WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear power waste

  1. Waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents proposals for organizing and financing of the treatment and deposition of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Decommissioning of plants is taken into consideration. The proposals refer to a program of twelve reactors. A relatively complete model for the handling of radioactive waste in Sweden is at hand. The cost for the years 1980 to 2000 is estimated at approx 1040 million SKr. Also the expense to dispose of the rest of the waste is calculated up to the year 2060, when the waste is planned to be put into final deposit. The state must have substantial influence over the organization which should be closely connected to the nuclear industry. Three different types of organization are discussed, namely (i) a company along with a newly created authority, (ii) a company along with the existing Nuclear Power Inspectorate or (iii) a company along with a board of experts. The proposals for financing the cost of handling nuclear waste are given in chief outlines. The nuclear industry should reserve means to special funds. The allocations are calculated to 1.4 oere per delivered kWh up to and including the year 1980. The accumulated allocations for 1979 should thus amount to 1310 million SKr. The charge for supervision and for certain research and development is recommended to be 0.1 oere per kWh which corresponds to approx 23 million SKr for 1980. The funds should be assured by binding agreements which must be approved by the state. The amounts are given in the monetary value of the year 1979. (G.B.)

  2. Nuclear power and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.

    1991-03-01

    The gap between the relative perceptions in the area of nuclear waste is wide. The broad view of the industry is that the disposal of nuclear waste is not a serious technical problem, and that solutions are already available to provide safe disposal of all our waste. The broad view of those who oppose the industry is that radioactive waste is so unpleasant, and will remain lethal for so long, that no acceptable policy will ever be developed, and so production of such waste (except, oddly, the significant amounts arising from uses of radioactive materials in medicine, agriculture, industrial safety research, etc) should stop immediately. This booklet will not attempt to describe in great detail the technicalities of the United Kingdom nuclear industry's current approach to radioactive waste: such issues are described in detail in other publications, especially those by Nirex. It is our intention to outline some of the main issues involved, and to associate these issues with the divergence in perceptions of various parties. (author)

  3. Waste processing system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Tezuka, Fuminobu; Maesawa, Yukishige; Irie, Hiromitsu; Daibu, Etsuji.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a waste processing system of a nuclear power plant, which can reduce the volume of a large amount of plastics without burying them. Among burnable wastes and plastic wastes to be discarded in the power plant located on the sea side, the plastic wastes are heated and converted into oils, and the burnable wastes are burnt using the oils as a fuel. The system is based on the finding that the presence of Na 2 O, K 2 O contained in the wastes catalytically improves the efficiency of thermal decomposition in a heating atmosphere, in the method of heating plastics and converting them into oils. (T.M.)

  4. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-01-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  5. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.O.

    1992-05-01

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  6. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  7. Management of radioactive waste nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.; Marek, J.

    1976-01-01

    The authors give a survey of the sources, types and amounts of radioactive waste in LWR nuclear power stations (1,300 MWe). The amount of solid waste produced by a Novovorenezh-type PWR reactor (2 x 400 resp. 1 x 1,000 MWe) is given in a table. Treatment, solidification and final storage of radioactive waste are shortly discussed with special reference to the problems of final storage in the CSR. (HR) [de

  8. State of nuclear waste management of German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The waste management of nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany is today prevailing in the public discussion. Objections raised in this connection, e.g. that the nuclear waste management has been omitted from the development of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy or remained insolved, are frequently accepted without examination, and partly spread as facts. This is, however, not the truth: From the outset in 1955 the development of nuclear technology in the Federal Republic of Germany has included investigations of the problems of reprocessing and non-detrimental disposal of radioactive products, and the results have been compiled in a national nuclear waste management concept. (orig.) [de

  9. Energy waste and nuclear power growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Hippel, F.; Williams, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    The world's steady advance toward a plutonium economy is based on unnecessarily high projections of the future growth of nuclear power, in the United States, at least. These high projections of nuclear power growth are based in turn upon an assumed pattern of energy use which is economically wasteful and potentially dangerous both to the global environment and international stability. It is therefore of the utmost urgency that the United States develop an energy policy which encourages increased efficiency in energy use. Among other benefits, the authors believe that such a policy would slow the growth of nuclear power to the point where the plutonium recycle decision could be delayed for at least a decade in the United States. They also believe that such an example of ''technological abstinence'' by the world's leading economic power might well inspire similar decisions in other parts of the world. It could also allow time for the development of a safer evolutionary path for fission power

  10. Radioactive waste from nuclear power stations and other nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek-Fink, P.

    1976-01-01

    After estimating the amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes that will be produced in nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants, by the fuel cycle industry, and in the nuclear research centers in the FRG until 1990, it is reported on the state of technology and on the tendencies in the development of processing radioactive waste. The paper also describes, how waste disposal is managed by those producing radioactive waste (see above), and discusses the future development of the complex of waste disposal from the industry's point of view. (HR/LN) [de

  11. Radioactive waste treatment technology at Czech nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulovany, J.

    2001-01-01

    This presentation describes the main technologies for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes at Czech nuclear power plants. The main technologies are bituminisation for liquid radioactive wastes and supercompaction for solid radioactive wastes. (author)

  12. Nuclear power and radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The generation of electrical power by nuclear means leads to a very considerable reduction in the quantities of waste which would result from the use of any other fuel. The waste possess particular hazards which diminish with time. They are most dangerous during the first 500 years whilst fission products are decaying; subsequently their toxicity is comparable with that of many industrial chemicals which are currently in widespread use. There is no reason to believe that environmentally satisfactory disposal means cannot be found either on or under the ocean bed or below the surface of the earth. Nevertheless, since so little waste is involved considerable care can be devoted to ensure that whatever disposal method is selected is safe. The standards to be adopted are that any disposal method selected will, even in the worst conceivable situation, not lead to a significant increase in the exposure man already receives due to radioactivity arising from natural sources. (author)

  13. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This Code of Practice defines the minimum requirements for the design and operation of structures, systems and components important for the management of radioactive wastes from thermal neutron nuclear power plants. The topics covered include design and operation of gaseous, liquid and solid waste systems, waste transport, storage and disposal, decommissioning wastes and wastes from unplanned events

  14. Nuclear Power, its Waste in the World and in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Temiz, Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants were born in 1950s. Taking only 30 grams of used fuel annually for a person’s energy consumption many countries built their own nuclear power plants. In this story, there is the fuel on one hand and the waste on the other. In general sense, used up fuel rods from nuclear reactors and the waste from reprocessing plants are referred to as nuclear waste. These wastes can be stored for decades in the cooling pools of nuclear reacto...

  15. Leaching of nuclear power reactor wastes forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    The leaching tests for power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN/CNEN-SP are described. These waste forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. 3 years leaching results are reported, determining cesium and strontium diffusivity coefficients for boric acid waste form and ion-exchange resins. (Author) [pt

  16. Leaching of nuclear power reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, L.S.; Villalobos, J.P.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    The leaching tests for immobilized power reactor wastes carried out at IPEN are described. These wastes forms consist mainly of spent resins and boric acid concentrates solidified in ordinary Portland cement. All tests were conducted according to the ISO and IAEA recommendations. Three years leaching results are reported. The cesium diffuvity coefficients determined out of these results are about 1 x 10 -8 cm 2 /s for boric acid waste form and 9 x 10 -9 cm 2 /s for ion-exchange resin waste. Strontium diffusivity coefficients found are about 3 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s and 9 x 10 -11 cm 2 /s respectively. (Author) [pt

  17. Supply, operation and radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohrhauer, H.; Krey, M.; Haag, G.; Wolters, J.; Merz, E.; Sauermann, P.F.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of 'Nuclear Fuel Cycle' is treated in 5 reports: 1. Uranium supply; 2. Fabrication and characteristics of fuel elements; 3. Design, operation and safety of nuclear power plants after Harrisburg; 4. Radioactive waste disposal of nuclear power plants - changed political scenery after 1979; 5. Shutdown and dismantling of LWR-KKW - state of knowledge and feasibility. (HP) [de

  18. Radioactive waste processing method for a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Y; Kuriyama, O

    1976-06-04

    Object is to subject radioactive liquid waste in a nuclear power plant to reverse permeation process after which it is vaporized and concentrated thereby decreasing the quantity of foam to be used to achieve effective concentration of the liquid waste. Liquid waste containing a radioactive material produced from a nuclear power plant is first applied with pressure in excess of osmotic pressure by a reverse permeation device and is separated into clean water and concentrated liquid by semi-permeable membrane. Next, the thus reverse-permeated and concentrated waste is fed to an evaporator which control foaming by the foam and then further reconcentrated for purification of the liquid waste.

  19. Management of abnormal radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    As with any other industrial activity, a certain level of risk is associated with the operation of nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities. That is, on occasions nuclear power plants or nuclear facilities may operate under conditions which were not specifically anticipated during the design and construction of the plant. These abnormal conditions and situations may cause the production of abnormal waste, which can differ in character or quantity from waste produced during normal routine operation of nuclear facilities. Abnormal waste can also occur during decontamination programmes, replacement of a reactor component, de-sludging of storage ponds, etc. The management of such kinds of waste involves the need to evaluate existing waste management systems in order to determine how abnormal wastes should best be handled and processed. There are no known publications on this subject, and the IAEA believes that the development and exchange of such information among its Member States would be useful for specialists working in the waste management area. The main objective of this report is to review existing waste management practices which can be applied to abnormal waste and provide assistance in the selection of appropriate technologies and processes that can be used when abnormal situations occur. Naturally, the subject of abnormal waste is complex and this report can only be considered as a guide for the management of abnormal waste. Refs, figs and tabs.

  20. Management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This Regulation refers to the requirements of the Regulation CNEN-NE.1.26, 'Safety Operation of Nuclear Power Plants', as expressed in the section 13, specifically in the subsection 13.4, relatives to the management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

  1. Nuclear engineering questions: power, reprocessing, waste, decontamination, fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, R.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the chemical engineering symposium on nuclear questions. Specific questions addressed by the speakers included: nuclear power - why and how; commercial reprocessing - permanent death or resurrection; long-term management of commercial high-level wastes; long-term management of defense high-level waste; decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, engineering aspects of laser fusion I; and engineering aspects of laser fusion II. Individual papers have been input to the Energy Data Base previously

  2. Radioactive waste management for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weh, R.; Methling, D.; Sappok, M.

    1996-01-01

    In Germany, back-end fuel cycle provisions must be made for the twenty nuclear power plants currently run by utilities with an aggregate installed power of 23.4 GWe, and the four nuclear power plants already shut down. In addition, there are the shut down nuclear power plants of the former German Democratic Republic, and a variety of decommissioned prototype nuclear power plants built with the participation of the federal government and by firms other than utilities. The nuclear power plants operated by utilities contribute roughly one third of the total electricity generation in public power plants, thus greatly ensuring a stable energy supply in Germany. The public debate in Germany, however, focuses less on the good economic performance of these plants, and the positive acceptance at their respective sites, but rather on their spent fuel and waste management which, allegedly, is not safe enough. The spent fuel and waste management of German nuclear power plants is planned on a long-term basis, and executed in a responsible way by proven technical means, in the light of the provisions of the Atomic Act. Each of the necessary steps of the back end of the fuel cycle is planned and licensed in accordance with German nuclear law provisions. The respective facilities are built, commissioned, and monitored in operation with the dedicated assistance of expert consultants and licensing authorities. Stable boundary conditions are a prerequisite in ensuring the necessary stability in planning and running waste management schemes. As producers of waste, nuclear power plants are responsible for safe waste management and remain the owners of that waste until it has been accepted by a federal repository. (orig./DG) [de

  3. Nuclear waste management programme 2003 for the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    A joint company Posiva Oy founded by nuclear energy producing Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) and Fortum Power and Heat Oy coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management in Finland. In Posiva's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 2003, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of TVO and Fortum is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The nuclear waste management research for the year 2003 and more generally for the years 2003-2007 is presented

  4. Materials and wastes from power generation of nuclear origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Guillemette, Andre; Laponche, Bernard; Zerbib, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In most countries, spent nuclear fuel is directly stored in pools and constitute the bulk of highly radioactive waste. In France, reprocessing separates spent fuel into three categories: uranium, plutonium, minor actinides and fission products. Hence, a vast amount of very diverse radioactive materials are stored in various sites and conditions, under two denominations: 'nuclear materials' (which can be or are partly recycled) and 'radioactive waste' which should be permanently disposed of. The production of highly radioactive and long-lived waste raise legitimate questions on the use of nuclear energy for power production and many people think that it's a sufficient reason for giving up this technique. Concerning existing radioactive waste, the alternative to deep disposal should be: a) dry storage of spent fuel and other existing waste in protected sites (bunkers or hills), and b) more active research on the possibilities to reduce both radioactivity and the lifetime of radioactive waste. (authors)

  5. Development of recycling techniques for nuclear power plant decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Oguri, Daiichiro; Abe, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kazuhiko

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of concrete and metal waste will provide solution to reduce waste volume, contributing to save the natural resources and to protect the environment. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation has developed techniques of concrete and metal recycling for decommissioning waste of commercial nuclear power plants. A process of radioactive concrete usage for mortar solidification was seen to reduce concrete waste volume by 2/3. A concrete reclamation process for high quality aggregate was confirmed that the reclaimed aggregate concrete is equivalent to ordinary concrete. Its byproduct powder was seen to be utilized various usage. A process of waste metal casting to use radioactive metal as filler could substantially decrease the waste metal volume when thinner containers are applied. A pyro-metallurgical separation process was seen to decrease cobalt concentration by 1/100. Some of these techniques are finished of demonstration tests for future decommissioning activity. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste management at nuclear power plant Cernavoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raducea, D.

    2002-01-01

    Many human activities generate waste, but people are worried about wastes produced in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Their concern is an unjustified fear toward the hazards from radioactive waste, probably because in any country generating electric power by NPPs a lot of attention is paid to relevant parties involved in radioactive waste management. Significant attention is also given to the management of radioactive waste at the Cemavoda NPP. The general approach required for the collection, handling, conditioning and storage of radioactive wastes, while maintaining acceptable levels of safety for workers, members of the public and the environment, is conceptually established. The overall programme provides the necessary facilities to adequately manage solid radioactive waste from Cemavoda NPP Unit 1 and will be capable of expansion when other units are brought into service. (author)

  7. Design of Radioactive Waste Management Systems at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide is addressed to the administrative and technical authorities and specialists dealing with the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, and in particular waste management facilities at nuclear power plants. This Guide has been prepared as part of the IAEA Waste Handling, Treatment and Storage programme. It is a follow-up document to the Code of Practice on Management of Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants published in 1985 in the IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. 69, in which basic principles for management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants are set out. The IAEA has established wide ranging programmes to provide Member States with guidance on different aspects of safety and technology related to thermal neutron power reactors and associated nuclear fuel cycle operations, including those for management of radioactive wastes. There are many IAEA publications related to various technical and safety aspects of different nuclear energy applications. All these publications are issued by the Agency for the use of Member States in connection with their own nuclear technological safety requirements. They are based on national experience contributed by experts from different countries and relate to common features in approaches to the problems discussed. However, the final decision and legal responsibility in any regulatory procedure always rest with the Member State. This particular Guide aims to provide general and detailed principles for the design of waste management facilities at nuclear power plants. It emphasizes what and how specific safety requirements for the management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants can be met in the design and construction stage. The safety requirements for operation of such facilities will be considered in the Agency's next Safety Series publication, Safety Guide 50-SG-011, Operational Management for Radioactive Effluents and Wastes Arising in Nuclear Power Plants

  8. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The nuclear power industry, which accounts for about 20% of the total electricity supply, is a vital part of the nation's energy resource. While it generates approximately one-third of the commercial low-level radioactive waste produced in the country, it has achieved one of the most successful examples in waste minimization. On the other hand, progress on development of new disposal facilities by the state compacts is currently stalled. The milestones have been repeatedly postponed, and the various Acts passed by Congress on nuclear waste disposal have not accomplished what they were intended to do. With dwindling access to waste disposal sites and with escalating disposal costs, the power plant utilities are forced to store wastes onsite as an interim measure. However, such temporary measures are not a permanent solution. A national will is sorely needed to break out of the current impasse

  9. Incinerators for radioactive wastes in Japanese nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Yoichi

    1983-01-01

    As the measures of treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes in nuclear power stations, the development of the techniques to decrease wastes, to reduce the volume of wastes, to treat wastes by solidification and to dispose wastes has been advanced energetically. In particular, efforts have been exerted on the volume reduction treatment from the viewpoint of the improvement of storage efficiency and the reduction of transport and disposal costs. Incineration as one of the volume reduction techniques has been regarded as the most effective method with large reduction ratio, but it was not included in waste treatment system. NGK Insulators Ltd. developed NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, and seven incinerators were installed in nuclear power stations. These incinerators have been operated smoothly, and the construction is in progress in six more plants. The necessity of incinerators in nuclear power stations and the problems in their adoption, the circumstance of the development of NGK type miscellaneous solid incinerators, the outline of the incinerator of Karlsruhe nuclear power station and the problems, the contents of the technical development in NGK, the outline of NGK type incinerators and the features, the outline of the pretreatment system, incinerator system, exhaust gas treatment system, ash taking out system and accessory equipment, the operational results and the performance are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. Risk perception as it applies to nuclear power and nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    Disparate perceptions of risk have emerged as one of the critical issues confronting the future of commercial nuclear power. This paper explores the origins and possible ramifications of the public's perception of risks associated with commercial nuclear power and related high-level nuclear waste disposal programs. This paper summarizes the results of numerous psychometric studies and public opinion polls that analyze the relationship of risk to nuclear power and waste management

  11. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  12. The risk of storing radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1976-09-01

    Serious bottle-necks exist in the nuclear fuel cycle and will continue for the next decade. A total of 800 nuclear reactors are now in operation. 153 nuclear power plants represent an installed capacity of 70 GVe. Until 1985 five hundred nuclear power plants will be in operation from which up to this date 53.000 t uranium will have been discharged. Part of this will have to be reprocessed. Associated with the above mentioned amount are 500 t plutonium and 1.500 t highly radioactive wastes. Two risks for the population have to be considered: firstly, the effect of small amounts of radioactive substances released during normal operation of nuclear power plants (the annual dose is about 1 mrem per person). Secondly, the possibility of the release of great amounts of radioactivity during heavy accidents (the probability for which is extremely small). A series of feasible possibilities for conditioning are shown. Firstly, the wastes are packed in substances which are insoluble in water. Secondly, for low and medium wastes these can be mixed with concrete or bitumen and filled into stable containers. Thirdly, the wastes could also be solidified. Fourthly, the wastes could be enclosed in small glass spheres which are embedded in a metal matrix. (H.G.)

  13. Improvements of radioactive waste management at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-04-01

    This report is part of a systematic IAEA effort to improve waste management practices at WWER plants and to make them consistent with the current requirements and standards for safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. The report reviews the wet and dry solid waste management practices at the various types of WWER nuclear power plants (NPP) and describes approaches and recent achievements in waste minimization. Waste minimization practices in use at western PWRs are reviewed and compared, and their applicability at WWER plants is evaluated. Radioactive waste volume reduction issues and waste management practices are reflected in many IAEA publications. However, aspects of waste minimization specific to individual WWER nuclear power plant designs and WWER waste management policies are not addressed extensively in those publications. This report covers the important aspects applicable to the improvement of waste management at WWER NPP, including both plant-level and country-level considerations. It is recognized that most WWER plants are already implementing many of these concepts and recommendations with varying degrees of success; others will benefit from the included considerations. The major issues addressed are: - Review of current waste management policies and practices related to WWERs and western PWRs, including the influence of the original design concepts and significant modifications, liquid waste discharge limits and dry solid waste clearance levels applied in individual countries, national policies and laws, and other relevant aspects affecting the nature and quantities of waste arisings; - Identification of strategies and methods for improving the radioactive waste management generated in normal operation and maintenance at WWERs. This report is a composite (combination) of the two separate initiatives mentioned above. The first draft report was prepared at the meeting 26-30 May 1997 by five consultants. The draft was improved during an

  14. Factor of radioactive waste on nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2009-01-01

    Global warming phenomena and rising oil prices have brought the excitement of open space use of nuclear power. Arguments in favor of this technology range in terms of more environmentally friendly, energy diversification and cost efficiency has prompted the government to widen the choice of nuclear power be considered as a serious alternative. Despite the attractive factors to the use of these powers, there are also factors that stem from the continued development of nuclear power. These include the factor of safety, security, security of fuel supply, and public attention is often associated with radioactive waste management. This article attempts to debate specific to radioactive waste management factors that impact on public acceptance of a country's nuclear power program, especially in Malaysia. Starting from the absence of radioactive waste management policy to model uncertainty of the landfill and complications in selecting a repository site shows the basic infrastructure is still lacking. In addition, previous experience handling thorium waste has not reached a final settlement after several years of implementation. It reinforced the perception about the level of public confidence in the competence and attitude of local workers who are not very encouraging to pursue this advanced.

  15. Management of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Design data and operating experience with waste management systems at nuclear power stations in Canada, France, the United Kingdom and the United States of America are described. Although the specific designs and operating practices vary between nations, the underlying philosophies are essentially identical, being based on the protection principles of ICRP. The operating experience with different waste management systems has been excellent in maintaining the radiation exposures in the environment well below the accepted dose standards.

  16. Nuclear and radiological safety nuclear power nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear and Radiological Safety, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management and issued during the period of 1995-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (Arabic, Chinese, French, Russian or Spanish), but all these papers have abstracts in English

  17. Vitrification of liquid waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jiawei; Choi, Kwansik; Song, Myung-Jae

    2001-01-01

    Glass is an acceptable waste form to solidify the low-level waste from nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the simplicity of processing and its unique ability to accept a wide variety of waste streams. Vitrification is being considered to solidify the high-boron-containing liquid waste generated from Korean NPPs. This study dealt with the development of a glass formulation to solidify the liquid waste. Studies were conducted in a borosilicate glass system. Crucible studies have been performed with surrogate waste. Several developed glass frits were evaluated to determine their suitability for vitrifying the liquid waste. The results indicated that the 20 wt% waste oxides loading required could not be obtained using these glass frits. Flyash produced from coal-burning electric power stations, whose major components are SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , is a desirable glass network former. Detailed product evaluations including waste loading, homogeneity, chemical durability and viscosity, etc., were carried out on selected formulations using flyash. Up to 30 wt% of the waste oxides was successfully solidified into the flyash after the addition of 5-10 wt% Na 2 O at 1200 deg. C

  18. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants (NPPs) results primarily from their large amounts. In NPPs more radioactive wastes arise than in all other plants of the nuclear fuel cycle, with the exception of uranium mills. Although the volume is great, NPP wastes are relatively low in activity and radiotoxicity and short in half-life. Several methods for treatment of NPP wastes are available that meet all the relevant requirements and they have attained high technical standards and are highly reliable. Consequently, the discharge of radionuclides with liquid and gaseous effluents and the resulting dose commitment to the general public are far below established limits. The quality of the conditioned wastes conforms to the requirements for ultimate disposal. The final disposal of NPP wastes has already been demonstrated successfully in several places and the feasibility of NPP decommissioning and management of the wastes arising in this process have been proved. The problems associated with the management of radioactive wastes from NPPs have been solved both scientifically and technically; there is no urgent need for improvement. This is why for new developments cost-benefit aspects must be considered, including the dose commitment to the operating staff and general aspects such as public acceptance and socio-ethical questions. Spectacular new developments are not to be expected in the near future. However, by continuous improvement of details and optimization of the whole system useful contributions can still be made to develop nuclear technology further. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plant wastes in space?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsenshtejn, M.E.; Klavdiev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Project of radioactive waste disposal into space by electric gun is discussed. The basic disadvantages of the project should include contamination of the near-the-earth space with radioactive containers as well as physical and technical difficulties related to developing electrical gun the shell of which should have the velocity exceeding 5 km/s. Idea of actinide gas atomization in the faraway space by multiply usable apparatus is proposed as alternative solution for the problem of radioactive waste disposal

  20. The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricite de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality, EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the ''Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs'' (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste). (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  1. Utilization of waste heat from nuclear power plants in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1981-01-01

    The development of nuclear power will result in the relative and absolute increase in the amount of waste heat which can be used in agriculture for heating greenhouses, open spaces, for fish breeding in heated water, for growing edible mushrooms, growing algae, for frost protection of orchards, air conditioning of buildings for breeding livestock and poultry, and for other purposes. In addition of the positive effect of waste heat, the danger increases of disease, weeds and pests. Pilot plant installations should be build in Czechoslovakia for testing the development of waste heat utilization. (Ha)

  2. Characterization of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piumetti, Elsa H.; Medici, Marcela A.

    2007-01-01

    Different kinds of radioactive waste are generated as result of the operation of nuclear power reactors and in all cases the activity concentration of several radionuclides had to be determined in order to optimize resources, particularly when dealing with final disposal or long-term storage. This paper describes the three basic approaches usually employed for characterizing nuclear power reactor wastes, namely the direct methods, the semi-empirical methods and the analytical methods. For some radionuclides or kind of waste, the more suitable method or combination of methods applicable is indicated, stressing that these methods shall be developed and applied during the waste generation step, i.e. during the operation of the reactor. In addition, after remarking the long time span expected from waste generation to their final disposal, the importance of an appropriate record system is pointed out and some basic requirements that should be fulfilled for such system are presented. It is concluded that the tools for a proper characterization of nuclear reactor radioactive waste are available though such tools should be tailored to each specific reactor and their history. (author) [es

  3. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  4. Nuclear power plants waste management practices in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Fumio

    1998-01-01

    This survey offers a complete review concerning the nuclear power plants waste management in France from generation to disposal, as well as future evolutions. Fundamental Safety Rule specified by the government defines safety objectives, design bases for surface disposals and preliminary terms for acceptance of waste packages on the surface disposal site. A governmental decree authorizes the creation of CSA (Centre de Stockage de l'Aude; French surface repository), and defines the limits of radiological inventory of the disposal facility. The national waste agency ANDRA was established in 1979 by government (turned into public in 1991), and ANDRA defines the technical specifications involving acceptance criteria of the waste packages. The main feature of the French management includes; Comprehensive quality assurance program that encompasses all area of the management. Centralized installation for the melting of contaminated scrap metals and incineration of low level technological wastes. Mobile unit for common treatment of ion exchange resin. Concrete package assuring the long term containment. Complete tracking system of wastes from generation to disposal. This survey would be useful in the consideration of Japanese waste management including miscellaneous wastes, high βγ wastes, large metallic wastes, etc. (author)

  5. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated in this report. The following plants and systems are already operating: * Transport system for radioactive wastes, * A control spent fuel intermediate storage plant, * A repository for low and medium level wastes. These are planned: * A treatment plant for used fuels, * A repository for high-level wastes, and * Repository for decommissioning wastes. The costs include R and D and decommissioning. Total future costs from 1993 are estimated to be 46.4 billion SEK (8.3 billion USD), during 60 years. Up to 1992 8.7 billion SEK (1.6 billion USD) have been spent

  6. Cost for the radioactive wastes from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The future cost for handling, storing and disposing of radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power plants are calculated in this report. The following plants and systems are already operating: - Transportsystem for radioactive wastes. - A control spent fuel intermediate storage plant. - A repository for low and medium level wastes. These are planned: - A treatment plant for used fuels. A repository for high-level wastes and repository for decommissioning wastes. The costs include Rand D and decommissioning. Total future costs from 1990 are estimated to be 43 billion SEK (6,5 billion dollars), during 60 years. Up to 1990 7,4 billion SEK (1,1 billion dollars) have been spent. (L.E.)

  7. Innovative waste treatment and conditioning technologies at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide Member States with information on the most innovative technologies and strategies used in waste treatment and conditioning. At present, some of those technologies and strategies might not be widely implemented at nuclear power plants (NPP), but they have an important potential for their use as part of the long range NPP, utility, or national strategy. Thus, the target audience is those decision makers at the national and organizational level responsible for selecting waste processing technologies and strategies over a period of three to ten years. Countries and individual nuclear plants have limited financial resources which can be applied toward radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning). They are challenged to determine which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs. This publication reduces the selection of processes for wastes generated by nuclear power plants to those technologies and strategies which are considered innovative. The report further identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies. The technologies and strategies identified have been evaluated to differentiate between (1) predominant technologies (those that are widely practiced in multiple countries or a large number of nuclear plants), and (2) innovative technologies (those which are not so widely used but are considered to offer benefits which make them suitable for broader application across the industry). Those which fall into the second category are the primary focus of this report. Many IAEA publications address the technical aspects of treatment and conditioning for radioactive wastes, covering research, technological advances, and safety issues. These studies and reports primarily target the research and technical staff of a

  8. Bibliography: books and articles on nuclear waste, nuclear power and power supply during the years 1971-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djerf, M.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The bibliography provides a list of the supply published Swedish books and articles in periodicals on nuclear waste and nuclear power. Regarding book publication the bibliography comprises publications on questions of nuclear power and nuclear waste on the whole, whereas the bibliography on the periodical articles solely comprises nuclear waste questions. The book bibliography consists of a selective choice of publications, identified by a mapping of the total supply of information on energy- and nuclear power issues in articles and other publications in Sweden. The literature inventory as a whole is part of a grater research project aiming at a study of the role of mass media in forming public opinion about the nuclear power waste question. (O.S.)

  9. Liquid waste management at nuclear power plant with WWER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabouni, Zahra.

    1995-07-01

    Management of radioactive wastes have become an area of ever increasing important in nuclear power plants. This is due to the fact that national and international regulations will only allow activity release to the environment based on ALARA principles. Radioactive liquids in the nuclear power plant originate as leakage from equipment, as drains from reactor and auxiliary systems, from decontamination and cleaning operations, from active laundry and from personnel showers. They will collected through the controlled zone of the plant in sumps and automatically pumped to large tanks and then to treatment system. The radioactive wastes are separated and categorized according to their main physical and chemical properties. Methods most frequently applied for low and intermediate level; liquid wastes are: chemical treatment (precipitation), ion exchange, and evaporation, and the decontamination ors are a few hundred, 10 2 -10 4 and 10 3 -10 6 , respectively. As a result of the treatment of radioactive liquids by mentioned methods a concentration of activity takes place in filter media, ion exchange resins, and evaporator concentrates. Before the semi-solid wastes shipped for storage, it has to be solidified in order to handle and transport in easier way. The solidification of wastes can take place by different methods. The general methods are: cementation, and bituminization processes. The selection of each process will depend on many factors which should be considered during the design phase. (author)

  10. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power, and Energy Choices Public Preferences, Perceptions, and Trust

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of studies have investigated public perceptions and preferences about nuclear power, waste management, and technology. However there is clear lack of uniformity in the style, aims and methods applied.  Consequently, the body of results is inconsistent and it is difficult to isolate relevant patterns or interpretations. Nuclear Waste Management, Nuclear Power and Energy Choices: Public Preferences, Perceptions and Trust presents a theoretical base for public reactions then classifies and reviews the large body of surveys carried out over the past decade.   Particular focus is placed on residents within 50 miles US nuclear waste facilities due to the disproportionate presence of nuclear factors in their lives such as the legacy of nuclear waste disposal and job dependency. The motivations and reasons for their views such as fear, attraction to the economic benefits, trust of site managers and federal agencies, cultural views, personal history, and demographic attributes of the people are also conside...

  11. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP

  12. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2/sup 0/F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60/sup 0/F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability.

  13. Nuclear power plant waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryther, J.H.; Huke, R.E.; Archer, J.C.; Price, D.R.; Jewell, W.J.; Hayes, T.D.; Witherby, H.R.

    1977-09-01

    The possibility of using Vermont Yankee condenser effluent for commercial food growth enhancement was examined. It was concluded that for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station, commercial success, both for horticulture and aquaculture endeavors, could not be assured without additional research in both areas. This is due primarily to two problems. First, the particularly low heat quality of our condenser discharge, being nominally 72 +- 2 0 F; and second, to the capital intensive support systems. The capital needed for the support systems include costs of pumps, piping and controls to move the heated water to growing facilities and the costs of large, efficient heat exchangers that may be necessary to avoid regulatory difficulties due to the 1958 Delaney Amendment to the U.S. Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act. Recommendations for further work include construction of a permanent aquaculture research laboratory and a test greenhouse complex based on a greenhouse wherein a variety of heating configurations would be installed and tested. One greenhouse would be heated with biogas from an adjacent anaerobic digester thermally boosted during winter months by Vermont Yankee condenser effluent. The aquaculture laboratory would initially be dedicated to the Atlantic salmon restoration program. It appears possible to raise fingerling salmon to smolt size within 7 months using water warmed to about 60 0 F. The growth rate by this technique is increased by a factor of 2 to 3. A system concept has been developed which includes an aqua-laboratory, producing 25,000 salmon smolt annually, a 4-unit greenhouse test horticulture complex and an 18,000 square foot commercial fish-rearing facility producing 100,000 pounds of wet fish (brook trout) per year. The aqualab and horticulture test complex would form the initial phase of construction. The trout-rearing facility would be delayed pending results of laboratory studies confirming its commercial viability

  14. Disposal of radioactive wastes from Czechoslovak nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, L.

    In gaseous radioactive waste disposal, aerosol particles are filtered and gaseous wastes are discharged in the environment. The filters and filter materials used are stored on solid radioactive waste storage sites in the individual power plants. Liquid radioactive wastes are concentrated and the concentrates are stored. Distillates and low-level radioactive waste water are discharged into the hydrosphere. Solid radioactive wastes are stored without treatment in power plant bunkers. Bituminization and cementation of liquid radioactive wastes are discussed. (H.S.)

  15. Radioactive waste management at nuclear electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordelier, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    After suitable treatment, gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from Nuclear Electric's stations and are diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorized under UK legislation and the environmental impact is minimal. Most solid wastes were originally accumulated at the site of origin, but since 1978 low level wastes (LLW) have been send to the UK's main disposal site at Drigg. Recent changes at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low-level wastes, including volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate-level waste (ILW) have been conditioned and disposed of in the sea but this route is now effectively closed and there is currently no disposal route for ILW in the UK. Spent ion exchange resins at one power station have been conditioned and are stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Most ILW will continue to be stored in retrievable form on the site of origin until a mobile waste treatment plant can be brought into use. The timing of this will be subject to agreement with the regulators. In the case of Magnox fuel element debris, a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored while retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. A further development has been the construction of a new facility which will hold Magnox fuel element debris in 500 liter drums

  16. Management of effluents and radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Management of effluents and radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, from the viewpoint of radiological protection, basically consists of three main themes: 1) developing and implementing actions that minimize, or where possible, eliminate generation. These actions ranging from simple awareness of people involved with the work on project modifications; 2) maintain a system of accounting and control that allows to know the characteristics of effluents and wastes, charting indicators that reveal the performance and trends of plant, and supplying data proving the compliance of national regulatory body standards; 3) Storing the solid waste generated in a safe manner, ensuring that the physical integrity of the packaged is maintained and that there is no impact to the population and the environment

  17. Method of processing concentrated liquid waste in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Kitsukawa, Ryozo; Ohashi, Satoru.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the oxidizable material in the concentrated liquid wastes discharged from nuclear power plants. Constitution: Nitrate bacteria are added to liquid wastes in a storage tank for temporarily storing concentrated liquid wastes or relevant facilities thereof. That is, nitrites as the oxidizable material contained in the concentrated liquid wastes are converted into nitrate non-deleterious to solidification by utilizing biological reaction of nitrate bacteria. For making the conversion more effectively, required time for the biological reaction of the nitrate bacteria is maintained from the injection of nitrate bacteria to solidification, thereby providing advantageous conditions for the propagation of the nitrate bacteria. In this way, there is no problem for the increase of the volume of the powdery wastes formed by the addition of inhibitor for the effect of oxidizable material. Further, heating upon solidification which is indispensable so far is no more necessary to simplify the facility and the operation. Furthermore, the solidification inhibiting material can be reduced stably and reliably under the same operation conditions even if the composition of the liquid wastes is charged or varied. (Kamimura, M.)

  18. Nuclear waste/nuclear power: their futures are linked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoblar, L.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews current aspects of radioactive waste disposal techniques and transportation. Addressed are high-level and low-level radioactive wastes, interim spent fuel storage and transportation. The waste options being explored by DOE are listed. Problems of public acceptance will be more difficult to overcome than technical problems

  19. ELMIA Energy and Future 88. Conference E5. Nuclear power phaseout and storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conference comprised lectures on the following subjects: - How to maintain availability, quality and safety during the phaseout period to the year 2010. - Demolition of nuclear power plants. - Storage of nuclear waste. - Estimate of risks in a long perspective. - Financing of the phaseout. Separate abstracts were prepared for four sections of this report. (O.S.)

