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Sample records for nuclear plant ngnp

  1. Nuclear Safeguards Infrastructure Required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mark Schanfein; Philip Casey Durst

    2012-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) to be constructed near Idaho Falls, Idaho The NGNP is intrinsically safer than current reactors and is planned for startup ca. 2021 Safety is more prominent in the minds of the Public and Governing Officials following the nuclear reactor meltdown accidents in Fukushima, Japan The authors propose that the NGNP should be designed with International (IAEA) Safeguards in mind to support export to Non-Nuclear-Weapons States There are two variants of the NGNP design; one using integral Prismatic-shaped fuel assemblies in a fixed core; and one using recirculating fuel balls (or Pebbles) The following presents the infrastructure required to safeguard the NGNP This infrastructure is required to safeguard the Prismatic and Pebble-fueled NGNP (and other HTGR/VHTR) The infrastructure is based on current Safeguards Requirements and Practices implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for similar reactors The authors of this presentation have worked for decades in the area of International Nuclear Safeguards and are recognized experts in this field Presentation for INMM conference in July 2012.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saurwein, J.

    2011-01-01

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  4. Engineering Design Elements of a Two-Phase Thermosyphon to Trannsfer NGNP Nuclear Thermal Energy to a Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyush Sabharwal

    2009-07-01

    Two hydrogen production processes, both powered by a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), are currently under investigation at Idaho National Laboratory. The first is high-temperature steam electrolysis, which uses both heat and electricity; the second is thermo-chemical production through the sulfur iodine process primarily using heat. Both processes require a high temperature (>850°C) for enhanced efficiency; temperatures indicative of the NGNP. Safety and licensing mandates prudently dictate that the NGNP and the hydrogen production facility be physically isolated, perhaps requiring separation of over 100 m.

  5. Site Selection and Characterization Status Report for Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In the near future, the US Department of Energy (DOE) will need to make important decisions regarding design and construction of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). One part of making these decisions is considering the potential environmental impacts that this facility may have, if constructed here at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 provides DOE decision makers with a process to systematically consider potential environmental consequences of agency decisions. In addition, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Title VI, Subtitel C, Section 644) states that the 'Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) shall have licensing and regulatory authority for any reactor authorized under this subtitle.' This stipulates that the NRC will license the NGNP for operation. The NRC NEPA Regulations (10 CFR Part 51) require tha thte NRC prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a permit to construct a nuclear power plant. The applicant is required to submit an Environmental report (ER) to aid the NRC in complying with NEPA.

  6. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-01-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000 C) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900 C, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHE's) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger

  7. NGNP Research and Development Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Petti

    2010-08-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, experts from the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories, gas reactor vendors, and universities collaborated to establish technology research and development (R&D) roadmaps. These roadmaps outlined the testing and computational development activities needed to qualify the materials and validate the modeling and simulation tools to be used in the design and safe operation of the NGNP, a helium-cooled, high temperature gas reactor (HTGR).

  8. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, Robert W.; Marriott, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  9. NGNP Infrastructure Readiness Assessment: Consolidation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The NGNP project is being reviewed by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Council (NEAC) to provide input to the DOE, who will make a recommendation to the Secretary of Energy, whether or not to continue with Phase 2 of the NGNP project. The NEAC review will be based on, in part, the infrastructure readiness assessment, which is an assessment of industry's current ability to provide specified components for the FOAK NGNP, meet quality assurance requirements, transport components, have the necessary workforce in place, and have the necessary construction capabilities. AREVA and Westinghouse were contracted to perform independent assessments of industry's capabilities because of their experience with nuclear supply chains, which is a result of their experiences with the EPR and AP-1000 reactors. Both vendors produced infrastructure readiness assessment reports that identified key components and categorized these components into three groups based on their ability to be deployed in the FOAK plant. The NGNP project has several programs that are developing key components and capabilities. For these components, the NGNP project have provided input to properly assess the infrastructure readiness for these components.

  10. NGNP Infrastructure Readiness Assessment: Consolidation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian K Castle

    2011-02-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project supports the development, demonstration, and deployment of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). The NGNP project is being reviewed by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Council (NEAC) to provide input to the DOE, who will make a recommendation to the Secretary of Energy, whether or not to continue with Phase 2 of the NGNP project. The NEAC review will be based on, in part, the infrastructure readiness assessment, which is an assessment of industry's current ability to provide specified components for the FOAK NGNP, meet quality assurance requirements, transport components, have the necessary workforce in place, and have the necessary construction capabilities. AREVA and Westinghouse were contracted to perform independent assessments of industry's capabilities because of their experience with nuclear supply chains, which is a result of their experiences with the EPR and AP-1000 reactors. Both vendors produced infrastructure readiness assessment reports that identified key components and categorized these components into three groups based on their ability to be deployed in the FOAK plant. The NGNP project has several programs that are developing key components and capabilities. For these components, the NGNP project have provided input to properly assess the infrastructure readiness for these components.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant System Requirements Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not Listed

    2008-01-01

    System Requirements Manual for the NGNP Project. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (H.R. 6; EPAct), which was signed into law by President George W. Bush in August 2005, required the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a project to be known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. According to the EPAct, the NGNP Project shall consist of the research, development, design, construction, and operation of a prototype plant (to be referred to herein as the NGNP) that (1) includes a nuclear reactor based on the research and development (R and D) activities supported by the Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems initiative, and (2) shall be used to generate electricity, to produce hydrogen, or to both generate electricity and produce hydrogen. The NGNP Project supports both the national need to develop safe, clean, economical nuclear energy and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), which has the goal of establishing greenhouse-gas-free technologies for the production of hydrogen. The DOE has selected the helium-cooled High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) as the reactor concept to be used for the NGNP because it is the only near-term Generation IV concept that has the capability to provide process heat at high-enough temperatures for highly efficient production of hydrogen. The EPAct also names the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the DOE's lead national laboratory for nuclear energy research, as the site for the prototype NGNP

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  13. NGNP Component Test Capability Design Code of Record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.L. Austad; D.S. Ferguson; L.E. Guillen; C.W. McKnight; P.J. Petersen

    2009-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project is conducting a trade study to select a preferred approach for establishing a capability whereby NGNP technology development testing—through large-scale, integrated tests—can be performed for critical HTGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The mission of this capability includes enabling the validation of interfaces, interactions, and performance for critical systems and components prior to installation in the NGNP prototype.

  14. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  15. NRC Licensing Status Summary Report for NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinsey, James Carl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, initiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) pursuant to provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, is based on research and development activities supported by the Department of Energy Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative. The principal objective of the NGNP Project is to support commercialization of high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology. The HTGR is a helium-cooled and graphite moderated reactor that can operate at temperatures much higher than those of conventional light water reactor (LWR) technologies. The NGNP will be licensed for construction and operation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, not all elements of current regulations (and their related implementation guidance) can be applied to HTGR technology at this time. Certain policies established during past LWR licensing actions must be realigned to properly accommodate advanced HTGR technology. A strategy for licensing HTGR technology was developed and executed through the cooperative effort of DOE and the NRC through the NGNP Project. The purpose of this report is to provide a snapshot of the current status of the still evolving pre-license application regulatory framework relative to commercial HTGR technology deployment in the U.S. The following discussion focuses on (1) describing what has been accomplished by the NGNP Project up to the time of this report, and (2) providing observations and recommendations concerning actions that remain to be accomplished to enable the safe and timely licensing of a commercial HTGR facility in the U.S.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  17. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, John

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate the implementation of the Risk Management Plan, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project has developed and employed an analytical software tool called the NGNP Risk Management System (RMS). A relational database developed in Microsoft(reg s ign) Access, the RMS provides conventional database utility including data maintenance, archiving, configuration control, and query ability. Additionally, the tool's design provides a number of unique capabilities specifically designed to facilitate the development and execution of activities outlined in the Risk Management Plan. Specifically, the RMS provides the capability to establish the risk baseline, document and analyze the risk reduction plan, track the current risk reduction status, organize risks by reference configuration system, subsystem, and component (SSC) and Area, and increase the level of NGNP decision making.

  18. NGNP Risk Management Database: A Model for Managing Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-09-01

    To facilitate the implementation of the Risk Management Plan, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project has developed and employed an analytical software tool called the NGNP Risk Management System (RMS). A relational database developed in Microsoft® Access, the RMS provides conventional database utility including data maintenance, archiving, configuration control, and query ability. Additionally, the tool’s design provides a number of unique capabilities specifically designed to facilitate the development and execution of activities outlined in the Risk Management Plan. Specifically, the RMS provides the capability to establish the risk baseline, document and analyze the risk reduction plan, track the current risk reduction status, organize risks by reference configuration system, subsystem, and component (SSC) and Area, and increase the level of NGNP decision making.

