. C. Jr.; Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.
2010-01-01
The effects of the α particles in nuclear matter at low densities are investigated within three different parametrizations of relativistic models at finite temperature. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous matter (pasta phase) are described for neutral nuclear matter with fixed proton fractions and stellar matter subject to β equilibrium and trapped neutrinos. In homogeneous matter, α particles are present only at densities below 0.02 fm -3 and their presence decreases with increase of the temperature and, for a fixed temperature, the α particle fraction decreases for smaller proton fractions. A repulsive interaction is important to mimic the dissolution of the clusters in homogeneous matter. The effect of the α particles on the pasta structure is very small except close to the critical temperatures and/or proton fractions, when it may still predict a pasta phase while no pasta phase would occur in the absence of light clusters. It is shown that for densities above 0.01 fm 3 the α-particle fraction in the pasta phase is much larger than that in homogeneous matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'Brien, J.L.; Schofield, S.R.; Simmons, M.Y.; Clark, R.G.; Dzurak, A.S.; Prawer, S.; Adrienko, I.; Cimino, A.
2000-01-01
Full text: In the vigorous worldwide effort to experimentally build a quantum computer, recent intense interest has focussed on solid state approaches for their promise of scalability. Particular attention has been given to silicon-based proposals that can readily be integrated into conventional computing technology. For example the Kane design uses the well isolated nuclear spin of phosphorous donor nuclei (I=1/2) as the qubits embedded in isotopically pure 28 Si (I=0). We demonstrate the ability to fabricate a precise array of P atoms on a clean Si surface with atomic-scale resolution compatible with the fabrication of the Kane quantum computer
On phase-space representations of quantum mechanics using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-07-16
Jul 16, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 27 c Indian Academy of Sciences ..... converted to the language of the phase-space, and in .... as Husimi function, a name given in recognition of the work of .... the equations only differ from each other in the sign.
Quantum dynamics via a time propagator in Wigner's phase space
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønager, Michael; Henriksen, Niels Engholm
1995-01-01
We derive an expression for a short-time phase space propagator. We use it in a new propagation scheme and demonstrate that it works for a Morse potential. The propagation scheme is used to propagate classical distributions which do not obey the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It is shown that ...... as a part of the sampling function. ©1995 American Institute of Physics....
Assessing the performance of quantum repeaters for all phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodenough, K; Elkouss, D; Wehner, S
2016-01-01
One of the most sought-after goals in experimental quantum communication is the implementation of a quantum repeater. The performance of quantum repeaters can be assessed by comparing the attained rate with the quantum and private capacity of direct transmission, assisted by unlimited classical two-way communication. However, these quantities are hard to compute, motivating the search for upper bounds. Takeoka, Guha and Wilde found the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel to be an upper bound on both these capacities. In general it is still hard to find the exact value of the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel, but clever sub-optimal squashing channels allow one to upper bound this quantity, and thus also the corresponding capacities. Here, we exploit this idea to obtain bounds for any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. This bound allows one to benchmark the implementation of quantum repeaters for a large class of channels used to model communication across fibers. In particular, our bound is applicable to the realistic scenario when there is a restriction on the mean photon number on the input. Furthermore, we show that the squashed entanglement of a channel is convex in the set of channels, and we use a connection between the squashed entanglement of a quantum channel and its entanglement assisted classical capacity. Building on this connection, we obtain the exact squashed entanglement and two-way assisted capacities of the d -dimensional erasure channel and bounds on the amplitude-damping channel and all qubit Pauli channels. In particular, our bound improves on the previous best known squashed entanglement upper bound of the depolarizing channel. (paper)