  20. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1980-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1980-1993. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs in Austrian Schillings

  1. Nuclear power. Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management. 1990-2002. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-02-01

    This document lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, issued during the period 1990-2002. It gives a short abstract of these publications along with contents and their costs

  2. Ultrafiltration treatment for liquid laundry wastes from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichik, V.A.; Maslova, M.N.; Svittsov, A.A.; Kuleshov, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The authors conduct a comprehensive analysis of the waste constituents--radioactive and organic--of the laundry water resulting from the on-site laundering and decontamination of clothing worn in nuclear power plants. The primary isotope contaminants consist of niobium and zirconium 95, manganese 54, cobalt 60, iron 59, and cesium 134 and 137. A variety of filter and adsorbent materials used in an ultrafiltration process are comparatively tested for their effectiveness in removing not only these isotopes but also the organic contaminants in the process of recycling the water. Those materials consist of copper hexacyanoferrate, polyacrylophosphonic acid, and several metal-polymer complexes

  3. Selected problems of minimization and management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plant decommissioning. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Moravec, A.

    1988-06-01

    The processing prior to storage of radioactive wastes produced in nuclear power plant decommissioning is described as are the types of containers employed for waste transport and/or disposal. Data are summarized on exposure of personnel to radioactivity resulting from nuclear power plant decommissioning activities, and accessible data are collected on the costs of nuclear power plant decommissioning and of waste management. Potential directions of research in this field under Czechoslovak conditions are specified. (author)

  4. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1992 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  7. Radioactive waste treatment system for Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Masaki; Saito, Toru; Kikkawa, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    The augmentation of the radioactive waste treatment system in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station was planned in 1973, and this enlarged facility was completed in June, 1977. The object of this augmentation is to increase the storage capacity for wastes and to enlarge the treating capacity utilizing the newly installed facility. The operating experience in the facility having been already constructed was fed back for the engineering of this new facility. This new facility contains the newly developed vacuum forced circulation type concentrator, the exclusive storage pool for solid wastes, etc. At the design stage of this new system, the pilot plant test of slurry transportation and the corrosion test of long hours were carried out as the research and developmental works for the confirmation of correct design condition. The measures for augmenting this radioactive waste treatment system are the installation of a long time storage tank with the capacity of 350 m 3 , the sit bunker facility and the drum storage as the storage facility, and the vacuum forced circulation type concentrator with the circulating flow rate more than 200 times as much as the treating flow rate and vacuum level of 0.255 ata. The augmented system is shown with the flow sheet of whole waste disposal system. The flow sheet of the concentrator is separately shown, and the relating research and developmental works, for example, the test of the cause of corrosion, the surface finishing test, the material test, the blockage test for heat transfer tubes and the inhibiter test, are explained with the test results. The ion exchange resin is transported by air and water as the slurry state, and the long distance transport of about 250 m is required in this new system. As clogging has to be avoided in this transportation, the experimental work was conducted to obtain the flow characteristics of slurry, and the test result is outlined. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  9. Nuclear power for energy production and hazardous waste regulations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prabhakar; Goel, Gaurav

    2010-01-01

    Before installing any nuclear power- generation plants in India, it is important to implement stringent regulations for the health and safety of the people and for protection of the environment, soil and water from the nuclear and hazardous waste produced in the power plants. Although some initiatives have been taken for radioactive waste disposal in India, the current hazardous and nuclear waste storage/disposal regulations are still too soft and are not being implemented properly in the country

  10. Solid radioactive waste management in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Laixi; He Wenxin; Chen Degan

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the solid radwaste management system, treatment methods and its continuous improvement during the past 9 years in Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS). GNPS has paid great attention and made a lot of efforts to implement the principle of waste minimization with source control, improvement of treatment process and strict management, so the output of solid radwastes has annually decreased since 1994. In 2002, the output of solid radwastes in GNPS was 63.5 m 3 , only 50% of 1995 (127 m 3 ), reached the advanced level as the same type NPPs in France. During the period 1994-2002, the accumulated production of solid radwaste Packages in GNPS is 1563.51 m 3 only 18% of the design value; all the packages meet the standard and requirement for safe disposal. Besides, this paper analyzes some new technical processes and presents some proposals for further decreasing the solid radwaste production

  11. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1999. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear power and nuclear fuel cycle and waste management and issued during the period of 1986-1999. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  12. Management of Radioactive Waste after a Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, Per; Laurent, Gerard; Rindo, Hiroshi; Georges, Christine; Ito, Eiichiro; Yamada, Norikazu; Iablokov, Iuri; Kilochytska, Tatiana; Jefferies, Nick; Byrne, Jim; Siemann, Michael; Koganeya, Toshiyuki; Aoki, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    The NEA Expert Group on Fukushima Waste Management and Decommissioning R and D (EGFWMD) was established in 2014 to offer advice to the authorities in Japan on the management of large quantities of on-site waste with complex properties and to share experiences with the international community and NEA member countries on ongoing work at the Fukushima Daiichi site. The group was formed with specialists from around the world who had gained experience in waste management, radiological contamination or decommissioning and waste management R and D after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. This report provides technical opinions and ideas from these experts on post-accident waste management and R and D at the Fukushima Daiichi site, as well as information on decommissioning challenges. Chapter 1 provides general descriptions and a short introduction to nuclear accidents or radiological contaminations; for instance the Chernobyl NPP accident, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident and the Windscale fire accident. Chapter 2 provides experiences on regulator-implementer interaction in both normal and abnormal situations, including after a nuclear accident. Chapter 3 provides experiences on stakeholder involvement after accidents. These two chapters focus on human aspects after an accident and provide recommendations on how to improve communication between stakeholders so as to resolve issues arising after unexpected nuclear accidents. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide information on technical issues related to waste management after accidents. Chapter 4 focuses on the physical and chemical nature of the waste, Chapter 5 on radiological characterisation, and Chapter 6 on waste classification and categorisation. The persons involved in waste management after an accident should address these issues as soon as possible after the accident. Chapters 7 and 8 also focus on technical issues but with a long-term perspective of the waste direction in the future. Chapter 7 relates

  13. Recycling of concrete waste generated from nuclear power plant dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hideo; Nagase, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nawa, Toyoharu

    2012-01-01

    Non-radioactive concrete waste generated from dismantling of a standard large nuclear power plant is estimated to be about 500,000 tons in weight. Using such waste as recycled aggregate within the enclosure of the plant requires a new manufacturing technology that generates a minimal amount of by-product powder. Recycled aggregate has brittle parts with defects such as cracks, pores, and voids in residual paste from original concrete. This study presents a method of selectively removing the defective parts during manufacture to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate. With this selective removal method used, the amount of by-product powder can be reduced by half as compared to that by a conventional method. The influences of the characteristics of the recycled fine aggregate on the flowability and strength of the mortar using recycled fine aggregate were evaluated by multiple linear regression analysis. The results clearly showed that the flowability was primarily affected by the filling fraction of recycled fine aggregate, while the compressive strength of mortar was primarily affected by the fraction of defects in the aggregate. It was also found that grains produced by a granulator have more irregularities in the surfaces than those produced by a ball mill, providing an increased mortar strength. Using these findings from this study, efforts are also being made to develop a mechanical technology that enables simultaneous processing of decontamination and recycling. The granulator under consideration is capable of grinding the surfaces of irregularly shaped particles and may be used successfully, under optimal conditions, for the surface decontamination of concrete waste contaminated with radioactive materials. (author)

  14. Electrical power supply and controls for a remotely operated glass melter for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haideri, A.Q.

    1985-01-01

    An electrical power supply, controls and instruments used for a joule heated glass melter for nuclear waste are discussed. Remotely replaceable interconnection wiring assemblies for power, controls and instruments are also described

  15. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Koeberg nuclear power station, planned to come on stream in 1984, is expected to save South Africa some six million t/annum of coal, and to contribute some 10 per cent of the country's electricity requirements. The use of nuclear energy will provide for growing national energy needs, and reduce high coal transport costs for power generation at the coast. In the long term, however, it gives rise to the controversial question of nuclear waste storage. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) recently announced the purchase of a site in Namaqualand (NW Cape) for the storage of low-level radioactive waste. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (Pty) Ltd, (NUCOR) will develop and operate the site. The South African Mining and Engineering Journal interviewed Dr P.D. Toens, manager of the Geology Department and Mr P.E. Moore, project engineer, on the subject of nuclear waste, the reasons behind Nucor's choice of site and the storage method

  16. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  17. The role of wastes from nuclear power plants in the overall management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1983-01-01

    The wastes arising from nuclear power plants (NPP) are rather low in activity and the radionuclides contained therein have a low radiotoxicity and short half-life as a rule. However, NPPs are the largest in number among all nuclear facilities and produce the greatest amount of radioactive wastes. All NPPs have been able to keep the radiation doses in the environment below the permissible values, in most cases at 1 mrem/a or even lower. The methods applied for the treatment of liquid radioactive effluents have reached a high degree of effectivity and reliability. For the solidification of the residues several appropriate methods are available. However, some improvements are still desirable. Although methods exist for incineration, cutting and baling of solid wastes, only the last method is employed at NPPs as a rule. Central treatment facilities could improve this situation. The exhaust air treatment has reached a state that satisfies high standards during normal operation and in design base accidents. Improvements seem indicated regarding the in situ-inspection of HEPA-filters and the protection of filters against excess humidity and droplets. The partial and total decommissioning of NPPs has already been demonstrated. The problems caused by the wastes arising from such actions are in the same range as those from routine operation and maintenance of NPPs. Large amounts of radioactive wastes have already been disposed of by shallow land burial, disposal into deep geological formations or dumping into the deep sea. Specific standards could probably facilitate the disposal of wastes from NPPs. The present management of radioactive wastes from NPPs satisfies all actual needs. Therefore, spectacular new developments are neither required nor to be expected. However, by the continuous improvement of details and by optimization of the whole system progress can still be achieved and useful contributions to the further development of nuclear energy be made. (author)

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  19. Discussion about the application of treatment process for dehydrated wet waste at nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guanghua; Wu Qiang

    2009-01-01

    In nuclear power station, the most popular treatment about low level radioactive wet waste generated during the unit operating and maintenance is embedded by cement. For radioactive waste minimization, this article introduces a new treatment process to dehydrate and compress wet waste. According to the development and application of the treatment process for the wet waste, and comparing with the formerly treatment-the cement embedding, prove that the new treatment can meet the purpose for volume reduction of wet waste. (authors)

  20. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-12-06

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well.

  1. Waste management strategy for nuclear fusion power systems from a regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A waste management strategy for future nuclear fusion power systems is developed using existing regulatory methodology. The first step is the development of a reference fuel cycle. Next, the waste streams from such a facility are identified. Then a waste management system is defined to safely handle and dispose of these wastes. The future regulator must identify the decisions necessary to establish waste management performance criteria. The data base and methodologies necessary to make these decisions must then be developed. Safe management of nuclear fusion wastes is not only a technological challenge, but encompasses significant social, political, and ethical questions as well

  2. Management of radioactive waste generated from nuclear power reactors in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong-Mook Kim

    2000-01-01

    Fundamental objectives and efforts to safely manage radioactive wastes generating from the expanding nuclear power industry in the Republic of Korea are described. Management, treatment and storage of radioactive wastes arising in different form are addressed. A long tern plan to reduce the volume of solid waste is outlined. (author)

  3. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  4. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin (National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore)), e-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg

    2010-09-15

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears

  5. The Politics of Nuclear Power and Waste Storage in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    A complex interplay of social, economic, and political factors makes anticipating the scale and scope of nuclear power expansion difficult for both established and aspiring nuclear nations. In response, this article investigates the forms of social, political, and economic organization conducive to nuclear power expansion. We define 'socio-political economy' as the dynamic forces of state and society which influence the nuclear power industry. We begin by developing a theoretical framework of nuclear socio-political economy based primarily upon the evolution of nuclear energy in France (with supplemental insights from the former Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States). This emergent framework posits that strong state involvement in guiding economic development, centralization of national energy planning, campaigns to link technological progress to a national revitalization, influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions, subordination of challenges to political authority, and low levels of civic activism were influential factors in supporting the expansion of nuclear power in France. These six catalysts create conducive conditions in unique ways. First, a history of strong government intervention in guiding the direction of economic development is a requisite condition seemingly because nuclear power is a 'socio--technically inflexible' technology that requires a high degree of supply chain coordination which only the government is capable of unifying. Second, a highly centralized energy sector infuses the requisite control for planning and implementing a sustained expansion of nuclear power in the midst of a politicized environment. Third, the presence of a government strategy that attempts to link technological developments to a national renaissance fosters the formation of a national culture which tolerates risks associated with risk-prone technologies. Fourth, the dominance of a technocratic approach to policymaking appears to provide the

  6. Deployment of Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility with the Introduction of Nuclear Power Plants in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadrack, Antoony; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Uljin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear power program will inevitably generate radioactive wastes including low-and intermediate radioactive waste and spent fuel. These wastes are hazardous to human health and the environment and therefore, a reliable radioactive waste disposal facility becomes a necessity. This paper describes Kenya's basic plans for the disposal of radioactive wastes expected from the nuclear program. This plan is important as an initial implementation of a national Low to intermediate level wastes storage facility in Kenya. In Kenya, radioactive waste is generated from the use of radioactive materials in medicine, industry, education and research and development. Future radioactive waste is expected to arise from nuclear reactors, oil exploration, radioisotope and fuel production, and research reactors as shown in table 1. The best strategy is to store the LILW and spent fuel temporarily within reactor sites pending construction of a centralized interim storage facility or final disposal facility. The best philosophy is to introduce both repository and nuclear power programs concurrently. Research and development on volume reduction technology and conceptual design of disposal facility of LILW should be pursued. Safe management of radioactive waste is a national responsibility for sustainable generation of nuclear power. The republic of Kenya is set to become the second African nuclear power generation country after South Africa.

  7. ``Recycling'' Nuclear Power Plant Waste: Technical Difficulties and Proliferation Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edwin

    2007-04-01

    One of the most vexing problems associated with nuclear energy is the inability to find a technically and politically viable solution for the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. The U.S. plan to develop a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel at Yucca Mountain in Nevada is in jeopardy, as a result of managerial incompetence, political opposition and regulatory standards that may be impossible to meet. As a result, there is growing interest in technologies that are claimed to have the potential to drastically reduce the amount of waste that would require geologic burial and the length of time that the waste would require containment. A scenario for such a vision was presented in the December 2005 Scientific American. While details differ, these technologies share a common approach: they require chemical processing of spent fuel to extract plutonium and other long-lived actinide elements, which would then be ``recycled'' into fresh fuel for advanced reactors and ``transmuted'' into shorter-lived fission products. Such a scheme is the basis for the ``Global Nuclear Energy Partnership,'' a major program unveiled by the Department of Energy (DOE) in early 2006. This concept is not new, but has been studied for decades. Major obstacles include fundamental safety issues, engineering feasibility and cost. Perhaps the most important consideration in the post-9/11 era is that these technologies involve the separation of plutonium and other nuclear weapon-usable materials from highly radioactive fission products, providing opportunities for terrorists seeking to obtain nuclear weapons. While DOE claims that it will only utilize processes that do not produce ``separated plutonium,'' it has offered no evidence that such technologies would effectively deter theft. It is doubtful that DOE's scheme can be implemented without an unacceptable increase in the risk of nuclear terrorism.

  8. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  9. Sampling and transport of paraffin waste form from CWDS of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. M.; Hwang, J. H.; Kim, C. R.; Park, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Sampling and transport of paraffin waste form from concentrated waste drying system (CWDS) of domestic nuclear power plant were performed to collect the leaching characteristic data for the disposal of radioactive waste. Transport was performed according to the national regulations and the internal rules of the nuclear power plant. The sample of paraffin waste form was classified as L type package according to the regulation and radiation exposure of operator was measured in the range of 6 to 12 mrem that was less than the estimated amount

  10. Financing the management of wastes generated by the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, K.; Enderli, P.

    1996-01-01

    Since the beginning of nuclear power production in Switzerland, expenditure on managing operational waste and spent fuel has represented a fixed component of the kilowatt hour production costs which is calculated on the basis of careful estimates of waste management costs. For making these estimates, the operators of the nuclear power plants at Beznau, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt rely on calculations performed by recognised nuclear fuel specialists and on data and empirical values from domestic and foreign waste management organisations. The calculations are subject to periodic review and, where necessary, take into account new information. The last review was concluded at the beginning of 1996. (author) 1 fig

  11. Nuclear waste glass melter design including the power and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    An energy balance of a joule-heated nuclear waste glass melter is used to discuss the problems in the design of the melter geometry and in the specifications of the power and control systems. The relationships between geometry, electrode current density, production rate, load voltage, and load power are presented graphically. The influence of liquid feeding on the surface of the glass and the variability of nuclear waste glass on the design and control during operation is discussed. 10 refs

  12. The Swedish concept for disposal of waste arising from the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power programme consists of 12 reactors producing 50% of the electricity in Sweden. It is stated by law that a waste producer has to make sure a safe handling and disposal of his radioactive waste. SKB is performing necessary activities on behalf of the waste producers. A system is in operation today that will manage all the radioactive waste produced in the country. The system consists of a transportation system, a final repository for operational waste and an interim storage facility for spent fuel. What remains to be built is an encapsulation plant for the spent fuel and a deep repository for final disposal of spent fuel and other long lived waste. All costs for managing and disposal of radioactive waste is paid by the owners of the nuclear power utilities. (author) 9 figs

  13. Safety transport of radioactive waste in the nuclear power area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tureková Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radioactive wastes require strict rules for manipulation with them due to the hazards for the human health and environment, not excluding the hazards during their internal transport. The article deals with the transport of packing unit inside of the company and it proposes the possible alternatives so that meet the limit conditions and reduce the manipulation time with the radioactive material in the packing unit. The packing unite isolates fixated liquid waste from the environment while it also serves as protection. There are also important external radiation characteristics of package unit, which consist of measurable values of the scratch contamination surface and dose power on the surface of package unit. Thus, the paper is aimed to point out the necessity of the logistics during manipulation with the package unit in the process of internal transport so that the dose power of exposed employees would achieve the lowest possible level and meet the strict limits in a full extent.

  14. Determination of 93Zr in nuclear power plant wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osváth, Szabolcs; Vajda, Nora; Molnar, Zsuzsa

    2017-01-01

    A radioanalytical method (based on separation using UTEVA columns and ICP-MS measurement) has been used for determination of 93Zr in 37 nuclear power plant samples. As 93Nb might affect the detection of 93Zr, Monte Carlo activation model was used to calculate the expected 93Zr/natZr mass ratio...

  15. Future-proof radioactive waste treatment technologies for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Klaus; Braehler, Georg [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    In order to select the optimal treatment method for radioactive waste three options can be considered. First, to treat the radioactive waste only to allow long term interim storage until the waste acceptance criteria are defined and the disposal sites are operable. Second, to select treatment methods just in compliance with the current state of discussion with the regard to the above. Third, taking also the future development in the field of waste acceptance criteria and disposal into account. When developing waste treatment systems for Nuclear Power Plants NUKEM Technologies follows the following targets, minimisation of the amount of radioactive waste, maximisation of free release material, volume reduction, avoidance of unwanted materials in the waste package, as well as efficient waste treatment solutions (low investment, high volume reduction). With its technologies produced waste packages fulfil the most stringent waste acceptance criteria.

  16. Volume reduction of dry active waste by use of a waste sorting table at the Brunswick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    Carolina Power and Light Company's Brunswick nuclear power plant has been using a National Nuclear Corporation Model WST-18 Waste Sorting Table to monitor and sort dry active waste for segregating uncontaminated material as a means of low-level waste volume reduction. The WST-18 features 18 large-area, solid scintillation detectors arranged in a 3 x 6 array underneath a sorting/monitoring surface that is shielded from background radiation. An 11-week study at Brunswick showed that the use of the waste sorting table resulted in dramatic improvements in both productivity (man-hours expended per cubic foot of waste processed) and monitoring quality over the previous hand-probe frisking method. Use of the sorting table since the study has confirmed its effectiveness in volume reduction. The waste sorting table paid for its operation in volume reduction savings alone, without accounting for the additional savings from recovering reusable items

  17. IAEA provisional code of practice on management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    This Code of Practice defines the minimum requirements for operations and design of structures, systems and components important for management of wastes from thermal nuclear power plants. It emphasizes what safety requirements shall be met rather than specifies how these requirements can be met; the latter aspect is covered in Safety Guides. The Code defines the need for a Government to assume responsibility for regulating waste management practices in conjunction with the regulation of a nuclear power plant. The Code does not prejudge the organization of the regulatory authority, which may differ from one Member State to another, and may involve more than one body. Similarly, the Code does not deal specifically with the functions of a regulatory authority responsible for such matters, although it may be of value to Member States in providing a basis for consideration of such functions. The Code deals with the entire management system for all wastes from nuclear power plants embodying thermal reactors including PWR, BWR, HWR and HTGR technologies. Topics included are: design, normal and abnormal operation, and regulation of management systems for gaseous, liquid and solid wastes, including decommissioning wastes. The Code includes measures to be taken with regard to the wastes arising from spent fuel management at nuclear power plants. However, the options for further management of spent fuel are only outlined since it is the subject of decisions by individual Member States. The Code does not require that an option(s) be decided upon prior to construction or operation of a nuclear power plant

  18. Liquid radioactive waste processing improvement of PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nery, Renata Wolter dos Reis; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Monteiro, Jose Luiz Fontes

    2005-01-01

    The study evaluate an inorganic ion exchange to process the low level liquid radwaste of PWR nuclear plants, so that the level of the radioactivity in the effluents and the solid waste produced during the treatment of these liquid radwaste can be reduced. The work compares two types of ion exchange materials, a strong acid cation exchange resin, that is the material typically used to remove radionuclides from PWR nuclear plants wastes, and a mordenite zeolite. These exchange material were used to remove cesium from a synthetic effluent containing only this ion and another effluent containing cesium and cobalt. The breakthrough curves of the zeolite and resin using a fix bed reactor were compared. The results demonstrated that the zeolite is more efficient than the resin in removing cesium from a solution containing cesium and cobalt. The results also showed that a bed combining zeolite and resin can process more volume of an effluent containing cesium and cobalt than a bed resin alone. (author)

  19. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This survey was limited to systems and materials used to process waste liquids contaminated with radionuclides. Since the chemical and radiological character of collected liquids may change dramatically, the survey describes waste and cleanup process streams encountered during normal outage or power production conditions. Influents containing specific organic compounds, salts, or solids common to local sources, and the special techniques developed to remove or concentrate these materials are not detailed in this report. The names and phone numbers of the individuals responsible for investigating and solving these problems, however, provides easy access to data which will save time and expense when facing abnormal processing, purchasing, or engineering challenges. The Liquid Radwaste Source Book contains information collected from 31 of 36 BWR's as well as contact information from all licensed commercial units. Since some sites share common radwaste processing facilities, not all units are represented by individual data sheets

  20. Use of waste heat from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper details the Department of Energy (DOE) program concerning utilization of power plant reject heat conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A brief description of the historical development of the program is given and results of recent studies are outlined to indicate the scope of present efforts. A description of a DOE-sponsored project assessing uses for reject heat from the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Station is also given

  1. Method for removing radioactive waste from a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    By using the existing safety and auxiliary systems in a nuclear power plant a bunker-type building is to be linked up with the region of the main airlock, in which the radioactive material to be disposed of may pass through the necessary mechanical and chemical process while being handled in mobile containers. The constructional and engineering measures are described by a design example. (TK) [de

  2. Dictionary of nuclear power and waste management with abbreviations and acronyms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Foo-Sun

    1987-01-01

    This dictionary of definitions, abbreviations and acronyms together with appendices containing lists of element and atomic masses, half-lives, symbols, units, physical constants and conversion tables associated with nuclear technology and waste management has been compiled to enable scientists and laymen to reach a better understanding of the technical terms associated with nuclear power, engineering and waste management. There is a bibliography for further reading.

  3. Management of radioactive wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawickhorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A prerequisite for the acceptance of the nuclear energy system is the effective management of the rad-wastes. Among the wastes to be considered, there are the wastes from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as those from the nuclear fuel cycle. For the management of operating wastes, processes and facilities optimized in the course of several decades, are available, with which the raw solid and liquid wastes can be reduced in volume and turned into products which are physically and chemically stable and thus suitable for final disposal. The management of spent fuel can be done either by direct final disposal or reprocessing. The required interim storage facilities are ready for operation. The methods and a facility for packaging spent fuel for direct final disposal are in an advanced stage of development and construction. If fuel assemblies are to be reprocessed abroad, the wastes generated from the process must be taken back. Decommissioning wastes have technical properties which correspond essentially to the various groups of operating wastes and can thus be processed with similar methods; however since large quantities of them are generated in relatively short times, they present particular logistic problems. All waste types end up in final disposal sites to be built under the responsibility of the federal government. A final disposal site for low level wastes is in operation. In addition, two final disposal projects for accommodating higher level wastes including spent fuel for direct disposal and vitrified wastes from reprocessing, are being pursued. (orig.)

  4. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pligt, J. van der

    1989-01-01

    This chapter present a brief overview of the current situation of siting radioactive wastes. This is followed by an overview of various psychological approaches attempting to analyse public reactions to nuclear facilities. It will be argued that public reactions to nuclear waste factilities must be seen in the context of more general attitudes toward nuclear energy. The latter are not only based upon perceptions of the health and environmental risks but are built on values, and sets of attributes which need not be similar to the representations o the experts and policy-makers. The issue of siting nuclear waste facilities is also embedded in a wider moral and political domain. This is illustrated by the importance of equity issues in siting radioactive wastes. In the last section, the implications of the present line of argument for risk communication and public participation in decisions about siting radioactive wastes will be briefly discussed. (author). 49 refs

  7. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Power and Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are issued in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. If publications are also available in other languages than English, this is noted as C for Chinese, F for French, R for Russian and S for Spanish by the relevant ISBN number. It should be noted that prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings. The prices do not include local taxes and are subject to change without notice. All books in this catalogue are 16 x 24 cm, paper-bound, unless otherwise stated

  8. Educational project for the nuclear power and nuclear waste public acceptance fostering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, M.; Diaconu, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Until now, public acceptance of nuclear power in Romania can be assessed as good. The main motivations could be: the primacy effect of the information, the poverty, the absence of the interest, the relative low informing level. However we expect important changes in the near future: more active NGOs with anti-nuclear opinion, the public's awareness will be more important, serious opposition against the continuation of the nuclear development may appear followed by a reformulation of the Romanian ecologists ideas. The problem of radioactive nuclear wastes (RNW) is the most sensitive and, related to the public opinion, we expect it will become crucial in 10-15 years. The main assumption of our project is that children who are now in schools will be tomorrow's decision makers on 'nuclear energy and RNW. Thus, we intend to prepare the young generation for the future participation in the decision making process related to RNW. The paper shows the main ideas (initial conditions obtained by actual knowledge level measurements, constraints, methods, information contents, evaluation methods and produced outputs) of the educational proposed programme. The work is part of the Romanian contribution to COWAM FP6 project. (authors)

  9. The nuclear waste disaster. A view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power; Das Atommuell-Desaster. Blicke hinter die Kulissen der angeblich sauberen Atomenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Julia; Simon, Armin; Stay, Jochen (comps.)

    2015-04-15

    The brochure on the nuclear waste disaster - a view behind the curtain of the presumably clean nuclear power discusses the following topics: Thuringia and Saxony - radiating landscapes, Gronau - 100.000 tons for eternity, Gundremmingen - nuclear waste records and castor shortage, Brunsbuettel - castor storage facility without licensing, Juelich the pebble bed drama, Karlsruhe - the hall is filled, Obrigheim - radioactive waste for cooking pots, Asse - the ticking bomb, final repositories - an illusion without solution, stop the waste production, Germany - endless nuclear waste.

  10. The use of thermal wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balligand, P.

    1976-01-01

    A glance at the diagrams which summarize national primary energy consumption expressed in tons of oil equivalent for various needs shows that 50% and sometimes more of the energy imput is lost during use. It is only logical that an attempt is being made to use this lost energy. However the solution is not an easy one, as it generally involves energy which is widely distributed in low temperature wastes, at any event in the case of present-day electrical power plants, and the economics of the project must be carefully examined. In the case of agriculture, it may be asserted that many solutions for recovery are available depending on the type of waste. These uses are likely to reduce the fuel consumption of agricultural farms and the areas which can be heated are considerable. However, this means concentrating agricultural installations likely to benefit from hot water economic problems. As for urban heating with a heat pump, in order for the system to be economical, we feel that water must be available at least at the temperature of the water from cooling towers, a minimum of 30 0 C, together with a high user density in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. (orig./RW) [de

  11. Application of ion exchange in liquid radioactive waste management of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Puskar; Chopra, S K; Sharma, P D [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    The operation of nuclear power plants would necessarily result in generation of gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes. The wastes are treated/conditioned to ensure that the permissible discharge limits laid down by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board of India are complied with. The wastes are segregated on activity levels, types of radioisotopes present and chemical nature of liquid streams. The basic philosophy of various treatment techniques is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible. It is of utmost importance that the wastes are effectively treated by proven methods/processes. The radiochemical nature of waste generated is one of the parameters to select a treatment/conditioning method. The paper presents an outline of various processes adopted for treatment of liquid waste and ion exchange processes, their application in liquid waste management in detail. Projected quantities of liquid wastes for the current designs are included. (author). 2 tabs.

  12. Immobilization of wet solid wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wet solid wastes are classified into four basic types: spent resins, filter sludges, evaporator concentrates, and miscellaneous liquids. Although the immobilization of wet solid wastes is primarily concerned with the incorporation of the waste with a solidification agent, there are a number of other discrete operations or subsystems involved in the treatment of these wastes that may affect the immobilized waste product. The immobilization process may be broken down into five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging, and waste package handling. The properties of the waste forms that are ultimately shipped from the reactor site are primarily influenced by the methods utilized during the waste collection, waste pretreatment and mixing/packaging operations. The mixing/packaging (solidification) operation is perhaps the most important stage of the immobilization process. The basic solidification agent types are: absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, bitumen, and other polymer systems

  13. Use of fixation techniques in processing radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliga, M.

    1977-01-01

    The current state of radioactive waste disposal from the Bohunice nuclear power plant is described. The method of vacuum cementation was chosen for solidifying liquid radioactive wastes. This method makes it possible to obtain a product whose properties, namely strength, leachability, and radiation stability allow for the production of blocks without packing material. Also solved was the fixation of liquid radioactive waste using bituminization based on mixing liquid radioactive waste with aqueous bitumen emulsion in a film evaporator in which the mixture of liquid radioactive wastes and bitumen emulsion evaporate producing solid bitumen. The parameters are given of the cementation and bituminization lines which are designed for use in nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors. (J.B.)

  14. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  15. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This scientific document presents an introduction to the nuclear wastes problems, the separation process and the transmutation, the political and technical aspects of the storage, the radioprotection standards and the biological effects. (A.L.B.)

  16. Quantitative analysis of the radioactive wastes to be generated in the Brazilian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Mauro Esteves dos

    1979-01-01

    In the nuclear fuel cycle radioactive waste requiring special treatment (processing, transportation and disposal) is produced. For the implementation of a waste management program, parameters such as volume, specific activity, thermal power, gamma power, (alpha,η) and spontaneous fission neutron production rates are required. In this work, we have calculated: a) The specific activity, thermal power, gamma power and neutron production rate for the irradiated fuel of Angra II; b) The volumes of radioactive waste that will be produced in the nuclear fuel cycle in Brazil; c) The specific activity, thermal power, gamma power and neutron production rate for the high-level waste that will be produced during fuel reprocessing. In the short-term it is concluded that the major problems that will require solution will be the disposal of the low-level waste (volume V L ) and the interim storage of the irradiated fuel elements (volume V F ) generated in the nuclear power plants. For the years 1990 and 2010 these volumes are: (1990) V L = 16149 m 3 ; V F = 1287 m 3 and (2010) V L = 690506 m 3 , V F = 55051 m 3 . In the medium-term the problem of the interim storage of the high-level waste (volume V H ) must be solved. The volumes of this waste we have calculated for the years 2000 and 2010 are: (2000) V H = 50 m 3 and (2010) V H = 1265 m 3 . Long term evaluation of high-level waste disposal must be analysed to aid in initial studies of this problem. Several parameters of this waste have been calculated as a function of time after reprocessing. (author)

  17. State of the art review of radioactive waste volume reduction techniques for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-04-01

    A review is made of the state of the art of volume reduction techniques for low level liquid and solid radioactive wastes produced as a result of: (1) operation of commercial nuclear power plants, (2) storage of spent fuel in away-from-reactor facilities, and (3) decontamination/decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The types of wastes and their chemical, physical, and radiological characteristics are identified. Methods used by industry for processing radioactive wastes are reviewed and compared to the new techniques for processing and reducing the volume of radioactive wastes. A detailed system description and report on operating experiences follow for each of the new volume reduction techniques. In addition, descriptions of volume reduction methods presently under development are provided. The Appendix records data collected during site surveys of vendor facilities and operating power plants. A Bibliography is provided for each of the various volume reduction techniques discussed in the report

  18. Will the waste management problem force us to do without nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    The technical principles and the energy-political importance of the reprocessing of nuclear fuels are explained and the state of the art and safety during operation of such facilities are considered in details. Some safety aspects of reprocessing especially in comparison with nuclear power plants are dealt with. Finally the present situation of nuclear waste management is discussed and the author is expressing his opinion on the title question. (UA) [de

  19. The role of bureaucratic expertise in nuclear waste policy: Agency power and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agency expertise in the nuclear waste policy process is explored during three periods: (1) 1957-1959 when nuclear wastes entered the public agenda, (2) 1970-1972 when the Atomic Energy Commission attempted to establish a waste repository in Kansas, and (3) 1984-1986 during the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The study evaluated whether the preconditions for dependence on or deference to agency expertise have become less favorable, weakening agency control of the policy process. Five factors of expertise power are evaluated, beginning with the agency's role in the nuclear-energy and radioactive-waste information system. Perspectives on nuclear energy generally and of waste issues specifically are examined next; both indicate attitudes on the tractability of the problem and the likelihood of policy success. References to agency behavior and policies are used to evaluate views of agency competency. Finally, views of agency trustworthiness are examined through the comparison of portrayals of agency priorities and motivations. Agency expertise is evaluated in four contexts: (1) Congressional hearings, (2) nationally prominent newspapers, (3) journals of the scientific community, and (4) state and local papers of affected areas. State and tribal officials involved in the 1980s' nuclear waste policy process were surveyed also

  20. Radiochemical methodologies applied to analytical characterization of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Júnior, Aluísio Souza R.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Oliveira, Thiago C. de; Amaral, Ângela M.; Franco, Milton B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present radiochemical methodologies developed at CDTN/CNEN in order to answer a program for isotopic inventory of radioactive wastes from Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. In this program some radionuclides, 3 H, 14 C, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 93 Zr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 235 U, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 + 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm e 243 + 244 Cm, were determined in Low Level Wastes (LLW) and Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and a protocol of analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separation steps and spectrometric and nuclear techniques was established. (author)

  1. Process of liquid radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plant and development trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiean; Wang Xin; Liu Dan; Zhu Laiye; Chen Bin

    2014-01-01

    The popular liquid radioactive waste treatment methods in nuclear power plants (NPP) are Chemical precipitation, evaporation, ion exchange, membrane treatment, chemical coagulation and activated carbon absorption and so on. 'Filter + activated carbon absorption (Chemical coagulation) + ion exchange' has a good prospect for development, as its simple process, high decontamination factor, low energy consumption and smaller secondary wastes. Also the process is used in Sanmen and Haiyang Projects. The severe incident in NPP set an even higher demand on liquid radioactive waste treatment. The new type treatment materials, optimization of the existed treatment, combination of treatment and the mobile treatment facility is the development trend in liquid radioactive waste treatment in NPP. (authors)

  2. The treatment and disposal of liquid waste in the nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    Paper presented by the head of the Industrial Chemistry Group at AERE Harwell at a symposium held by the University of Newcastle upon Tyne (UK) in association with the Institute of Water Pollution Control and the Institution of Chemical Engineers in September 1977. Main headings are as follows: general introduction; units of measurement of radioactivity; environmental considerations (disposal authorisations, natural background, critical path approach, discharges to the sea, discharges to rivers); types of liquid waste (general, high level wastes, wastes from chemical processing stages, wastes from nuclear power stations, miscellaneous wastes); treatment techniques (general, evaporation, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis); disposal of radioactive concentrates (high level wastes, sludges, exhausted ion exchangers, etc.). It is concluded that the main task remaining is to find the best means of ultimate disposal of high level wastes. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends 1995. Part C of the IAEA Yearbook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1994 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Nuclear Power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management: Status and trends 1996. Part C of the IAEA yearbook 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report was jointly prepared by the Division of Nuclear Power and the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management as part of an annual overview of both global nuclear industry activities and related IAEA programmes. This year's report focuses on activities during 1995 and the status at the end of that year. The trends in the industry are projected to the year 2010. Special events and highlights of IAEA activities over the past year are also presented. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Plan 96 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes from the Swedish nuclear power reactors. The cost calculations include costs for R,D and D as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. The following facilities and systems are already in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products, Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, Final repository for radioactive operational wastes. Plans exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel, Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste, Final repository for decommissioning waste. The total future costs, in Jan 1996 prices, for the Swedish waste system from 1997 have been calculated to be 42.2 billion SEK (about 6.4 billion USD). The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. It is estimated that 10.6 billion SEK in current money has been spent through 1996. Costs based on waste quantities from operation of the reactors for 40 years are also reported. 6 refs

  6. Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper shows some recent examples of Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants: - Radioactive liquid wastes proceeding from steam generators leaching (NOGENT SUR SEINE-1 REACTOR) - Thermal insulation proceeding from heat exchanger and blower (CHINON-2 REACTOR) - Old iron from reactor dismantling (CHINON-3 REACTOR, MARCOULE G1 REACTOR, MARCOULE G2-G3 REACTORS) - fresh air filter and fire detector - CHINON-2 REACTOR breaker chambers

  7. Processing of nuclear power plant waste streams containing boric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Boric acid is used in PWR type reactor's primary coolant circuit to control the neutron flux. However, boric acid complicates the control of water chemistry of primary coolant and the liquid radioactive waste produced from NPP. The purpose of this report is to provide member states with up-to-date information and guidelines for the treatment and conditioning of boric acid containing wastes. It contains chapters on: (a) characteristics of waste streams; (b) options for management of boric acid containing waste; (c) treatment/decontamination of boric acid containing waste; (d) concentration and immobilization of boric acid containing waste; (e) recovery and re-use of boric acid; (f) selected industrial processes in various countries; and (g) the influence of economic factors on process selection. 72 refs, 23 figs, 5 tabs

  8. Structural radioactive waste from 'retubing/refurbishment' of Embalse nuclear power plant. Regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Daniela E.; Lee Gonzales, Horacio M.; Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the building of a new nuclear reactor, the 'retubing / refurbishment' of nuclear reactors that have been in operation for many years, involves the replacement of components in a radioactive environment. This requires a carefully planned radiation protection program to ensure protection of workers, the public and the environment as well as a radioactive waste management program for those radioactive waste generated during the process, which go beyond those generated during the normal operation and maintenance of the plant. Nucleoelectrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA) is scheduled to conduct the Life Extension Process of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (CNE) which essentially consist of 'retubing / refurbishment' of the installation. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) will then have an important activity related to the above process. In particular, this paper will describe some points of interest related to the generation and management of radioactive waste during the 'retubing / refurbishment' of the CNE, from the regulatory point of view. (author)

  9. The state of radioactive waste management and of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    (1) The state of radioactive waste management in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes are all below the control objective levels. For the respective nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes in fiscal 1983 and the objective levels are given in table. And, the quantities of solid wastes taken into storage and the cumulative amounts are given. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (2) The state of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the personnel radiation exposures are all below the permissible levels. The dose distribution etc. in the respective nuclear power stations are given in table. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (Mori, K.)