  19. Roadmapping - A Systematic Approach to Overcoming NGNP Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John W. Collins

    2008-01-01

    Changing requirements, programmatic challenges, and technical risk hinder even the best projects. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is a complex project with technical and programmatic uncertainty. This paper presents the path forward, methods, and tools used to understand the requirements, manage the uncertainty, and mitigate the risk for the NGNP project. The key tool, technology development roadmaps, is described in detail as a means to facilitate NGNP risk-informed decision making, technology down selection, and technology qualification and maturation. Technology roadmaps for each NGNP System, Structure, or Component (SSC) were developed to set the vision for and drive the needed actions to down select technologies and designs; to assure technology readiness is demonstrated through testing, modeling, piloting, and prototyping; and to develop the test plans required to provide demonstrable evidence of the technology maturation required for codification and qualification. In the NGNP application, technology roadmaps provide the framework and structure required to systematically perform decision analysis, reduce risk, and mature technologies in a cost effective and timely manner. The steps followed include Structure Identification, Technology Readiness Assessment, Technology Selection, Technology Maturation, and Test Plan Development

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizia, Ronald Eugene [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C to 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor, and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. The purpose of this report is to address the acquisition strategy for the NGNP Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX).This component will be operated in flowing, impure helium on the primary and secondary side at temperatures up to 950°C. There are major high temperature design, materials availability, and fabrication issues that need to be addressed. The prospective materials are Alloys 617, 230, 800H and X, with Alloy 617 being the leading candidate for the use at 950°C. The material delivery schedule for these materials does not pose a problem for a 2018 start up as the vendors can quote reasonable delivery times at the moment. The product forms and amount needed must be finalized as soon as possible. An

  5. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Lessons Learned Applicable to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.; Collins, J.W.; Garcia, C.B.; Pincock, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) have been designed and operated throughout the world over the past five decades. These seven HTGRs are varied in size, outlet temperature, primary fluid, and purpose. However, there is much the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) has learned and can learn from these experiences. This report captures these various experiences and documents the lessons learned according to the physical NGNP hardware (i.e., systems, subsystems, and components) affected thereby.

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R and D) Program is responsible for performing R and D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R and D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  8. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Beck II; Harold J. Heydt; Emmanuel O. Opare; Kyle B. Oswald

    2010-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  9. Reducing Risk for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, John M. II; Heydt, Harold J.; Opare, Emmanuel O.; Oswald, Kyle B.

    2010-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is directed by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype forth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP has numerous risks that need to be identified, tracked, mitigated, and reduced in order for successful project completion. A Risk Management Plan (RMP) was created to outline the process the INL is using to manage the risks and reduction strategies for the NGNP Project. Integral to the RMP is the development and use of a Risk Management System (RMS). The RMS is a tool that supports management and monitoring of the project risks. The RMS does not only contain a risk register, but other functionality that allows decision makers, engineering staff, and technology researchers to review and monitor the risks as the project matures.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demick, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Evaluation of Siting a HTGR Co-generation Plant on an Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project of siting a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) plant on an existing nuclear plant site that is located in an area of significant industrial activity. This is a co-generation application in which the HTGR Plant will be supplying steam and electricity to one or more of the nearby industrial plants.

  12. Design option of heat exchanger for the next generation nuclear plant - HTR2008-58175

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, C. H.; Kim, E. S.

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very High temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) concept, will provide the first demonstration of a closed-loop Brayton cycle at a commercial scale, producing a few hundred megawatts of power in the form of electricity and hydrogen. The power conversion unit (PCU) for the NGNP will take advantage of the significantly higher reactor outlet temperatures of the VHTRs to provide higher efficiencies than can be achieved with the current generation of light water reactors. Besides demonstrating a system design that can be used directly for subsequent commercial deployment, the NGNP will demonstrate key technology elements that can be used in subsequent advanced power conversion systems for other Generation IV reactors. In anticipation of the design, development and procurement of an advanced power conversion system for the NGNP, the system integration of the NGNP and hydrogen plant was initiated to identify the important design and technology options that must be considered in evaluating the performance of the proposed NGNP. As part of the system integration of the VHTRs and the hydrogen production plant, the intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the process heat from VHTRs to the hydrogen plant. Therefore, the design and configuration of the intermediate heat exchanger is very important. This paper will include analysis of one stage versus two stage heat exchanger design configurations and simple stress analyses of a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), helical coil heat exchanger, and shell/tube heat exchanger. (authors)

  13. Summary of Planned Implementation for the HTGR Lessons Learned Applicable to the NGNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckirdy, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a reconciliation of the lessons learned during a 2010 comprehensive evaluation of pertinent lessons learned from past and present high temperature gas-cooled reactors that apply to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project along with current and planned activities. The data used are from the latest Idaho National Laboratory research and development plans, the conceptual design report from General Atomics, and the pebble bed reactor technology readiness study from AREVA. Only those lessons related to the structures, systems, and components of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), as documented in the recently updated lessons learned report are addressed. These reconciliations are ordered according to plant area, followed by the affected system, subsystem, or component; lesson learned; and finally an NGNP implementation statement. This report (1) provides cross references to the original lessons learned document, (2) describes the lesson learned, (3) provides the current NGNP implementation status with design data needs associated with the lesson learned, (4) identifies the research and development being performed related to the lesson learned, and (5) summarizes with a status of how the lesson learned has been addressed by the NGNP Project.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant GAP Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, Sydney J [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Corwin, William R [ORNL; Fisher, Stephen Eugene [ORNL; Forsberg, Charles W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Morris, Robert Noel [ORNL; Moses, David Lewis [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    As a follow-up to the phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) studies conducted recently by NRC on next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) safety, a study was conducted to identify the significant 'gaps' between what is needed and what is already available to adequately assess NGNP safety characteristics. The PIRT studies focused on identifying important phenomena affecting NGNP plant behavior, while the gap study gives more attention to off-normal behavior, uncertainties, and event probabilities under both normal operation and postulated accident conditions. Hence, this process also involved incorporating more detailed evaluations of accident sequences and risk assessments. This study considers thermal-fluid and neutronic behavior under both normal and postulated accident conditions, fission product transport (FPT), high-temperature metals, and graphite behavior and their effects on safety. In addition, safety issues related to coupling process heat (hydrogen production) systems to the reactor are addressed, given the limited design information currently available. Recommendations for further study, including analytical methods development and experimental needs, are presented as appropriate in each of these areas.

  15. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  16. NGNP Project 2011 Status and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-12-01

    High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) technology can play an important role in the United States’ energy future by extending the use of nuclear energy for non-electricity energy production missions as well as continuing to provide a considerable base load electric power generation capability. Extending nuclear energy into the industrial and transportation sectors through the co-production of process heat and electricity provides safe and reliable energy for these sectors in an environmentally responsible manner. The safety case for the modular HTGR provides a substantial improvement in nuclear plant safety for the protection of the public and the environment, and supports collocation of the HTGR with major industrial facilities. The NGNP Project at the Idaho National Laboratory has been working toward an objective of commercializing the HTGR technology under DOE direction since 2006. The Project is undergoing a quantum shift in direction and scope as a result of recent DOE decisions. This paper summarizes where the Project has been, where it is at the time of this writing and what is needed in future activities to commercialize HTGR technology.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2006-01-01

    This is the 2006 update (Revision 3) of the NGNP Materials Research and Development Program Plan. This law established that the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary of Energy shall establish a ''Next Generation Nuclear Plant'' (NGNP) project. The NGNP project named in the Act was given the following attributes and guiding principles to manage its development: (1) The NGNP consists of research, development, design (R and DD), construction, and operation of a prototype reactor to generate electricity and hydrogen; (2) The project shall be managed by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy; (3) The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shall be the lead DOE laboratory for the NGNP; (4) The INL shall establish collaborations with selected institutions of higher education, other research institutes and international researchers; (5) The INL shall organize an industrial consortium of partners for cost-shared R and DD, construction; (6) The project shall be sited at the INL; (7) The project shall be licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by July, 2008 the NRC and DOE shall jointly submit a licensing strategy to Congress; (8) The project shall be organized to maximize technical interchange with the nuclear power industry, nuclear power plant construction firms, the chemical process industry and to seek international cooperation, participation and contributions; (9) The Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee (NERAC) shall review all program plans for the NGNP; (10) Phase 1 of the project (selection of hydrogen production technology, conduct R and DD and initial design activities) shall be completed no later than September 30, 2011; (11) Phase 2 of the project (continue R and DD, develop final design, apply for a license, construct and start operations) shall be completed by September 30, 2021; and (12) Provision for authorization of appropriations was made. As a result of the direction provided, the INL and the DOE issued an NGNP Preliminary Project Management