  10. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Lab. for radioecology, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides {sup 58}Co and {sup 60}Co 100%, and over 60% for {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs. (authors)

  11. Utilization of red mud for the purification of waste waters from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, Mikelic; Visnja, Orescanin; Stipe, Lulic

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of the radionuclides and heavy metals from low level liquid radioactive waste on the coagulant produced from bauxite waste (red mud and waste base) was presented. Research was conducted on composite annual samples of waste water collected in the Waste Monitor Tank (W.M.T.) from Kro Nuclear Power Plant during each month. Activities of radionuclide in W.M.T. were measured before and after purification using high purity germanium detector. Also, elemental concentrations in W.M.T. before and after purification were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (E.D.X.R.F.). It has been showed that activated red mud is excellent purification agent for the removal of radionuclides present in low level liquid radioactive waste. Removal efficiency was 100% for the radionuclides 58 Co and 60 Co 100%, and over 60% for 134 Cs and 137 Cs. (authors)

  12. Gaseous waste processing device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takechi, Eisuke; Matsutoshi, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To arrange the units of waste processing devices in a number one more than the number thereof required for a plurality of reactors, and to make it usable commonly as a preliminary waste processing device thereby to effectively use all the gaseous waste processing devices. Constitution: A gaseous waste processing device is constituted by an exhaust gas extractor, a first processing device, a second processing device and the like, which are all connected in series. Upon this occasion, devices from the exhaust gas extractor to the first processing device and valves, which are provided in each of reactors, are arranged in series, on one hand, but valves at the downstream side join one another by one pipeline, and are connected to a stack through a total gaseous waste processing device, on another. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Safety analysis of disposal of decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant - PURKU-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Meszaros, F.; Nordman, H.; Taivassalo, V.

    1993-12-01

    Decommissioning waste from the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant will be disposed of at the depth between 60 and 100 meters in the bedrock at the power plant site. The existing VLJ repository for low and medium level operating waste will be extended with three new silos for the decommissioning waste of the TVO I and II reactors and the spent fuel interim store at the Olkiluoto site. Besides dismantling waste also used fuel boxes, control rods and other activated metal components accumulated during the operation of the reactors will be disposed of in the repository. The safety analysis is based on the detailed decommissioning plan of the Olkiluoto power plants and the comprehensive safety analysis carried out for the Final Safety Analysis Report of the VLJ repository. (58 refs., 31 figs., 38 tabs.)

  14. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste in the Spanish Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M. A.; Gonzalez, R.; Gomez, N.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to perform a comparative evaluation of the practices carried out in the field of waste management in the Spanish nuclear power plants. Once compared such practices have been established recommendations that may be of interest for application in other plants.

  15. Nuclear power plant decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the U.K.. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective control of the decommissioning and radioactive waste management of nuclear power plant in United Kingdom are introduced. The Government established the legislative framework and national strategy, operators provided the necessary skills and equipment for implementation, and the regulators used the legislative controls to ensure a safe system of work is achieved and maintained

  16. Composite reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel - is a way to low waste nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyakov, Valentin

    2005-01-01

    Further development of nuclear power in many respects depend on the solution of the problems connected to high level radioactive wastes (HLRW), containing highly toxic long-lived radionuclides. Long-term controlled storage of HLRW manages expensively and any advanced technology of reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), besides recovery of the basic products, should be aimed at the reduction of this waste amount. However, the existing SNF reprocessing technology, using PUREX - process, is aimed only at extraction of uranium and plutonium, considering the remaining fraction (other transuranium elements and all fission products) as HLRW. In this work an attempt is made to give quantitative and qualitative characteristics to the isotopes and the elements which are included in the composition of HLRW after 15-years storage. Depending on the radiation properties of the isotopes included, these elements were divided into three categories: 1. The elements represented by only stable isotopes; 2. The elements represented by mostly low radioactive isotopes; 3. The elements represented by highly toxic long-lived radionuclides. As a result it appeared, that the weight percentage of the elements of the first, the second and the third categories in HLRW was: 60, 25 and 15% respectively. It means, that the amount of the real HLRW to be disposed in a deep geological repository could be reduced at least by a factor of 6, if to recover completely only 7 most dangerous elements (Sr, J, Cs, Sm, Np, Am and Cm) from the solution remaining after extraction of uranium and plutonium. Then it is meaningful to recover the elements of the first category from the remaining mix. As the main part of this fraction is represented by rare earth elements and noble metals, which can easily find many useful application. (author)

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy has proposed a draft plan for investigating the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site to determine if it suitable for a waste repository. This fact sheet provides information on the status of DOE's and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's efforts to streamline what NRC expects will be the largest and most complex nuclear-licensing proceeding in history, including the development of an electronic information management system called the Licensing Support System

  18. Treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehr, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany and many other European countries, having very high population densities, must make the most efficient use of their soil, their ground and surface waters. In Germany, no method of waste disposal could be used which included direct storage or seepage into the upper strata of the soil or a discharge into rivers or lakes. It has been shown after more than 20 years experience of treatment of low and intermediate level liquid and solid wastes and disposal of solidified residues in a salt mine, that a number of techniques and procedures are available for manageing this kind of waste with a high degree of safety. A complete system of waste collection, treatment methods and controlled disposal of low and intermediate radioactive residues in accordance with legally established rules and regulations offers the best guarantee for environmental protection. (orig./RW)

  19. PLAN 98 - Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The nuclear utilities in Sweden are responsible for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The most important measures are to plan, build and operate the facilities and systems needed, and to conduct related R and D. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products. Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB. Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR I. Plans also exist for: Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel. Deep repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants etc. At the end of 1995, certain amendments were made in the Financing Act which influence the calculations presented in this report. The most important amendment is that the reactor owners, besides paying a fee or charge on nuclear energy production, must also give guarantees as security for remaining costs. In this way the fee can be based on a probable cost for waste management. This cost includes uncertainties and variations that are normal for this type of project. Cost increases as a consequence of major changes, disruptions etc. can instead be covered via the given guarantees. The total future costs, in January 1998 prices, for the Swedish waste management system from 1999 onward has been calculated to be SEK 45.8 billion. The total costs apply for the waste obtained from 25 years of operation of all Swedish reactors. They will fall due over a total period of approximately 50 years up to the middle of the 2l st century, but the greater part will fall due during the next 20 years. It is estimated that SEK 12.1 billion in current money terms

  20. Management of wastes from dismantled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The problems associated with the management of radioactive wastes encountered in the dismantling of a 1200MWe PWR reactor are considered. It is possible to extend all the conclusions reached in these studies to BWR's or other reactors of the same type using light water as a coolant and moderator. The studies performed established the specific characteristics of these wastes: a gamma activity due essentially to 60 Co (after some fifty years this radioisotope will have decayed sufficiently to enable it to be stored without shielding); the presence of 63 Ni and 59 Ni (these long half-life beta emitting radioisotopes need to be stored over a long or even indefinite period of time); contaminated components (60% of the overall wastes), the reselling of these components involving costly decontamination processes. Extensive studies have been conducted on the management and handling of these wastes: packaging, transport, processing, storage and a great many techniques have been developed. However, further developments in concentration methods (fusion, crushing, cryogenics etc) and the selection of storage sites for this type of waste are necessary. Depending on the solutions chosen, the global cost of the wastes coming from a 1200 MW PWR reactor can vary between 10 and 20 million BFR

  1. Legal and technical problems in the management of radioactive waste from the nuclear power cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, F.R.; Driscoll, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power generation like all other industrial activities results in the production of wastes, the principal difference between radioactive wastes and other wastes being that it is at present impossible to dispose of significant quantities of the former in the environment. However, the possibility of their disposal without having to control them remains a long-term objective and numerous countries are pursuing detailed scientific research on the subject. In the meantime storage and control in a manner appropriate to their nature and aimed at preventing all accidental dispersal to the environment is the only solution. (NEA) [fr

  2. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, A.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association has specific views on the following aspects of waste management: a) public information and public participation programs should be encouraged; b) positive political leadership is essential; c) a national plan and policy are necessary; d) all hazardous materials should receive the same care as radioactive wastes; e) power plant construction need not be restricted as long as there is a commitment to nuclear waste management; f) R and D should be funded consistently for nuclear waste management and ancillary topics like alternative fuel cycles and reprocessing. (E.C.B.)

  3. Research programme on the conditioning of nuclear power waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1981-01-01

    Main parts of this programme have included the use of zeolites and titanates to improve reactor waste treatment, the fractionation of high level reprocessing waste by extraction, and a study of liquid partition chromotographic technique for the removal of impurities from reactor cooling circuits. Preparation of large crystal zeolites has been continued and refined. For titanate production new routes are tried to produce material of a form suitable for use in a sorption process. The possibility of lithium-7 recovery from spent PWR resins in the elution process is under study. Final products from different routes of heat treatment of loaded zeolites and titanates are characterized and compared. In parallell to this work a full-scale system is under study including transport, system design, integrated process flowsheets and cost estimates. The aim is to have basis early in 1982 to decide on the merits of a plant at the planned repository for low and medium level waste (SFR), to be commissioned around 1990. In the high level waste fractionation project, a demonstration of the developed process has been performed on a fission product solution from the reprocessing of low burn-up fuel. Disregarding some equipment malfunction the design goal of better than 99.99 % actinide removal from the high level waste waste solution was reached. The basic chemistry of the process seems to be quite tolerant against reasonable flow rate deviations in the extraction cycles. Also the concluding sorption step on mordenite-titanate worked quite well. The small scale experiments on liquid partition chromatographic techniques have included studies of the capacity of various carrier materials treated with NH 4 DEHP or Aliquat-336 to sorb radioactive impurities from reactor water, both in the laboratory and at the Ringhals-1 BWR. (author)

  4. Recycling by coverting organic waste to fertilize at Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, T.; Matsuoka, H.

    2008-01-01

    In order to cope with global- warming and Dioxin issue, we started the Project in which all kinds of organic wastes originated on site are fermented to organic fertilizer with the help of YM bacteria in 2001. And in 2006 our product was officially approved as fertilizer by regulatory body, and then we started to sell these fertilizers to farmers near-by. Among many power stations in Japan, Ikata Nuclear Power Station may be the first plant where organic wastes are totally reused as commercial-based fertilizer. (author)

  5. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  6. Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Today, numerous countries are considering construction of their first nuclear power plant or the expansion of a small nuclear power programme, and many of these countries have limited experience in managing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. They often have limited information about available technologies and approaches for safe and long term management of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel arising from power reactors. The lack of basic know-how and of a credible waste management strategy could present a major challenge or even an obstruction for countries wishing to

  7. Removing radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations by the STEAG system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1978-01-01

    The mobile STEAG System for conditioning radio-active wastes from nuclear power stations represents a particularly safe and economic method of removing them in present day conditions. Cementation by the FAFNIR System is used for the greater part of the waste, the liquid concentrate (evaporator concentrate and filter slurry). For the special case of the medium active resin balls from the primary circuits, embedding in plastic by the FAMA process has proved to be the only available successful process so far. The highly active solid waste from the reactor core is decomposed by the MOSAIK System, is packed in transportable and storable containers and is removed from the fuel element storage pond. The systems are so safe that faults or interruptions of power station operation due to faults in removing radio-active wastes can be excluded. (orig.) [de

  8. Development of radioactive waste treatment system for nuclear power stations by Toshiba (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, H.; Takahara, T.; Matsuda, T.; Matsuura, H.; Yasumura, K.; Nakayama, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a solidification process with thermosetting resin to satisfy both requirements of volume reduction and quality of solidified products. Volumes of solidified products in drums generated from spent resins and concentrated wastes were reduced respectively to 1/4 and less than 1/6 of those in the conventional cement solidification process. In plants using a simple demineralizing system for condensate polishing, a large amount of waste water with regenerant chemicals is generated from the condensate demineralizer. In general, radioactivity concentration of wastes from this type of nuclear power plant is comparatively high, so the dose rate at the surface of drums containing solidified wastes exceeds 200mR/h. A pelletizing system for radioactive wastes was developed to reduce their volumes and allow their interim storage until the radioactivity decays down to a level at which they can be handled easily

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power generating stations: Characterization, classification and assessment of activated metals and waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.

    1993-02-01

    Since the enactment of 10 CFR Part 61, additional difficult-to-measure long-lived radionuclides, not specified in Tables 1 2 of Part 61, have been identified (e.g., 108m Ag, 93 Mo, 36 Cl, 10 Be, 113m Cd, 121m Sn, 126 Sn, 93m Nb) that may be of concern in certain types of waste. These nuclides are primarily associated with activated metal and perhaps other nuclear power low-level waste (LLW) being sent to disposal facilities. The concentration of a radionuclide in waste materials is normally determined by direct measurement or by indirect calculational methods, such as using a scaling factor to relate inferred concentration of a difficult-to-measure radionuclide to another that is easily measured. The total disposal site inventory of certain difficult-to-measure radionuclides (e.g., 14 C, 129 I, and 99 Tc) often control the total quantities of radioactive waste permitted in LLW burial facilities. Overly conservative scaling factors based on lower limits of detection (LLD), often used in the nuclear power industry to estimate these controlling nuclides, could lead to premature closure of a disposal facility. Samples of LLW (Class B and C activated metals [AM] and other waste streams) are being collected from operating nuclear power stations and analyzed for radionuclides covered in 10 CFR Part 61 and the additional difficult-to-measure radionuclides. This analysis will enhance the NRC's understanding of the distribution and projected quantities of radionuclides within AM and LLW streams from commercial nuclear power stations. This research will also provide radiological characterization of AM specimens for others to use in leach-rate and lysimeter experiments to determine nuclide releases and subsequent movement in natural soil environments

  10. The management of the radioactive waste generated by the EDF nuclear power plants in service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantes, B.; Beguin, St.

    2011-01-01

    From the very beginning of France's nuclear power programme, EDF has developed industrial-scale management of the waste it produces, which has constantly progressed in line with changes in the regulations and the available technology. This management process, improved thanks to feedback and experience, ensures that any risk of exposure, at every stage, from production to final disposal, is controlled. The guidelines adopted by EDF for sustainable management of its waste are as follows: -) reduce the quantity of waste, from the production stage and then through recycling and reprocessing; -) sort waste according to its nature and activity level, so that it can be processed and packaged appropriately and the appropriate long-term management solution implemented; -) package waste as soon as it is produced to prevent any risk of dispersion; -) store waste, pending decay or the availability of an appropriate disposal solution; -) transport and place waste in repositories, keeping it away from Man and the environment by means of engineered or natural barriers for as long as required for the radioactivity to decay to an acceptable level. Regarding short-lived waste produced during operating and maintenance activities at power plants in service, EDF currently implements fully-integrated industrial management solutions which are constantly being optimised in conjunction with its industrial partners. (authors)

  11. Nuclear waste landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors explore the time dimension in nuclear waste disposal, with the hope of untangling future land use issues for a full range of radioactive waste facilities. The longevity and hazards presented by nuclear reactor irradiated (spent) fuel and liquid reprocessing waste are well known. Final repositories for these highly radioactive wastes, to be opened early in the 21st Century, are to be located deep underground in rural locations throughout the developed world. Safety concerns are addressed by engineered and geological barriers containing the waste containers, as well as through geographic isolation from heavily populated areas. Yet nuclear power plants (as well as other applications of atomic energy) produce an abundance of other types of radioactive wastes. These materials are generally known as low level wastes (LLW) in the United States, though their level of longevity and radioactivity can vary dramatically

  12. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Even thought risk assessment is an essential consideration in all projects involving radioactive or hazardous waste, its public role is often unclear, and it is not fully utilized in the decision-making process for public acceptance of such facilities. Risk assessment should be an integral part of such projects and should play an important role from beginning to end, i.e., from planning stages to the closing of a disposal facility. A conceptual model that incorporates all potential pathways of exposure and is based on site-specific conditions is key to a successful risk assessment. A baseline comparison with existing standards determines, along with other factors, whether the disposal site is safe. Risk assessment also plays a role in setting priorities between sites during cleanup actions and in setting cleanup standards for certain contaminants at a site. The applicable technologies and waste disposal designs can be screened through risk assessment

  13. Low-level radioactive waste processing at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Solid Radwaste Processing Source Book is presented as a supplement to the Liquid Radwaste Source Book released in 1990 and updated in 1991. The publication is the result of an industry-wide survey, and is intended as a resource for technical and managerial decisions involving of the processing of solid radioactive waste including ''wet'' and ''dry'' active waste as found at both Pressurized and Boiling Water Reactor sites. In addition to information on processes, vendors, volumes, and in-plant management activities, technology under consideration for future use and computer applications are listed. Together with key personnel and contact information contained in the Liquid Source Books, the collected data will be of great use when seeking specific, unbiased experience on which to base decisions related to so processing, disposal policy, or potential economic and regulatory impact

  14. The raw material and waste activity balance in the projected nuclear power of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Orlov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Under discussion is the management of long-lived high-level wastes in the nuclear energy sector of Russia, the development of which on a large scale in the next century is motivated by the need for arresting the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. The prerequisites for the nuclear power growth consists in the design of naturally safe reactors and development of a transmutational nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology. The choice of operations in such a cycle and of their quantitative characteristics, is aimed at minimizing the wastes to approach the radiation balance with the natural uranium extracted and put to use. The paper discusses the way the approximation to the balance between the raw material and waste activity is influenced by introduction of the transmutational NFC (in case 2), inclusion of transmutation reactors into the energy mix (case 1), partial disposal of actinide wastes into outer space, and by recycling of protactinium (case 3). It is shown that such a balance can be sustained for a considerable time in cases 2 and 3 or throughout the operation stage of the future nuclear power (case 1). (orig.)

  15. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  16. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  17. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the Department of Energy is to annually determine whether the waste disposal fee will produce sufficient revenues to offset the total estimated costs of the waste disposal program. In its June 1987 assessment, DOE recommended that the fee remain unchanged even though its analysis showed that at an inflation rate of 4 percent the current fee would result in end-of-program deficits ranging from $21 billion to $76 billion in 2085. The 1988 assessment calls for reduced total costs because of program changes. Thus, DOE may be able to begin using a realistic inflation rate in determining fee adequacy in 1988 without proposing a major fee increase

  18. America's nuclear waste backlog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, R.

    1981-01-01

    This report discusses three topics: concern and controversy relating to nuclear waste; high-level waste storage and politics of waste disposal. The most pressing waste disposal problem concerns spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants. It was expected that commercial spent fuel would be sent to commercial reprocessing plants. The feasibility of commercial reprocessing in the United States is contingent on the expansion of the nuclear power industry. The current high-level liquid waste inventory is about 77 million gallons. These are stored at Richland, Washington; Aiken, South Carolina; and Idaho Falls, Idaho. The only commercial high-level wastes ever produced are stored at the defunct reprocessing facility at West Valley, New York. A high-level waste repository must be capable of isolating wastes that will remain dangerous for thousands of years. Salt has long been considered the most suitable medium for high-level and transuranic waste disposal. The timetable for opening a deep geological repository is one of the issues that will have to be dealt with by Congress. The 97th Congress appears ready to act on high-level nuclear waste legislation. Even opponents of nuclear expansion admit the necessity of legislation. Even if Congress gets its act together, it does not mean that the nuclear waste issue is gone. There are still unknowns - future of reprocessing, the needs and demands of the military; the health of the nuclear power industry; the objections of residents in potential site areas; the possibility of a state veto, and the unsolved technological problems in geologic site selection

  19. Management of radioactive waste in nuclear power: handling of irradiated graphite from water-cooled graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an radioactive waste processing of graphite from graphite moderated nuclear reactors at its decommissioning is discussed. Methods of processing of irradiated graphite are presented. It can be concluded that advanced methods for graphite radioactive waste handling are available nowadays. Implementation of these methods will allow to enhance environmental safety of nuclear power that will benefit its progress in the future

  20. Radiochemical methodologies applied to analytical characterization of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Júnior, Aluísio Souza R.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Oliveira, Thiago C. de; Amaral, Ângela M.; Franco, Milton B., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: esct@cdtn.br, E-mail: tco@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: francom@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present radiochemical methodologies developed at CDTN/CNEN in order to answer a program for isotopic inventory of radioactive wastes from Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. In this program some radionuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}+{sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm e {sup 243}+{sup 244}Cm, were determined in Low Level Wastes (LLW) and Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and a protocol of analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separation steps and spectrometric and nuclear techniques was established. (author)

  1. China's current status and long-term outlook of nuclear power and radioactive waste disposal management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    This study identified the current status and long-term outlook of China's nuclear power development and radioactive waste disposal management after the 3.11 FUKUSHIMA accidents. China strengthened the actions for achieving nuclear power safety and cost efficiency as well as safety management of radioactive waste. It is a hard work to expand the capacity to 58 GW, the governmental target in 2020. The long-term development will strongly depend on the progress in safety management of nuclear power and radioactive waste and economic competitiveness. (author)

  2. Managing radioactive wastes of nuclear power plants in operation and site decommissioning phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardalani, E.; Khadivi, S.

    2008-01-01

    A large nuclear reactor annually produces about 25-50 tons consumed Uranium. These consumed materials consist of Uranium and also Plutonium and Curium. In total, about three percent of these materials are remained from fission. Existing actinides (Uranium, Plutonium, and Curium) cause long-term and short-term radiation that could have harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the diverse effects of radioactive wastes in Nuclear Power Plants, different procedures are employed such as compaction, chemical treatment, vitrification, canning and sealing with concrete and safe storage. In this paper, the harmful effects of nuclear wastes on the environment are introduced and a management procedure is presented to minimize its diverse effects

  3. Radioactive waste disposal by nuclear power plants in the light of operational economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhard, H.; Schmidt, D.

    1984-01-01

    The expansion of power generation on the basis of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany calls for answers also to the questions arising at the level of operating efficiency from the radioactive waste disposal requirements necessarily associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. As these are measures of very long-term consequences and which are, for the greater part, only-coming up in future, not only the effects to be expected on the balance of trade and taxbalance, but also the influence on price calculation will be of paramount importance for public utilities. Moreover, because of the continually increasing financial reserves for radioactive waste disposal the financing aspects are gaining added weight; reliance on foreign capital, anyhow specific to that sector of industry, is much aggravated. (orig.) [de

  4. Radioactive waste management in nuclear power plants with WWER-type reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlouhy, Z; Napravnik, J; Safar, O

    1975-05-01

    The possibilities of radioactive waste solidification in nuclear power plants with LWR reactors (of the WWER type) and the problems of their safe storage in Czechoslovakia are discussed. The most suitable method for the treatment of emitted sorbents and concentrates seems to be their incorporation in bitumen or concrete. In the disposal of solidified blocks all requirements should be met including the selection of suitable sites and of convenient methods of transportation. A preliminary economic estimate shows that the storage of bitumen-incorporated wastes in trenches seems to be less expensive from the point of view of exploitation of the storage facility as well as from the point of view of investment.

  5. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-01-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  6. Leachability of radionuclides from cement solidified waste forms produced at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croney, S.T.

    1985-03-01

    This study determined the leachability indexes of radionuclides contained in solidified liquid wastes from operating nuclear power plants. Different sizes of samples of cement-solidified liquid wastes were collected from two nuclear power plants - a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor - to correlate radionuclide leaching from small- and full-sized (55-gallon) waste forms. Diffusion-based model analysis (ANS 16.1) of measured radionuclide leach data from both small- and full-sized samples was performed and indicate that leach data from small samples can be used to determine leachability indexes for full-sizes waste forms. The leachability indexes for cesium, strontium, and cobalt isotopes were determined for waste samples from both plants according to the models used for ANS 16.1. The leachability indexes for the pressurized water reactor samples were 6.4 for cesium, 7.1 for strontium, and 10.4 for cobalt. Leachability indexes for the boiling water reactor samples were 6.5 for cesium, 8.6 for strontium, and 11.1 for cobalt

  7. The study on the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning waste in the nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Ozaki, Sachio; Hirai, Mitsuyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Usui, Tatsuo; Simizu, Yasuo; Ogane, Daisuke

    2000-01-01

    To establish the technique of the recycle for concrete waste, this paper describes the recycle condition for existence of the decommissioning concrete waste in the nuclear power plant and considers the durability of cask yard concrete constructed at about twenty years ago. The authors examine the recycle system of concrete in the power plant. (author)

  8. Conditioning and handling of tritiated wastes at Canadian nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krochmalnek, L.S.; Krasznai, J.P.; Carney, M.

    1987-04-01

    Ontario Hydro operates a 10,000 MW capacity nuclear power system utilizing the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor design. The use of D 2 O as moderator and coolant results in the production of about 2400 Ci of tritium per MWe-yr. As a result, there is significant Canadian experience in the treatment, handling, transport and storage of tritiated wastes. Ontario Hydro operates its own reactor waste storage site which includes systems for volume reduction, immobilization and packaging of wastes. In addition, a facility to remove tritium from heavy water is presently being commissioned at the Darlington nuclear site. This facility will generate tritiated liquid and solid waste that will have to be properly conditioned prior to storage or disposal. The nature of these various wastes and the processes/packaging required to meet storage/disposal criteria are judged to have relevance to investigations in fusion facility waste arisings. Experience to date, planned operational procedures and ongoing R and D in this area are described

  9. High level nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, B.

    1987-01-01

    The transformations involved in the nuclear fuels during the burn-up at the power nuclear reactors for burn-up levels of 33.000 MWd/th are considered. Graphs and data on the radioactivity variation with the cooling time and heat power of the irradiated fuel are presented. Likewise, the cycle of the fuel in light water reactors is presented and the alternatives for the nuclear waste management are discussed. A brief description of the management of the spent fuel as a high level nuclear waste is shown, explaining the reprocessing and giving data about the fission products and their radioactivities, which must be considered on the vitrification processes. On the final storage of the nuclear waste into depth geological burials, both alternatives are coincident. The countries supporting the reprocessing are indicated and the Spanish programm defined in the Plan Energetico Nacional (PEN) is shortly reviewed. (author) 8 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  11. Nuclear waste. Last stop Siberia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Safe and environmentally sound management of nuclear waste and spent fuel is an unresolved problem of nuclear power. But unlike other nuclear nations, Russia has much more problems with nuclear waste. Russia inherited these problems from the military programs and decades of nuclear fuel cycle development. Nuclear waste continue to mount, while the government does not pay serious enough attention to the solution of the waste problem and considers to increase the capacity of nuclear power plants (NPPs). There are more than 1000 nuclear waste storages in Russia.1 More than 70 million tons of the solid waste has been accumulated by the year 2005, including 14 million tons of tails of the decommissioned uranium mine in the North Caucasus. President Putin said that ''infrastructure of the waste processing is extremely insufficient''. (orig.)

  12. Public attitudes regarding nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    This paper traces the history of public attitudes regarding nuclear waste issues. A majority of the public has recently developed the attitude that nuclear wastes are a serious problem, and a small percentage of the public opposes nuclear power mainly because of nuclear waste issues. However, a majority of the public has confidence in the ability of technologists to solve the problems associated with nuclear waste disposal. Finally, the attitudes of nuclear technologists regarding waste disposal differed greatly from the attitudes of other groups, especially environmentalists

  13. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  14. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  15. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  17. Low activation material design methodology for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Kakinuma, N.; Kinno, M.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the concrete shielding walls and pipes around a reactor pressure vessel of a light water reactor become low level radioactive waste at decommission phase because they contain radioactive nuclides by thermal-neutron irradiation during its operation. The radioactivity of some low level radioactive wastes is close to the clearance level. It is very desirable in terms of life cycle cost reduction that the radioactivity of those low level radioactive wastes is decreased below clearance level. In case of light water reactors, however, methodology of low activation design of a nuclear plant has not been established yet because the reactor is a large-scale facility and has various structural materials. The Objectives of this work are to develop low activation material design methodology and material fabrication for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant such as reinforced concrete. To realize fabrication of reduced radioactive concrete, it is necessary to develop (1) the database of the chemical composition of raw materials to select low activation materials, (2) the tool for calculation of the neutron flux and the spectrum distribution of nuclear plants to evaluate radioactivity of reactor components, (3) optimization of material process conditions to produce the low activation cement and the low activation steels. Results of the data base development, calculation tools and trial production of low activation cements will be presented. (authors)

  18. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselli, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) established two separate special bank accounts: the Nuclear Waste Fund (NWF) was established to finance all of the Federal Government activities associated with the disposal of High-Level Waste (HLW) or Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The Interim Storage Fund (ISF) is the financial mechanism for the provision of Federal Interim Storage capacity, not to exceed 1900 metric tons of SNF at civilian power reactors. The management of these funds is discussed. Since the two funds are identical in features and the ISF has not yet been activated, the author's remarks are confined to the Nuclear Waste Fund. Three points discussed include legislative features, current status, and planned activities

  19. Nuclear waste in Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf (short: Seibersdorf) is the company operating the research reactor ASTRA. A controversy arose, initied by the Greens and some newspapers on the fact that the waste conditioning plant in Seibersdorf treated not only Austrian waste (from hospitals etc.) but also a large quantity of ion exchange resins from the Caorso nuclear power station, against payment. The author argues that it is untenable that an Austrian institution (peaceful use of nuclear energy in Austria being abandoned by a referendum) should support nuclear power abroad. There is also a short survey on nuclear waste conditioning and an account of an exchange of letters, between the Seibersdorf and the Ecology Institute on the claim of being an 'independent measuring institution' of food, soil, etc. samples. The author argues that the Ecology Institute is the sole independent institution in Austria because it is part of the ecology- and antinuclear movement, whereas Seibersdorf is dependent on the state. (qui)

  20. Nuclear power publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This booklet lists 69 publications on nuclear energy available free from some of the main organisations concerned with its development and operation in the UK. Headings are: general information; the need for nuclear energy; the nuclear industry; nuclear power stations; fuel cycle; safety; waste management. (U.K.)