  18. Progress Report for Diffusion Welding of the NGNP Process Application Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Mizia; D.E. Clark; M.V. Glazoff; T.E. Lister; T.L. Trowbridge

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor as the basis for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity, hydrogen production, and process heat applications. The NGNP Project is currently investigating the use of metallic, diffusion welded, compact heat exchangers to transfer heat from the primary (reactor side) heat transport system to the secondary heat transport system. An intermediate heat exchanger will transfer this heat to downstream applications such as hydrogen production, process heat, and electricity generation. The channeled plates that make up the heat transfer surfaces of the intermediate heat exchanger will have to be assembled into an array by diffusion welding. This report describes the preliminary results of a scoping study that evaluated the diffusion welding process parameters and the resultant mechanical properties of diffusion welded joints using Alloy 800H. The long-term goal of the program is to progress towards demonstration of small heat exchanger unit cells fabricated with diffusion welds. Demonstration through mechanical testing of the unit cells will support American Society of Mechanical Engineers rules and standards development, reduce technical risk, and provide proof of concept for heat exchanger fabrication methods needed to deploy heat exchangers in several potential NGNP configurations.1 Researchers also evaluated the usefulness of modern thermodynamic and diffusion computational tools (Thermo-Calc and Dictra) in optimizing the parameters for diffusion welding of Alloy 800H. The modeling efforts suggested a temperature of 1150 C for 1 hour with an applied pressure of 5 MPa using 15 {micro}m nickel foil as joint filler to reduce chromium oxidation on the welded surfaces. Good agreement between modeled and experimentally determined concentration gradients was achieved

  19. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  20. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Demick; Doug Vandel

    2007-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950 C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications. The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively1 safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to current and advanced light water reactors (LWRs). In the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Department of Energy (DOE) was tasked with providing a demonstration of this HTGR technology to economically and reliably produce electricity and hydrogen by the year 2021. As the lead nuclear technology development laboratory of the DOE, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has initiated the work necessary to complete this task. The EPAct also stipulated that the task should be undertaken in partnership with the industrial end users of the technology. To that end, a working group has been assembled consisting of suppliers of the technology, nuclear plant owner/operators, other supportive technology companies, and potential end users. The objective of the working group is to form an Alliance that would provide the private sector perspective and direction for completion of the NGNP in partnership with the DOE. The Alliance will support the selection of the specific operating conditions and configuration for NGNP to ensure it meets private sector expectations, commence

  2. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  3. Maintaining a technology-neutral approach to hydrogen production process development through conceptual design of the next generation nuclear plant - HTR2008-58191

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M. W.; Park, C. V.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct) charges the Dept. of Energy (DOE) with developing and demonstrating the technical and economic feasibility of using high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of electricity and/or hydrogen. The design, construction and demonstration of this technology in an HTGR proto-type reactor are termed the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. Currently, parallel development of three hydrogen production processes will continue until a single process technology is recommended for final demonstration in the NGNP - a technology neutral approach. This analysis compares the technology neutral approach to acceleration of the hydrogen process down-selection at the completion of the NGNP conceptual design to improve integration of the hydrogen process development and NGNP Project schedule. The accelerated schedule activities are based on completing evaluations and achieving technology readiness levels (TRLs) identified in NGNP systems engineering and technology road-maps. The cost impact of accelerating the schedule and risk reduction strategies was also evaluated. The NGNP Project intends to design and construct a component test facility (CTF) to support testing and demonstration of HTGR technologies, including those for hydrogen production. The demonstrations will support scheduled design and licensing activities, leading to subsequent construction and operation of the NGNP. Demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start about two years earlier than similarly scaled hydrogen demonstrations planned in the technology neutral baseline. The schedule evaluation assumed that hydrogen process testing would be performed in the CTF and synchronized the progression of hydrogen process development with CTF availability. (authors)

  4. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project 2009 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Demick; Jim Kinsey; Keith Perry; Dave Petti

    2010-05-01

    The mission of the NGNP Project is to broaden the environmental and economic benefits of nuclear energy technology to the United States and other economies by demonstrating its applicability to market sectors not served by light water reactors (LWRs). Those markets typically use fossil fuels to fulfill their energy needs, and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) like the NGNP can reduce this dependence and the resulting carbon footprint.

  6. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  7. The statistical analysis techniques to support the NGNP fuel performance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Binh T., E-mail: Binh.Pham@inl.gov; Einerson, Jeffrey J.

    2013-10-15

    This paper describes the development and application of statistical analysis techniques to support the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experimental program on Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel performance. The experiments conducted in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor employ fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel capsule. The tests are instrumented with thermocouples embedded in graphite blocks and the target quantity (fuel temperature) is regulated by the He–Ne gas mixture that fills the gap volume. Three techniques for statistical analysis, namely control charting, correlation analysis, and regression analysis, are implemented in the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System for automated processing and qualification of the AGR measured data. The neutronic and thermal code simulation results are used for comparative scrutiny. The ultimate objective of this work includes (a) a multi-faceted system for data monitoring and data accuracy testing, (b) identification of possible modes of diagnostics deterioration and changes in experimental conditions, (c) qualification of data for use in code validation, and (d) identification and use of data trends to support effective control of test conditions with respect to the test target. Analysis results and examples given in the paper show the three statistical analysis techniques providing a complementary capability to warn of thermocouple failures. It also suggests that the regression analysis models relating calculated fuel temperatures and thermocouple readings can enable online regulation of experimental parameters (i.e. gas mixture content), to effectively maintain the fuel temperature within a given range.

  8. Optimal design of a NGNP heat exchanger with cost model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Danchus, William; Tokuhiro, Akira

    2009-01-01

    With steady increase in energy consumption, the vulnerability of the fossil fuel supply, and environmental concerns, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), also known as Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The VHTR is planned to be operational by 2021 with possible demonstration of a hydrogen generating plant. Various engineering design studies on both the reactor plant and energy conversion system are underway. For this and related Generation IV plants, it is the goal to not only meet safety criteria but to also be efficient, economically competitive, and environmentally friendly (proliferation resistant). Traditionally, heat exchanger (HX) design is based on two main approaches: Log-Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) and effectiveness-NTU (ε-NTU). These methods yield the dimension of the HX under anticipate condition and vice-versa. However, one is not assured that the dimension calculated give the best performing HX when economics are also considered. Here, we develop and show a specific optimization algorithm (exercise) using LMTD and simple (optimal) design theory to establish a reference case for the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was further used as a design tool to investigate the optimal design of PCHE thermohydraulic flow. The CFD results were validated against the Blasius correlation before being subjected to optimal design analyses. Benchmark results for the pipe flow indicated that the predictive ability of SST k-ω is superior to the other (standard and RNG k-ε and RSM) turbulence models. The difference between CFD and the empirical expression is less than 10%. (author)

  9. Safeguards and security by design support for the next generation nuclear plant project - Progress in safeguards by design (SBD) by the United States National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornard, T.; Casey Durst, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized by the United States Energy Policy Act of 2005 with the principal objective of designing, licensing, and building a Generation IV nuclear plant capable of producing both high-temperature process heat and electricity. The two candidate NGNP reactor concepts are pebble- and prismatic-fueled high-temperature gas reactors that will be licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The conceptual design phase of the project was completed in December 2010. This paper summarizes support provided to the NGNP project to facilitate consideration of international safeguards during the design phase, or safeguards by design (SBD). Additional support was provided for domestic safeguards (material control and accounting) and physical protection, or safeguards and security by design (2SBD). The main focus of this paper is on SBD and international safeguards. Included is an overview of the international safeguards guidance contained in guidance reports for SBD. These reports contain guidance and suggestions intended to be useful to the industry design teams, but they do not contain ready-made solutions. Early and frequent interaction of design stakeholders with the International Atomic Energy Agency and the NRC are essential to a successful endeavor. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  10. NGNP Site Selection Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holbrook, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process, the preliminary site activities that have taken place in the current fiscal year (FY-06), and the site-related plans for FY-07. The NRC maintains oversight of the construction and operation of a facility throughout its lifetime to assure compliance with the Commission's regulations for the protection of public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment. To implement this process, all nuclear power plant applications must undergo a safety review, an environmental review, and antitrust review by the NRC.