  1. Classification of low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, R.E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The NRC regulation, 10 CFR Part 61, establishes three classes of wastes designated A, B, and C based on listed concentrations of specific nuclides. The NRC Branch Technical Position (BTP) relative to the required compliance program focused on extensive waste stream sampling and analysis as a means of compliance. To meet the above regulatory requirements, an engineering analysis approach for quantifying the concentrations and amounts of radionuclides of classification concern was developed as an alternative to an extensive and difficult waste sampling and analysis program. Essentially this methodology involves a material balance of radionuclides which for the most part originate in the reactor core and are transported to the waste streams by reactor coolants and whose concentration in the coolant is primarily a function of fuel performance. The use of scaling factors between readily measured key radionuclides and others required for classification have been published in Report AIF/NESP-027 entitled, Methodologies for Classification of Low-Level Radioactive Wastes from Nuclear Power Plants. Since then data from about 1000 samples on nuclide concentrations in various reactor waste streams from 65 units at 40 sites was collated, analyzed and evaluated to confirm the calculational methodology in AIF/NESP-027. In summary, the approach and results of the engineering analysis methodology were validated

  2. Determination of 93Zr in medium and low level radioactive wastes from Brazilian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thiago C.; Oliveira, Arno H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of long-lived radionuclides produced in the nuclear power plants can be regarded as difficult-to-measure radionuclides (RDM), hence chemical separation is necessary before the nuclear measurement of them. The zirconium isotope 93 Zr is a long-lived pure β-particle-emitting radionuclide produced from 235 U fission and from neutron activation of the stable isotope 92 Zr and thus occurring as one of the radionuclides found in nuclear reactors. Due to its long half-life, 93 Zr is one of the radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. Two different methodologies based on extractive resins and LSC and ICP-MS techniques that enables the 93 Zr determination in medium (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes samples from Brazilian nuclear power plants has been developed in our laboratory. Analyzing real samples 65% and 75% chemical yields for 93 Zr recovery were achieved for ICP-MS and LSC techniques, respectively. The detection limits were 0.045 μg.L -1 for ICP-MS and 0.05 Bq.L -1 for LSC techniques. (author)

  3. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-06-01

    The actualized version (June 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  4. Civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. The 'cumbersome' wastes of the civil nuclear; The Parliament and the management of wastes from the civil nuclear; The Swiss legal framework related to the shutting down of nuclear power stations and to the management of radioactive wastes; Economic theory and management of radioactive wastes: to dare the conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambour, Muriel; Pauvert, Bertrand; Zuber-Roy, Celine; Thireau, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    This publication presents the contributions to a research seminar organised by the European Centre of research on Risk, Collective Accident and Disasters Law (CERDACC) on the following theme: civil nuclear and responsibilities related to radioactive wastes. Three main thematic issues have been addressed: the French legal framework for waste processing, the comparison with the Swiss case, and the controversy about the exposure of societies to waste-induced risks. The first contribution addressed the cumbersome wastes of the civil nuclear industry: characterization and management solutions, the hypothesis of reversibility of the storage of radioactive wastes. The second one comments the commitment of the French Parliament in the management of wastes of the civil nuclear industry: role of Parliamentary Office of assessment of scientific and technological choices (OPECST) to guide law elaboration, assessment by the Parliament of the management of nuclear wastes (history and evolution of legal arrangements). The next contribution describes the Swiss legal framework for the shutting down of nuclear power stations (decision and decommissioning) and for the management of radioactive wastes (removal, financing). The last contribution discusses the risk related to nuclear waste management for citizen and comments how economists address this issue

  5. Progress by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creamer, A.

    1980-01-01

    United States scientist Petr Beckmann predicts that there will eventually be nuclear power stations in the Transvaal in South Africa. This will take place for two reasons: to decrease pollution problems and to ensure economic advancement. He also refers to the the toxicity of nuclear wastes and coal wastes

  6. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  7. Acceptance and tracking of waste packages from nuclear power plants at the Centre de l'Aube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errera, J.; Tison, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For 30 years, the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA) is in charge of the radioactive waste management and acquired a good knowledge relating to the control of low and intermediate level waste produced by nuclear power plants (NPP), the waste characteristics and the waste conditioning. The integrated waste management system for low-level radioactive waste in France implemented by ANDRA covers all stages from waste generation to final disposal at the Centre de I'Aube near surface facility. ANDRA defined a quality assurance program for waste management that specifies the level of quality to be achieved by solidification and packaging processes, defines quality control requirements and defines waste tracking requirements, from waste generation through final disposal. Verification of quality of waste packages is implemented at three levels of the waste management system. The first one consists of inspections of waste packages at the generator's premises and audits of the quality assurance organization of the waste generator. The second level of verification consists of the waste tracking system. It allows identifying and tracking each waste package from the step it is fabricated to its final disposal at the ANDRA site. The third level of verification is obtained by mean of non-destructive and destructive assays of waste packages. These assays allow to verify generator compliance with ANDRA's technical specifications and to investigate the accuracy of physical and radioactive characteristics reported to ANDRA by the generator. (author)

  8. The state of radioactive waste management and personnel radiation exposure in commercial nuclear power plants in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the release of gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes below the objective release levels, and to store solid wastes in containers on the site. As for the former, the released (radioactive) quantity in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982,) together with the objective levels are given for respective nuclear power stations; and as for the latter, the stored quantity and also the cumulative quantity up to the year are given. Radiation exposure: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the personnel exposure below the permissible level. The personnel exposure dose in fiscal 1981 is given for respective nuclear power station. (Mori, K.)

  9. Radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle operations: The French approach to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.; De Franco, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Centre de l'Aube Disposal Facility (Centre de Stockage de l'Aube) is designed to receive a wide variety of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as the industry, hospitals and armed forces. Such a variety of wastes incur highly different risks which must be grasped in the safety analysis of the Centre. This article attempts to show how a number of safety analysis tools are used to meet the highly varied needs of the waste producers and guarantee safe disposal. They involve functional analysis, risk analysis and safety calculations. The paper shows that the most important acceptance criteria for the first containment barrier, namely the waste package, are containment, durability, activity limitation and biological shielding. And a method is proposed to determine some of these criteria from safety scenarios (scenarios of accidents in operation, intrusion in the post-institutional control phase). Over the years, however, the waste producers have asked the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA) to accept new types of waste not initially anticipated in the design criteria, and the safety analysis must imagine new scenarios and develop new acceptance criteria. The paper gives the example of sealed sources, closure heads of NPP vessels, racks for fuel elements, contaminated manipulators, irradiating waste, etc, which incur specific risks. In fact, some of this waste represent a source of unusual irradiation, a risk of further contamination in an accidental situation, or simply increase the likelihood of occurrence of certain scenarios, such as retrieval in the post-institutional control phase. The safety analysis must adapt and imagine specific scenarios to judge the acceptability of such waste, and must identify the acceptance criteria commensurate with the risks. The paper offers examples of research, some of it still under way at ANDRA. (author)

  10. Safety assurance in radioactive waste management at nuclear power plants of the Northwest region of Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safonov, Igor

    1999-07-01

    This presentation describes the two large operating nuclear power plants (NPP) in Northwest Russia, the Kola NPP and the Leningrad NPP. The four units at Kola are tank-type pressurised water reactors of 440 MW (electric) while the four Leningrad reactors are 1000 MW (electric) of RBMK type. Gosatomnadzor of Russia regularly conducts so-called target inspections on safety assurance for radioactive waste management at NNP. Among the many items checked during such inspections are the existence and realisation of an action plan for waste reduction, the technical state of equipment and the compliance with previous directions. The management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes is described in some detail, and so are the violations revealed at both sites. There is also some discussion of modernisation plans for waste management. It is stated that the ecological impact of the plants is negligible and there is no hazard to people or environment. The presentation concludes with some suggestions for improving the licensing requirements for waste management.

  11. Safety assurance in radioactive waste management at nuclear power plants of the Northwest region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safonov, Igor

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes the two large operating nuclear power plants (NPP) in Northwest Russia, the Kola NPP and the Leningrad NPP. The four units at Kola are tank-type pressurised water reactors of 440 MW (electric) while the four Leningrad reactors are 1000 MW (electric) of RBMK type. Gosatomnadzor of Russia regularly conducts so-called target inspections on safety assurance for radioactive waste management at NNP. Among the many items checked during such inspections are the existence and realisation of an action plan for waste reduction, the technical state of equipment and the compliance with previous directions. The management of liquid, solid and gaseous radioactive wastes is described in some detail, and so are the violations revealed at both sites. There is also some discussion of modernisation plans for waste management. It is stated that the ecological impact of the plants is negligible and there is no hazard to people or environment. The presentation concludes with some suggestions for improving the licensing requirements for waste management

  12. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  13. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  14. Decontamination process applied to radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Milton B.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.

    2009-01-01

    The process of decontamination is an important step in the economic operation of nuclear facilities. A large number of protective clothing, metallic parts and equipment get contaminated during the handling of radioactive materials in laboratory, plants and reactors. Safe and economic operation of these nuclear facilities will have a bearing on the extent to which these materials are reclaimed by the process of decontamination. The most common radioactive contaminants are fission products, corrosion products, uranium and thorium. The principles involved in decontamination are the same as those for an industrial cleaning process. However, the main difference is in the degree of cleaning required and at times special techniques have to be employed for removing even trace quantities of radioactive materials. This paper relate decontaminations experiences using acids and acids mixtures (HCl, HF, HNO 3 , KMnO 4 , C 2 H 2 O 4 , HBF 4 ) in several kinds of radioactive solid wastes from nuclear power plants. The result solutions were monitored by nuclear analytical techniques, in order to contribute for radiochemical characterization of these wastes. (author)

  15. Calculating of radiation doses in rutinary unloads of liquid wastes from Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, G.

    1985-01-01

    Utilization of nuclear energy to produce or generate electricity is a growing practice in the world, since it represent an economic and safe option to replace fossil fuels. During operation of nuclear power plants, radioactive materials are produced. A small fraction of these material are released to environment in the form of liquid or gaseous effluents. Estimation of radiation doses causing by effluents release has three purposes. During design phase of a nuclear station it is useful to adapt the wastes treatment systems to acceptable limits. During licensing phase, the regulator organism verifies the design of nuclear station effectuating estimation of doses. Finally, during operation of a nuclear station, before every unload of radioactive effluents, radiation doses should be evaluate in order to fulfill technical specifications, which limit the release of radioactive materials to environment. 1. To perform calculations of individual doses due to liquid radioactive effluents unload in units 1 and 2 of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant (In licensing phase). 2. To perform a parametric study of the effect of unload recirculation over individual dose, since recirculation has two principal effects: thermodynamical effects in nuclear station and radioactivity concentration, the last can affect the fullfilment of dose limits. 3. To perform the calculation of collective doses causes by unloads of liquid effluents within a radius of 80 Kms. of nuclear station caused by unload of liquid radioactive effluents during normal operation of nuclear power plant and does not include doses caused during accident conditions. In Mexico the organism in charge of regulation of peaceful uses of nuclear energy is Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) and for Laguna Verde licensing, the regulations of country who manufactured the reactor was adopted, it is to say United States of America. In Appendix 'C' units used along this work are explained. Unless another

  16. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  17. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  18. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addinall, E.; Ellington, H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters: (the nature of nuclear power) the atomic nucleus - a potential source of energy; how nuclear reactors work; the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactivity - its nature and biological effects; (why we need nuclear power) use of energy in the non-communist world -the changing pattern since 1950; use of energy - possible future scenarios; how our future energy needs might be met; (a possible long term nuclear strategy) the history of nuclear power; a possible nuclear power strategy for the Western World; (social and environmental considerations) the hazards to workers in the nuclear power industry; the hazards to the general public (nuclear power industry; reactor operation; transport of radioactive materials; fuel reprocessing; radioactive waste disposal; genetic hazards); the threat to democratic freedom and world peace. (U.K.)

  19. Effect of thermal and radioactive waste waters from nuclear power plant on recipient biocenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veresikova, M; Csupka, S; Tomanova, E [Krajska Hygienicka Stanica, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-01-01

    During the years 1974 to 1976 the effect was studied of thermal and radioactive effluents from the A-1 nuclear power plant on aquatic microorganisms. The values obtained from the waste water canal and the river Dudvah after the canal discharged into the river were compared with the values found in the Dudvah before the discharge. The correlation between aquatic microorganisms and water temperature was found to be closest in the waste water canal and between microorganisms and /sup 137/Cs content in the Dudvah after sewer emptying. With increasing water temperature the populations of aquatic microorganisms decrease, with the exception of producers whose numbers will increase with rising water temperature. The content of /sup 137/Cs in water had an effect similar to that of water temperature.

  20. Tianwan nuclear power station radioactive waste treatment and automatic conveying and temporary store system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Chengyi; Tang Yifeng; Yang Zhida

    2012-01-01

    The treatment method of middle, low radioactive waste and the system of convey and temporal store in Tianwan nuclear power station were introduced. The primary system has some shortcoming, for example, the orientation precision isn't high, the work intensity is large, the operator is under superfluous nuclear radiation, and the capacity of storehouse isn't large, so the system need rebuild. In the premise of holding present house and facility, frequency conversion system was installed in the crane. In virtue of two laser telemeters and one revolving coder, three-dimensional coordinate parameter of crane can be measured. The application of IPC and PLC make the convey progress automatization, and the progress can be monitored by monitor system. After rebuild, the radioactivity to operator was reduced. Because of function of velocity regulating, the startup, running and braking of the crane is smooth, and the shake range of waste barrel was reduced. The crane orientation precision reach 1 mm, that reduce single waste barrel space, so the capacity of storehouse is evidently improved. (authors)

  1. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The state of Nevada opposed DOE's development of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. As a result, disputes have arisen over how Nevada has spent financial assistance provided by DOE to pay the state's repository program costs. This report reviews Nevada's use of about $32 million in grant funds provided by DOE through June 1989 and found that Nevada improperly spent about $1 million. Nevada used as much as $683,000 for lobbying and litigation expenses that were unauthorized or were expressly prohibited by law, court decision, or grant terms; exceeded a legislative spending limit on socioeconomic studies by about $96,000; and used, contrary to grant terms, about $275,000 from one grant period to pay expenses incurred in the prior year. Also, Nevada did not always exercise adequate internal controls over grant funds, such as timely liquidation of funds advanced to contractors. A permissive approach to grant administration by DOE contributed to Nevada's inappropriate use of grant funds

  2. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  3. An evaluation of the production of solid radio-active waste in the Tricastin nuclear power station and, more generally, in the other French nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuisenier, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The importance of the effect of processing and packaging of solid radio-active wastes on the necessary staff, on the dosimetry acquired by this personnel and on the running costs will be presented, thus permitting a quantitative evaluation of the different types of waste produced, not only for the Tricastin plant but also for any typical French nuclear plant. Experience in the Tricastin power plant has shown that the volume of solid wastes can vary considerably depending on the different problems which can arise during production (cooling system leaks or less regular incidents). The different techniques used will be relooked at in order to facilitate the explanation of these fluctuations in the volume of waste produced and the measures which can be taken to limit them. The different measures which have been taken to improve performance in this domain will be presented: improvements in equipment, in methods, and in the increased awareness of the personnel concerning these problems

  4. Determination and use of scaling factors for waste characterization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    of nuclear power plants, the SF technique is also applicable to other situations where it is desirable to infer the activity of DTM nuclides from easy to make measurements, such as for research reactors, nuclear fuel manufacturing plants, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, decommissioning waste, historical waste, contaminated land, etc. In each case, the technique employed is similar, but consideration must be given to the unique aspects of the situation, such as the radionuclides of concern. Development of SFs in Member States has been based on analysis of representative waste streams and/or on theoretical calculations and modelling of radionuclide production and transport mechanisms. There is general consensus among Member States that the results derived from the application of SFs must be reasonable without being overly conservative. For example, if the estimate of a DTM nuclide is overly conservative (i.e. too high), it may prematurely result in the radionuclide capacity or authorized limit of a repository being 'expended' before the repository is physically full. The acceptable degree of conservatism will vary depending on the application. Many Member States use the same set of key nuclides and apply similar sampling and analysis strategies. There is also an indication that Member States operating similar nuclear facilities (e.g. the same design of nuclear power plant) may be able to pool their data to develop common SFs for certain radionuclides and waste streams. This is especially useful for Member States with smaller nuclear programmes that may not be able on their own to support a large sampling and analysis programme to develop their own SFs or who lack the technical infrastructure to perform the complex measurements required. The experience compiled from Member States indicates that the development and use of SFs is a widely accepted practice by waste generators, facility operators and regulators in many countries. While the details and scope of SF

  5. Clearance of very low level radioactive waste in spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Mir, F.

    2001-01-01

    According to present Spanish legislation a radioactive waste is defined as any material or waste product, without any possible planned use, that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides in concentrations or activity levels higher than those established by the Regulatory Authorities. Legally, this situation allows to develop a conventional management of very low level radioactive waste, by checking the negligibility of their radiological impact, and thus obtaining the corresponding Authorization to treat them as conventional waste. This presentation describes the clearance project of contaminated oils from spanish nuclear power plants. The on-site management includes: -) preliminary settling, centrifugation and filtration; -) oil purification; and -) radiological characterization. The off-site management includes the following operations: -) transportation to the facility where treatment is developed (dilution); -) temporary storage (decay); -) transportation to the place where final management is carried out; -) oil burning (dilution); and management of ashes and other combustion products. An annual amount of 70 m 3 /year (63 MBq) of very low contaminated oil with a specific concentration of 1 Bq/g could be disposed off. (A.C.)

  6. Temporary workers in the nuclear power industry: implications for the waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melville, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The employment of large number of temporary workers has become a growing and permanent characteristic of the nuclear power industry. In order to stay within the limits governing individual exposure to radiation in the workplace, the occupational risk has been spread among a larger segment of the population. Temporary workers, who make up one-third of the industry's work force, bear a disproportionate share of half the total annual occupational radiation dose. At issue is whether temporary workers should be grouped with the public at large or with the nuclear industry's work force, whose maximum limits are at least 10 times higher. This issue is relevant at a time when the search for a way to manage the mounting radioactive wastes will increase both the permanent and temporary work force. 44 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  8. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  9. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Can nuclear power be accepted today in the light of the waste management problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1978-01-01

    The waste management problem occupies a central position in the public debate about nuclear power. Even many proponents of this source of power share the concern that the seemingly unsolved problems associated with the disposal of radioactive waste might lead into a technological blind alley. The nuclear fuel cycle, including plutonium reycling in light water reactors, has been practised in the Federal Republic on a technical scale for many years. The three demonstration plants used for this purpose, i.e., KWO, WAK and ALKEM, represent an aggregate capital investment of some DM 830 million and have a staff of at present approximately 900 persons. More than 24 years of experience on a technical scale is available for the Purex process used for reprocessing. The experience of German industry in reprocessing high-burnup oxide LWR fuel elements is based on the operation of two experimental facilities over a period of twelve years, almost seven years of which are for the WAK, which successfully reprocessed fuel elements with burnups as high as 39.000 MWd/t of uranium. The article specifically discusses the doubts frequently expressed about the extrapolability of operating experience accumulated in processing low-burnup fuels to fuel with high burnup, i.e., from the Karlsruhe experimental scale facility to the large scale plant of the waste management center. The objections often raised against the planned upscaling of plant throughputs when moving to industrial scale processes do not take into account that the decisive operating experience generated in the technical radiochemistry is hardly a function of material throughputs, but rather refers to the specialized techniques employed in handling radioactive and fissile materials. (orig.) [de

  11. Attitudes to nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1993-08-01

    This is a study of risk perception and attitudes with regard to nuclear waste. Two data sets are reported. In the first set, data were obtained from a survey of the general population, using an extensive questionnaire. The second set constituted a follow-up 7 years later, with a limited number of questions. The data showed that people considered the topic of nuclear waste risks to be very important and that they were not convinced that the technological problems had been solved. Experts associated with government agencies were moderately trusted, while those employed by the nuclear industry were much distrusted by some respondents, and very much trusted by others. Moral obligations to future generations were stressed. A large portion (more than 50 per cent) of the variances in risk perception could be explained by attitude to nuclear power, general risk sensitivity and trust in expertise. Most background variables, except gender, had little influence on risk perception and attitudes. The follow-up study showed that the attitude to nuclear power had become more positive over time, but that people still doubted that the problems of nuclear waste disposal had been solved. 49 refs

  12. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority

  13. PLAN 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste products from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The companies that own nuclear power plants in Sweden are responsible for adopting measures needed to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste from the Swedish nuclear power reactors in a safe manner. The so-called Financing Act (1992:1537) is linked to this responsibility and prescribes that a reactor owner, in consultation with other reactor owners, shall calculate the cost for management and disposal of the spent fuel and radioactive waste and for decommissioning and dismantling of the reactor plant. The reactor owner shall annually submit to the regulatory authority the cost data that are required for calculation of the fees to be imposed on electricity production during the ensuing year and of the guarantees that must be given as security for costs not covered by paid-in fees. The reactor owners have jointly commissioned SKB to calculate and compile these costs. This report presents a calculation of the costs for implementing all of these measures. The cost calculations are based on the plan for management and disposal of the radioactive waste that has been prepared by SKB and is described in this report. The following facilities and systems are in operation: Transportation system for radioactive waste products; Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB; Final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1. Plans also exist for: Canister factory and encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel; Deep repository for spent nuclear fuel; Final repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste; Final repository for decommissioning waste. The cost calculations also include costs for research, development and demonstration, as well as for decommissioning and dismantling the reactor plants. This report is based on the proposed strategy for the activities which is presented in SKB's RD and D-Programme 2001 and in the supplementary account to RD and D-Programme 98 which SKB submitted to the regulatory authority. The

  14. A process for separating aggregate from concrete waste during the dismantlement of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Yasuo; Inoue, Toshikatsu; Tateyashiki, Hisashi; Sukekiyo, Mitsuaki; Okamoto, Masamichi; Asano, Touichi.

    1997-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants will produce a large quantity of non-active waste concrete. From the viewpoint of recycling of this waste concrete the recovery of aggregate contained in concrete at 80% and reuse of it into a new plant construction are envisioned. For these purposes we have studied the recovery process of aggregate from concrete composed of a heating step followed by a milling step onto waste concrete blocks. We have found that higher operation temperature brings a better effect for the separation of aggregate from a concrete body, however too high temperature may reversely degrade a quality of recovered aggregate itself. The most effective heating temperature which is considered not to give the damage to a quality of aggregate stays between 200-500degC. The effect of a duration at such temperature zone is relatively small. As a conclusion we have found that 300degC of heating temperature and 30-120 minutes of a duration in a rod mill with high efficiency of rubbing work for getting coarse aggregate and an agitate mill for fine aggregate might be proper operating conditions under which we can recover both coarse and fine aggregate with the quality within JASS 5N standard. (author)

  15. The reality of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.

    1979-01-01

    The following matters are discussed in relation to the nuclear power programmes in USA and elsewhere: siting of nuclear power plants in relation to a major geological fault; public attitudes to nuclear power; plutonium, radioactive wastes and transfrontier contamination; radiation and other hazards; economics of nuclear power; uranium supply; fast breeder reactors; insurance of nuclear facilities; diversion of nuclear materials and weapons proliferation; possibility of manufacture of nuclear weapons by developing countries; possibility of accidents on nuclear power plants in developing countries; radiation hazards from use of uranium ore tailings; sociological alternative to use of nuclear power. (U.K.)

  16. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981

  17. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: landocf@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: barboza@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A (ELETONUCLEAR), Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO{sub 4}:Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}:Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  18. 25 years of monitoring the Waste Management Center of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, O.C; Barboza, E.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present an assessment of 25 years of monitoring of the environment around the Waste Management Center (WMC) of the Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station (AAANPS) since 1986 until 2011. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purposes, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there's a potential impact caused by the operation of the two units and to verify the dose rate levels around the waste deposits. The WMC is located in an area belonging to the AAANPS and receive solid waste of low and medium activities from Angra 1 NPP. The waste generated from Angra 2 NPP is stored inside the unit. The EML monitors the environment around the WMC to determine the environmental dose rate. The monitoring is made by direct measurement of the radiation using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Nowadays, the TLD are installed, at this time, in 6 points at the boundaries of WMC and are changed monthly. The locations of these points were already changed several times to allow the construction of new buildings. The constitution of the TLD are 4 crystals, being 3 crystals of Calcium Sulphate doped with Thulium (CaSO 4 :Tm) with 3 shields and 1 crystal of Lithium Borate doped with Copper (Li 2 B 4 O 7 :Cu) without shield. The results of the TLD measurements are normalized to a period of 30 days to compensate accidental statistical variations of the dose rates. The results, in these 25 years, show that the external area of the WMC is a supervised area, following the Norm CNEN-NN-3.01 - 'Diretrizes Basicas de Protecao Radiologica' - with access permitted only for authorized people. (author)

  19. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwood, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear power debate hinges upon three major issues: radioactive waste disposal, reactor safety and proliferation. An alternative strategy for waste disposal is advocated which involves disposing of the radwaste (immobilized in SYNROC, a titanate ceramic waste form) in deep (4 km) drill-holes widely dispersed throughout the entire country. It is demonstrated that this strategy possesses major technical (safety) advantages over centralized, mined repositories. The comparative risks associated with coal-fired power generation and with the nuclear fuel cycle have been evaluated by many scientists, who conclude that nuclear power is far less hazardous. Considerable improvements in reactor design and safety are readily attainable. The nuclear industry should be obliged to meet these higher standards. The most hopeful means of limiting proliferation lies in international agreements, possibly combined with international monitoring and control of key segments of the fuel cycle, such as reprocessing

  20. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1978-01-01

    A 'comic strip' account of nuclear power, covering weapons and weapons proliferation, reactor accidents involving human errors, radiation hazards, radioactive waste management and the fuel cycle, fast breeder reactors and plutonium, security, public relations and sociological aspects, energy consumption patterns, energy conservation and alternative energy sources, environmental aspects and anti-nuclear activities. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear power in crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, Andrew.; Pepper, David.

    1987-01-01

    Six themes run through this book: nuclear decision making and democratic accountability, nuclear bias and a narrow-based energy policy, scientific discredit and popular expertise, fusing science with social values, managerial competence and the geography of nuclear power. These are covered in thirteen chapters (all indexed separately) grouped into four parts -the political and planning context, nuclear waste, risk and impact - the social dimension and the future of nuclear power. It considers aspects in France, the United States and the United Kingdom with particular references to the Sizewell-B inquiry and the Sellafield reprocessing plant. (UK)

  2. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  3. Topic of nuclear power plant wastes at fifth CMEA symposium on research of fuel and radioactive solution reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrs, M.; Napravnik, J.

    1982-01-01

    A survey is presented of the results of the work of Session 3 of the Symposium held in Marianske Lazne from April 7 to 10, 1981. The participants heard 44 papers mainly related to the following problem areas: existing methods and methods being developed of handling radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants; improvements in the technology of the concentration of liquid wastes by evaporation and other methods; solidification of concentrated liquid wastes into suitable form; methods of the treatment of solid (combustible, non-combustible and compactable) wastes; improvements in methods of the treatment of gaseous effluents. A survey was organized on criteria applied to methods used for radioactive waste processing. The inquiry showed that the principal criteria are the product Quality, costs for waste processing and the release of harmful substances into the environment. (Ha)

  4. Nuclear wastes, a questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr

  5. Management of very low level waste from decommissioning of the A-1 Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burclova, J.; Konecny, L.; Mrskova, A.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts were made to accelerate decommissioning, particularly of the nuclear power plant A1 of the HWGCR type. Progress made and current developments in this subject area are reviewed. Radioactive waste categories are described along with release criteria. An overview is provided on contaminated scrap and the sorting of contaminated soil and concrete. (author)

  6. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities

  7. Analysis for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal of AP1000 nuclear power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bin; Ren Li; Hua Wei; Ma Xiaoqiang; Ma Ruoxia; Fang Xianghong

    2014-01-01

    AP1000 nuclear power is adopted in Sanmen Nuclear Power Plant, Zhejiang province and Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, Shandong province. The filter and resin generated by the operation of nuclear power plants are handled by cement cured process and compression technology in Sanmen Nuclear Power Plant, while they are loaded in polyethylene HIC in Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant. At present, there were not engineering practice for dispose polyethylene HIC in China. The document discusses three disposal options of polyethylene HIC: one is that polyethylene HIC placed in over pack, another is that polyethylene HIC mixed with other drum, the third is that polyethylene HIC placed in disposal unit which is divided into small units. (authors)

  8. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    In September 1989, a New York commission charged with choosing a site for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility announced its intent to conduct limited investigations at five potential sites. In this paper the authors review the commission's site selection process. After discussions with your office, the authors agreed to determine if the commission's consideration and selection of the Taylor North site was consistent with its prescribed procedures for considering offered sites. The authors also agreed to identify technical and other issues that need to be addressed before the final site evaluation and the selection steps can be completed

  10. Radiation Protection and Radioactive Waste Management in the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations to the regulatory body, focused on the operational aspects of radiation protection and radioactive waste management in nuclear power plants, and on how to ensure the fulfilment of the requirements established in the relevant Safety Requirements publications. It will also be useful for senior managers in licensee or contractor organizations who are responsible for establishing and managing programmes for radiation protection and for the management of radioactive waste. This Safety Guide gives general recommendations for the development of radiation protection programmes at nuclear power plants. The issues are then elaborated by defining the main elements of a radiation protection programme. Particular attention is paid to area classification, workplace monitoring and supervision, application of the principle of optimization of protection (also termed the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle), and facilities and equipment. This Safety Guide covers all the safety related aspects of a programme for the management of radioactive waste at a nuclear power plant. Emphasis is placed on the minimization of waste in terms of both activity and volume. The various steps in predisposal waste management are covered, namely processing (pretreatment, treatment and conditioning), storage and transport. Releases of effluents, the application of authorized limits and reference levels are discussed, together with the main elements of an environmental monitoring programme

  11. Nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arthur W. Murphy in the introductory chapter cites the issues, pro and con, concerning nuclear power. In assessing the present stance, he first looks back to the last American Assembly on nuclear power, held October 1957 and notes its accomplishments. He summarizes the six papers of this book, which focus on nuclear power to the end of this century. Chapter I, Safety Aspects of Nuclear Energy, by David Bodansky and Fred Schmidt, deals with the technical aspects of reactor safety as well as waste storage and plutonium diversion. Chapter 2, The Economics of Electric Power Generation--1975-2000, by R. Michael Murray, Jr., focuses specifically on coal-fired and nuclear plants. Chapter 3, How Can We Get the Nuclear Job Done, by Fritz Heimann, identifies actions that must take place to develop nuclear power in the U.S. and who should build the reprocessing plants. Chapter 4, by Arthur Murphy, Nuclear Power Plant Regulation, discusses the USNRC operation and the Price-Anderson Act specifically. Chapter 5, Nuclear Exports and Nonproliferation Strategy, by John G. Palfrey, treats the international aspects of the problem with primary emphasis upon the situation of the U.S. as an exporter of technology. Chapter 6, by George Kistiakowsky, Nuclear Power: How Much Is Too Much, expresses doubt about the nuclear effort, at least in the short run

  12. Nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea

  13. Nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, C S [Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Choong-Nam (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea.

  14. Nuclear power in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    2000-01-01

    Currently nuclear power accounts for more than 25% of total electricity production in Europe (including Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union) However, significant new construction is planned in Central and Eastern Europe only, apart from some in France and, possibly in Finland. Many countries in Western Europe have put nuclear construction plans on hold and several have cancelled their nuclear programs. This report looks at the history of nuclear power and its current status in both Eastern and Western Europe. It provides an outline of nuclear fuel cycle facilities, from uranium procurement to final waste disposal. Economic and environmental issues are discussed, as well as the prospect of increased East-West trade and cooperation in the new poso-cold war world. Detailed profiles are provided of all the countries in Western Europe with significant nuclear power programs, as well as profiles of major energy and nuclear companies

  15. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, C.J.; Silver, J.M.

    1985-09-01

    The report provides data and assessments of the status and prospects of nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The report discusses the economic competitiveness of nuclear electricity generation, the extent of world uranium resources, production and requirements, uranium conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel treatment and radioactive waste management. A review is given of the status of nuclear fusion research

  16. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, J.

    1991-03-01

    This paper discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE) procedures for annually assessing the adequacy of the fee that utilities pay for disposal of spent (used) nuclear fuel. In a June 1990 report, it was recommended, among other things, that the Congress authorize DOE to automatically adjust the fee each year on the basis of an inflation index. At that time, DOE also favored fee indexing; however, it subsequently reversed its position. Because of this change, it is now believe that Congress should require DOE to index the fee to the rate of inflation

  17. Experiences in the treatment of radioactive wastes in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambros, R.; Rittscher, D.

    1983-01-01

    The liquid, gaseous and solid radioactive wastes arising from the operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) have - if they cannot be reused - to be disposed of according to rules set up by the competent authorities. In this paper the treatment of wastes from NPP is described as it is carried out today due to the actual lack of a waste repository in the FRG. As most NPP have only an interim storage capacity for 1 year, measures for a further reduction of waste arisings, for volume reduction of the waste and for extension of the storage capacity have become necessary. The reduction of the waste arisings to the possible minimum is being achieved by administrative measures. A volume reduction of the waste is achieved by improvement of already existing methods and by development of new methods. Mixed solid wastes are reduced in volume by baling at high pressure. Burnable wastes can be reduced in volume by incineration. Liquid radioactive concentrates are reduced in volume by water separation, evaporation or drying. The volume reduction factors achieved are large as compared to the formerly applied cementation. The products arising are put into cast-iron containers which following the actual knowledge, should meet the requirements for final disposal with respect to the pressure stability, corrosion resistance and leach resistance. Due to the high density of the container material and the great wall thickness the specific activity of the waste can be increased without exceeding the dose rate limits at the outside of the containers. (author)

  18. Nuclear waste vs. democracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treichel, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States the storage and disposal of high-level nuclear waste is a highly contentious issue because under current plans the public is subjected to unaccepted, involuntary risks. The proposed federal policy includes the forced siting of a repository and interim storage facilities in Nevada, and the transport of waste across the entire nation through large cities and within 2 mile of over 50 million people. At its destination in Nevada, the residents would face coexistence with a facility housing highly radioactive wastes that remain dangerous for many thousands of years. Scientific predictions about the performance and safety of these facilities is highly uncertain and the people foresee possibly catastrophic threats to their health, safety and economic well-being for generations to come. The public sees this currently proposed plan as one that seeks to maximise the profits of the commercial nuclear industry through imposing risk and sacrifice to communities who reap no benefit. And there is no evidence that this plan is actually a solution to the problem. The American public has never had the opportunity to participate in the nuclear waste debate and government plans are presented to people as being necessary and inevitable. To allow democracy into the decisions could be costly to the nuclear industry and it might thwart the government program, but that is the nature of democracy. If the utilities are established to provide a public service, and the government is founded on the principle of public representation, then the nuclear waste debate must conform to those requirements. What we see in this case is a continuing change of rule and law to accommodate a corporate power and the subrogation of national principle. The result of this situation has been that the public exercises its only option - which is obstructing the federal plan. Because the odds are so heavily stacked in favour of government and industry and average citizens have so little access

  19. The problematic of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozon, D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the frame of a project of modification of radioactive waste storage installations, and of refurbishing the Gentilly-2 nuclear plant (Quebec, Canada), the author first gives an overview and comments assessments of the volume and nature of nuclear wastes produced by Canadian nuclear power plants. He presents the Canadian program of nuclear waste management (history, Seaborn assessment Commission, mission of the SGDN-NWMO). He discusses the relationship between risk and dose, the risk duration, and the case of non radioactive wastes. He discusses energy challenges in terms of CO 2 emissions and with respect to climate change, proposes an alternative scenario on a long term, compares nuclear energy and wind energy, and discusses the nuclear technology evolution

  20. Nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, 1986-1997. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion and issued during the period of 1986-1997. Some earlier titles which form part of an established series or are still considered of importance have been included. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain papers in languages other than English, but all of these papers have abstracts in English

  1. Liquid and solid rad waste treatment in advanced nuclear power plants. Application to the SBWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielas Reina, M.; Asuar Alonso, O.

    1994-01-01

    Rad waste treatment requirements for the new generation of American advanced passive and evolutionary power plants are listed in the URD (Utility Requirements Document) of the EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute). These requirements focus on: - Minimization of shipped solid wastes - Minimization of liquid effluents - Simplification of design and operation, with emphasis not only on waste treatment system design but also on general plant design and operation These objectives are aimed at: - Reducing and segregating wastes at source - Minimizing chemical contamination of these wastes System design simplification is completed by providing free space in the building for the use of mobile plants, either for special services not considered in the basic design or to accommodate future technical advances. (Author)

  2. New solutions for waste management centers of new Russian-type nuclear power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    There has been a change of mind with respect to waste management among power plant operators in Russia and planners of the new VVER reactor line. Solid waste no longer is to be stored on the site of the power plant; instead, a functioning direct method of treatment of the different categories of waste arising in operation is favored. Waste conditioning and reduced storage volumes are indispensable arguments in selling reactor technology to markets outside Russia. Reference often is made to the internationally discussed volume of 50 m 3 of waste per reactor unit and year, which is then defined as a target. NUKEM Technologies verified existing technical concepts and worked out proposals of improved waste management. One project proposal accepted by ASE (Atomstroyexport) was elaborated to the Technical Project (corresponding to Basic Design) status. Specific management of materials flows, the use of processes tailored to the waste stream, and adaptation of the throughputs of these plants to the waste arisings actually expected are able to reduce clearly both the volume of conditioned waste to be stored and the capital costs. (orig.)

  3. A strategy for upgrading management of spent fuel and radioactive waste at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, V.; Penkov, V.; Bergman, C.; Gustafsson, B.

    2001-01-01

    The waste management strategy of the former Soviet Union, based on its Norms and Rules, was implemented at Ignalina nuclear power Plant (INPP). This means in brief that the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) should be reprocessed in the Soviet Union and the management of radioactive waste should be done in connection with the eventual decommissioning of the reactors, The major facilities for management of radioactive waste were evaporation of liquid waste and subsequent bitumenisation of the sludge, treatment of liquid with ion-exchange techniques and subsequent storage of the resins in tanks. Solid waste was sorted according to its activity content and stored on site. Following the independence of Lithuania in 1990, Lithuania is successively replacing the former Norms and Rules with Lithuanian laws and regulations. Lithuania has signed both the Convention of Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. The paper will give an overview of the work done, in progress and planned, primarily from an operational point of view. It will give examples of practical problems which have to be overcome and how very tough prioritisation has to be made because of lack of resources. Many of the problems are associated with the fact that the waste management strategy successively has to be changed at the same time as the generation of SNF and radioactive waste is continued. A lot has already been achieved, especially regarding the SNF. However, the main work is still to be done until the INPP can declare that its waste is properly managed in full compliance with a national waste management strategy which eventually will end with the disposal in licensed repositories. (author)

  4. Nuclear power debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A recent resurgence of interest in Australia in the nuclear power option has been largely attributed to growing concerns over climate change. But what are the real pros and cons of nuclear power? Have advances in technology solved the sector's key challenges? Do the economics stack up for Australia where there is so much coal, gas and renewable resources? Is the greenhouse footprint' of nuclear power low enough to justify its use? During May and June, the AIE hosted a series of Branch events on nuclear power across Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. In the interest of balance, and at risk of being a little bit repetitive, here we draw together four items that resulted from these events and that reflect the opposing views on nuclear power in Australia. Nuclear Power for Australia: Irrelevant or Inevitable? - a summary of the presentations to the symposium held by Sydney Branch on 8 June 2005. Nuclear Reactors Waste the Planet - text from the flyer distributed by The Greens at their protest gathering outside the symposium venue on 8 June 2005. The Case For Nuclear Power - an edited transcript of Ian Hore-Lacy's presentation to Adelaide Branch on 19 May 2005 and to Perth Branch on 28 June 2005. The Case Against Nuclear Power - an article submitted to Energy News by Robin Chappie subsequent to Mr Hore-Lacy's presentation to Perth Branch

  5. Ethical aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streithofen, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear controversy comprises many ethical aspects, e.g. the waste disposal problem. Nuclear opponents should not neglect the environmental protection aspect; for example, the use of nuclear power alone brought about an 8% reduction of the CO 2 burden in 1987. Our responsibility towards nature and humans in the Third World leaves us no alternative to nuclear power. On the other hand, the nuclear power debate should not become a matter of religious beliefs. (DG) [de

  6. Aspects of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.

    1990-10-01

    Six areas of concern in nuclear waste management have been dealt with in a four-year Nordic research programme. They include work in two international projects, Hydrocoin dealing with modelling of groundwater flow in crystalline rock, and Biomovs, concerned with biosphere models. Geologic questions of importance to the prediction of future behaviour are examined. Waste quantities from the decommissioning of nuclear power stations are estimated, and total amounts of waste to be transported in the Nordic countries are evaluated. Waste amounts from a hypothetical reactor accident are also calculated. (au)

  7. Pre design processing of waste of ex-resin without materials matrix from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdas Tarigan

    2010-01-01

    Have been done pre design processing of waste ex-resin without capacities matrix materials from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW During the time radioactive waste of ex-resin processed to use process of immobilization use matrix materials like mixture cement and epoxy resin and then conditioning. This process is not effective and efficient because end result volume of end product bigger than volume early operation system and maintenance of its installation more difficult. To overcome this created a design of technology processing of waste of ex- resin without matrix materials through process of strainer, drying and conditioning represent technological innovation newly processing of radioactive waste of ex-resin. Besides this process more effective and efficient, volume of end product waste much more small from volume early and operation system and maintenance of its easier installation. Pre design is expected to be used as a basis to make conceptual of pre design installation of strainer, drying and conditioning for the processing of waste of ex-resin from nuclear power plant type PWR 1000 MW. (author)

  8. Safety analysis of disposal of decommissioning wastes from Loviisa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieno, T.; Nordman, H.; Rasilainen, K.; Suolanen, V.

    1987-12-01

    The repository for decommissioning wastes from the Loviisa nuclear power plant consisting of two 445 MWe PWR units is planned to be excavated at the depth of 90-130 meters in the bedrock of the power plant site. The reactor vessels weighing each about 215 tons will be transferred each in one piece into the repository. They are emplaced in an upright position in big holes excavated in the bottom of repository caverns. The reactor vessel internals are then emplaced inside the vessels. Finally, the vessels will be filled with concrete and the lids will be emplaced and sealed. Steam generators and pressurizers will also be disposed of uncutted. Other decommissioning wastes will be cut into smaller pieces and emplaced in concrete or wooden containers. The repository will be situated on the small island on which the power plant is located. The groundwater on the island contains two zones of different salinity: an upper zone of fresh, flowing groundwater and a lower zone of saline, stagnant groundwater where the repository will be situated. Three groundwater scenarios have been considered in the safety analysis: a scenario based on the present site conditions, an altered scenario where the repository is assumed to be situated in a zone of fresh, flowing groundwater and a distruptive event scenario with an intensive groundwater flow through the repository. The obtained results of the analysis show clear safety margins. In the basic scenario the maximum annul dose rate is 6x10 -14 Sv/a via the local sea pathways, 6x10 -11 Sv/a via the lake pathways and 4x10 -8 Sv/a via a well bored in the vicinity of the repository. In the altered groundwater scenario the maximum annual dose rate is 4x10 -10 Sv/a via the sea pathways, 3x10 -7 Sv/a via the lake pathways and 1x10 -5 Sv/a via the well pathway. In the unlikely disruptive event scenario the corresponding dose rates are 8x10 -10 Sv/a (sea), 7x10 -7 Sv/a (lake) and 2x10 -4 Sv/a (well)

  9. Benchmarking on the management of radioactive waste in the Spanish Nuclear Power; Benchmarking sobre la gestion de residuos radiactivos en las Centrales Nucleares Espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M. A.; Gonzalez, R.; Gomez, N.

    2012-07-01

    The main objective of this project is to perform a comparative evaluation of the practices carried out in the field of waste management in the Spanish nuclear power plants. Once compared such practices have been established recommendations that may be of interest for application in other plants.

  10. Nuclear waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nienhuys, K.; Noordegraaf, D.

    1977-04-01

    This report is composed with a view to the discussions around the selection of a site in F.R.Germany near the Netherlands' border for a fuel reprocessing plant. Most of the scientific data available are placed side by side, especially those which are contradictory in order to promote better judgement of affairs before governmental decisions are made. The report comprises a brief introduction to nuclear power plants, fuel cycle, radioactive materials and their properties. Next the transportation of wastes from the nuclear power plants to the reprocessing plants is dealt with more extensively, including the processing and the effluents of as well as the experiences with operational reprocessing plants. The hazards from manipulation of radioactive materials accidents and theft are outlined in each case, followed by a problem discussion. The appendix illustrates the German concept of 'industrial park for after-treatment and disposal'

  11. Japanese Nuclear Waste Avatars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn Kirby, Peter; Stier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Japan's cataclysmic 2011 tsunami has become a vast, unwanted experiment in waste management. The seismic event and resulting Fukushima Daiichi radiation crisis created an awkwardly fortuitous rupture in Japanese nuclear practice that exposed the lax and problematic management of nuclear waste in this country to broader scrutiny, as well as distortions in its very conception. This article looks at the full spectrum of nuclear waste in post-tsunami Japan, from spent fuel rods to contorted reactor containment, and the ways that nuclear waste mirrors or diverges from more quotidian waste practices in Japanese culture. Significantly, the Fukushima Daiichi plant itself and its erstwhile banal surroundings have themselves transmuted into an unwieldy form of nuclear waste. The immense challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi site have stimulated a series of on-the-fly innovations that furnish perspective on more everyday nuclear waste practices in the industry. While some HLW can be reprocessed for limited use in today's reactors, it cannot be ignored that much of Japan's nuclear waste is simply converted into other forms of waste. In a society that has long been fixated on segregating filth, maintaining (imagined) purity, and managing proximity to pollution, the specter of nuclear waste looms over contemporary Japan and its ongoing debates over resources, risk, and Japanese nuclear identity itself

  12. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  13. No to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kim Beazley has again stated a Labor Government would not pursue nuclear power because the economics 'simply don't stack up'. 'We have significant gas, coal and renewable energy reserves and do not have a solution for the disposal of low-level nuclear waste, let alone waste from nuclear power stations.' The Opposition Leader said developing nuclear power now would have ramifications for Australia's security. 'Such a move could result in our regional neighbours fearing we will use it militarily.' Instead, Labor would focus on the practical measures that 'deliver economic and environmental stability while protecting our national security'. Mr Beazley's comments on nuclear power came in the same week as Prime Minister John Howard declined the request of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh for uranium exports, although seemingly not ruling out a policy change at some stage. The Prime Ministers held talks in New Delhi over whether Australia would sell uranium to India without it signing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. An agreement reached during a visit by US President George W. Bush gives India access to long-denied nuclear technology and guaranteed fuel in exchange for allowing international inspection of some civilian nuclear facilities. Copyright (2006) Crown Content Pty Ltd

  14. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  15. Options for the ultimate storage of low and medium level radioactive wastes produced at Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emeterio, Miguel

    1991-01-01

    The devoted time and still to be expend in prepare, execute and teach permanent and safe solutions to the problem of the evaluation of radioactive wastes reflects the political, economic and environmental importance with respect to public health and safety invested in this task, as well as, its technological challenges. In the case of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, its low and medium level radioactive wastes are stored in the beginning in a temporal store with a capacity of 2000 m 3 sufficient to four years of normal operation; according to what it is necessary to select one of different ways of waste storage. Different technologies has been evaluated and the preliminary conclusion is that for Mexico the more feasible way to store radioactive wastes is in tumulus (Author)

  16. Is nuclear power and alternative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter of the book author deals with the historical background for the nuclear energy power. Some statistical data about nuclear power stations as well as on radioactive wastes are given. The Chernobyl catastrophe is described. Author thinks that nuclear energy is not safe and it has no perspective in future

  17. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The percentage of electricity generated by nuclear energy in each of the 26 countries that operated nuclear power plants in 1987 is given. The current policy and programs of some of these countries is described. News concerning uranium mining, enrichment, reprocessing and waste management is also included. Data in the form of a generalized status summary for all power reactors (> 30 MWEN) prepared from the nuclear power reactor data files of ANSTO is shown

  18. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear fuels and power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.; Mayman, S.A.; Tammemagi, H.Y.; Gale, J.; Sanford, B.

    1977-05-01

    The nature of Canadian nuclear fuel and nuclear generating plant radioactive wastes is summarized. Principles of a scheme for disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes deep underground in isolation from man and the biosphere are outlined. The status of the development and construction program is indicated. We have demonstrated incorporation of fission products in solids that in the short term (17 years) dissolve more slowly than plutonium decays. Investigations of long-term stability are in hand. Additional capacity for storage of used fuel prior to reprocessing and disposal is required by 1986 and a preliminary design has been prepared for a pool facility to be located at a central fuel recycling and disposal complex. A demonstration of dry storage of fuel in concrete containers is in progress. The quantities of CANDU generating-station wastes and the principles and methods for managing them are summarized. A radioactive-waste operations site is being developed with several different types of surface storage, each with multiple barriers against leakage. A reactor decommissioning study has been completed. Estimated costs of the various waste management operations are summarized. (author)

  19. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  20. Nuclear power: how and why

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the United Kingdom, under the headings: the need for nuclear power; Britain's experience (nuclear reactors); the nuclear process; how fuel is made; recycling fuel; wastes and their treatment; decommissioning; fast reactors; nuclear fusion; safety and radiation. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The guide sets forth detailed requirements on how the licensee of a nuclear power plant shall plan, implement and maintain emergency response arrangements. The guide is also applied to nuclear material and nuclear waste transport in situations referred to in guide YVL 6.5. Requirements on physical protection are presented in a separate guide of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)

  2. Nuclear power industry, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-12-01

    The intent of this publication is to provide a single volume of resource material that offers a timely, comprehensive view of the nuclear option. Chapter 1 discusses the development of commercial nuclear power from a historical perspective, reviewing the factors and events that have and will influence its progress. Chapters 2 through 5 discuss in detail the nuclear powerplant and its supporting fuel cycle, including various aspects of each element from fuel supply to waste management. Additional dimension is brought to the discussion by Chapters 6 and 7, which cover the Federal regulation of nuclear power and the nuclear export industry. This vast body of thoroughly documented information offers the reader a useful tool in evaluating the record and potential of nuclear energy in the United States

  3. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  4. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Material streams in the fuel supply to and disposal of waste from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is characterized by specifically small, but complex material streams. The fresh fuel derived from natural uranium is fed into the cycle at the stage of fuel element fabrication, while at the end stage, waste from spent fuel element reprocessing, or non-reprocessible fuel elements, are taken out of the cycle and prepared for ultimate disposal. The alternative methods of waste management, reprocessing or direct ultimate disposal, are an issue of controversial debate with regard to their differences in terms of supply policy, economic and ecological aspects. (orig.) [de

  6. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear fuels and power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.; Mayman, S.A.; Tammemagi, H.Y.; Gale, J.; Sanford, B.; Dyne, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of Canadian nuclear fuel and nuclear generating plant radioactive wastes are summarized. Full exploitation of fission energy resources entails recovery of all fissile and fertile material from spent fuel and separating the fission products as wastes for disposal. A plan for final disposal of all the radioactive wastes is a key component of the waste management scheme. Principles of a scheme for safe, responsible disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes deep underground in isolation from man and the biosphere are outlined. The status of the development and construction program is indicated. We plan to select a site in either a hard rock formation or in a suitable salt bed by 1981 so that a repository can be constructed to begin a demonstration phase in 1986. The repository is to be capable of eventual expansion to accomodate all Canadian nuclear wastes to at least 2050 when in full-scale operation. Extensive geotechnical studies have been initiated in order to select a site, and design and test the repository. We have demonstrated incorporation of fission products in solids that in the short term (17 years) dissolve more slowly than plutonium decays. Investigations of long-term stability are in hand. The principle of retardation of migration of fission products, so that they decay before surfacing, has been tested. Additional capacity for storage of used fuel prior to reprocessing and disposal is required by 1986 and a preliminary design has been prepared for a pool facility to be located at a central fuel recycling and disposal complex. A demonstration of dry storage of fuel in concrete containers is in progress. The quantities of CANDU generating-station wastes and the principles and methods for managing them are summarized. Methods for volume reduction and immobilization by solidification are well advanced. A radioactive-waste operations site is being developed with several different types of surface storage, each with multiple barriers against

  7. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear fuels and power plants in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, M.; Mayman, S.A.; Tammemagi, H.Y.; Gale, J.; Sanford, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nature of Canadian nuclear fuel and nuclear generating plant radioactive wastes is summarized. Full exploitation of fission energy resources entails recovery of all fissile and fertile material from spent fuel and separating the fission products as wastes for disposal. A plan for final disposal of all the radioactive wastes is a key component of the waste management scheme. Principles of a scheme for safe, responsible disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes deep underground, in isolation from man and the biosphere, are outlined. The status of the development and construction programme is indicated. It is planned to select a site in either a hard rock formation or in a suitable salt bed by 1981 so that a repository can be constructed to begin a demonstration phase in 1986. The repository is to be capable of eventual expansion to accomodate all Canadian nuclear wastes to at least 2050 when in full-scale operation. Extensive geotechnical studies have been initiated in order to select a site, and design and test the repository. The incorporation of fission products in solids that in the short term (17 years) dissolve more slowly than plutonium decays has been demonstrated. Investigations of long-term stability are in hand. The principle of retardation of migration of fission products, so that they decay before surfacing, has been tested. Additional capacity for storage of used fuel prior to reprocessing and disposal is required by 1986 and a preliminary design has been prepared for a pool facility to be located at a central fuel recycling and disposal complex. A demonstration of dry storage of fuel in concrete containers is in progress. The quantities of CANDU generating-station wastes and the principles and methods for managing them are summarized. Methods for volume reduction and immobilization by solidification are well advanced. A radioactive-waste operations site is being developed with several different types of surface storage, each with multiple barriers

  8. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  9. Intrinsically secure fast reactors for long-lived waste free and proliferation resistant nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides description of a nuclear reactor concept aimed towards a radical safety enhancement, an increased proliferation resistance, as well as a realisation of a 'long-lived waste free' NP development. It emphasizes the achievement of considerable reduction ('by design') of residual actinides in the waste streams and of the most hazardous long-lived fission products. It allows to implement only small volume of repositories for the radioactive waste (mostly fission products) and to postpone the technically arduous problems of a large scale disposal of the long-lived wastes until the next millennium, i.e. up to the exhaustion of the fertile natural resources and/or the emergence of more effective technologies of nuclide separation/transmutation. A thorough incineration/transmutation of the wastes (residual actinides in the mixture with lanthanides as well as of the most hazardous fission products) under reactor neutron flux is proposed for their mass reduction. A gradual growth of NP park is necessary for increasing the NP park capacity for waste irradiation. This 'constraint' is not really limiting because it coincides with the permanently growing demands in energy production. The potential of long-lived waste reduction depends on the total fertile fuel resources and on NP growth rate. It was shown that the accumulated actinide long-lived radioactive masses will be reduced significantly: by factor in the range of 10 4 -10 8 in magnitude (compared with LWR once-through cycle) and by 10 2 -10 6 (compared with the ordinary fast reactor park). Thus, the total long-lived waste toxicity pollution source might be comparable with the 'burnt away' toxicity of the natural fertile feed stream. This is quite realistic taking into account the large fertile fuel (U/Th) world-wide resources which provide the NP growth for a sustained time. Along side with the radical intrinsic safety improvement, a further enhancement of core physics ('neutronics') is one of the

  10. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of our activities have always produced waste products of one sort or another. Huxley gives a humorous account of wastes throughout antiquity. So it should come as no surprise that some radioactive materials end up as waste products requiring management and disposal. Public perception of nuclear waste hazards places them much higher on the ''worry scale'' than is justified by the actual hazard involved. While the public perception of these hazards appears to revolve mostly around high-level wastes, there are several other categories of wastes that must also be controlled and managed. The major sources of radioactive wastes are discussed

  11. Public and nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinberg, D.

    1979-01-01

    Public concern on nuclear power is centered on the waste disposal problem. Some of the environmentalist and anti-nuclear movements are discussed, both in USA and abroad. The public is skeptical in part because of the secrecy legacy, although scientists are still largely trusted. However, the scientists are far from united in their viewpoints on the nuclear issue. The task for scientists are to put into perspective the limits to scientific knowledge and to interpret this knowledge to the public

  12. Treatment of liquid wastes from decontamination of nuclear power plants by heterogeneous photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgada, Maria Eugenia

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear power plants high radiation fields are produced, not only in the core but also in the auxiliary systems, due, mainly, to the activation of corrosion products by means of a mechanism known as 'Activity Transport'.With the purpose of reducing at minimum values the intensity of radiation fields and of avoiding the operative problems generated by the deposition of oxides in tanks and pipelines, it is necessary to remove the oxide films, carriers of activity, from the components in auxiliary systems in nuclear power plants and this is usually carried on by chemical cleaning.This process, known as decontamination, is done employing mixtures of oligocarboxilic acids such as NTA, EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, etc., at concentration nearly 1% and pH 3-4.The resulting liquid wastes of this process cannot be discharged directly to the environment but must be properly treated.Conventional treatments such as thermolysis, chemical oxidation and others show some problems and, in addition, some of these substances are resistant to degradation.Previous work done in the Unidad de Actividad Quimica del Centro Atomico Constituyentes (UAQ-CAC) indicated that Heterogeneous Photocatalysis, belonging to the Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs), could be a useful procedure for the treatment of liquid decontamination wastes. This method consists on the irradiation of an aqueous suspension of a semiconductor, generally TiO 2 , containing the substrate to be degraded, employing wavelengths shorter than the semiconductor's 'band-gap'.In this way, oxidant and reducing molecules are generated.The advantages compared to other AOTs are its low cost, the ability to work at room temperature and pressure, it uses only oxygen as oxidizing agent and can be operated in 'batch' and continuum.In the present work we employed a recycling system, with a black-light tubular UV lamp (366nm) installed inside as the source of illumination, to study the degradation of oxalic and citric acid by

  13. Report of comment to the Nuclear Power Inspectorate concerning the final waste repository at Forsmark (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The institute gives its support to the construction of the final depository of low and medium level radioactive waste at Forsmark. The main outline has been presented by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel Supply Company in their application. Prior to putting into operation necessary instructions have to be issued and prior to closing the depository its impact on the environment is to be examined. (G.B.)

  14. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, U.; Gnirk, P.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: the form and final disposal of nuclear wastes; the natural rock and groundwater; the disturbed rock and the groundwater; long-term behavior of the rock and the groundwater; nuclear waste leakage into the groundwater; what does it all mean. (U.K.)

  15. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  16. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, W.

    1976-01-01

    The article cites and summarizes the papers on the topics: economic and ecological importance of waste management, reprocessing of nuclear fuel and recycling of uranium and plutonium, waste management and final storage, transports and organizational aspects of waste management, presented at this symposium. (HR/AK) [de

  17. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  18. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  19. Nuclear wastes: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are a major concern for all countries dealing with civil nuclear energy, whatever these countries have decided yet about reprocessing/storage options. In this chapter, a (exact) definition of a (radioactive) waste is given, together with definitions of waste classes and their characteristics (volumes, types etc.). The various options that are currently experienced in the world will be presented but focus will be put on the French case. Envision evolutions will be briefly presented. (author)

  20. Experience in industrial operation of the plant for immobilizing radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins at the Ardennes Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, P.; Romestain, P.; Bruant, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has developed, at the Grenoble Centre for Nuclear Studies, a procedure for immobilizing low- and intermediate-level wastes in thermosetting resins of the polyester or epoxy types. To demonstrate feasibility on an industrial scale, a pilot plant has been set up at the effluent treatment station of the Ardennes Franco-Belgium Nuclear Power Station (SENA), which is a 305 MW(e) PWR type. Assembly work began in January 1979. After a period devoted to final adjustments and operation with inactive products, conditioning of active products began in January 1981. In the paper, the methods of conditioning the three types of waste (evaporation concentrates, ion exchange resins and filter cartridges) are described, experience of the start-up and operation of the plant is reported and the principal results of coating characterization tests are given. The results of tests on active and inactive products show that the characteristics of the materials obtained on an industrial scale match those of laboratory products and confirm their high quality with regard to mechanical behaviour, fire resistance, homogeneity and low-leachability. Industrial experience and economic comparisons show that the process of immobilizing waste from nuclear power stations in thermosetting resins offers an extremely interesting alternative to classical methods of conditioning. (author)

  1. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Fund involves a number of features which make it a unique federal program. Its primary purpose is to finance one of the largest and most controversial public works programs in the history of the United States. Despite the program's indicated size and advance publicity, no one knows exactly where the anticipated projects will be built, who will construct them, what they will look like when they are done or how they will be operated and by whom. Implimentation of this effort, if statutory targets are actually met, covers a 16-year period. To cover the costs of the program, the Federal Government will tax nuclear power at the rate of 1 mil per kilowatt hour generated. This makes it one of the biggest and longest-lived examples of advance collections for construction work in progress in the history of the United States. While the Department of Energy is authorized to collect funds for the program the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has the authority to cut off this revenue stream by the shutdown of particular reactors or particular reactor types. If all goes well, the Federal Government will begin receiving spent nuclear fuel by 1998, continuing to assess a fee which will cover operating and maintenance costs. If all does not go well, the Federal Government and/or utilities will have to take other steps to solve the problem of permanent disposal. Should the latter circumstance prevail, presumably not only used to date but the $7.5 billion would be spent. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, contains no clear provision for utility refunds in that case

  2. Environmental safety aspects of the new solid radioactive waste management and storage facility at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragaisis, Valdas; Poskas, Povilas; Simonis, Vytautas; Adomaitis, Jonas Erdvilas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania). Nuclear Engineering Lab.

    2011-11-15

    New solid radioactive waste management and interim storage facilities will be constructed for the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant to support ongoing decommissioning activities, including removal and treatment of operational waste from the existing storage buildings. The paper presents approach and methods that have been used to assess radiological impacts to the general public potentially arising under normal operation and accident conditions and to demonstrate compliance with regulations in force. The assessment of impacts from normal operation includes evaluation of exposure arising from release of airborne radioactive material and from facilities and packages containing radioactive material. In addition, radiological impacts from other nearby operating and planned nuclear facilities are taken into consideration. The assessment of impacts under accident conditions includes evaluation of exposure arising from the selected design and beyond design basis accidents. (orig.)

  3. Cementation of secondary wastes generated from carbonisation of spent organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-07-01

    The spent IX resins containing radioactive fission and activation products from power reactors are highly active solid wastes generated during operations of nuclear reactors. Process for carbonization of IX resins to achieve weight and volume reduction has been optimized on 50 dm 3 /batch pilot test rig. The process generates carbonaceous residue, organic liquid condensates (predominantly styrene) and aqueous alkaline scrubber solutions as secondary wastes. The report discusses laboratory tests on leaching of 137 Cs from cement matrix incorporating carbonaceous residues and extrapolation of results to 200 liter matrix block. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from 200 liter cement matrix was estimated to be 0.0021 in 200 days and 0.0418 over a period of 30 years. Incorporation of organic liquid condensates into cement matrix has been tried out successfully. Thus two types of secondary wastes generated during carbonization of spent IX resins can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  4. Analysis of the factors contributing to the one trillion dollars wasted on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnad, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The impacts of societal and regulatory impediments on the cost of generating electricity from nuclear power plants are addressed in this study. Economic losses are incurred as the result of interest payments for capital and excessive incremental costs for replacement power (resulting from construction delays or from cancellation of partially or completely built reactors). The total costs for these delays or cancellations are estimated to be approximately $500 billion each for the US and non-US countries (including the Eastern Block). (author)

  5. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  6. Robots provide valuable tools for waste processing at Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.; Volpe, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Millstone nuclear power station has begun an aggressive program to use robotics, which when properly used minimizes operating costs and exposure to personnel. This article describes several new ways of using existing robotic equipment to speed up work processes and provide solutions to difficult problems. The moisture separator pit and liquid radwaste are discussed

  7. Transfer of radioactive waste management expertise from Switzerland to other countries with small nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.; Birkhaeuser, Ph.; Kickmaier, W.; Vomvoris, S.; Zuidema, P.

    2000-01-01

    A legal requirement which coupled demonstration of the feasibility of nuclear waste disposal to the extension of reactor operational licenses beyond 1985 acted to force rapid development of the Swiss radioactive waste management programme. Over a period of almost 30 years and at a cost of approximately 800 M CHF Nagra has become established as a centre of excellence in this field. Resources include highly experienced manpower, literature and databases supporting development of national repositories for L/ILW and HLW/TRU and state-of-the-art R and D infrastructure (including 2 underground laboratories, hot-laboratory facilities at PSI (Paul Scherrer Institute), modelling groups at universities etc.). This paper reviews Nagra's experience and considers various ways in which expertise can be transferred to other small countries to minimise duplication of effort and optimise development of their own national programmes. (author)

  8. Nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, Tony.

    1990-01-01

    The Save Our Earth series has been designed to appeal to the inquiring minds of ''planet-friendly'' young readers. There is now a greater awareness of environmental issues and an increasing concern for a world no longer able to tolerate the onslaught of pollution, the depletion of natural resources and the effects of toxic chemicals. Each book approaches a specific topic in a way that is exciting and thought-provoking, presenting the facts in a style that is concise and appropriate. The series aims to demonstrate how various environmental subjects relate to our lives, and encourages the reader to accept not only responsibility for the planet, but also for its rescue and restoration. This volume, on nuclear waste disposal, explains how nuclear energy is harnessed in a nuclear reactor, what radioactive waste is, what radioactivity is and its effects, and the problems and possible solutions of disposing of nuclear waste. An awareness of the dangers of nuclear waste is sought. (author)

  9. US nuclear power industry overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    The electric utilities in the United States are facing a number of challenges as deregulation proceeds. Cost control is one of these challenges that impacts directly the operators of nuclear power plants. This presentation reviews recent data on the performance of nuclear power plants and discusses technical developments to reduce operating costs, with particular reference to low-level radioactive waste issues

  10. Nuclear power in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, Tim

    2018-01-01

    The Trump government promotes the further operation of aging nuclear power plants in the US by governmental support although several operators close their nuclear power plants due to economic reasons. The Trump government is also repowering the Yucca-Mountain-Project for radioactive waste disposal that was stopped by the Obama government based on geological problems in the region.

  11. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background (scope of paper is a consideration of the radioactive by-products that arise from normal operation of nuclear power generating facilities; how regulated and their relative significance); legislation and regulation; the fuel cycle - fuel fabrication; use (of the fuel in the reactor; wastes from a typical CEGB Magnox power station); reprocessing (wastes from reprocessing); other wastes; disposal (including sea disposal). (U.K.)

  13. Environment and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Aimed at the general public this leaflet, one of a series prepared by AEA Technology, on behalf of the British Nuclear Industry Forum, seeks to put the case for generating electricity to meet United Kingdom and world demand using nuclear power. It examines the environmental problems linked to the use of fossil-fuels in power stations and other uses, such as the Greenhouse Effect. Problems associated with excess carbon dioxide emissions are also discussed, such as acid rain, the effects of deforestation and lead in petrol. The role of renewable energy sources is mentioned briefly. The leaflet also seeks to reassure on issues such as nuclear waste managements and the likelihood and effects of nuclear accidents. (UK)

  14. The nuclear power alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-04-01

    The Director General of the IAEA stressed the need for energy policies and other measures which would help to slow and eventually halt the present build-up of carbon dioxide, methane and other so-called greenhouse gases, which are held to cause global warming. He urged that nuclear power and various other sources of energy, none of which contribute to global warming, should not be seen as alternatives, but should all be used to counteract the greenhouse effect. He pointed out that the commercially used renewable energies, apart from hydropower, currently represent only 0.3% of the world's energy consumption and, by contrast, the 5% of the world's energy consumption coming from nuclear power is not insignificant. Dr. Blix noted that opposition for nuclear power stems from fear of accidents and concern about the nuclear wastes. But no generation of electricity, whether by coal, hydro, gas or nuclear power, is without some risk. He emphasized that safety can never be a static concept, and that many new measures are being taken by governments and by the IAEA to further strengthen the safety of nuclear power

  15. THE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW-WASTE TECHNOLOGIES OF WORKING BODY OF WATER PREPARATION AT THERMAL AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Rymasheuskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the main directions of water desalination technologies improving have been analyzed. Possible techniques of high-quality treatment of water that enable the reduction of amounts of environmentally hazardous substances to be discharged into the hydrosphere are indicated. The purpose of the work was to improve the ecological efficiency and the effectiveness of water treatment equipment at heat power plants when designing new and the modernizing existing water treatment schemes. In order to achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the one of analyzing the main directions of the improvement of technologies of working body of water preparation at thermal and nuclear power plants; of analyzing the main directions of reduction of total volume of highly mineralized power plant wastewaters; of developing the technological scheme of recycling of concentrate of membrane installations and regenerants of ionite filters in acid and alkali; of developing the technological scheme of transformation of the sludge in pre-processing waste into valuable commodity products. The results of research can be applied for the design of new and the modernization of existing water treatment installations of thermal and nuclear power plants. It will enable to reduce considerably the use of natural water and the amount of chemicals added as well as the volume of wastewater and the concentration of dissolved solids in it. As a consequence, the negative impact of thermal and nuclear power plants on the hydrosphere will be reduced. 

  16. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  17. Politics of nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments. (DP)

  18. Attitudes of the public about nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Nealey, S.M.

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of nuclear wastes has become an important public issue in the past few years. In 1960, only a very small percentage of the American public questioned the safety of waste disposal methods, and no one opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. By 1974, however, a slight majority of the public believed that the disposal of nuclear wastes was a serious problem associated with nuclear power, and from 1975 on, a small percentage of the public has opposed nuclear power for waste disposal reasons. More individuals believe that the technology is not available for acceptable waste management compared to the number of individuals who believe that the technology does exist. However, a majority of the public believe that modern technology can solve the waste disposal problem. Finally, nuclear technologists evaluate waste disposal problems differently from other groups. For instance, nuclear technologists believe that short-term safety is more important than long-term safety regarding waste disposal, while other groups, especially environmentalists, believe that long-term safety is more important than short-term safety. Nuclear technologists are willing to accept a higher level of waste management-related risk than other groups and evaluate waste disposal problems as being less severe than other societal problems

  19. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scurr, I.F.; Silver, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization maintains an ongoing assessment of the world's nuclear technology developments, as a core activity of its Strategic Plan. This publication reviews the current status of the nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle in Australia and around the world. Main issues discussed include: performances and economics of various types of nuclear reactors, uranium resources and requirements, fuel fabrication and technology, radioactive waste management. A brief account of the large international effort to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power is also given. 11 tabs., ills

  20. Transmuting nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use

  1. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrett, G.J.; Gillespie, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    This report discusses events and processes that could adversely affect the long-term stability of a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault or the regions of the geosphere and the biosphere to which radionuclides might migrate from such a vault

  2. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  3. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible

  4. Transmuting nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1992-04-15

    With the problems of disposing of nuclear waste material increasingly the cause for widespread concern, attention is turning to possible new techniques for handling discarded radioactive material and even putting it to good use.

  5. Final disposal of nuclear waste. An investigated issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmu, J.; Nikula, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1978, the nuclear power companies have co-ordinated joint studies of nuclear waste disposal through the Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies. The studies are done primarily to gather basic data, with a view to implementing nuclear waste management in a safe, economical and timely way. The power companies' research, development and design work with regard to nuclear waste has been progressing according to the schedule set by the Government, and Finland has received international recognition for its advanced nuclear waste management programme. Last year, the nuclear power companies set up a joint company, Posiva Oy, to manage the final disposal of spent uranium fuel. (orig.)

  6. Storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Swedish system of handling and storage of nuclear wastes is well-developed. Existing plants and systems provide great freedom of action and flexibility regarding future development and decisions of ultimate storage of the spent fuel. The interim storage in CLAB - Central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel - could continue without any safety related problems for more than 40 years. In practice the choice of ultimate treatment system is not locked until the encapsulation of the fuel starts. At the same time it is of importance that the generation benefiting by the nuclear power production also be responsible for the development of the ultimate storage system and not unnecessarily postpones important decisions. The ultimate storage system for spent fuel could and should be developed within existing schedule. At the same time is should be worked out to provide coming generations with possibilities to do the type of supervision they like without maintenance and supervision requiring to become a prerequisite for a safe function. (O.S.)

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Easum, Lille.

    1976-03-01

    An environmentalist's criticism of nuclear energy is given, on a layman's level. Such subjects as conflict of interest in controlling bodies, low-level radiation, reactor safety, liability insurance, thermal pollution, economics, heavy water production, export of nuclear technology, and the history of the anti-nuclear movement are discussed in a sensationalistic tone. (E.C.B.)

  8. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  9. Nuclear waste for NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Territory may be powerless to block the dumping of low-level nuclear waste in the Territory under legislation introduced into Parliament by Minister for Education Science and Training, Dr Brendan Nelson, in October. Despite strong opposition to the dumping of nuclear waste in the NT, the Australian Government will be able to send waste to one of the three nominated Commonwealth-owned Defence sites within the NT under the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Bill 2005 and the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management (Related Amendment) Bill 2005. The Bills veto recently drafted NT legislation designed to scuttle the plans. Low-level nuclear waste is stored at more than 100 sites around Australia, including hospitals, factories, universities and defence facilities. Medical isotopes produced at Lucas Heights and provided for medical procedures are the source of much of this waste, including some 16 cubic metres currently held at Darwin Hospital. Dr Nelson stressed that the Government would take all die necessary steps to comply with safety and regulatory precautions, including handling waste in line with relevant environmental, nuclear safety and proliferation safeguards

  10. Experts' opinion on the radioecology of the waste water of Esensham nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliefert, M.; Marks, R.; Meier, A.; Wallenschus, M.