  11. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 5: Graphite PIRTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Bratton, Rob; Marsden, Barry; Srinivasan, Makuteswara; Penfield, Scott; Mitchell, Mark; Windes, Will

    2008-01-01

    Here we report the outcome of the application of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) process to the issue of nuclear-grade graphite for the moderator and structural components of a next generation nuclear plant (NGNP), considering both routine (normal operation) and postulated accident conditions for the NGNP. The NGNP is assumed to be a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), either a gas-turbine modular helium reactor (GTMHR) version (a prismatic-core modular reactor (PMR)] or a pebble-bed modular reactor (PBMR) version (a pebble bed reactor (PBR)] design, with either a direct- or indirect-cycle gas turbine (Brayton cycle) system for electric power production, and an indirect-cycle component for hydrogen production. NGNP design options with a high-pressure steam generator (Rankine cycle) in the primary loop are not considered in this PIRT. This graphite PIRT was conducted in parallel with four other NRC PIRT activities, taking advantage of the relationships and overlaps in subject matter. The graphite PIRT panel identified numerous phenomena, five of which were ranked high importance-low knowledge. A further nine were ranked with high importance and medium knowledge rank. Two phenomena were ranked with medium importance and low knowledge, and a further 14 were ranked medium importance and medium knowledge rank. The last 12 phenomena were ranked with low importance and high knowledge rank (or similar combinations suggesting they have low priority). The ranking/scoring rationale for the reported graphite phenomena is discussed. Much has been learned about the behavior of graphite in reactor environments in the 60-plus years since the first graphite rectors went into service. The extensive list of references in the Bibliography is plainly testament to this fact. Our current knowledge base is well developed. Although data are lacking for the specific grades being considered for Generation IV (Gen IV

  13. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  14. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  15. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant - Insights Gained from the INEEL Point Design Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides the results of an assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebble-bed fuel helium gas reactor. Insights gained regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the two designs are also discussed. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two major modifications of the current Gas Turbine- Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) design were needed to obtain a prismatic block design with a 1000 C outlet temperature: reducing the bypass flow and better controlling the inlet coolant flow distribution to the core. The total power that could be obtained for different core heights without exceeding a peak transient fuel temperature of 1600 C during a high or low-pressure conduction cooldown event was calculated. With a coolant inlet temperature of 490 C and 10% nominal core bypass flow, it is estimated that the peak power for a 10-block high core is 686 MWt, for a 12-block high core is 786 MWt, and for a 14-block core is about 889 MWt. The core neutronics calculations showed that the NGNP will exhibit strongly negative Doppler and isothermal temperature coefficients of reactivity over the burnup cycle. In the event of rapid loss of the helium gas, there is negligible core reactivity change. However, water or steam ingress into the core coolant channels can produce a relatively large reactivity effect. Two versions of an annular pebble-bed NGNP have also been developed, a 300 and a 600 MWt module. From this work we learned how to design passively safe pebble bed reactors that produce more than 600 MWt. We also found a way to improve both the fuel utilization and safety by modifying the pebble design (by adjusting the fuel zone radius in the pebble to optimize the fuel

  16. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  17. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  18. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Preliminary Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis J. Harrell

    2006-01-01

    This draft preliminary project management plan presents the conceptual framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, consistent with the authorization in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. In developing this plan, the Idaho National Laboratory has considered three fundamental project planning options that are summarized in the following section. Each of these planning options is literally compliant with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, but each emphasizes different approaches to technology development risks, design, licensing and construction risks, and to the extent of commercialization support provided to the industry. The primary focus of this draft preliminary project management plan is to identify those activities important to Critical Decision-1, at which point a decision on proceeding with the NGNP Project can be made. The conceptual project framework described herein is necessary to establish the scope and priorities for the technology development activities. The framework includes: A reference NGNP prototype concept based on what is judged to be the lowest risk technology development that would achieve the needed commercial functional requirements to provide an economically competitive nuclear heat source and hydrogen production capability. A high-level schedule logic for design, construction, licensing, and acceptance testing. This schedule logic also includes an operational shakedown period that provides proof-of-principle to establish the basis for commercialization decisions by end-users. An assessment of current technology development plans to support Critical Decision-1 and overall project progress. The most important technical and programmatic uncertainties (risks) are evaluated, and potential mitigation strategies are identified so that the technology development plans may be modified as required to support ongoing project development. A rough-order-of-magnitude cost evaluation that provides an initial basis for budget planning. This

  19. Standard Problems for CFD Validation for NGNP - Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Richard W.; Schultz, Richard R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development to support the resurgence of nuclear power in the United States for both electrical power generation and production of process heat required for industrial processes such as the manufacture of hydrogen for use as a fuel in automobiles. The project is called the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, which is based on a Generation IV reactor concept called the very high temperature reactor (VHTR). The VHTR will be of the prismatic or pebble bed type; the former is considered herein. The VHTR will use helium as the coolant at temperatures ranging from 250 C to perhaps 1000 C. While computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has not previously been used for the safety analysis of nuclear reactors in the United States, it is being considered for existing and future reactors. It is fully recognized that CFD simulation codes will have to be validated for flow physics reasonably close to actual fluid dynamic conditions expected in normal operational and accident situations. The ''Standard Problem'' is an experimental data set that represents an important physical phenomenon or phenomena, whose selection is based on a phenomena identification and ranking table (PIRT) for the reactor in question. It will be necessary to build a database that contains a number of standard problems for use to validate CFD and systems analysis codes for the many physical problems that will need to be analyzed. The first two standard problems that have been developed for CFD validation consider flow in the lower plenum of the VHTR and bypass flow in the prismatic core. Both involve scaled models built from quartz and designed to be installed in the INL's matched index of refraction (MIR) test facility. The MIR facility employs mineral oil as the working fluid at a constant temperature. At this temperature, the index of refraction of the mineral oil is the same as that of the quartz. This provides an advantage to the

  20. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-01-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President's Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  3. NGNP Composites R and D Technical Issues Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies potential applications and design requirements for ceramic materials (CMs) and ceramic composite materials (CCMs) in the NGNP hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) primary circuit. Components anticipated for fabrication from non-graphite CMs and CCMs are identified along with recommended normal and off-normal operating conditions. The evaluation defines required dimensions and material properties of the candidate materials for normal operating conditions (NOC), anticipated transients, abnormal events, and design basis events. The report also identifies additional activities required for codifying the selected materials. The activities include ASTM Standard and ASME Code development and other work to support NRC licensing of the plant. Evaluation of the NGNP baseline design indicates components requiring either CMs or CCMs depend upon the reactor operating temperatures. For a reactor outlet temperature of 900 oC, four of the five evaluated components would benefit from either CMs or CCMs. Although some thermal and mechanical data exist for most of the candidate materials, they all need additional irradiation, thermal, and mechanical testing. The codification process must take into account the type of material and the geometry of components using either CMs or CCMs. The process requires close integration of the design and the research and development (R and D) program, which has already started by using preliminary control rod component designs as the basis for establishing specimen geometry and test conditions. The remaining time and budget for completing the R and D program need further assessment.

  4. NGNP Composites R&D Technical Issues Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AREVA Federal Services

    2008-09-01

    This study identifies potential applications and design requirements for ceramic materials (CMs) and ceramic composite materials (CCMs) in the NGNP hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) primary circuit. Components anticipated for fabrication from non-graphite CMs and CCMs are identified along with recommended normal and off-normal operating conditions. The evaluation defines required dimensions and material properties of the candidate materials for normal operating conditions (NOC), anticipated transients, abnormal events, and design basis events. The report also identifies additional activities required for codifying the selected materials. The activities include ASTM Standard and ASME Code development and other work to support NRC licensing of the plant. Evaluation of the NGNP baseline design indicates components requiring either CMs or CCMs depend upon the reactor operating temperatures. For a reactor outlet temperature of 900 oC, four of the five evaluated components would benefit from either CMs or CCMs. Although some thermal and mechanical data exist for most of the candidate materials, they all need additional irradiation, thermal, and mechanical testing. The codification process must take into account the type of material and the geometry of components using either CMs or CCMs. The process requires close integration of the design and the research and development (R&D) program, which has already started by using preliminary control rod component designs as the basis for establishing specimen geometry and test conditions. The remaining time and budget for completing the R&D program need further assessment.