    1978-01-01

    Review of the legal steps taken in the dispute over the radiation burden due to the nuclear power plant. There are the experts Prof. Feld (official expert's opunion) with 0.0028 mrem/a and Prof. Bleck (plaintiff's expert's opinion) with 230 mrem/a. The different values obtained are attributed to transfer factors of Cs and to a manipulation of dose factors. (GL) [de

  11. Nuclear power - facts, trends, problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spickermann, W.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt has been made to describe the state-of-the-art of nuclear power utilization, particularly for energy production. On the basis of information obtained from study tours through the USSR a rather comprehensive review of nuclear power plants and research establishments in the Soviet Union, of desalination reactors, ship propulsion reactors and fast breeder reactors is given, including nuclear facilities of other countries, e.g. France, USA, GDR. Heat generation, radiation-induced chemical processes and aspects associated with nuclear energy uses, such as risks, environmental protection or radioactive wastes, are also considered. Moreover, the author attempts to outline the social relevance of nuclear power

  12. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackerron, Gordon; Berkhout, Frans

    1990-01-01

    The environmental effects of nuclear power discussed in this paper are specifically the effects of radiation on human populations, either directly or through the food chain. Controlling the environmental effects of nuclear power has two dimensions, waste management and safety. Regulatory controls aim to keep the risk of death due to man-made radiation down to what is thought to be an acceptable level; the background to the establishing of such levels is examined. The scale of the nuclear industry is outlined. In industrial countries with nuclear power, with the possible exception of the USA and USSR which have extensive nuclear weapons programmes, most radioactive wastes arise in the civil nuclear fuel cycle; medical, research and industrial users of nuclear materials produce the rest. The extreme variety of materials included in radioactive wastes is highlighted. Approaches to the management of different kinds of radioactive waste are discussed; the particular problems associated with reactor decommissioning are considered. The enormous potential harm of serious accidents at nuclear power plants through a release of large quantities of radionuclides into the environment has been a dominant influence in the design of reactors. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl underline the need for careful examination of management issues as well as design and operational failures. Finally, the catastrophic effects of a full scale nuclear war are briefly considered within the context of nuclear proliferation and international security. (UK)

  13. Chemical mode control in nuclear power plant decommissioning during operation of technologies in individual radioactive waste processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.; Dugovic, L.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage treatment of nuclear power plant decommissioning is performed by system of sewage concentration in evaporator with formation of condensed rest, it means radioactive waste concentrate and breeding steam. During sewage treatment plant operation department of chemical mode performs chemical and radiochemical analysis of sewage set for treatment, chemical and radiochemical analysis of breeding steam condensate which is after final cleaning on ionization filter and fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment; chemical and radiochemical analysis of heating steam condensate which is also after fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment. Condensed radioactive concentrate is stored in stainless tanks and later converted into easy transportable and chemically stable matrix from the long term storage point of view in republic storage Mochovce. The article also refer to bituminous plant, vitrification plant, swimming pool decontamination plant of long term storage and operation of waste processing plant Bohunice

  14. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-11-01

    The IAEA Director General pointed out that continued and expanded use of nuclear power must be one among several measures to restrain the use of fossil fuels and thereby limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With regards to future trends in world electricity demands, the Director General emphasized the existing gap between the frequent claims as to what conservation can achieve and actual energy plans. The objections to nuclear power which are related to safety, waste disposal and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons are also discussed. His conclusion is that nuclear power can help significantly to meet growing needs of electricity without contributing to global warming, acid rains or dying forests, responsible management and disposal of nuclear wastes is entirely feasible, and the safety of nuclear power must be continuously strengthened through technological improvement and methods of operation

  15. Nuclear waste: good news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The author states that the problem of nuclear wastes is solved. He states that 90 per cent of radioactive wastes are now permanently managed and that technical solutions for deep geological storage and for transmutation will soon solve the problem for the remaining 10 pc. He states that geological storage will be funded (it is included in electricity price). He denounces why these facts which he consider as good news, do not prevail. He proposes several documents in appendix: a text explaining the nuclear fuel cycle in France, and an extract of a report made by the national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes

  16. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.; Lips'ka, A.Yi.; Pisanko, Zh.Yi.

    2005-01-01

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  17. Safe nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    Nearly 22 percent of the electricity generated in the United States already comes from nuclear power plants, but no new plants have been ordered since 1978. This paper reports that the problems that stand in the way of further development have to do with complexity and perceived risk. Licensing, construction management, and waste disposal are complex matters, and the possibility of accident has alienated a significant portion of the public. But a national poll conducted by Bruskin/Goldring at the beginning of February shows that opposition to nuclear energy is softening. Sixty percent of the American people support (strongly or moderately) the use of nuclear power, and 18 percent moderately oppose it. Only 15 percent remain obstinately opposed. Perhaps they are not aware of recent advances in reactor technology

  18. Waste management in the nuclear engineering curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulenko, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges facing the nuclear industry is to successfully close the nuclear fuel cycle and effectively demonstrate to the public that nuclear wastes do not present a health risk. This issue is currently viewed by many as the most important issue affecting public acceptance of nuclear power, and it is imperative that nuclear engineers be able to effectively address the question of nuclear waste from both a generation and disposal standpoint. To address the issue, the area of nuclear waste management has been made one of the fields of specialized study in the Department of Nuclear Engineering Sciences at the University of Florida. The study of radioactive waste management at the University of Florida is designed both for background for the general nuclear engineering student and for those wishing to specialize in it as a multidiscipline study area involving the Departments of Nuclear Engineering Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Material Science and Engineering, Geology, Civil Engineering, and Industrial Engineering

  19. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are the major environmental effects resulting from the production of electricity by nuclear power plants. Discussed are effects of waste heat, radioactivity, radioactive waste elimination, costs, and future prospects. Included are diagrams illustrating cooling tower operation, effects of thermal discharge into water systems, radioactive…

  20. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This film for a general audience deals with nuclear fuel waste management in Canada, where research is concentrating on land based geologic disposal of wastes rather than on reprocessing of fuel. The waste management programme is based on cooperation of the AECL, various universities and Ontario Hydro. Findings of research institutes in other countries are taken into account as well. The long-term effects of buried radioactive wastes on humans (ground water, food chain etc.) are carefully studied with the help of computer models. Animated sequences illustrate the behaviour of radionuclides and explain the idea of a multiple barrier system to minimize the danger of radiation hazards

  1. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations concerning Safety in connection with the Disposal of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Waste. General Recommendations concerning the Application of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    An english translation of the original Swedish regulations concerning the safety in disposal of nuclear wastes is published in this booklet, together with recommendations on how these regulations can be applied

  2. Transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. A contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem; Transmutation radioaktiver Reststoffe aus Kernkraftwerken. Ein Beitrag zur Verringerung der Endlagerproblematik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mach, Manfred [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie und Management

    2015-07-01

    The brochure on transmutation of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants - a contribution to the reduction of the final repository problem covers the following issues: What is transmutation? Nuclear power in Germany; energy density of fuels; time span of energy resources; CO{sub 2} emissions from different energy sources; types of nuclear power plants in Germany; cost of German electricity generation plants; nuclear power plants worldwide; wastes from nuclear electricity production; radiation from fission products; radiation effects on humans, the nuclear fuel cycle, direct final disposal of radioactive wastes; risk assessment of the direct final disposal; partitioning of actinides; transmutation of actinides.

  3. Nuclear waste management news

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeber, H.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the fact that nuclear waste management is an important factor determining the future perspectives of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, it seems suitable to offer those who are interested in this matter a source of well-founded, concise information. This first newsletter will be followed by others at irregular intervals, reviewing the latest developments and the state of the art in West Germany and abroad. The information presented in this issue reports the state of the art of nuclear waste management in West Germany and R and D activities and programmes, refers to conferences or public statements, and reviews international relations and activities abroad. (orig.) [de

  4. Nuclear Waste Fund management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, L.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Acts requires that DOE enter into contracts with nuclear utilities and others to accept their nuclear wastes at some unspecified date, at some unspecified rate, hopefully starting in 1998. Contracts between DOE and the states, and with civilian and other government agencies must be sufficiently detailed to secure competitive bids on definable chunks of work at a fixed-cost basis with incentives. The need is stressed for a strong central program for the selection of contractors on the basis of competitive bidding on a fixed price basis to perform the task with defined deliverables

  5. Nuclear power. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Lay language brings an understanding of nuclear technology and nuclear politics to the non-specialist reader. The author notes that there has been little change in the technology during the four decades of the nuclear age, but mankind has still to learn how to live with it. Part One explains how reactors work, identifies different reactor types, and describes the fuel cycle. Part two follows research developments during the pre-Manhatten Project days, the war effort, and the decision to pursue commercial nuclear power. He traces the development of policies to secure fission materials and international efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons grade material and the safe handling of radioactive wastes on a global as well as national scale. There are four appendices, including an annotated reference to other publications. 9 figures.

  6. Compatibility of the ultraviolet light-ozone system for laundry waste water treatment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Toshiaki; Nishi, Takashi; Matsuda, Masami; Izumida, Tatsuo

    1997-01-01

    As an alternative treatment system for laundry waste water in nuclear power plants, a system was chosen in which such organic compounds as surfactant would be oxidized by ultraviolet (UV) light and ozone. The system compatibility, UV light source, and dissolved ozone concentration were examined through experiments. First, ozone gas was absorbed in the waste water. After the dissolved ozone concentration equilibrated at the desired value, the waste water was irradiated by a mercury lamp. Then, the time dependence of the concentrations of the organic compounds, the dissolved ozone, and the hydrogen peroxide were measured to estimate the treatment rate of the system. The mercury lamp with a 10 5 -Pa vapor pressure achieved large UV radiation and a treatment rate increase, leading to a compatible system without secondary waste generation. The effect of the dissolved ozone concentration on the treatment rate was saturated when concentration was >3.3 x 10 -4 mol/10 -3 m 3 at the time UV radiation was started. Numerical results indicated the saturation was due to hydrogen peroxide generation, which prevents hydroxyl radical generation

  7. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  8. Standard criteria for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants into surface waters (river systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, V.V.; Tsybizov, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive products discharge into natural water streams results in the necessity to regulate nuclear power plant discharges to ensure radiation safety (RS) for population using a river and surrounding river territory. To ensure RS it is necessary to set scientific-founded standards of permissible discharge level of liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) from nuclear power plant assuring observance of hygienic requirements for surface water puring. Volume of permissible LRW discharge into river systems must be set both with provision for concrete physical-geographycal conditions, specficity of utilizing the river and river valley and social-economical peculiarities of crtical population groups. The value of permissible LRW discharge into river systems is determined by three criterion groups: radiological, ecological and hydrological ones. By means of radiological group the internal and external irradiation doses for the whole body and its separate organs are set and RS of population is determined. Ecological criteria include a number of parameters (coefficients of accumulation, distribution and transition) determining quantitative ratios between radioactive element contents in water and separate links of biological chains: soil/water, fish/water, vegetables/water and others. Hydrological criteria determine the degree of waste dilution in rivers, control radioactive contamination of flood-lands areas and in common with ecological criteria determine radionuclide contents in soil and food products. A method of determining average annual values of LRW dilution in river waters is presented [ru

  9. Credible nuclear waste management: a legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffords, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The past credibility of the AEC, ERDA, and NRC, along with the present credibility of DOE and NRC, are questioned. The results of voter responses to a moratorium on expansion of nuclear power are linked to the question of past credibility of these Federal agencies. It is proposed that the future of nuclear power be linked directly to the Executive Branch of the government via a new bureaucracy, a Waste Management Authority. This new bureaucracy would be completely separated from the construction or licensing phase of nuclear power, except it would have final say over any nuclear power expansion pending an acceptable solution to the waste reprocessing question

  10. Improvement on control of waste disposal system at Genkai Nuclear Power Station No.1 and No.2 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Masatoshi; Tsutsumi, Akria

    1989-01-01

    At Genkai Nuclear Power Station, the operational and control systems of the boric acid evaporator, waste liquid evaporator and gaseous waste disposal system were converted from general purpose analong systems to computer instrumentation and control systems in order to improve their operability and controllability. The equipments were operated by batch processing system, so plant operators were required to operate them manually. By introducing the computer instrumentation and control systems, the automatic operation of the equipments has become possible. Furthermore, it has become possible to monitor the relevant parameters intensively with a CRT in the operating room, and it contributes to the improvement of reliability and labor saving. The operation of No.1 plant was begun in October, 1975, and No.2 plant in March, 1981. Both are the PWR plants of 625 MVA capacity. The outline of the power station facilities, the background of the reconstruction, the problems and the plan of reconstruction for the boric acid recovery facility, waste liquid evaporator and gas compressor, the peculiarity of the reconstruction works, and the effect of introducing the new systems are reported. (Kako, I.)

  11. Nuclear waste - a fresh perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rather than looking at the nuclear waste problem in isolation, it should be viewed in the broader context of how society disposes of all of its wastes. A comparison of radioactive and non-radioactive wastes shows, contrary to popular perception, that the properties of these two waste types are actually very similar. However, the methods of regulation and management of the two waste types are very different. It is time that these differences were reconciled - both the nuclear and the non-nuclear waste industries have a lot to gain. There are three main categories of (non-nuclear) waste: municipal wastes, hazardous wastes, and industrial wastes. Rather than treating each of these waste types in separate, isolated compartments, there should be an integration of the principles and regulations involved in their management. The non-nuclear waste industry has much to learn from the nuclear approach

  12. Waste management and the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, J.

    1982-01-01

    The present lecture deals with energy needs and nuclear power, the importance of waste and its relative place in the fuel cycle, the games of controversies over nuclear waste in the strategies of energy and finally with missions and functions of the IAEA for privileging the rational approach and facilitating the transfer of technology. (RW)

  13. Processing of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennelly, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The processing of nuclear waste to transform the liquid waste from fuel reprocessing activities is well defined. Most solid waste forms, if they are cooled and contain diluted waste, are compatible with many permanent storage environments. The public acceptance of methods for disposal is being delayed in the US because of the alternatives studies of waste forms and repositories now under way that give the impression of indecision and difficulty for the disposal of HLW. Conservative programs that dilute and cool solid waste are under way in France and Sweden and demonstrate that a solution to the problem is available now. Research and development should be directed toward improving selected methods rather than seeking a best method, which at best, may always be illusory

  14. Global outlook for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    'Full text:' The global nuclear power forecast, the North American outlook and the effect of nuclear power growth on greenhouse gas emissions in North America will be discussed. The construction of Generation III reactors will replace aging power plants and, further, add capacity that is environmentally sustainable. The outlook for Generation IV reactors also may significantly improve the environmental balance after 2030, both in electrical markets, waste reduction, and in non-traditional markets such as process heat. (author)

  15. Hendry collides with nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, S.

    1979-01-01

    It is argued that nuclear power is not the answer to future energy needs in the UK. Problems associated with nuclear power programmes are summarized (cost; lead time; ecological; safety; reliability; waste disposal). It is suggested, instead, that conservation is the first key to economic stability over the next decade, and steps are proposed. Particular emphasis is laid on combined heat and power schemes, linked to a district heating network. (U.K.)

  16. Technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-01

    This document includes 79 presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: requirements, options and strategies for waste management; supporting infrastructural needs; waste arising and waste minimization at sources; treatment, conditioning and interim storage of low and intermediate level waste from operation of facilities; treatment, conditioning and interim storage of spent fuel and high level waste; disposal of radioactive waste; decommissioning waste management. Each paper has been indexed separately.

  17. Technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document includes 79 presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: requirements, options and strategies for waste management; supporting infrastructural needs; waste arising and waste minimization at sources; treatment, conditioning and interim storage of low and intermediate level waste from operation of facilities; treatment, conditioning and interim storage of spent fuel and high level waste; disposal of radioactive waste; decommissioning waste management. Each paper has been indexed separately

  18. The generation characteristics of solid radioactive wastes in the KEPCO nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, Soon Hwan; Kang, Duck Won; Kim, Hee Keun

    1991-01-01

    Solid radwastes generation trend and characteristics were discussed for nuclear power plants in KEPCO. Each plant has a specific tendency of solid radwastes generation due to the plant characteristics. The total volume of solid radwastes generated from nine power plants was accumulated in 23,012 drums by the end of 1989. The average annual volume per unit was about 670 drums. The solid radwaste mostly consisted of solidified concentrates and contaminated trash. The contaminated trash has been the major portion of the solid radwastes since 1982. The volume of the contaminated trash was dependent on the availability factor and period of overhaul. Therefore, the contaminated trash was considered to be a prime target for the solid radwastes minimization plan

  19. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. Research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report presents programs for research, development and demonstration concerning radioactive waste disposal in underground facilities. The main topics are: Radioactive waste management, radioactive waste storage, capsules, environmental impacts, risk assessment, radionuclide migration, radioactive waste disposal, decommissioning, cost, and international cooperation. (129 refs.)

  20. Waste minimization fundamental principles used in radioactive waste management plan for decommissioning of a CANDU - 600 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barariu, Gheorghe; Georgescu, Roxana Cristiana; Sociu, Florin

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of waste minimization are to limit the generation and spread of radioactive contamination and to reduce the amount of wastes for storage and disposal, thereby limiting any consequent environmental impact, as well as the total costs associated with contaminated material management. This objective will be achieved by: reviewing the sources and characteristics of radioactive materials arising from Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) activities; reviewing waste minimization principles and current practical applications, together with regulatory, technical, financial and political factors influencing waste minimization practices; and reviewing current trends in improving waste minimization practices during Decontamination and Decommissioning. The main elements of a waste minimization strategy can be grouped into four areas: source reduction, prevention of contamination spread, recycle and reuse, and waste management optimization. For sustaining this objective, the following principles and procedures of wastes management are taken into account: safety and environment protection principles; principles regarding the facility operation; quality assurance procedures; procedures for material classification and releasing. (authors)

  1. International nuclear power status 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.; Majborn, B.; Nonboel, E.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    2001-03-01

    This report is the seventh in a series of annual reports on the international development of nuclear power with special emphasis on reactor safety. For 2000, the report contains: 1. General trends in the development of nuclear power. 2. Deposition of low-level radioactive waste. 3. Statistical information on nuclear power production (in 1999). 4. An overview of safety-relevant incidents in 2000. 5. The development in Sweden. 6. The development in Eastern Europe. 7. The development in the rest of the world. 8. Trends in the development of reactor types. 9. Trends in the development of the nuclear fuel cycle. (au)

  2. Aspect of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi Oskoei, R.; Raeis Hosseiny, N.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next 50 years, unless patterns change dramatically, energy production and use will contribute to global warming through large-scale greenhouse gas emissions-hundreds of billions of tonnes of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Nuclear power would be one option for reducing carbon emissions. At present, however, this is unlikely: nuclear power faces stagnation and decline. We decided to study the future of nuclear power because we believe this technology , despite the changes it faces, is an important option for the world to meet future energy needs without emitting carbon dioxide and other atmospheric pollutants. Other options include increased efficiency, renewable and sequestration. We believe that all options should be preserved as nations develop strategies at provide energy while meeting important environmental challenges. The nuclear power option will only be exercised, however if the technology demonstrates better economics, improved safety, successful waste management, and low proliferation risk, and if public policies place a significant value on electricity production that does not produce carbon dioxide

  3. Safeguards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safeguards and security policies within the Department of Energy (DOE) have been implemented in a graded fashion for the protection, control and accountability of nuclear materials. This graded philosophy has meant that safeguards on low-equity nuclear materials, typically considered of low diversion attractiveness such as waste, has been relegated to minimal controls. This philosophy has been and remains today an acceptable approach for the planning and implementation of safeguards on this material. Nuclear waste protection policy and guidance have been issued due to a lack of clear policy and guidance on the identification and implementation of safeguards controls on waste. However, there are issues related to safe-guarding waste that need to be clarified. These issues primarily stem from increased budgetary and resource pressures to remove materials from safeguards. Finally, there may be an unclear understanding, as to the scope and content of vulnerability assessments required prior to terminating safeguards on waste and other discardable materials and where the authority should lie within the Department for making decisions regarding safeguards termination. This paper examines these issues and the technical basis for Departmental policy for terminating safeguards on waste

  4. Guide to the safe handling of radioactive wastes at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This guide discusses the responsibilities of the regulatory authorities, the design considerations of waste management systems and the source and characteristics of waste. Present techniques for treating, conditioning, storing and disposing of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes on and from the site are summarized, and a consensus of good practice in waste management based on current knowledge and experience is given. The guide also contains brief chapters on transport of wastes, monitoring systems, safety analyses and a review of future trends in waste management

  5. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Overview: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Signed into law by the President on January 7, 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a national policy for safely storing, transporting, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This overview presents the following information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: (1) background; (2) permanent repository; (3) siting guidelines and mission plan; (4) monitored retrievable storage; and (5) nuclear waste funds. (DT)

  6. Why partition nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A cursory review of literature dealing with various separatory processes involved in the handling of high-level liquid nuclear waste discloses that, for the most part, discussion centers on separation procedures and methodology for handling the resulting fractions, particularly the actinide wastes. There appears to be relatively little discussion on the incentives or motivations for performing these separations in the first place. Discussion is often limited to the assumption that we must separate out ''long-term'' from our ''short-term'' management problems. This paper deals with that assumption and devotes primary attention to the question of ''why partition waste'' rather than the question of ''how to partition waste'' or ''what to do with the segregated waste.''

  7. Management of radioactive waste in nuclear power: handling of irradiated graphite from water-cooled graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    advanced methods for graphite rad-waste handling are available today. Implementation of these methods will allow enhancement of environmental safety of nuclear power (authors)

  8. Nuclear power falling to pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, Aa.

    1985-01-01

    The international development during the 80s is reviewed. It is stated that the construction of plants has come to a standstill. The forecasting of nuclear power as a simple and cheap source of energy has been erroneous because of cracks and leakage, unsolved waste problems and incidents. Nuclear power companies go into liquidation and reactors are for sale. Sweden has become the country with most nuclear power per capita mainly due to its controlled decommissioning. The civilian nuclear power makes the proliferation of nuclear weapons possible. With 324 reactors all over the world, a conventional war may cause disasters like Hiroshima. It is stated that the nuclear power is a dangerous and expensive source of energy and impossible to manage. (G.B.)

  9. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  10. The main methods of solving the problem of radioactive waste management from nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The main directions of solving the problem of radioactive waste management from nuclear power stations and radiochemical plants, the aspects of gaseous waste management, liquid HLW storage in vessels and the problems of heat removal during storage of vitrified HLW in surface storages are considered. The main problems arising during fine decontamination of gaseous discharges from nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants are discussed. The migration of fission products in the environment and technical aspects of their capture from gaseous discharges are also considered

  11. Management of waste heat at nuclear power plants: Its potential impact on the environment and its possible economic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.H.

    1987-01-01

    The efficacy of the disposal of waste heat from nuclear power plants by means of once-through and closed-cycle cooling systems is examined in the context of the physical aspects of water quality standards and guidelines for thermal discharges. Typical thermal standards for each of the four classes of water bodies (rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters) are identified. Examples of thermal standards established for once-through cooling on open coastal waters are presented. The design and general layout of various types of cooling systems are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the cooling systems are presented, with particular emphasis on the discussion of potential environmental impacts. Modeling techniques available for impact assessment are presented. Proper selection and application of the models depend on the availability of site characteristics and understanding of the modeling techniques. Guidelines for choosing an appropriate model are presented. Various methods have been developed for the beneficial use of waste heat largely dissipated to the environment. Examples and associated problems of waste-heat utilization are discussed for agricultural, industrial, aquacultural, and residential uses

  12. Boesmanland gains from nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, I.

    1984-01-01

    It is being claimed that the geobotany of the Boesmanland will gain from the use of the farm Vaalputs for radioactive waste disposal from the Koeberg nuclear power station. Only 1 km 2 of the 10 000 ha that was bought for the purpose will be used for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and 2 m 3 to 3 m 3 per year will be used for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The rest of the area, Nucor plans to develop as a nature reserve, restoring the natural botany and ecology. Before Vaalputs was selected as site for radioactive waste disposal, a regional analysis was done. According to this there is more or less 500 people staying within a radius of 25km from the farm. Geological surveys showed no mineral deposits of economic value. During the past 100 million years the area was also free from seismic activity

  13. The debate on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The need for nuclear power is pointed out. The Study Group on Nuclear Fuel Cycles of the American Physical Society has studied the problem of waste disposal in detail and has found that geological emplacement leads to safe waste disposal. The relation between nuclear power and weapons proliferation is discussed. The problem of preventing proliferation is primarily a political problem, and the availability of nuclear power will contribute little to the potential for proliferation. However, to further reduce this contribution, it may be desirable to keep fast-breeder reactors under international control and to use only converters for national reactors. The desirable converter is one which has a high conversion ratio, probably one using the thorium cycle, 233 U, and heavy water as the moderator. The nuclear debate in the United States of America is discussed. Work on physical and technical safeguards in the USA against diversion of fissile materials is mentioned. (author)

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Single Channel Trip System for the Dungeness B AGRs in the United Kingdom has enabled Nuclear Electric to enhance the performance of each of the twin reactors progressively towards the design figure of 660MW. The unique self-testing dynamic nature of the microprocessor-based ISAT system was one of the key factors in satisfying the UK Regulator that the system met the demanding requirements of the Dungeness B application, and current operational and maintenance experience is very encouraging. Systems based on the ISAT principle have application in reactor protection systems throughout the world. (Author)

  15. OCRWM International Cooperation in Nuclear Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, R.; Levich, R.; Strahl, J.

    2002-01-01

    With the implementation of nuclear power as a major energy source, the United States is increasingly faced with the challenges of safely managing its inventory of spent nuclear materials. In 2002, with 438 nuclear power facilities generating electrical energy in 31 nations around the world, the management of radioactive material including spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, is an international concern. Most of the world's nuclear nations maintain radioactive waste management programs and have generally accepted deep geologic repositories as the long-term solution for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Similarly, the United States is evaluating the feasibility of deep geologic disposal at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project is directed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which has responsibility for managing the disposition of spent nuclear fuel produced by commercial nuclear power facilities along with U.S. government-owned spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Much of the world class science conducted through the OCRWM program was enhanced through collaboration with other nations and international organizations focused on resolving issues associated with the disposition of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

  16. Towards a strategy on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, C.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of campaigns to stop various aspects of nuclear power, particularly those concerned with the management of radioactive wastes. Some proposals are made for further specific campaigns. (U.K.)

  17. Preliminary study on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plant for cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Koichiro; Kato, Osamu; Saegusa, Toshiari

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary study was made on technology required to recycle of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask and on quantity of the cask which can be produced by the metallic waste. The technical and institutional issues for the recycling were studied. The metallic waste from decommissioning may be technically used to a certain degree for manufacturing the casks. However, there were some technical issues to be solved. For example, the manufacturing factories should be established. The radioactive waste from the factories with radiation control should be handled and treated carefully. Quality of the cask should be properly controlled. The 'Clearance Levels' which allows to recycle decommissioning waste have been hardly enacted in Japan. Technical and economic evaluation on recycling of metallic waste from decommissioning for spent fuel storage cask should be conducted again after progress in recycling of radioactive waste of which radioactivity is below the 'Clearance Levels' in Japan. (author)

  18. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 (Japan); Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin [Hitachi Works, Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd. (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K{sub d}s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K{sub d}s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K{sub d}s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K{sub d}s and it

  19. Removal of Radionuclides from Waste Water at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Desalination and Adsorption Methods - 13126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Kamosida, Mamoru; Watanabe, Daisuke; Asano, Takashi; Tamata, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Waste water containing high levels of radionuclides due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, has been treated by the adsorption removal and reverse-osmosis (RO) desalination to allow water re-use for cooling the reactors. Radionuclides in the waste water are collected in the adsorbent medium and the RO concentrate (RO brine) in the water treatment system currently operated at the Fukushima Daiichi site. In this paper, we have studied the behavior of radionuclides in the presently applied RO desalination system and the removal of radionuclides in possible additional adsorption systems for the Fukushima Daiichi waste water treatment. Regarding the RO desalination system, decontamination factors (DFs) of the elements present in the waste water were obtained by lab-scale testing using an RO unit and simulated waste water with non-radioactive elements. The results of the lab-scale testing using representative elements showed that the DF for each element depended on its hydrated ionic radius: the larger the hydrated ionic radius of the element, the higher its DF is. Thus, the DF of each element in the waste water could be estimated based on its hydrated ionic radius. For the adsorption system to remove radionuclides more effectively, we studied adsorption behavior of typical elements, such as radioactive cesium and strontium, by various kinds of adsorbents using batch and column testing. We used batch testing to measure distribution coefficients (K d s) for cesium and strontium onto adsorbents under different brine concentrations that simulated waste water conditions at the Fukushima Daiichi site. For cesium adsorbents, K d s with different dependency on the brine concentration were observed based on the mechanism of cesium adsorption. As for strontium, K d s decreased as the brine concentration increased for any adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The adsorbent titanium oxide had higher K d s and it was used for

  20. Nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    The IAEA is organizing a major conference on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle, which is to be held from 2 to 13 May 1977 in Salzburg, Austria. The programme for the conference was published in the preceding issue of the IAEA Bulletin (Vol.18, No. 3/4). Topics to be covered at the conference include: world energy supply and demand, supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services, radioactivity management (including transport), nuclear safety, public acceptance of nuclear power, safeguarding of nuclear materials, and nuclear power prospects in developing countries. The articles in the section that follows are intended to serve as an introduction to the topics to be discussed at the Salzburg Conference. They deal with the demand for uranium and nuclear fuel cycle services, uranium supplies, a computer simulation of regional fuel cycle centres, nuclear safety codes, management of radioactive wastes, and a pioneering research project on factors that determine public attitudes toward nuclear power. It is planned to present additional background articles, including a review of the world nuclear fuel reprocessing situation and developments in the uranium enrichment industry, in future issues of the Bulletin. (author)

  1. Foreign programs for the storage of spent nuclear power plant fuels, high-level waste canisters and transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, K.M.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    The various national programs for developing and applying technology for the interim storage of spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and TRU wastes are summarized. Primary emphasis of the report is on dry storage techniques for uranium dioxide fuels, but data are also provided concerning pool storage

  2. Waste management - nuclear style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, P.

    1977-01-01

    Possible ways of disposing of highly radioactive wastes arising from the United Kingdom nuclear industry are briefly reviewed: projecting into outer space, dumping in containers in the ocean, or storage on land. The problems in each case and, in particular, the risks of environmental contamination from marine or land disposal, are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  4. Nuclear Waste Education Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In summary, both the Atlanta and Albuquerque pilot seminars achieved the Nuclear Waste Education Project's goal of informing citizens on both the substance and the process of nuclear waste policy so that they can better participate in future nuclear waste decisions. Nuclear waste issues are controversial, and the seminars exposed the nature of the controversy, and utilized the policy debates to create lively and provocative sessions. The format and content of any citizen education curriculum must be made to fit the particular goal that has been chosen. If the Department of Energy and the LWVEF decide to continue to foster an informed dialogue among presenters and participants, the principles of controversial issues education would serve this goal well. If, however, the Department of Energy and/or the LWVEF decide to go beyond imparting information and promoting a lively discussion of the issues, towards some kind of consensus-building process, it would be appropriate to integrate more interactive sessions into the format. As one evaluator wrote, ''In-depth participation in finding solutions or establishing policy -- small group discussion'' would have been preferable to the plenary sessions that mostly were in the form of lectures and expert panel discussion. The evaluator continued by saying, ''Since these [small group discussions] would require more time commitment, they might be part of follow-up workshops focused on particular topics.''

  5. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Ross, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Papers from the Second International Symposium on Ceramics in Nuclear Waste Management, held during the American Ceramic Society's 85th Annual Meeting, comprise this eighth volume in the Advances in Ceramics series. The 81 papers included in this volume were compiled by George G. Wicks, of Savannah River Lab, and Wayne A. Ross, of Battelle, Pacific Northwest Labs

  6. Facts about nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1980-01-01

    The argument concerning the introduction and the further expansion of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany has been existing for several years in differing intensities and most different forms. The arguments and theses of the discussion deal with the various aspects of the reciprocity between nuclear energy and environment. This is the key-note for the scientists to treat the relevant problems and questions in the discussion about nuclear energy. The controversy in which often emotional theses are stated instead of reasonably deliberating the pros and contras includes civil initiatives, societies, and environment protection organisations on the one hand and authorities, producers, and operators of nuclear-technical plants on the other. And the scale of the different opinions reaches from real agreement to deep condemnation of a technology which represents an option to meet the energy need in the future. In this situation, this book is an attempt to de-emotionalize the whole discussion. Most of the authors of the articles come from research centres and have been working on the problems they deal with for years. The spectrum of the topics includes the energy-political coherences of nuclear energy, the technical fundaments of the individual reactor types, safety and security of nuclear-technical plants the fuel cycle, especially the waste management in nuclear power plants, environmental aspects of energy generation in general and nuclear energy in special, the question of Plutonium and the presentation of alternative energy sources including nuclear fusion. The arrangement of these topics is meant to help to clarify the complex coherences of nuclear energy and to help those interested in problems of energy policy to make their own personal decisions. (orig./RW) [de

  7. Nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Canadian concept for nuclear fuel waste disposal is based on disposing of the waste in a vault excavated 500-1000 m deep in intrusive igneous rock of the Canadian Shield. The author believes that, if the concept is accepted following review by a federal environmental assessment panel (probably in 1995), then it is important that implementation should begin without delay. His reasons are listed under the following headings: Environmental leadership and reducing the burden on future generations; Fostering public confidence in nuclear energy; Forestalling inaction by default; Preserving the knowledge base. Although disposal of reprocessing waste is a possible future alternative option, it will still almost certainly include a requirement for geologic disposal

  8. Nuclear power: restoring public confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns a one day conference on nuclear power organised by the Centre for Science Studies and Science Policy, Lancaster, April 1986. Following the Chernobyl reactor accident, the conference concentrated on public confidence in nuclear power. Causes of lack of public confidence, public perceptions of risk, and the effect of Chernobyl in the United Kingdom, were all discussed. A Select Committee on the Environment examined the problems of radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear power: Issues and misunderstandings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2000-01-01

    A sizeable sector of the public remains hesitant or opposed to the use of nuclear power. With other groups claiming nuclear power has a legitimate role in energy programs, there is a need to openly and objectively discuss the concerns limiting its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, and the disposal of high level waste. This paper discusses these concerns using comparisons with other energy sources. (author)

  10. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  11. Public enlightment seminar on nuclear power. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildirim, N

    1998-12-31

    The seminar considered different aspects of nuclear power development, including the following issues: electricity generation, power supply and demand, energy sources, consumption of electricity, energy outlook in Europe, comparative analysis of energy options, safety of modern nuclear power plants, radiation and human health, radioactive waste management, nuclear techniques to promote world food security, public information issues.

  12. Public enlightment seminar on nuclear power. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, N.

    1997-01-01

    The seminar considered different aspects of nuclear power development, including the following issues: electricity generation, power supply and demand, energy sources, consumption of electricity, energy outlook in Europe, comparative analysis of energy options, safety of modern nuclear power plants, radiation and human health, radioactive waste management, nuclear techniques to promote world food security, public information issues

  13. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  14. Nuclear waste and nuclear ethics. Societal and ethical aspects of retrievable storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, H.; Van den Berg, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the literature study on the title subject is to provide information to researchers, engineers, decision makers, administrators, and the public in the Netherlands on the subject of retrievable storage of nuclear waste, mainly from nuclear power plants. Conclusions and recommendations are formulated with respect to retrievability and ethics, sustainability, risk assessment, information transfer, environmental impacts, and discussions on radioactive waste storage. 170 refs

  15. Nuclear waste - perceptions and realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the complex scientific, sociological, political and emotive aspects of nuclear waste. The public perception of the hazards and risks, to present and future generations, in the management of nuclear wastes are highlighted. The cost of nuclear waste management to socially acceptable and technically achievable standards is discussed. (UK)

  16. Evaluation of radwaste minimization program of dry and wet active waste in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Garza, Hector

    2001-01-01

    A growing rate of radwaste volume production combined with an increase of both, costs and associated dose involved in its treatment and disposition processes have created a serious problem to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (BWR, two Units, 682 Mwe each) in Mexico. Due the lack of a Final Repository in the country, the solution in the short or long terms relies on the success of a continuous and aggressive minimization program mainly based on modifications and upgrades applied to these processes. Technical and administrative strategies adopted by LVNPP for the reduction of Liquid Effluents and Dry and Wet Active Waste in the next three years are described. Based on the results of the LVNPP current radwaste process systems, an estimated accumulation of 11,502 m 3 by the year 2035 will exceed the actual on-site storage capacity. If the strategies succeed, this production would fall to an expected manageable volume of 4067 m 3 . (author)

  17. A special device used for measuring waste gas flow rate in the vent channel of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjun; Zong Guifang; Shi Huaming; Yang Huimin; Jiang Yuana.