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Consideration of a design optimization method for advanced nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Manic, Milos; Patterson, Michael; Danchus, William

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the global energy demand and also mitigate climate change, we anticipate a significant resurgence of nuclear power in the next 50 years. Globally, Generation III plants (ABWR) have been built; Gen' III+ plants (EPR, AP1000 others) are anticipated in the near term. The U.S. DOE and Japan are respectively pursuing the NGNP and MSFR. There is renewed interest in closing the fuel cycle and gradually introducing the fast reactor into the LWR-dominated global fleet. In order to meet Generation IV criteria, i.e. thermal efficiency, inherent safety, proliferation resistance and economic competitiveness, plant and energy conversion system engineering design have to increasingly meet strict design criteria with reduced margin for reliable safety and uncertainties. Here, we considered a design optimization approach using an anticipated NGNP thermal system component as a Case Study. A systematic, efficient methodology is needed to reduce time consuming trial-and-error and computationally-intensive analyses. We thus developed a design optimization method linking three elements; that is, benchmarked CFD used as a 'design tool', artificial neural networks (ANN) to accommodate non-linear system behavior and enhancement of the 'design space', and finally, response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the design solution with targeted constraints. The paper presents the methodology including guiding principles, an integration of CFD into design theory and practice, consideration of system non-linearities (such as fluctuating operating conditions) and systematic enhancement of the design space via application of ANN, and a stochastic optimization approach (RSM) with targeted constraints. Results from a Case Study optimizing the printed circuit heat exchanger for the NGNP energy conversion system will be presented. (author)

  7. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  8. Defining the research and development needs for the next generation nuclear plant: Neutronics and thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R. R.; Nigg, D. W.; Ougouag, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    In May, 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) released a 'Request for Information and Expressions of Interest' (EOI) on the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The DOE objective 'is to conduct research, development, and demonstration of a next-generation nuclear power reactor in order to establish advanced technology for the future production of safe, efficient, and environmentally-acceptable power and to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of such facilities to the U.S. electric power industry.' The process of demonstrating the NGNP will require rigorous analysis of the plant's projected behavior under all postulated operational and accident conditions such that the operational and accident envelopes for the NGNP are fully defined and understood. Thus, the analytical tools must be demonstrated to be capable of analyzing the plant's behavior in the plant's operational and accident envelopes. Research and development (R and D) specific to the NGNP and conducted to date is based on the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) concept promulgated in the Generation IV technology roadmap. Although the NGNP may or may not resemble this concept, early thinking on the most likely candidates for the NGNP has led researchers to consider the prismatic and pebble bed variants of the very high temperature gas cooled thermal reactor. These designs have been demonstrated and have been studied extensively. Because some of their operational and accident characteristics have been identified in past studies, these characteristics are a good starting point for research and development planning and studies. This paper only addresses R and D needs regarding neutronics and thermal-hydraulics specific to very high temperature gas-cooled thermal reactors. The process of identifying R and D needs and then formulating plans is straightforward, although there are many unknowns and the process itself is iterative. The process is shown in flow chart form. In essence it is a

  9. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  10. NGNP Data Management and Analysis System Modeling Capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentillon, Cynthia D.

    2009-01-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. In addition, thermal-hydraulic experiments are conducted to validate codes used to assess reactor safety. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the third NDMAS objective. It describes capabilities for displaying the data in meaningful ways and identifying relationships among the measured quantities that contribute to their understanding.

  11. NGNP Data Management and Analysis System Modeling Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia D. Gentillon

    2009-09-01

    Projects for the very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) program provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the VHTR. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high temperature and high fluence environments. In addition, thermal-hydraulic experiments are conducted to validate codes used to assess reactor safety. The VHTR Program has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the third NDMAS objective. It describes capabilities for displaying the data in meaningful ways and identifying relationships among the measured quantities that contribute to their understanding.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  13. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  14. Dependable Hydrogen and Industrial Heat Generation from the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson; Vincent C. Maio; Piyush Sabharwall

    2009-03-01

    The Department of Energy is working with industry to develop a next generation, high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) as a part of the effort to supply the US with abundant, clean and secure energy. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory, will demonstrate the ability of the HTGR to generate hydrogen, electricity, and high-quality process heat for a wide range of industrial applications. Substituting HTGR power for traditional fossil fuel resources reduces the cost and supply vulnerability of natural gas and oil, and reduces or eliminates greenhouse gas emissions. As authorized by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, industry leaders are developing designs for the construction of a commercial prototype producing up to 600 MWt of power by 2021. This paper describes a variety of critical applications that are appropriate for the HTGR with an emphasis placed on applications requiring a clean and reliable source of hydrogen. An overview of the NGNP project status and its significant technology development efforts are also presented.

  15. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  16. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  17. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  18. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  19. NGNP Program 2013 Status and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-03-01

    High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology can play an important role in the energy future of the United States by extending the use of nuclear energy for non-electricity energy production missions, as well as continuing to provide a considerable base load electric power generation capability. Extending nuclear energy into the industrial and transportation sectors through the coproduction of process heat and electricity provides safe, reliable energy for these sectors in an environmentally responsible manner. The modular HTGR provides a substantial improvement in nuclear plant safety for the protection of the public and the environment, and supports collocation of the HTGRhigh temperature gas-cooled reactor with major industrial facilities. Under U.S. Department of Energy direction since 2006, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project at Idaho National Laboratory has been working toward commercializing the HTGR technology. However, a recent decision by the Secretary of Energy to reduce the scope of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project to a research and development program, considerable realignment has taken place. This report: (1) summarizes the accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Program from FY2011 through FY2013; (2) lays out the path forward necessary to achieve the ultimate objective of commercializing HTGR technology; and (3) discusses ongoing technical, licensing, and evaluation activities under the realigned Next Generation Nuclear Plant program considered important to preserve the significant investment made by the government to-date and to maintain some progress in meeting the objectives of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct2005).

  20. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  1. Benchmarking Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakic, I.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main tasks an owner have is to keep its business competitive on the market while delivering its product. Being owner of nuclear power plant bear the same (or even more complex and stern) responsibility due to safety risks and costs. In the past, nuclear power plant managements could (partly) ignore profit or it was simply expected and to some degree assured through the various regulatory processes governing electricity rate design. It is obvious now that, with the deregulation, utility privatization and competitive electricity market, key measure of success used at nuclear power plants must include traditional metrics of successful business (return on investment, earnings and revenue generation) as well as those of plant performance, safety and reliability. In order to analyze business performance of (specific) nuclear power plant, benchmarking, as one of the well-established concept and usual method was used. Domain was conservatively designed, with well-adjusted framework, but results have still limited application due to many differences, gaps and uncertainties. (author).

  2. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of Nuclear Power Plant Analyzers in USA is described. There are two different types of Analyzers under development in USA, the forst in Idaho and Los Alamos national Lab, the second in brookhaven National lab. That one is described in detail. The computer hardware and the mathematical models of the reactor vessel thermalhydraulics are described. (author)

  4. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  5. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  6. Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downar, Thomas; Seker, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local 'hot' spots by developing multi-scale, multi-physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis.The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

  7. Multi-Scale Multi-physics Methods Development for the Calculation of Hot-Spots in the NGNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downar, Thomas [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Seker, Volkan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2013-04-30

    Radioactive gaseous fission products are released out of the fuel element at a significantly higher rate when the fuel temperature exceeds 1600°C in high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). Therefore, it is of paramount importance to accurately predict the peak fuel temperature during all operational and design-basis accident conditions. The current methods used to predict the peak fuel temperature in HTGRs, such as the Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), estimate the average fuel temperature in a computational mesh modeling hundreds of fuel pebbles or a fuel assembly in a pebble-bed reactor (PBR) or prismatic block type reactor (PMR), respectively. Experiments conducted in operating HTGRs indicate considerable uncertainty in the current methods and correlations used to predict actual temperatures. The objective of this project is to improve the accuracy in the prediction of local "hot" spots by developing multi-scale, multi-physics methods and implementing them within the framework of established codes used for NGNP analysis.The multi-scale approach which this project will implement begins with defining suitable scales for a physical and mathematical model and then deriving and applying the appropriate boundary conditions between scales. The macro scale is the greatest length that describes the entire reactor, whereas the meso scale models only a fuel block in a prismatic reactor and ten to hundreds of pebbles in a pebble bed reactor. The smallest scale is the micro scale--the level of a fuel kernel of the pebble in a PBR and fuel compact in a PMR--which needs to be resolved in order to calculate the peak temperature in a fuel kernel.

  8. Nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The four-member New York Power Pool Panel concluded that, for a number of reasons, no nuclear power plant in New York State is prone to the type of accident that occurred at Three Mile Island (TMI). The Panel further concluded that changes in operating practices, both regulatory and voluntary, and heightened sensitivity to reactor-core-cooling requirements will substantially reduce the chances for another such accident anywhere. Panel members found that New York State utilities have taken a responsible attitude with regard to requirements set forth by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a result of the TMI accident. In a cover letter that accompanied the report to Federal and New York state officials, New York Power Pool Executive Committee Chairman Francis E. Drake, Jr. expressed hope that the report will alleviate public fears of nuclear reactors and promote wider acceptance of nuclear energy as an economic and safe means of power production. 17 references

  9. Nuclear plants - military hostages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1986-01-01

    Recent events suggest that nuclear reactors could make tempting military or terrorist targets. Despite the care with which most reactors are built, studies document their vulnerability to willful destruction through disruption of coolant mechanisms both inside and outside the containment building. In addition to reactors, such nuclear support facilities as fuel fabrication, reprocessing, and waste storage installations may be attractive military targets. A nuclear bomb which exploded in the vicinity of a reactor could increase its lethal effects by one-third. The implications of this is vulnerability for Middle East stability as well as to other volatile regions. The author suggests several avenues for controlling the dangers: international law, military and civil defense, facility siting, increasing plant safety, and the international management of nuclear energy. 21 references

  10. Pulsed nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, C.V.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear power plant. This power plant consists of: 1.) a cavity; 2.) a detonatable nuclear device in a central region of the cavity; 3.) a working fluid inside of the cavity; 4.) a method to denote a nuclear device inside of the cavity; 5.) a mechanical projection from an interior wall of the cavity for recoiling to absorb a shock wave produced by the detonation of the nuclear device and thereby protecting the cavity from damage. A plurality of segments defines a shell within the cavity and a plurality of shock absorbers, each connecting a corresponding segment to a corresponding location on the wall of the cavity. Each of these shock absorbers regulate the recoil action of the segments; and 6.) means for permitting controlled extraction of a quantity of hot gases from the cavity produced by the vaporization of the working fluid upon detonation of the nuclear device. A method of generating power is also described. This method consists of: 1.) introducing a quantity of water in an underground cavity; 2.) heating the water in the cavity to form saturated steam; 3.) detonating a nuclear device at a central location inside the cavity; 4.) recoiling plate-like elements inside the cavity away from the central location in a mechanically regulated and controlled manner to absorb a shock wave produced by the nuclear device detonation and thereby protect the underground cavity against damage; 5.) extracting a quantity of superheated steam produced by the detonation of the nuclear device; and 6.) Converting the energy in the extracted superheated steam into electrical power

  11. Artificial neural network to support thermohydraulic design optimization for an advanced nuclear heat removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Linda, Ondrej; Manic, Milos

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is leading a number of initiatives, including one known as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. One of the NGNP nuclear system concepts is the Very High Temperature (gas-cooled) Reactor (VHTR) that may be coupled to a hydrogen generating plant to support the anticipated hydrogen economy. For the NGNP, an efficient power conversion system using an Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) is key to electricity and/or process heat generation (hydrogen production). Ideally, it's desirable for the IHX to be compact and thermally efficient. However, traditional heat exchanger design practices do not assure that the design parameters are optimized. As part of NGNP heat exchanger design and optimization project, this research paper thus proposes developing a recurrent-type Artificial Neural Network (ANN), the Hopfield Network (HN) model, in which the activation function is modified, as a design optimization approach to support a NGNP thermal system candidate, the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Four quadratic functions, available in literature, were used to test the presented methodology. The results computed by an artificially intelligent approach were compared to another approach, the Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the HN results are close to GA in optimization of multi-variable second-order equations. (author)

  12. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities

  13. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  14. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  15. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, V.V.; Rineisky, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The invention is aimed at designing a nuclear power plant with a heat transfer system which permits an accelerated fuel regeneration maintaining relatively high initial steam values and efficiency of the steam power circuit. In case of a plant with three circuits the secondary cooling circuit includes a steam generator with preheater, evaporator, steam superheater and intermediate steam superheater. At the heat supply side the latter is connected with its inlet to the outlet of the evaporator and with its outlet to the low-temperature side of the secondary circuit

  16. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  17. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tatsuyoshi; Kamahara, Hisato; Yanagisawa, Ko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent corrosion stress cracks in structural materials in a BWR type nuclear power plant by decreasing the oxygen concentration in the reactor coolants. Constitution: A hydrogen injector is connected between the condensator and a condensate clean up system of a nuclear power plant. The injector is incorporated with hydrogenated compounds formed from metal hydrides, for example, of alloys such as lanthanum-nickel alloy, iron titanium alloy, vanadium, palladium, magnesium-copper alloy, magnesium-nickel alloy and the like. Even if the pressure of hydrogen obtained from a hydrogen bomb or by way of water electrolysis is changed, the hydrogen can always be injected into a reactor coolant at a pressure equal to the equilibrium dissociation pressure for metal hydride by introducing the hydrogen into the hydrogen injector. (Seki, T.)

  18. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  19. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  20. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Edward G.; Fleming, Karl N.; Burns, Edward M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Again this year, our magazine presents the details of the conference on Spanish nuclear power plant operation held in February and that was devoted to 1996 operating results. The Protocol for Establishment of a New Electrical Sector Regulation that was signed last December will undoubtedly represent a new challenge for the nuclear industry. By clearing stating that current standards of quality and safety should be maintained or even increased if possible, the Protocol will force the Sector to improve its productivity, which is already high as demonstrated by the results of the last few years described during this conference and by recent sectorial economic studies. Generation of a nuclear kWh that can compete with other types of power plants is the new challenge for the Sector's professionals, who do not fear the new liberalization policies and approaching competition. Lower inflation and the resulting lower interest rates, apart from being representative indices of our economy's marked improvement, will be very helpful in facing this challenge. (Author)

  3. Siting nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, J.; Joskow, P.L.

    1980-01-01

    The first edition of this journal is devoted to the policies and problems of siting nuclear power plants and the question of how far commercial reactors should be placed from urban areas. The article is divided into four major siting issues: policies, risk evaluation, accident consequences, and economic and physical constraints. One concern is how to treat currently operating reactors and those under construction that were established under less-stringent criteria if siting is to be used as a way to limit the consequences of accidents. Mehanical cost-benefit analyses are not as appropriate as the systematic use of empirical observations in assessing the values involved. Stricter siting rules are justified because (1) opposition because of safety is growing: (2) remote siting will make the industry more stable; (3) the conflict is eliminated between regulatory policies and the probability basis for nuclear insurance; and (4) joint ownership of utilities and power-pooling are increasing. 227 references, 7 tables

  4. NGNP High Temperature Materials White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew Lommers; George Honma

    2012-08-01

    This white paper is one in a series of white papers that address key generic issues of the combined construction and operating license (COL) pre-application program key generic issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant reactor using the prismatic block fuel technology. The purpose of the pre-application program interactions with the NRC staff is to reduce the time required for COL application review by identifying and addressing key regulatory issues and, if possible, obtaining agreements for their resolution

  5. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  7. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  8. Nuclear power plant emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The guide sets forth detailed requirements on how the licensee of a nuclear power plant shall plan, implement and maintain emergency response arrangements. The guide is also applied to nuclear material and nuclear waste transport in situations referred to in guide YVL 6.5. Requirements on physical protection are presented in a separate guide of Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK)

  9. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  10. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  11. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  13. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  15. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyokawa, Teruyuki; Soman, Yoshindo.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To constitute a heat exchanger as one unit by integrating primary and secondary coolant circuits with secondary coolant circuit and steam circuit into a single primary circuit and steam circuit. Constitution: A nuclear power plant comprises a nuclear reactor vessel, primary coolant pipeways and a leakage detection system, in which a dual-pipe type heat exchanger is connected to the primary circuit pipeway. The heat conduction tube of the heat exchanger has a dual pipe structure, in which the inside of the inner tube is connected to the primary circuit pipeway, the outside of the outer tube is connected to steam circuit pipeway and a fluid channel is disposed between the inner and outer tubes and the fluid channel is connected to the inside of an expansion tank for intermediate heat medium. The leak detection system is disposed to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank. Sodium as the intermediate heat medium is introduced from the intermediate portion (between the inner and outer tubes) by way of inermediate heat medium pipeways to the intermediate heat medium expansion tank and, further, to the intermediate portion for recycling. (Kawakami, Y.)