    1988-01-01

    A special Venturi-Pitot complex device is discribed which is used for measuring waste gas flow rate in the vent channel of Qinshan nuclear power plant. The device is located at the center of the channel. It can produce enlarged differential pressure signal under the condition of low gas velocity. And the flow resistance of this device is negligible. Experiments to determine the ratio of the velocity at the center of the channel to the average velocity were performed on a 1:12 test model. The special device was calibrated in a closed wind tunnel and its discharge coefficient was obtained. The uncertainty is ±3.5% and the nonlinearity is ±1.3%. The enlargement ratio and the discharge coefficient of the device are also deduced analytically on the basis of hydrodynamics theory

  18. Nuclear power and its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    A series of viewgraphs describes the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear power, covering reactor types, sources of uranium, enrichment of uranium, fuel fabrication, transportation, fuel reprocessing, and radioactive wastes

  19. Crunch time for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Rob.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany, one of the most advanced nations, technically has a thriving nuclear power industry. However there is stiff opposition to nuclear power from political parties and environmental groups. General elections due to be held in mid October hold the future of the nuclear industry in the balance. If the present opposition party comes to power, it is committed to a policy of phasing out nuclear power completely. At the centre of the political uproar is the Gorleben ''interim store'' which is intended to house Germany's spent fuel for at least the next forty years. The nuclear industry must resolve the issue of nuclear waste disposal to the voters' satisfaction if it is to have a viable future. (UK)

  20. Who wants nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, John; Openshaw, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The criteria involved in selecting sites for disposal of low and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes are explained. The wastes and the sources are identified and the current procedure for their disposal, at Drigg, next to the Sellafield reprocessing plant, is given. If alternative sites could be found for non-Sellafield-produced wastes the lifetime of the Drigg site could be extended. The sites chosen by NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) have to be cost effective. Indeed, those identified are conveniently situated and would not incur excessive transport costs. However, more remote sites may have to be chosen, even at greater transport cost, because of public protests. Even this may not be satisfactory because the transportation itself incurs risks. (UK)

  1. International symposium on technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This document includes 79 extended synopses of presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: radioactive waste management policies and technologies; geological disposal of radioactive wastes; spent nuclear fuel management; economic and social aspects of nuclear fuel cycle. Every paper has been indexed separately Refs, figs, tabs

  2. International symposium on technologies for the management of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and back end nuclear fuel cycle activities. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This document includes 79 extended synopses of presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: radioactive waste management policies and technologies; geological disposal of radioactive wastes; spent nuclear fuel management; economic and social aspects of nuclear fuel cycle. Every paper has been indexed separately

  3. Nuclear power: status and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, H.H.; Langlois, L.M.; McDonald, A.

    2002-01-01

    Current state of the world nuclear energetics is reviewed; data on operating and nuclear power blocks under construction in different countries, data on electric power output, practice of operation are presented. New plans of energetic reactors, capitalized costs for their construction, operating cost and period of construction are treated. Problems of nuclear safety, spent fuel and radioactive waste management, non-proliferation policy are discussed. Outlook for the development of the nuclear energetics is directed and importance of the Bonn agreement in connection with economic reasons for NPP operation is noted [ru

  4. Nuclear power and radioactive waste: a sub-seabed disposal option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deese, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal programs of most countries are still focused on investigation of land-based geologic formations as possible containment media for radioactive wastes. Important discoveries in geological oceanography and amazing advances in ocean engineering over the past decade have, however, led several countries to investigate another promising possibility for geologic disposal of radioactive waste--isolation within the deep seabed or sub-seabed disposal. Beyond the various technical advantages and disadvantages involved, use of the international seabed for radioactive waste disposal raises a multitude of social, economic, political, legal, institutional, and ethical issues. These issues are analyzed in this volume

  5. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  6. Radiochemical analysis of homogeneously solidified low level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kaneaki; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    As mentioned above, we have reliable radioanalytical methods for all kinds of homogeneously solidified wastes. We are now under studying an analytical method for pellets which are made from evaporator concentrates or resin. And we are going to study to establish new analytical method for the rad-waste including metal, cloths and so on in near future. (J.P.N.)

  7. Solidification of low and medium level wastes in bitumen at Barsebaeck nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfors, C.

    1979-01-01

    Operating experience is presented from 4 years of bitumen solidification of wastes coming from two boiling water reactors. Methods used to sample, analyse and document the wastes are described. Transport and storage methods without remote handling have been adopted. The risk of fire is discussed and a description is given of the measures taken for fire protection. (author)

  8. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  9. A State-of-the-Art Report on Technologies of Volume Reduction and Self-Disposal for Large Metal Wastes including the Steam Generator of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kune Woo; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    This report focuses on technologies of volume reduction and self-disposal for large metal wastes including the steam generator of nuclear power plants. This report consists of the cases of treatments and foreign and domestic technologies for steam generator replacement

  10. The political challenges of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andren, Mats; Strandberg, Urban

    2005-01-01

    This anthology is made up of nine essays on the nuclear waste issue, both its political, social and technical aspects, with the aim to create a platform for debate and planning of research. The contributions are titled: 'From clean energy to dangerous waste - the regulatory management of nuclear power in the Swedish welfare society. An economic-historic review , 'The course of the high-level waste into the national political arena', 'The technical principles behind the Swedish repository for spent fuels', 'Waste, legitimacy and local citizenship', 'Nuclear issues in societal planning', 'Usefulness or riddance - transmutation or just disposal?', 'National nuclear fuel policy in an European Union?', 'Conclusion - the challenges of the nuclear waste issue', 'Final words - about the need for critical debate and multi-disciplinary research'

  11. New approaches to nuclear power

    KAUST Repository

    Dewan, Leslie

    2018-01-21

    The world needs a cheap, carbon-free alternative to fossil fuels to feed its growing electricity demand. Nuclear power can be a good solution to the problem, but is hindered by issues of safety, waste, proliferation, and cost. But what if we could try a new approach to nuclear power, one that solves these problems? In this lecture, the CEO of Transatomic Power will talk about how their company is advancing the design of a compact molten salt reactor to support the future of carbon-free energy production. Can the designs of new reactor push the boundaries of nuclear technology to allow for a safe, clean, and affordable answer to humanityメs energy needs? Nuclear power involves capturing the energy produced in nuclear fission reactions, which emerges as heat. This heat is most frequently used to boil water into steam, which then drives a turbine to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. Worldwide, there is a renaissance of new nuclear technology development -- a new generation of young engineers are racing to develop more advanced nuclear reactors for a better form of power generation. Transatomic Power, specifically, is advancing the design of an easily contained and controlled, atmospheric pressure, high power density molten salt reactor that can be built at low cost. The road to commercialization is long, and poses many challenges, but the benefits are enormous. These new reactors push the boundaries of technology to allow for better, safer ways to power the world.

  12. The environmental impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, Z.J.

    1975-01-01

    The major environmental hazards associated with nuclear power stations are outlined. The environmental and biological effects of air pollution, thermal pollution, radioactive effluent from power stations and fuel reprocessing plants, and radioactive waste disposal are dealt with, and the safety of nuclear power stations is discussed. In addition, some comparisons are made of the environmental hazards associated with alternative methods of power generation. (author)

  13. Low-level dry active waste management planning for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.N.; Feizollani, F.; Jarboe, Th.B.

    1984-01-01

    To offset the rising cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal and to provide contingency measures for disposal space unavailability after January 1, 1986, Baltimore Gas and Electric (BG and E) has undertake efforts to establish a long-term waste management program. This plan, which was developed after detailed study of a number of options, consists of four elements: management of dry active wastes; implementation of 10CFR61 requirements; storage of process wastes; and enhancement of liquid/solid waste systems and equipment performance. Each element was scheduled for implementation in accordance with an established set of priorities. Accordingly, detailed engineering for implementation of the first two elements was initiated in December of 1982. This paper focuses on BGandE's experience in implementation of the first element o the program, i.e., the management of dry active waste (DAW). DAW is managed by providing a new buildin dedicated to its handling, processing, volume-reduction, and storage. This building, which is equipped with state-of-the-art decontamination and processing techniques, allows for implementation of waste minimization and for interim storage of DAW in a safe and cost effective manner

  14. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RD and D Programme 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    According to the Act on Nuclear Activities, the holder of a licence to operate a nuclear reactor must adopt all necessary measures to manage and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The Act stipulates requirements on a research programme which is to be submitted to the competent regulatory authority once every three years. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) is the competent authority that evaluates and reviews the programme. SKI distributes the programme to a wide circle of reviewing bodies for comment, including authorities, municipalities, universities and NGOs. The Swedish programme for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel started about 25 years ago. According to the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Co. (SKB), the planned repository will not be closed until sometime in the 2050's. A series of decisions must be made before this goal is attained. The decision process can therefore be described as a multi-stage process. During each stages, safety will be evaluated and there is a possibility of taking additional time for development work or of selecting improved solutions. SKI's task is to ensure safety compliance throughout all of these stages. In its decision in January 2000, the Government explained that the Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration for the Treatment and Final Disposal of Nuclear Waste (RD and D Programme 98) complied with legislative requirements but that certain supplementary reporting should be conducted by SKB and submitted no later than when the next programme, in accordance with paragraph 12 of the Act on Nuclear Activities, was prepared (September 2001). The supplementary reporting requested by the Government, and which was submitted by SKB to SKI in December 2000, dealt with issues relating to method selection, site selection and the site investigation programme. SKI submitted its review of the supplement to the Government in June 2001 and the Government made a decision on the matter on November 1, 2001

  15. The current situation of waste management at German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hottenrott, G.; Mirschinka, V.

    2002-01-01

    An overview is given about the main points of the agreement between the four utility companies and the German government on June 11, 2001, concerning waste management and disposal. The current waste management situation is compared with the effects of the agreement on the future development of the German waste management concept. Major innovations are the discontinuation of reprocessing, the establishment of local intermediate storage facilities for fuel elements and the suspension of the exploration works conducted on the salt dome at Gorleben. (orig.)

  16. Disposal of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, E.; Kuehn, K.

    1977-01-01

    Final storage of nuclear wastes in the salt mine at Asse is described. Until the end of 1976, all in all 73,000 containers with slightly radioactive wastes were deposited there within the framework of a test programme - the Asse pit is a pilot plant. Final storage of medium active waste was started in 1972. So far, about 1,150 barrels with medium active waste were deposited. Storage techniques applied, radiation exposure of the personnel and experience gained so far are reported on in this context. Final storage at Asse of highly active wastes developing decay heat is still in a preparatory stage, as here radiation as well as heat problems have to be mastered. Technical mining activities for the recoverable storage of highly-active, heat-developing wastes in the form of ceramic glasses are still in a planning phase, whereas advance work, e.g. cutting storage chambers out of seams 775 m thick have already begun. (HPH) [de

  17. Problems of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, D.

    1999-01-01

    An enormous stockpile of nuclear weapons was reduced during the Cold War as a result of frantic Soviet-US competition, accompanied by considerable radioactive pollution of the environment. This pollution was inevitable. Former adversaries began to sober only recently. As a result, areas of weapons complexes both in the USA (Hanford, Savannah, Oak Ridge) and in Russia (Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, Krasnoyarsk-25) look like battlefields of the Cold War. A Nuclear weapon-free world will only be achieved (if at all) after reaching changes in the principles that guide state policies and actions. A nuclear-waste-free world implies that the environment's radioactive pollution of a military nature would be eliminated and all potential dangers from civil nuclear energy prevented. This can be attained after solution of some economic, political and social problems

  18. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimston, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The United Kingdom Government's strategy aimed at securing sustainable development has recently been published, and is analysed here by the Energy Issues Adviser, for the British Nuclear Industry Forum. The energy framework aims to ensure secure supplies of energy at competitive prices and to minimise possible adverse environmental impacts of energy use. It is argued here that both of these aims will be promoted by the continued and growing use of nuclear power in the United Kingdom. As the cost of nuclear electricity depends chiefly on the price of uranium, which is likely to stabilize due to increased supplies from nuclear weapons destruction, uranium recycling and mixed oxide fuel reprocessing, it is unlikely that world fuel price inflation will affect these costs. Secondly, nuclear power is not associated with acid rain or the threat of global warming, so its environment protection claims can be substantiated. Indeed, unlike other fuel sources, nuclear power already pays for its waste and decommissioning procedures. (UK)

  19. Nuclear power, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffaes, C.

    1994-01-01

    The explanations in this article aim at clarifying the background of the problem of nuclear energies. Why did countries give up developing nuclear energy? Which roles do economic political and psychological factors play in making energy political decisions? How could a balance be found in using the various energy sources which must meet the constantly increasing demand for electric power? Which preconditions must be fulfilled to return to nuclear energy world-wide (as using coal is connected with many environmental risks) and how long would it take? If, however, nuclear power is even to be included in the energy-political discussions of the governments and the public opinions in each country, there are a number of sensitive topics waiting for an answer: Safety and costs of power plants; recycling and storing nuclear wastes; the relationship between civil energy and the availability of nuclear weapons and the future plutonium economy. (orig./UA) [de

  20. The economics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.; Betteridge, G.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that nuclear power stations throughout the world are now providing consumers with substantially the cheapest electricity, except in areas with extensive hydro-power or cheap, clean, local coal. Thermal nuclear power stations will continue to provide economic electricity until the cost of uranium rises to several times the present level; fast reactors have the potential to continue to stabilise the cost of electricity and by moderating demand for other fuels will keep down their cost also. Headings of this paper include -The historical perspective; methods of comparing nuclear and fossil generating costs; historical comparisons of UK nuclear and fossil generating costs; waste storage and decommissioning; future changes in costs; criteria for future investment in nuclear power; alternative methods of comparison; total system cost analysis; the economics of fast reactors; and the ultimate role of fast reactors. 13 references. (author)

  1. Nuclear power 1984: Progressive normalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, M.

    1984-01-01

    The peaceful use of nuclear power is being integrated into the overall concept of a safe long-term power supply in West Germany. The progress of normalisation is shown particularly in the takeover of all stations of the nuclear fuel circuit by the economy, with the exception of the final storage of radioactive waste, which is the responsibility of the West German Government. Normalisation also means the withdrawal of the state from financing projects after completion of the two prototypes SNR-300 and THTR-300 and the German uranium enrichment plant. The state will, however, support future research and development projects in the nuclear field. The expansion of nuclear power capacity is at present being slowed down by the state of the economy, i.e. only nuclear power projects being built are proceeding. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Evaluation of the radioactive waste characterisation at the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekki, T.; Titta, A.

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the physical, chemical and radiological characterisation, handling and documentation of the radioactive waste packages to be disposed of in the VLJ-repository at the Olkiluoto NPP. A comparison with the current practices in Europe, based on information from Sweden, Spain and Czech Republic, is made. The report presents recommendations for STUK to harmonise the LILW waste management practises in Finland with those in Europe. (orig.)

  3. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW [i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)] that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials [liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids], could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends

  4. Compatibility of cement with low and medium level wastes generated at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.

    1987-01-01

    The incorporation of low- and medium level wastes in cement can give rise to serious problems due to the interaction between radwastes and cement components. Some troubles can occur during the first stages of the cementation process while deleterious phenomena come into evidence in the medium and long term. With the aim to improve the quality of the final waste forms a pretreatment of the waste streams is often necessary, as well as the addition of special agents to the cement matrix. The prediction of the long-term behaviour of the final products is of main importance in this research field. To this purpose some accelerated tests have been proposed, but much effort should be further devoted to the comprehension of the waste/matrix interaction. In this paper the principal waste streams are reviewed together with the possible remedies which seem to be more suitable for their cementation. Thus the qpportunity of separatly handling and solidifying different types of waste is once more supported

  5. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  6. Nuclear wastes: research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The management of long-living and high level radioactive wastes in France belongs to the framework of the December 30, 1991 law which defines three ways of research: the separation and transmutation of radionuclides, their reversible storage or disposal in deep geologic formations, and their processing and surface storage during long duration. Research works are done in partnership between public research and industrial organizations in many French and foreign laboratories. Twelve years after its enforcement, the impact of this law has overstepped the simple research framework and has led to a deep reflection of the society about the use of nuclear energy. This short paper presents the main results obtained so far in the three research ways, the general energy policy of the French government, the industrial progresses made in the framework of the 1991 law and the international context of the management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  7. Power program and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    Main points of the USSR power program and the role of nuclear power in fuel and power complex of the country are considered. Data on dynamics of economic indices of electric power generation at nuclear power plants during 1980-1988 and forecasts till 2000 are presented. It is shown that real cost of 1 kW/h of electric power is equal to 1.3-1.8 cop., and total reduced cost is equal to 1.8-2.4 cop

  8. Nuclear power of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun Bee-Ho

    2011-01-01

    National nuclear is presented. Nuclear energy safety after Fukushima, international cooperation in nuclear energy is discussed. Nuclear projects with the United Arab Emirates have been developed to build 4 nuclear power plants in the UAE - APR 1400. At the Korea-Bulgaria Industrial Committee Meeting in Sofia (March 2011) Korean side proposed Nuclear Safety Training Program in Korea for Bulgarian government officials and experts transfer of know-how and profound expertise on world-class nuclear technology and nuclear safety

  9. Nuclear power and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlouhy, Z; Vojtech, O [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1979-01-01

    The concepts are described of the fuel cycle and gaseous, liquid and solid radioactive wastes. Sources are discussed of exposure of Czechoslovak population, such as cosmic radiation, natural radionuclide radiation in the soil, water and air, /sup 40/K contained in the human body, medical diagnosis and therapy, radionuclide applications in industries and agriculture, nuclear power plants. The methods are described of high-level radioactive wastes processing, disposal and transport.

  10. The potential of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore-Lacy, I.

    1989-01-01

    The main issues addressed include: the economics of nuclear power by comparison with coal-fired electricity generation, environmental considerations in relation with greenhouse gases and radiation increment, waste disposal and reprocessing of spent fuel. A number of ethical issues have also been briefly outlined and refer to alternative/highest use of earth resources, energy conservation, the safety of humanity, weapon proliferation, high level wastes and relationships to democratic institutions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  11. Experience gained in the management of radioactive waste from maintenance, decontamination and partial decommissioning of a reprocessing plant and conclusions resulting for the management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hild, W.

    1983-01-01

    After a short description of the historical background of Eurochemic, its main tasks and the various operational phases, a detailed description of the waste management principles applied is presented. The practical experience in the waste treatment is reported for both the operational phase of the reprocessing plant and its decontamination and partial decommissioning after shutdown. Based on this experience and the presented data, an assessment of the practical operations is made and conclusions are drawn. Finally, recommendations are formulated both for the general waste management policy and the practical waste treatment processes in nuclear power reactors. (author)

  12. Nuclear waste: the political realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1983-01-01

    The land dumping of nuclear waste has again come to the attention of anti-nuclear groups, environmentalists and the media, following the announcement of the proposed sites for intermediate-level nuclear waste at Billingham and Bedford. Opposition has already surfaced on a large scale, with public meetings in both areas and a revitalisation of the waste dumping network. This article explains some of the political realities in the nuclear debate, and suggests how we can tackle the issue of waste dumping, remembering that, even if the industry closes tomorrow, there are vast quantities of waste which must be safely and democratically dealt with. (author)

  13. Risks from nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J.

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs

  14. Risks from nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljenzin, J.O.; Rydberg, J. [Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The first part of this review discusses the importance of risk. If there is any relation between the emotional and rational risk perceptions (for example, it is believed that increased knowledge will decrease emotions), it will be a desirable goal for society, and the nuclear industry in particular, to improve the understanding by the laymen of the rational risks from nuclear energy. This review surveys various paths to a more common comprehension - perhaps a consensus - of the nuclear waste risks. The second part discusses radioactivity as a risk factor and concludes that it has no relation in itself to risk, but must be connected to exposure leading to a dose risk, i.e. a health detriment, which is commonly expressed in terms of cancer induction rate. Dose-effect relations are discussed in light of recent scientific debate. The third part of the report describes a number of hazard indexes for nuclear waste found in the literature and distinguishes between absolute and relative risk scales. The absolute risks as well as the relative risks have changed over time due to changes in radiological and metabolic data and by changes in the mode of calculation. To judge from the literature, the risk discussion is huge, even when it is limited to nuclear waste. It would be very difficult to make a comprehensive review and extract the essentials from that. Therefore, we have chosen to select some publications, out of the over 100, which we summarize rather comprehensively; in some cases we also include our remarks. 110 refs, 22 figs.

  15. A compound power-law model for volcanic eruptions: Implications for risk assessment of volcanism at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang

    1994-01-01

    Much of the ongoing debate on the use of nuclear power plants in U.S.A. centers on the safe disposal of the radioactive waste. Congress, aware of the importance of the waste issue, passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, requiring the federal government to develop a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high level radioactive wastes from civilian nuclear power plants. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in 1983 to identify potential sites. When OCRWM had selected three potential sites to study, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which directed the DOE to characterize only one of those sites, Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. For a site to be acceptable, theses studies must demonstrate that the site could comply with regulations and guidelines established by the federal agencies that will be responsible for licensing, regulating, and managing the waste facility. Advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Recent volcanism in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is readily recognized as an important factor in determining future public and environmental safety because of the possibility of direct disruption of a repository site by volcanism. In particular, basaltic volcanism is regarded as direct and unequivocal evidence of deep-seated geologic instability. In this paper, statistical analysis of volcanic hazard assessment at the Yucca Mountain site is discussed, taking into account some significant geological factors raised by experts. Three types of models are considered in the data analysis. The first model assumes that both past and future volcanic activities follow a homogeneous Poisson process (HPP)

  16. Nuclear waste management: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuze, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The scope of our problems with nuclear waste management is outlined. Present and future inventories of nuclear wastes are assessed for risk. A discussion of what is presently being done to solve waste management problems and what might be done in the future are presented

  17. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  18. Analysis of the risk assessment of a waste repository for radioactive waste from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.

    1984-09-01

    A review of decommissioning experiences and concepts is presented. The radioactive inventory of LWR of modern design at final shutdown is estimated on the basis of activation analysis and empirical data on contamination. In combination with existing types of waste packages and deposition techniques these results allow a prediction of the necessary repository volume for the decommissioning wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany. The essential element of this investigation is the development of a model for the quantitative analysis of the accident 'water intrusion' in the repository. Based on the fundamental chemical and physical processes governing nuclide migration a transport equation is obtained which can be restricted to one dimension due to the thickness and the low permeability of the geological layers above the repository. The radiological consequences are evaluated. The long-lived activation product Ni-59 turns out to be critical radionuclide. Despite a number of conservatisms in the model the evaluated doses are acceptable. The results clearly support the long term safety of the 'Konrad' mine as a low-level waste repository. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Objectives, concepts and strategies for the management of radioactive waste arising from nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This Report (also referred to as the Polvani Report) provides a comprehensive description of problems, current practices and policies in the field of radioactive waste management. The day to day management of radioactive waste is, according to the Report, in general satisfactorily covered, both from the point of view of licensing and control and liability and insurance. It points out, however, that the third party liability regime established by the Paris Convention and corresponding national legislation, would seem to be ill-adapted to cover damage resulting from waste ultimately disposed of because it would necessitate the operator's liability and corresponding insurance being maintained for an indefinite period of time. Solutions should therefore be sought providing for compensation by governments. (NEA) [fr

  20. Plan 2003. Costs for management of the radioactive waste from nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    The cost estimates are based on different scenarios and make allowances for uncertainties, variations and disturbances in the various projects. Costs for reactor decommissioning and for research and demonstration throughout the different stages of the waste handling and disposal are included. The total future cost for handling the waste from 40 years operation of the 11 Swedish reactors in operation and Barsebaeck-1 which already is taken out of operation, amounts to 49.6 billion SEK (about 6.2 billion USD). 12.7 billion SEK has already been used for building and operating the existing plants, and for research and development (incl. year 2003 costs)

  1. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 3, The Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This teachers guide is unit 3, the nuclear waste policy act, in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear power plants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  2. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  3. Review of the nuclear waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poch, L.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1979-10-01

    Regardless of future nuclear policy, a nuclear waste disposal problem does exist and must be dealt with. Even a moratorium on new nuclear plants leaves us with the wastes already in existence and wastes yet to be generated by reactors in operation. Thus, technologies to effectively dispose of our current waste problem must be researched and identified and, then, disposal facilities built. The magnitude of the waste disposal problem is a function of future nuclear policy. There are some waste disposal technologies that are suitable for both forms of HLW (spent fuel and reprocessing wastes), whereas others can be used with only reprocessed wastes. Therefore, the sooner a decision on the future of nuclear power is made the more accurately the magnitude of the waste problem will be known, thereby identifying those technologies that deserve more attention and funding. It is shown that there are risks associated with every disposal technology. One technology may afford a higher isolation potential at the expense of increased transportation risks in comparison to a second technology. Establishing the types of risks we are willing to live with must be resolved before any waste disposal technology can be instituted for widespread commercial use

  4. Nuclear power and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power, which presently accounts for approximately 20% of global electricity generation is still beset with environmental problems. Such problems are found throughout the fuel cycle - from mining and milling to processing, to plant operation and finally to waste disposal. While projected radioactive releases for normal operation is extremely low, much of the environmental risk comes from the potential for accidents. A list of the most significant nuclear accidents that occurred between 1966 and 1999 is given. On the other hand nuclear power offers great environmental benefits particularly when compared to other energy sources: all along the fuel cycle comparatively very few wastes are produced. In a world becoming more and more aware of environmental problems, it seems that there is no definitive conclusion about nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  5. Minutes of the public hearing concerning questions of environmental protection: nuclear power plant waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Minutes of questions of members of the Bundestag addressed to experts of the pro and con camp, of answers and of written statements on the following central subjects: Concept of waste management; fuel cycle centers; technology of fuel reprocessing plants; safety. (HP) [de

  6. Treatment and storage of radioactive waste at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The guide gives the general principles that shall be followed when planning and implementing the treatment, storing, transfer, activity monitoring and record keeping of radioactive wastes. The guide does not include provisions for spent fuel or for treatment and discharges of liquids or gases containing radioactive substances. Neither does the guide include any detailed design criteria for treatment facilities or storages. (4 refs.)

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A NUCLEAR POWERED ELECTRICAL GENERATING STATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of th...

  8. How safe is nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to nuclear power in the UK, as follows: ionising radiations; components of the radiation dose to which on average each person in the UK is exposed; regulation and control; mining; reactor operations - accidents, safety; transport of spent fuel; radioactive wastes; fast reactors and plutonium; insurance. (U.K.)

  9. The present situation of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This Power Point presentation contains graphs, tables and comments on different aspects of nuclear wastes: origin in France (fuel composition, long-life and short life wastes), definition of the different types of wastes (with respect to their life and their activity level), fuel cycle (processing of the different wastes, actors in France, waste management), waste characterization (controls, tests), laws on wastes published in 1991 (objectives with respect to separation and transmutation technologies, to storage possibilities, to conditioning and long term storage) and in 2006 (which defines a national plan for radioactive material and waste management, and a research program), the French national inventory, low activity wastes (production and storage), the transmutation technology (notably the Astrid project), the geological storage (the Cigeo project for a geological storage), and the situation in other countries

  10. Hybrid systems for transuranic waste transmutation in nuclear power reactors: state of the art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, D. V.; Prikhod'ko, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    The features of subcritical hybrid systems (HSs) are discussed in the context of burning up transuranic wastes from the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle. The advantages of HSs over conventional atomic reactors are considered, and fuel cycle closure alternatives using HSs and fast neutron reactors are comparatively evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of two HS types with neutron sources (NSs) of widely different natures -- nuclear spallation in a heavy target by protons and nuclear fusion in magnetically confined plasma -- are discussed in detail. The strengths and weaknesses of HSs are examined, and demand for them for closing the U-Pu nuclear fuel cycle is assessed.

  11. World Nuclear Association position statement: Safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Pierre, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    This WNA Position Statement summarises the worldwide nuclear industry's record, progress and plans in safely managing nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. The global industry's safe waste management practices cover the entire nuclear fuel-cycle, from the mining of uranium to the long-term disposal of end products from nuclear power reactors. The Statement's aim is to provide, in clear and accurate terms, the nuclear industry's 'story' on a crucially important subject often clouded by misinformation. Inevitably, each country and each company employs a management strategy appropriate to a specific national and technical context. This Position Statement reflects a confident industry consensus that a common dedication to sound practices throughout the nuclear industry worldwide is continuing to enhance an already robust global record of safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel. This text focuses solely on modern civil programmes of nuclear-electricity generation. It does not deal with the substantial quantities of waste from military or early civil nuclear programmes. These wastes fall into the category of 'legacy activities' and are generally accepted as a responsibility of national governments. The clean-up of wastes resulting from 'legacy activities' should not be confused with the limited volume of end products that are routinely produced and safely managed by today's nuclear energy industry. On the significant subject of 'Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities', which is integral to modern civil nuclear power programmes, the WNA will offer a separate Position Statement covering the industry's safe management of nuclear waste in this context. The paper's conclusion is that the safe management of nuclear waste and used nuclear fuel is a widespread, well-demonstrated reality. This strong safety record reflects a high degree of nuclear industry expertise and of industry responsibility toward the well-being of current and future generations. Accumulating

  12. Turning nuclear waste into glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, Ian L.

    2015-02-15

    Vitrification has emerged as the treatment option of choice for the most dangerous radioactive waste. But dealing with the nuclear waste legacy of the Cold War will require state-of-the-art facilities and advanced glass formulations.

  13. An radiotoxicity evaluation of high level wastes for a scenery of Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants in accordance with the Energy Expansion Brazilian Plan 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilhem, Andres C.; Maiorino, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a part of the author scientific initiation, and makes an evaluation of the radiotoxicity which would be produced by the Brazilian nuclear power plants in a scenery of 7 power plants operating in 2030, in according to the official expansion plans which point out the additional introduction of 4000 MW(e), or 4 ne power plant additionally to the Angra I, II and III. Considering that all reactors would be a PWR reactors. The calculated parameter was the relative toxicity of the low and intermediate level nuclear wastes (LLPP - long lived fission products and HLW - high level waste related to the radiotoxicity of natural uranium versus time. All the calculation used the ORIGEN-S code. (author)

  14. Borate compound content reduction in liquid radioactive waste from nuclear power plants with VVER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalo, A.; Zatkulak, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of liquid waste (evaporator concentrates) inventory at V-1 and V-2 NPPs in Jaslovske Bohunice and the intention to separate boron from them with respect to waste minimisation and improvement of physical and chemical properties for further waste treatment and conditioning. Preliminary results of laboratory experiments concerned to borate crystallisation after pH adjustment with nitric or formic acid performed in the 1998 are given. At the present time laboratory experiments continuing - next acids, coagulation with carbon oxide, electrolytic process, ion exchange resin, study of decontamination factors, immobilization of boric acid, decrease radioactivity, purification of boron-contained compounds. Slovenske Elektrarne have accumulated 7,000 m 3 of evaporator concentrates containing 100-180 g/l borate. In order to make more storage space available, it is proposed to remove some of the borate in the liquor by precipitation as sodium tetraborate and immobilise in either cement of bitumen. The supernate can be further volume reduced by evaporation and returned to the tanks. Slovenske Elektrarne are currently evaluating acid addition to the pH 12-13 concentrate to reduce the borate solubility. However, this adds to the salt burden of the waste through this chemical addition -thus creating future increases in conditioning and disposal costs. Boric acid is used in pressurized water as a soluble neutron poison to control reactivity and also to assure a safety margin in the spent fuel pool and during refuelling operations. Boric acid is also present in the water reserved for injection into the reactor in the event of postulated accidents. (author)

  15. Facts on nuclear power. 4. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The information booklet summarizes physical principles and other fundamental background information relating to nuclear power. The material is subdivided into various brief chapters with tables and illustrations discussing aspects such as: Basic terms and data, energy demand and supply, economics, nuclear power plants in operation, radiation protection, reactor safety, and nuclear waste management. A brief outline of the history of nuclear power in the FRG is given, and a list of addresses and literature for further reading. (UA) [de

  16. Dictionary of nuclear power. January 2013 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    The actualized version (January 2013) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear facilities, radioactive waste management, nuclear physics, reactor physics, isotope production, biological radiation effects, and radiation protection.

  17. Should nuclear be feared ... ... or is it nuclear power's hour?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diesendorf, Mark; Sevior, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This is a debate for and against nucl era power. Some people think that nuclear power is not as clean, green or cheap as its supporters would like us to think. Nuclear waste disposal is the biggest problem. There is not a single country which has built a facility for the long-term management of high-level nuclear wastes. United States is the only country in the world is most advanced in this regard, is building a waste repository at yucca Mountains, Nevada. The cost of nuclear activity is even higher than previously estimated

  18. Nuclear power in the Midwest: proceedings of the twelfth annual Illinois Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sessions were devoted to: nuclear waste disposal; power plant safety, decommissioning, and waste transportation; economics of nuclear power; and alternatives to nuclear power. Separate abstracts were prepared for 19 papers

  19. Ninth Circuit upholds nuclear power moratorium provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Court's decision that California's moratorium on construction of new nuclear power plants is consistent with the Atomic Energy Act and outside the jurisdiction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The ruling confirms that states have the power to use economic considerations as a way to regulate nuclear power development until there is an adequate federal plan for waste disposal. The Pacific Legal Foundation's winning case defines the legal strategy available to those opposed to nuclear power. Inflation and high interest rates could keep economic arguments viable even after the waste problem is solved. 55 references

  20. The safety and environmental impact of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive matters were discovered in 1989. Exploitation and using of nuclear energy and nuclear technologies bring mankind huge benefits, but the disposal of radioactive wastes is becoming one of the safety and environmental problems. The author describes six issues related to nuclear wastes. They are as follows: (1) The origin and characteristics of the nuclear wastes; (2) The principles of management of nuclear wastes established by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as well as the Chinese '40 words principles' and the major tasks of Chinese nuclear waste management; (3) The treatment and disposal technologies of nuclear wastes and the emphasis on new technologies, waste minimization and exemption and clean release; (4) The safety management of spent radiation sources including technical and administrative measures; (5) The safety management of spent nuclear fuel and the emphasis on high level radioactive wastes to be safety disposed of; (6) The environmental impact of nuclear waste. The author takes the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and the Daya bay Nuclear Power Plant I, China, as two examples to prove that nuclear wastes can be safely controlled and managed to ensure environmental safety. The Chinese north-west disposal land of nuclear wastes under operation recently is also discussed. It is believed that the suggested disposal land can ensure the isolation of radioactive wastes and the surrounding environment according to the present standards. The north-west disposal land and the Beilong disposal land, Guangdong province, China, are built according to the international standard and advanced technologies

  1. Nuclear power prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    A survey of the nuclear power needs of the less-developed countries and a study of the technology and economics of small and medium scale power reactors are envisioned by the General Conference. Agency makes its services available to Member States to assist them for their future nuclear power plans, and in particular in studying the technical and economic aspects of their power programs. The Agency also undertakes general studies on the economics of nuclear power, including the collection and analysis of cost data, in order to assist Member States in comparing and forecasting nuclear power costs in relation to their specific situations

  2. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site

  3. Whither nuclear waste disposal?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, T A [JK Research Associates, Silver Spring, MD (United States)

    1990-07-01

    With respect to the argument that geologic disposal has failed, I do not believe that the evidence is yet sufficient to support that conclusion. It is certainly true that the repository program is not progressing as hoped when the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established a 1998 deadline for initial operation of the first repository. The Department of Energy (DOE) now expects the repository to be available by 2010, and tat date depends upon a finding that the Yucca Mountain site - the only site that DOE is allowed by law to evaluate - is in fact suitable for use. Furthermore, scientific evaluation of the site to determine its suitability is stopped pending resolution of two lawsuits. However, I believe it is premature to conclude that the legal obstacles are insuperable, since DOE just won the first of the two lawsuits, and chances are good it will win the second. The concept of geologic disposal is still broadly supported. A recent report by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management of the National Research Council noted that 'There is a worldwide scientific consensus that deep geological disposal, the approach being followed in the United States, is the best option for disposing of high-level radioactive waste'. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) recently implicitly endorsed this view in adopting an updated Waste Confidence position that found confidence that a repository could be available in the first quarter of the next century - sufficient time to allow for rejection of Yucca Mountain and evaluation of a new site.