  16. Perspectives of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    In several countries the construction of nuclear power plants has been stopped, and in some counties several plants have been decommissioned or are planned to. Therefore, the question arises: have nuclear power plants any future? According to the author, the question should be reformulated: can mankind survive without nuclear power? To examine this challenge, the global power demand and its trends are analyzed. According to the results, traditional energy sources cannot be adequate to supply power. Therefore, a reconsideration of nuclear power should be imminent. The economic, environmental attractions are discussed as opposite to the lack of social support. (R.P.)

  17. Owners of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  18. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  19. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  20. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  1. Nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi

    1996-11-05

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  2. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Hidehiro; Oya, Takashi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly safe light water-cooled type nuclear power plant capable of reducing radiation dose by suppressing deposition of activated corrosion products by a simple constitution. Namely, equipments and pipelines for fluid such as pumps at least in one of fluid systems such as a condensate cleanup system are constituted by a material containing metal species such as Zn having an effect of suppressing deposition of radioactivity. Alternatively, the surface of these equipments and pipelines for fluids on which water passes is formed by a coating layer comprising a material containing a metal having a radiation deposition suppressing effect. As a result, radioactivity deposited on the equipments and pipelines for fluids is reduced. In addition, since the method described above may be applied only at least to a portion of the members constituting at least one of the systems for fluids, it is economical. Accordingly, radiation dose upon inspection of equipments and pipelines for fluids can be reduced simply and reliably. (I.S.)

  3. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Underground nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideo.

    1997-01-01

    In an underground-type nuclear power plant, groups of containing cavities comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally by way of partition walls are disposed in parallel underground. Controlled communication tunnels for communicating the containing cavities belonging to a control region to each other, and non-controlled communication tunnels for communicating containing cavities belonging to a non-controlled area to each other are disposed underground. A controlled corridor tunnel and a non-controlled corridor tunnel extended so as to surround the containing cavity groups are disposed underground, and the containing cavities belonging to the controlled area are connected to the controlled corridor tunnel respectively, and the containing cavities belonging to the non-controlled area are connected to the non-controlled corridor tunnel respectively. The excavating amount of earth and sand upon construction can be reduced by disposing the containing cavity groups comprising a plurality of containing cavities connected in series laterally. The time and the cost for the construction can be reduced, and various excellent effects can be provided. (N.H.)

  5. Public regulation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtheret, M.; Cormis, de

    1980-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear plants are subject to a complex system of governmental administration. The authors list the various governmental authorisations and rules applicable to these plants. In the first part, they describe the national regulations which relate specifically to nuclear plants, and emphasize the provisions which are intended to ensure the safety of the installations and the protection of the public against ionizing radiation. However, while the safety of nuclear plants is a major concern of the authorities, other interests are also protected. This is accomplished by various laws or regulations which apply to nuclear plants as well as other industrial installations. The duties which these texts, and the administrative practice based thereon, impose on Electricite de France are covered in the second part [fr

  6. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  7. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -1 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - 24 April 1972; first controlled reactor power - 27 November 1978, 15 March 1980; connection to the grid - 17 December 1978, 26 March 1980; commercial operation - 1 April 1980, 7 January 1981. This leaflet contains: NPP V-1 construction; Major technological equipment (Primary circuit: Nuclear reactor [WWER 440 V230 type reactor];Steam generator; Reactor Coolant Pumps; Primary Circuit Auxiliary Systems. Secondary circuit: Turbine generators, Nuclear power plant electrical equipment; power plant control) and technical data

  8. Man and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    According to the Inst. fuer Unfallforschung/TUeV Rheinland, Koeln, the interpretation of empirical data gained from the operation of nuclear power plants at home and abroad during the period 1967-1975 has shown that about 38% of all reactor accidents were caused by human failures. These occured either during the design and construction, the commissioning, the reconditioning or the operation of the plants. This very fact stresses human responsibility for the safety of nuclear power plants, in spite of those plants being automated to a high degree and devices. (orig.) [de

  9. Radiochemistry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Radiochemistry is employed in nuclear power plants not as an end in itself but, among other things, as a main prerequisite of optimum radiation protection. Radiochemical monitoring of various loops provides important information about sources of radioactivity, activity distribution in the plant and its changes. In the light of these analytical findings, plant crews are able to take measures having a positive effect on radiation levels in the plant. The example of a BWR plant is used to show, among other things, how radiochemical analyses helped to reduce radiation levels in a plant and, as a consequence, to decrease clearly radiation exposure of the personnel despite higher workloads. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  11. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  12. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-10-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics.

  13. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollradt, J.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the main questions of decommissioning of nuclear power plants will be given in the sight of German utilities (VDEW-Working group 'Stillegung'). The main topics are: 1) Definitions of decommissioning, entombment, removal and combinations of such alternatives; 2) Radioactive inventory (build up and decay); 3) Experience up to now; 4) Possibilities to dismantle are given by possibility to repair nuclear power plants; 5) Estimated costs, waste, occupational radiation dose; 6) German concept of decommissioning. (orig./HK) [de

  14. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  15. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  16. Operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, G.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook gives a systematic introduction into the operational and maintenance activities in nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. Subjects: (1) Setup and operational behaviour of power reactors, (2) setup of nuclear power plants, (3) radiation protection and nuclear safety, (4) nuclear fuel, (5) constructional layout of nuclear power plants, (6) management, and (7) maintenance. 158 figs., 56 tabs

  17. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkholm, K.; Nurmilaukas, P.; Tiihonen, O.; Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.

    1992-12-01

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  18. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  19. TVA's nuclear power plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews TVA's nuclear power plant design and construction experience in terms of schedule and capital costs. The completed plant in commercial operation at Browns Ferry and six additional plants currently under construction represent the nation's largest single commitment to nuclear power and an ultimate investment of $12 billion by 1986. The presentation is made in three separate phases. Phase one will recapitulate the status of the nuclear power industry in 1966 and set forth the assumptions used for estimating capital costs and projecting project schedules for the first TVA units. Phase two describes what happened to the program in the hectic early 1979's in terms of expansion of scope (particularly for safety features), the dramatic increase in regulatory requirements, vendor problems, stretchout of project schedules, and unprecedented inflation. Phase three addresses the assumptions used today in estimating schedules and plant costs for the next ten-year period

  20. Nuclear plant simulation using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Laats, E.T.; Wagner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), a state-of-the-art computerized safety analysis and engineering tool, was employed to simulate nuclear plant response to an abnormal transient during a training exercise at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in Washington, DC. Information relative to plant status was taken from a computer animated color graphics display depicting the course of the transient and was transmitted to the NRC Operations Center in a manner identical to that employed during an actual event. Recommendations from the Operations Center were implemented during on-line, interactive execution of the RELAP5 reactor systems code through the NPA allowing a degree of flexibility in training exercises not realized previously. When the debriefing was conducted, the RELAP5 calculations were replayed by way of the color graphics display, adding a new dimension to the debriefing and greatly enhancing the critique of the exercise

  1. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Lessons Learned Applicable to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Beck; L. F. Pincock

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify possible issues highlighted by these lessons learned that could apply to the NGNP in reducing technical risks commensurate with the current phase of design. Some of the lessons learned have been applied to the NGNP and documented in the Preconceptual Design Report. These are addressed in the background section of this document and include, for example, the decision to use TRISO fuel rather than BISO fuel used in the Peach Bottom reactor; the use of a reactor pressure vessel rather than prestressed concrete found in Fort St. Vrain; and the use of helium as a primary coolant rather than CO2. Other lessons learned, 68 in total, are documented in Sections 2 through 6 and will be applied, as appropriate, in advancing phases of design. The lessons learned are derived from both negative and positive outcomes from prior HTGR experiences. Lessons learned are grouped according to the plant, areas, systems, subsystems, and components defined in the NGNP Preconceptual Design Report, and subsequent NGNP project documents.