  4. Development of a laundry waste treatment system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, M; Sugimoto, Y; Yusa, H; Ebara, K [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Horiuchi, S

    1978-02-01

    The test for putting the treatment of laundry waste containing very low radioactivity from 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ ..mu..Ci/ml in practical use was carried out utilizing the new process combining reverse osmosis method and evaporation process. The special feature of this process is to use cleaning sponge balls for preventing the decrease of process capacity caused by the deposit of scale on reverse osmosis diaphragms and also to apply the newly developed, heat resistant and bubble-extinguishing silicon chemicals to control bubble generation which is caused by surfactant in evaporators. The test utilizing the practical scale model plant with the capacity of 200 l/h was carried out using dummy waste liquid. As the result of this test, it was recognized that the key operational characteristics including efficiency of eliminating radioactivity and concentration factor were satisfactory for practical use. The main specifications of the test facility are as follows: tubular type, diaphragm surface area 6.8 m/sup 2/, treated liquid temperature 25 deg C, treated liquid pH 5, and pressure 40 kg/cm/sup 2/g for the reverse osmosis system; and the forced circulation type, heat transfer area 4 m/sup 2/, and treated liquid pH 8 to 9 for the evaporator. The characteristic parameters of laundry waste liquid are as follows: cleanser 200 to 500 ppm, surfactant 30 to 60 ppm, suspending material 10 to 30 ppm, ion (Ca/sup + +/) 2 to 5 ppm, electric conductivity 100 to 300 ..mu..mho/cm, pH 7 to 8, and radioactivity 10/sup -7/ ..mu..Ci/ml. The flow sheet for this experimental facility system is shown, and the outline of the test, the features of the reverse osmosis facility and the evaporator are introduced. (Nakai, Y.).

  5. Disposal of high-level waste from nuclear power plants in Denmark. v.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The present report deals with material testing as part of the investigations regarding a repository for high-level waste in a salt dome. It is volume 3 of five volumes that together constitute the final report of the Danish utilities' salt dome investigations. The material testing programme chiefly comprised laboratory investigations and analyses of material samples, partly obtained from the salt dome in question and partly from the overlying geological formation. The test programme was fully completed for Eslev salt dome on Mors. Chemical analyses and mineralogical investigations were carried out in order to determine the type and extent of the impurities confined in the rock salt. Moreover, a programme was carried out to investigate the water content of the salt. Temperature conditions around a repository, the strenght and creep properties of the salt were investigated in order to determine whether drill holes, shafts and mine galleries could be constructed and maintained intact within the period of time required to complete the disposal of high-level waste. Chemical analysis were carried out in order to determine which substances are found dissolved in the water contained by the geological formation overlying the salt dome, as well as chemical/physical investigations regarding the water content, porosity, velocity of a possible leak of radioactive waste products, etc. Materials that would be introduced into a repository were studied with regard to their corrosion resistance in the salt environment. Concrete materials were investigated and characterized for their use in the final sealing of the access routes to the repository through the geological formation. (BP)

  6. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    A brief statement is presented of the nuclear power reactor programme in the United Kingdom and of the statutory and other organisations for ensuring reactor safety. The possible effects of the programme on the environment are dealt with under three heads: (1) discharge of radioactive effluents during normal operation of the power plants; (2) storage and disposal of radioactive waste; (3) reactor safety. Radiological protection of operating staff is also described briefly. (U.K.)

  7. Polish society attitudes towards nuclear power, ionizing radiation applications and radioactive waste management (Report on public opinion polls)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, Stanislaw

    1999-01-01

    In Poland, during parliamentary debate on Foundations for the 'Polish energy policies up to 2010', the importance of public attitudes toward nuclear power has been recalled repeatedly in the context of the future development of nuclear power in Poland. In the governmental document, accepted by Polish Parliament on 1 January 1996, it has been stated that nuclear power plant construction is not foreseen up to the year 2010; nevertheless it has been assumed that the appraisals of the economic feasibility and of the public acceptance level for such investments will be conducted. Thus, the need for such assessments of public opinions and attitudes toward nuclear power has been recognized and accepted by the highest legislative power organ in Poland

  8. Nuclear wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is the proceedings of the debate that took place at the French Senate on April 13, 2005 about the long-term French policy of radioactive wastes management. The different points tackled during the debate concern: the 3 axes of research of the 1991 law, the public acceptance about the implementation of repositories, the regional economic impact, the cost and financing, the lack of experience feedback, the reversibility or irreversibility of the storage, the share of nuclear energy in the sustainable development policy, the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the privatization of Electricite de France (EdF) etc. (J.S.)

  9. Canadian attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J.E.O.

    1977-01-01

    In the past ten years, public interest in nuclear power and its relationship to the environment has grown. Although most Canadians have accepted nuclear power as a means of generating electricity, there is significant opposition to its use. This opposition has effectively forced the Canadian nuclear industry to modify its behaviour to the public in the face of growing concern over the safety of nuclear power and related matters. The paper reviews Canadian experience concerning public acceptance of nuclear power, with special reference to the public information activities of the Canadian nuclear industry. Experience has shown the need for scientific social data that will permit the nuclear industry to involve the public in a rational examination of its concern about nuclear power. The Canadian Nuclear Association sponsored such studies in 1976 and the findings are discussed. They consisted of a national assessment of public attitudes, two regional studies and a study of Canadian policy-makers' views on nuclear energy. The social data obtained were of a base-line nature describing Canadian perceptions of and attitudes to nuclear power at that time. This research established that Canadian levels of knowledge about nuclear power are very low and that there are marked regional differences. Only 56% of the population have the minimum knowledge required to indicate that they know that nuclear power can be used to generate electricity. Nevertheless, 21% of informed Canadians oppose nuclear power primarily on the grounds that it is not safe. Radiation and waste management are seen to be major disadvantages. In perspective, Canadians are more concerned with inflation than with the energy supply. About half of all Canadians see the question of energy supplies as a future problem (within five years), not a present one. A more important aspect of energy is seen by the majority of Canadians to be some form of energy independence. The use of data from these studies is no easy

  10. Nuclear power for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Marques de, J.A.; Bennett, L.L.

    1989-09-01

    Nuclear power does not produce CO 2 or other greenhouse gases, and also does not produce any SO 2 , NO x or other gases which contribute to acid rain. These characteristics of nuclear power are especially important in comparison to coal-fired generation of electricity. As an example, in comparison with a coal-fired power plant of the same size, with abatement systems, a 1300 MW(e) nuclear power plant eliminates annually emissions to the air of about: 2000 t of particulates; 8.5 million t of CO 2 : 12,000 t of SO 2 ; and 6,000 t of NO x , the precise quantities being dependent on coal quality, power plant design and thermal efficiency, and on the effectiveness of the abatement systems. Opponents of nuclear power concede these facts, but argue that nuclear power is such a small part of the world energy balance that it is insignificant to the big issue of CO 2 . This is hardly correct. Today, 16% of the world's electricity (and 5% of the world's total primary energy) is generated using nuclear power. If this electricity were to have been generated using coal, it would have resulted in about 1600 million tons of CO 2 annually. This is 8% of the 20,000 million tons of CO 2 now emitted annually from the burning of fossil fuels, an amount which the Toronto Conference proposed should be cut by 20% up to the year 2005. A further major difference in the two energy systems is that the relatively smaller amount of nuclear wastes is fully isolated from the environment. In addition to discussing the global contributions of nuclear power to environmental improvement, the paper presents actual results achieved in a number of countries, demonstrating the positive contribution which nuclear power has made to reducing the environmental impacts of electricity production. 7 figs, 12 tabs

  11. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  12. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall. 4 claims, 4 figures

  13. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants. Coal and nuclear plants produce large volumes of waste during electricity generation, and this report describes the policies and procedures for handling these materials. Natural gas and oil-fired power plants face similar waste challenges. Renewables considered in this baseline report include hydropower, wind and solar.

  14. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  15. Nuclear power status 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives statistical information on nuclear power plants status in the world in 1999, including the number of reactors in operation or under construction, the electricity supplied by nuclear power reactors and the respective percentage of electricity produced by nuclear energy in 1999, and the total operating experience to 31 December 1999, by country

  16. The future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corak, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Energy production and use will contribute to global warming through greenhouse gas emissions in the next 50 years. Although nuclear power is faced with a lot of problems to be accepted by the public, it is still a significant option for the world to meet future needs without emitting carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other atmospheric pollutants. In 2002, nuclear power provided approximately 17% of world energy consumption. There is belief that worldwide electricity consumption will increase in the next few years, especially in the developing countries followed by economic growth and social progress. Official forecasts shows that there will be a mere increase of 5% in nuclear electricity worldwide by 2020. There are also predictions that electricity use may increase at 75%. These predictions require a necessity for construction of new nuclear power plants. There are only a few realistic options for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation: Increase efficiency in electricity generation and use; Expand use of renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, biomass and geothermal; Capture carbon dioxide emissions at fossil-fuelled electric generating plants and permanently sequester the carbon; Increase use of nuclear power. In spite of the advantages that nuclear power has, it is faced with stagnation and decline today. Nuclear power is faced with four critical problems that must be successfully defeat for the large expansion of nuclear power to succeed. Those problems are cost, safety, waste and proliferation. Disapproval of nuclear power is strengthened by accidents that occurred at Three Mile Island in 1979, at Chernobyl in 1986 and by accidents at fuel cycle facilities in Japan, Russia and in the United States of America. There is also great concern about the safety and security of transportation of nuclear materials and the security of nuclear facilities from terrorist attack. The paper will provide summarized review regarding cost, safety, waste and

  17. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    Although there is an awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favoured option in a sustainable energy future. A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant or opposed to its increased use, some even to a continuation at present levels. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is a need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, the disposal of high level waste and nuclear proliferation. This brochure discusses these concerns, and also the distinct advantages of nuclear power. Extensive comparisons with other energy sources are made

  18. Sustainable development and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Although there is an awareness on both the technical and political levels of the advantages of nuclear power, it is not a globally favoured option in a sustainable energy future. A sizeable sector of public opinion remains hesitant or opposed to its increased use, some even to a continuation at present levels. With various groups calling for a role for nuclear power, there is a need openly and objectively to discuss the concerns that limit its acceptance: the perceived health effects, the consequences of severe accidents, the disposal of high level waste and nuclear proliferation. This brochure discusses these concerns, and also the distinct advantages of nuclear power. Extensive comparisons with other energy sources are made. Figs, tabs.

  19. Public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, John.

    1981-06-01

    The public is influenced against nuclear power by fear of a large accident, fear of radiation, worry about nuclear waste, and by the fact that it is a symbol of the bureaucratic, impersonal aspects of industrialized society. The nuclear industry must do several things to overcome this public concern. It must be more articulate in speaking to the public in a language the public understands and not in nuclear jargon; it must be strictly accurate and truthful in all statements, and if it believes the case it is putting forward is sound, it should defend the proposal and not promise to do even more to buy off criticism. Acceptance of nuclear power will either have to wait until the energy situation is desperate, or until the industry puts enough effort into presenting and defending its case to convince all objective people

  20. Regulating nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    When Parliament passed the Atomic Energy Control Act in 1946, it erected the framework for nuclear safety in Canada. Under the Act, the government created the Atomic Energy Control Board and gave it the authority to make and enforce regulations governing every aspect of nuclear power production and use in this country. The Act gives the Control Board the flexibility to amend its regulations to adapt to changes in technology, health and safety standards, co-operative agreements with provincial agencies and policy regarding trade in nuclear materials. This flexibility has allowed the Control Board to successfully regulate the nuclear industry for more than 40 years. Its mission statement 'to ensure that the use of nuclear energy in Canada does not pose undue risk to health, safety, security and the environment' concisely states the Control Board's primary objective. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all aspects of nuclear energy in Canada to ensure there is no undue risk to health, safety, security or the environment. It does this through a multi-stage licensing process

  1. Nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors and prospects for a resumption in growth of nuclear power in the United States over the next decade. The focus of analysis on the likelihood that current efforts in the United States to develop improved and safer nuclear power reactors will provide a sound technical basis for improved acceptance of nuclear power, and contribute to a social/political climate more conducive to a resumption of nuclear power growth. The acceptability of nuclear power and advanced reactors to five social/political sectors in the U.S. is examined. Three sectors highly relevant to the prospects for a restart of nuclear power plant construction are the financial sector involved in financing nuclear power plant construction, the federal nuclear regulatory sector, and the national political sector. For this analysis, the general public are divided into two groups: those who are knowledgeable about and involved in nuclear power issues, the involved public, and the much larger body of the general public that is relatively uninvolved in the controversy over nuclear power

  2. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  3. Science, society, and America's nuclear waste: Unit 1, Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This is unit 1 in a four-unit secondary curriculum. It is intended to provide information about scientific and societal issues related to the management of spent nuclear fuel from generation of electricity at nuclear powerplants and high-level radioactive waste from US national defense activities. The curriculum, supporting classroom activities, and teaching materials present a brief discussion of energy and electricity generation, including that produced at nuclear powerplants; information on sources, amounts, location, and characteristics of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; sources, types and effects of radiation; US policy for managing and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and what other countries are doing; and the components of the nuclear waste management system

  4. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, Sir F.

    1984-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental aspects of nuclear power, including the problems of waste, with special reference to the effect on humans. The following aspects are covered: the public fear of the risk of cancer, the kind of exposure that people are likely to have, what can be and is being done about it; recommendations and activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the UK Health and Safety Executive, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, the National Radiological Protection Board and other relevant organisations; public relations in relation to nuclear facilities' operations. (U.K.)

  5. Fear of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D.J. [Paddington, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Communicating the benefits of nuclear power generation, although essential, is unlikely to be sufficient by itself to counter the misconceptions which hinder the adoption of this technology, viz: that it is unsafe, generates intractable waste, facilitates the proliferation of nuclear weapons, etc. Underlying most of these objections is the fear of radiation, engendered by misunderstandings of the effects of exposure - not the actual risks of radiation exposure themselves. Unfortunately, some aspects of current radiation protection practices promote the misconception that there is no safe dose. A prime purpose of communications from the nuclear industry should be to dispel these misconceptions. (author)

  6. Is nuclear power safe enough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, A F [Institutt for Atomenergi, Kjeller (Norway)

    1979-01-01

    The lecture formed a commentary on the report of the Norwegian Government's Commission on Nuclear power Safety which was published in October 1978. It was introductorily pointed out that 'safe' and 'safety' are not in themselves meaningful terms and that the probability of an occurrence is the real measure. The main items in the Commission's report have been core meltdown, releases during reprocessing, waste disposal, plutonium diversion and environmental impacts. The 21 members of the Commission were unanimous in 7 of the 8 chapters. In chapter 2, 'Summary and Conclusions', 3 members dissented from the majority opinion, that, subject to certain conditions, nuclear power was a safe and acceptable source of energy.

  7. Nuclear power: achievement and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, L.E.J.

    1993-01-01

    History of nuclear power generation from the time it was a technological curiosity to the time when it developed into a mature, sizeable international industry is outlined. Nuclear power now accounts for 17% of the world's total electricity generated. However, it is noted that the presently installed capacity of nuclear power generation falls short of early expectations and nuclear power is not as cheap as it was hoped earlier. There is opposition to nuclear power from environmentalists and the public due to fear of radiation and the spread of radioactivity during accidents, even though nuclear reactors by and large have a good safety record. Taking into account the fact that electricity consumption is growing at the rate of 2-3% in the industrialized world and at over 5% in the rest of world and pollution levels are increasing due to burning of fossil fuels and subsequent greenhouse effect, the demand for power will have to be be met by increasing use of non-fossil fuels. One of the most promising non-fossil fuels is the nuclear fuel. In the next 30 years, the nuclear power generation capacity can be increased two to three times the present capacity by: (1) managing economics, (2) extending uranium resources by reprocessing spent fuel and recycling the recovered uranium and plutonium and by using fast reactor technology (3) getting public acceptance of and support for nuclear power by allaying the fear of radiation and the fear of large scale accidents through quantitative risk analysis and (4) establishing public confidence in waste disposal methods. (M.G.B.). 18 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Nuclear power and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandklef, S.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear Power is a new, innovative technology for energy production, seen in the longer historic perspective. Nuclear technology has a large potential for further development and use in new applications. To achieve this potential the industry needs to develop the arguments to convince policy makers and the general public that nuclear power is a real alternative as part of a sustainable energy system. This paper examines the basic concept of sustainable development and gives a quality review of the most important factors and requirements, which have to be met to quality nuclear power as sustainable. This paper intends to demonstrate that it is not only in minimising greenhouse gas emissions that nuclear power is a sustainable technology, also with respect to land use, fuel availability waste disposal, recycling and use of limited economic resources arguments can be developed in favour of nuclear power as a long term sustainable technology. It is demonstrated that nuclear power is in all aspects a sustainable technology, which could serve in the long term with minimal environmental effects and at minimum costs to the society. And the challenge can be met. But to achieve need political leadership is needed, to support and develop the institutional and legal framework that is the basis for a stable and long-term energy policy. Industry leaders are needed as well to stand up for nuclear power, to create a new industry culture of openness and communication with the public that is necessary to get the public acceptance that we have failed to do so far. The basic facts are all in favour of nuclear power and they should be used

  9. Nuclear waste disposal in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. E.; Causey, W. E.; Galloway, W. E.; Nelson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Work on nuclear waste disposal in space conducted by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and contractors are reported. From the aggregate studies, it is concluded that space disposal of nuclear waste is technically feasible.

  10. Nuclear power flies high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power in aircraft, rockets and satellites is discussed. No nuclear-powered rockets or aircraft have ever flown, but ground tests were successful. Nuclear reactors are used in the Soviet Cosmos serles of satellites, but only one American satellite, the SNAP-10A, contained a reactor. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, many of which use plutonium 238, have powered more than 20 satellites launched into deep space by the U.S.A

  11. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  12. Nuclear waste - the unsolved problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, S.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear waste is identified and the problems created by reprocessing are mentioned. The disposal option for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are discussed. Sites where disposal has taken place have been found to be unsatisfactory because of contamination and radionuclide migration. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is not seen as having any more credibility than the other nuclear authorities involved (BNFL, UKAEA, CEGB). Until an adequate, publically acceptable, method of disposing of the wastes already created has been found the author states that no more should be created. (U.K.)

  13. Goals for nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    Establishing a publicly, politically, economically, and technologically acceptable waste management system for the fuel cycle is a necessary condition for accepting the nuclear program as a national energy option. Findings are given on the technology, politics, economics, morality, aesthetics, and societal impact of waste management. Proposed goals are outlined for the regulation of waste management

  14. Geological disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Fourteen papers dealing with disposal of high-level radioactive wastes are presented. These cover disposal in salt deposits, geologic deposits and marine disposal. Also included are papers on nuclear waste characterization, transport, waste processing technology, and safety analysis. All of these papers have been abstracted and indexed

  15. Method to determine the radioactivity of radioactive waste packages. Basic procedure of the method used to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document describes the procedures adopted in order to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants in Japan. The standards applied have been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberations by the Subcommittee on the Radioactivity Verification Method for Waste Packages, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee, and the Standards Committee. The method for determining the radioactivity of the low-level radioactive waste packages was based on procedures approved by the Nuclear Safety Commission in 1992. The scaling factor method and other methods of determining radioactivity were then developed on the basis of various investigations conducted, drawing on extensive accumulated knowledge. Moreover, the international standards applied as common guidelines for the scaling factor method were developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear Energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology. Since the application of accumulated knowledge to future radioactive waste disposal is considered to be rational and justified, such body of knowledge has been documented in a standardized form. The background to this standardization effort, the reasoning behind the determination method as applied to the measurement of radioactivity, as well as other related information, are given in the Annexes hereto. This document includes the following Annexes. Annex 1: (reference) Recorded items related to the determination of the scaling factor. Annex 2 (reference): Principles applied to the determining the radioactivity of waste packages. (author)

  16. The wastes of nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the problems of the radioactive wastes generated by the nuclear fission. The first part devoted to the fission phenomenon explains the incident neutron energy and the target nuclei role. The second part devoted to the nuclear wastes sources presents the production of wastes upstream of the reactors, in the reactors and why these wastes are dangerous. The third part discusses the radioactive wastes management in France (classification, laws). The last part details the associated research programs: the radionuclides separation, the disposal, the underground storage, the transmutation and the thorium cycle. (A.L.B.)

  17. Role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of world nuclear installations, the operating experiences of power reactors, and estimates of future nuclear growth leads to the conclusion that nuclear power's share of world electric power supply will grow slowly, but steadily during this decade. This growth will lead advanced countries to use the commercial breeder by the end of the century. Nuclear power is economically viable for most industrialized and many developing countries if public acceptance problems can be resolved. A restructuring of operational safety and regulations must occur first, as well as a resolution of the safeguards and technology transfer issue. 7 figures, 7 tables

  18. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  19. Nuclear waste management: a challenge to Federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, P.

    1979-01-01

    The controversy over state/Federal authority over waste disposal has already had a significant effect regardless of the choice Congress ultimately makes between an informal deference to state will and a statutory authorization of state control over Federal repositories. The highly emotional issue of local disposal of nuclear waste and the assertions of state control over waste disposal have made the nation and the Federal bureaucracy more aware of the status of the waste management program. State resistance to Federal siting efforts and the passage of state waste disposal legislation has compelled the Federal government to provide the states with a larger role in waste management. State power to exclude Federal repositories would give states additional political leverage. Ideally, public attention and effective state veto power will contribute to a more successful program, without impeding progress toward the immediate goal of siting and developing permanent repositories

  20. A research on the environmental impact on nearby waters range at low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunling; Xu Zitu; Xiao Zhang.

    1987-01-01

    The possible influence of the low-level radioactive waste water drain from the Dayawan nuclear power station upon nearby waters range is discussed. The contents of the article contains the numerical simulation on tidal currents and pollutant diffusion, the calculation of concentration distribution of radioactive contaminants in the water area and of polluted field, and the criterion on radioactive contaminant influence on nearby residents and aquatic biologicals. The result shows that when the Dayawan nuclear power station is on normal operation and after the low-level radioactive waste water has been drained off into the sea, the radioactive concentration is even lower than the natural background radiation just out-side the area of about 4 km 2 round the water outlet. As a result, it won't cause any danger to the water environment. Due to the fact that the concentration of the low-level radioactive waste water from the nuclear power station fully accords with the national standard GB4792-84 and the sea water quality sandard GBH2, 3-82. It is no harm to either residents and aquatic biologicals or ecological balance

  1. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  2. Salvaging of nuclear waste by nuclear-optical converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A. V.; Shirokov, R. V.

    2007-06-01

    In modern conditions of power consumption growing in Russia, apparently, it is difficult to find alternative to further development of nuclear power engineering. The negative party of nuclear power engineering is the spent fuel of nuclear reactors (radioactive waste). The gaseous and fluid radioactive waste furbished of highly active impurity, dumps in atmosphere or pools. The highly active fluid radioactive waste stores by the way of saline concentrates in special tanks in surface layers of ground, above the level of groundwaters. A firm radioactive waste bury in pods from a stainless steel in underground workings, salt deposits, at the bottom of oceans. However this problem can be esteemed in a positive direction, as irradiation is a hard radiation, which one can be used as a power source in nuclear - optical converters with further conversion of optical radiation into the electric power with the help of photoelectric converters. Thus waste at all do not demand special processing and exposure in temporary storehouses. And the electricity can be worked out in a constant mode within many years practically without gang of a stimulus source, if a level of a residual radioactivity and the half-lives of component are high enough.

  3. Nuclear waste : Is everthing under control ?

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Gregory; De Bono, Andréa; Kluser, Stéphane; Peduzzi, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    50 years after the opening of the world's first civil nuclear power station, very little radioac- tive waste produced has been permanently disposed of. Moreover, the average age of today's reactors is approximately 22 years, meaning most of them will be decommissioned over the next decades. All of these wastes will have to be disposed of even if no more nuclear reactors are built. But is it wise to take further advantage of the “nuclear path”, without proven and widely-utilized solutions to t...

  4. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The discussion on the development of nuclear power took place on 28 September 1960 in Vienna. In his opening remarks, Director General Cole referred to the widespread opinion that 'the prospect of cheap electricity derived from nuclear energy offers the most exciting prospect for improving the lot of mankind of all of the opportunities for uses of atomic energy'. He then introduced the four speakers and the moderator of the discussion, Mr. H. de Laboulaye, IAEA Deputy Director General for Technical Operations. n the first part of the discussion the experts addressed themselves in turn to four topics put forward by the moderator. These were: the present technical status of nuclear power, the present costs of nuclear power, prospects for future reductions in the cost of nuclear power, and applications of nuclear power in less-developed areas

  5. Status of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittel, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses what nuclear waste is and where it comes from, what the technical strategies are for disposing of this waste, compares the toxicity of nuclear waste to other materials that are more familiar to us, and finally, comments on why it is taking so long to get on with the job of isolating nuclear waste permanently. The author believes that the technical solutions for the management and disposal of high-level and low-level nuclear waste are adequately in hand. The issues that are delaying the implementation of this technology are almost entirely related to sociological and political considerations. High-level nuclear waste can be safely stored and isolated through a multiple barrier approach. Although it is a hazardous material and must be handled properly, its toxicity diminishes rapidly. It then becomes less hazardous than other materials that we deal with everyday in routine industrial or household operations. The disposal of low-level waste has not attracted as much public attention as high-level waste management. Nevertheless, it is just as important to the public. For example, the use of radioactive isotopes in medicine, and the many lives that are saved as a result, would be very greatly reduced if medical institutions had no place to dispose of their radioactive waste. The management of uranium mill tailings is similar in many technical aspects to low-level waste management. Institutional issues, however, have not become as important in the case of mill tailings disposal

  6. Review on the role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chi; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Tri Ho

    1993-03-01

    This report consists of 2 parts. The first part reviews opinions against nuclear power on the aspects: waste disposal, safety and environment, financial; technology, etc. and gives results of a preliminary survey for nuclear power in Vietnam among scientists in 1990. The second part presents advanced reactor concepts and advantages of nuclear power to economy and environment in comparison with other energy sources. (N.H.A). 39 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  7. A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system using a strontium heat source of high-level radioactive nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazawa, Yoshitaka

    2011-01-01

    A thermoelectric-conversion power supply system with radioactive strontium in high-level radioactive waste has been proposed. A combination of Alkali Metal Thermo-Electric Conversion (AMTEC) and a strontium fluoride heat source can provide a compact and long-lived power supply system. A heat source design with strontium fluoride pin bundles with Hastelloy cladding and intermediate copper has been proposed. This design has taken heat transportation into consideration, and, in this regard, the feasibility has been confirmed by a three-dimensional thermal analysis using Star-CD code. This power supply system with an electric output of 1 MW can be arranged in a space of 50 m 2 and approximately 1.1 m height and can be operated for 15 years without refueling. This compact and long-lived power supply is suitable for powering sources for remote places and middle-sized ships. From the viewpoint of geological disposal of high-level waste, the proposed power supply system provides a financial base for strontium-cesium partitioning. That is, a combination of minor-actinide recycling and strontium-cesium partitioning can eliminate a large part of decay heat in high-level waste and thus can save much space for geological disposal. (author)

  8. Development of a graded approach to natural phenomena hazard design and evaluation of radioactive waste and spent fuel stored at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear safety related structures, systems and components, SSC, at large commercial nuclear power plants other than those applicable to reactor safety have in general not received the attention and detailed loading and behavior criteria use for reactor design safety. Such systems include spent fuel storage and radioactive waste storage and processing. In this paper is a suggested grading of design bases for natural hazards to be applied to such facilities commensurate with their radioactive risk. They are applicable to the full range of safety related SSC which are determined by the inventory of radioactive isotopes and the unmitigated doses at appropriate plant and site boundaries. (author)

  9. Effects of waste heat from Unterweser nuclear power plant on the biocenoses of the lower Weser river. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Feldt, W.

    1987-01-01

    After the commissioning of the power station, investigations were carried out on th fish, the fauna of benthos, the phytoplankton and zooplankton of the Lower Weser from November 1978 to November 1982. Furthermore the annual average of headwater discharge rate and the monthly average of water temperature, oxygen content and salt content were determined. This report completes the investigations carried out after the commissioning of the nuclear power station Unterweser (KKU). The effect of sewage effluent heat of the nuclear power station Unterweser on the biocenosis is presented in a third volume after comparing the results of the submitted report with those of the report on the period before the commissioning of the nuclear power station KKU (1). (orig./MG) [de

  10. Strategy of nuclear power in Korea, non-nuclear-weapon state and peaceful use of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear power plant started at Kori in Korea in April, 1978. Korea has carried out development of nuclear power as a national policy. The present capacity of nuclear power plants takes the sixes place in the world. It supplies 42% total power generation. The present state of nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel cycle facility, strategy of domestic production of nuclear power generation, development of next generation reactor and SMART, strategy of export in corporation with industry, government and research organization, export of nuclear power generation in Japan, nuclear power improvement project with Japan, Korea and Asia, development of nuclear power system with nuclear diffusion resistance, Hybrid Power Extraction Reactor System, radioactive waste management and construction of joint management and treatment system of spent fuel in Asia are stated. (S.Y.)

  11. Super compacting of drums with dry solid radioactive waste in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde;Super compactacion de bidones con desecho radiactivo solido seco en la central nucleo electrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, R.; Lara H, M. A.; Cabrera Ll, M.; Verdalet de la Torre, O., E-mail: marco.lara@cfe.gob.m [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Carretera Nautla-Cardel Km. 42.5, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde located in the Gulf of Mexico, completes in this 2009, nineteen years to produce by nuclear means 4.78% of the electric power that Mexico requires daily. During this time, the Unit 1 has generated more of 88.85 million mega watt-hour and the Unit 2 more of 69.48 million mega watt-hour with an availability average of 83.55%. Derived of their operation cycles, the nuclear power plant has generated (as any other installation of its type) radioactive wastes of low activity that at the moment are temporarily stored in the site. Due to the life cycle of the nuclear power plant, actually has become necessary to begin a project series focused to continue guaranteeing the storage of these wastes, guarantee that is a license requirement for the operation of this nuclear installation before the National Commission of Nuclear Security and Safeguards. The Federal Commission of Electricity beginning a project that allows continue guaranteeing space of sufficient storage for the wastes that the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde could generate for the rest of its useful life, this project consisted on a process of physical volume reduction of dry solid radioactive wastes denominated super compacting, it has made possible to reduce the volume that these wastes occupy in the temporary storage noted Dry Solid Radioactive Wastes Deposit located inside the site that occupies the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This work presents the super compacting results, as well as a description of the realization of this task until concluding with the super compacting of 5,854 drums with dry solid radioactive waste of low activity. We will enunciate which were the radiological controls that the Department of Radiological Protection of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde applied to this work that was realized for first time in Mexico and the nuclear power plant. (Author)

  12. Radioactive waste management from nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This report has been published as a NSA (Nuclear Systems Association, Japan) commentary series, No. 13, and documents the present status on management of radioactive wastes produced from nuclear facilities in Japan and other countries as well. Risks for radiation accidents coming from radioactive waste disposal and storage together with risks for reactor accidents from nuclear power plants are now causing public anxiety. This commentary concerns among all high-level radioactive waste management from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, with including radioactive wastes from research institutes or hospitals. Also included is wastes produced from reactor decommissioning. For low-level radioactive wastes, the wastes is reduced in volume, solidified, and removed to the sites of storage depending on their radioactivities. For high-level radioactive wastes, some ten thousand years must be necessary before the radioactivity decays to the natural level and protection against seismic or volcanic activities, and terrorist attacks is unavoidable for final disposals. This inevitably results in underground disposal at least 300 m below the ground. Various proposals for the disposal and management for this and their evaluation techniques are described in the present document. (S. Ohno)

  13. Clean nuclear power (2. part)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocherolles, R.

    1998-01-01

    The 450 nuclear power plants which produce 24% of world electricity do not generate greenhouse gas effects, but 8,000 tonnes per year of irradiated, radioactive fuel. The first article which was published in the July-August 1997 issue of this journal, described the composition and management of these fuels. This article wish to show the advantage of 'advanced re-processing', which would separate fission products from actinides, in order to incinerate them separately in dedicated fuels and reactors, which, from an ecological point of view, seems more efficient than burying them underground in deep, geological layers. To rid the planet of waste which is continuing to build up, the first step is to build 'incinerators' which will eliminate fission products by slow neutron assisted neutronic capture, and actinides by fast neutron assisted fission. Various projects have been set up, in particular, in Los Alamos, Japan and the CERN. The Carlo Rubbia hybrid machine operating on the well-known thorium cycle is the most advanced project. An incinerator connected up to standard PWR reactor produces no actinide, and reduces the existing stock of plutonium. However, the proper solution, obviously, is to no longer produce waste along with power; second generation nuclear fission will do this. The CERN team bas studied a clean reactor, producing practically no actinides, or fission products, more or less. Thus, the solution to the problem of waste is at hand, and nuclear power will be cleaner that all other types of power. The world market opening up to clean nuclear power is about 1,300 Gigawatts, or 1,300 plants of 1,000 Megawatts. Remarkable progress is taking place under our very eyes; soon we will have clean power in sufficient quantities, at a lower cost than that of other forms of power. (authors)

  14. Nuclear power: the fifth horseman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1976-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power: The Fifth Horseman,'' is published in an attempt to identify and analyze emerging global trends and problems. This paper evaluates the future of nuclear power, subjecting it to several tests--those of economics, safety, adequacy of fuel supplies, environmental impact, and both national and international security. If the world is to ''go nuclear,'' adopting nuclear power as the principal source of energy, each of these criteria should be satisfied. In fact, none may be satisfied. Nuclear power is being re-examined in many quarters. Local communities throughout the world are concerned over reactor safety. Environmentalists and others are deeply concerned about the lack, or even the prospect, of satisfactory techniques for disposing of radioactive waste. Foreign policy analysts express grave concern over the weapons-proliferation implications of the spread of nuclear power, recognizing that sooner or later an unstable political leader or terrorist group will acquire this awesome weaponry. And, in 1975, the corporate executives who head electrical utilities in the United States cancelled or deferred 25 times as many new reactors as they ordered

  15. Transmutation of nuclear waste in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Pilate, S.; Wehmann, U.K.

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this joint study of ECN, Belgonucleaire, and Siemens is to investigate possibilities for transmutation of nuclear waste in regular nuclear reactors or in special transmutation devices. Studies of possibilities included the limits and technological development steps which would be needed. Burning plutonium in fast reactors, gas-cooled high-temperature reactors and light water reactors (LWR) have been considered. For minor actinides the transmutation rate mainly depends on the content of the minor actinides in the reactor and to a much less degree on the fact whether one uses a homogeneous system (with the actinides mixed into the fuel) or a heterogeneous system. If one wishes to stabilise the amount of actinides from the present LWRs, about 20% of all nuclear power would have to be generated in special burner reactors. It turned out that reactor transmutation of fission products would require considerable recycling efforts and that the time needed for a substantial transmutation would be rather long for the presently available levels of the neutron flux. If one would like to design burner systems which can serve more light water reactors, a large effort would be needed and other burners (possibly driven by accelerators) should be considered. (orig.)

  16. The nuclear power decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power has now become highly controversial and there is violent disagreement about how far this technology can and should contribute to the Western energy economy. More so than any other energy resource, nuclear power has the capacity to provide much of our energy needs but the risk is now seen to be very large indeed. This book discusses the major British decisions in the civil nuclear field, and the way they were made, between 1953 and 1978. That is, it spans the period between the decision to construct Calder Hall - claimed as the world's first nuclear power station - and the Windscale Inquiry - claimed as the world's most thorough study of a nuclear project. For the period up to 1974 this involves a study of the internal processes of British central government - what the author terms 'private' politics to distinguish them from the very 'public' or open politics which have characterised the period since 1974. The private issues include the technical selection of nuclear reactors, the economic arguments about nuclear power and the political clashes between institutions and individuals. The public issues concern nuclear safety and the environment and the rights and opportunities for individuals and groups to protest about nuclear development. The book demonstrates that British civil nuclear power decision making has had many shortcomings and concludes that it was hampered by outdated political and administrative attitudes and machinery and that some of the central issues in the nuclear debate were misunderstood by the decision makers themselves. (author)

  17. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2009-01-01

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants

  18. The nuclear power development policy of Taipower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Taipower began its nuclear power epoch in 1978 when the first unit of its First Nuclear Power Station was synchronized to the system on November 1977. At present, Taipower has six units installed in three nuclear power plants, totalling 5144 MW in operation. These units are the mainstay of the 16,600 MW system and have played a significant role in the energy supply of Taiwan. This paper will firstly give a brief overview of Taipower's system, then introduce Taipower's nuclear power policies within the frame of issues on nuclear power economy, nuclear fuel cycle management, nuclear safety and environmental concerns, radioactive waste management, public communications and personnel training. At last, this paper will present the prospect for future nuclear power development in Taiwan with reference to the above discussion. (author)

  19. Nuclear power status 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document gives general statistical information (by country) about electricity produced by nuclear power plants in the world in 1998, and in a table the number of nuclear reactors in operation, under construction, nuclear electricity supplied in 1998, and total operating experience as of 31 December 1998

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…