  2. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  3. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  5. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  6. Latina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh

  7. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Farbod.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is about maintenance of nuclear power plants. In part one, the outage management of nuclear power plants has described. Meaning of the outage and objectives of outage management is given in introduction. The necessity of a long-term outage strategy is shown in chapter one. The main parts of an outage are as follows: Planning; Preparation; Execution, Each of them and also post-outage review have been explained in the followed chapters. Part two deals with technical details of main primary components of nuclear power plant type WWER. After an introduction about WWER reactors, in each chapter first the general and detailed description of main primary components has given and then their maintenance schedules and procedures. Chapter about reactor and steam generator is related to both types of WWER-440 and WWER-1000, but chapter about reactor coolant pump has specified to WWER-1000 to be more in details.(author)

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) Volume 4: High-Temperature Materials PIRTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corwin, William R [ORNL; Ballinger, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Weaver, K. D. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2008-03-01

    The Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) technique was used to identify safety-relevant/safety-significant phenomena and assess the importance and related knowledge base of high-temperature structural materials issues for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR). The major aspects of materials degradation phenomena that may give rise to regulatory safety concern for the NGNP were evaluated for major structural components and the materials comprising them, including metallic and nonmetallic materials for control rods, other reactor internals, and primary circuit components; metallic alloys for very high-temperature service for heat exchangers and turbomachinery, metallic alloys for high-temperature service for the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), other pressure vessels and components in the primary and secondary circuits; and metallic alloys for secondary heat transfer circuits and the balance of plant. These materials phenomena were primarily evaluated with regard to their potential for contributing to fission product release at the site boundary under a variety of event scenarios covering normal operation, anticipated transients, and accidents. Of all the high-temperature metallic components, the one most likely to be heavily challenged in the NGNP will be the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). Its thin, internal sections must be able to withstand the stresses associated with thermal loading and pressure drops between the primary and secondary loops under the environments and temperatures of interest. Several important materials-related phenomena related to the IHX were identified, including crack initiation and propagation; the lack of experience of primary boundary design methodology limitations for new IHX structures; and manufacturing phenomena for new designs. Specific issues were also identified for RPVs that will likely be too large for shop fabrication and transportation. Validated procedures

  9. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  10. Pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that pumps play an important role in nuclear plant operation. For instance, reactor coolant pumps (RCPs) should provide adequate cooling for reactor core in both normal operation and transient or accident conditions. Pumps such as Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) pump in the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) play a crucial role during an accident, and their reliability is of paramount importance. Some key issues involved with pumps in nuclear plant system include the performance of RCP under two-phase flow conditions, piping vibration due to pump operating in two-phase flows, and reliability of LPSI pumps

  11. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Bohunice V -2 is briefly described. This NPP consists from two reactor units. Their main time characteristics are (Reactor Unit 1, Reactor Unit 2): beginning of construction - December 1976; first controlled reactor power - 7 August 1984, 2 August 1985; connection to the grid - 20 August 1984, 9 August 1985; commercial operation - 14 February 1985, 18 December 1985. This leaflet contains: NPP V-2 construction; Major technological equipment [WWER 440 V230 type reactor; Nuclear Power plant operation safety (Safety barriers; Safety systems [Active safety systems, Passive safety systems]); Centralized heat supply system; Scheme of Bohunice V-2 NPP and technical data

  12. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel consists of two parts. A cylindrical lower part with a hemispherical steel roof is placed at some distance within an equally shaped pressure vessel of concrete. Both vessels are standing on a common bottom plate. The interspace is kept at subpressure. It serves to contain ring galleries, elevator shafts, and power plant components. (GL) [de

  13. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  14. Challenges for new nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    In the past 20 years, numerous new nuclear plant designs have been introduced in the hope of generating a mixture of features and benefits that generated enough enthusiasm amongst the utility industry decision makers to move forward with a new nuclear generation. Not only has there not been enough enthusiasm, there has been little interest in building new plants with advanced features, especially in the U.S. Compounding this predicament are the changing paradigms to which a new plant would be measured. The near hiatus on new plant orders is the clear cause of the significant consolidation in the nuclear industry. Regardless whether the disappearance of old-line nuclear companies is over or not, some paradigms for new generation designs are unmovable, while others are still under discussion as to their role in future plant designs. This paper will address those design goals that Westinghouse deems already having earned the rank of exemplar, and those still open to debate. Because it is my hope that this paper will lead to a fruitful discussion period, I will provide a list of what I feel are the champion design requirements, and those I consider the contenders. (author)

  15. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Ryoichi; Kimura, Motohiko; Abe, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A continuing need exists for automatic or remote-controlled machines or robots which can perform inspection and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants. Toshiba has developed several types of monofunctional and multi- functional robots for such purposes over the past 20 years, some of which have already been used in actual plants. This paper describes new multifunctional robots for inspection and maintenance. An inspection robot has been applied in an actual plant for two years for performance testing. Maintenance robots for grinding tasks have also been developed, which can be easily teleoperated by the operator using automatic control. These new robots are expected to be applied to actual inspection and maintenance work in nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enohara, Masami; Araragi, Fujio.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Worldwide nuclear-plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.; Thomas, S.

    1980-01-01

    The authors compare the performance of different reactor systems to identify the determinants of plant performance, to examine the evidence of technological maturation, and to discover the principal causes of outage or unavailability. In the light of the findings, they discuss the implications for the UK regarding reactor choice and technology development. They make no judgements about the relative merits of nuclear and fossil-fuel plants, or about safety. (author)

  18. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friske, A.; Thiele, D.

    1988-01-01

    The IAEA classification of decommissioning stages is outlined. The international development hitherto observed in decommissioning of nuclear reactors and nuclear power stations is presented. The dismantling, cutting and decontamination methods used in the decommissioning process are mentioned. The radioactive wastes from decommissioning are characterized, the state of the art of their treatment and disposal is given. The radiation burdens and the decommissioning cost in a decommissioning process are estimated. Finally, some evaluation of the trends in the decommissioning process of nuclear power plants is given. 54 refs. (author)

  19. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  20. Nuclear power plant diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollo, E.; Siklossy, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cooling circuit vibration diagnostic system of the Block 1 of the Paks nuclear power station is described. The automatic online vibration monitoring system consisting presently of 42 acceleration sensors and 9 pressure fluctuation sensors, which could be extended, performs both global and local inspection of the primary cooling circuit and its components. The offline data processing system evaluates the data for failure mode analysis. The software under development will be appropriate for partial preliminary identification of failure reasons during their initial phases. The installation experiences and the preliminary results during the hot operational testing of Block 1 are presented. (Sz.J.)

  1. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  2. Nuclear plant aging research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program in its Division of Engineering Technology. Principal contractors for this program include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program goals are: to identify and characterize time-dependent degradation (aging) of nuclear plant safety-related electrical and mechanical components which could lead to loss of safety function; to identify and recommend methods for detecting and trending aging effects prior to loss of safety function so that timely maintenance can be implemented; and to recommend maintenance practices for mitigating the effects of aging. Research activities include prioritization of system and component aging in nuclear plants, characterization of aging degradation of specific components including identification of functional indicators useful for trending degradation, and testing of practical methods and devices for measuring the functional indicators. Aging assessments have been completed on electric motors, snubbers, motor-operated valves, and check valves. Testing of trending methods and devices for motor-operated valves and check valves is in progress

  3. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  4. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yoko; Kato, Naoyoshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the reducing speed of nuclear reactor water level after the water level has reached a turbine trip level to trip the turbine thereby preventing cooling systems or the likes from undesired operation upon separation caused by the reduction of the reactor water level to a low water level before the water level control is switched to the manual control. Constitution: Two feedwater pumps arranged in parallel are operated in usual operation to feedwater to a BWR type reactor. If a trouble should occur in a feedwater controller to increase the feedwater rate and the reactor water level, one of the feedwater pumps is tripped by a signal from a feedwater pump trip device. Then, when the trip level is reached again the remaining pump is tripped. In this way, the sudden decrease in the feedwater rate and the reactor water level can be prevented. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. NGNP Data Management and Analysis System Analysis and Web Delivery Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia D. Gentillon

    2010-09-01

    Projects for the Very High Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the very high temperature reactor. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high-temperature and high-fluence environments. In addition, thermal-hydraulic experiments are conducted to validate codes used to assess reactor safety. The Very High Temperature Reactor Technology Development Office has established the NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) at the Idaho National Laboratory to ensure that very high temperature reactor data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the third NDMAS objective. It describes capabilities for displaying the data in meaningful ways and for data analysis to identify useful relationships among the measured quantities.

  6. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Masahide

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a constitution capable of previously and reliably preventing radioactivity from releasing into the atmosphere upon occurrence of main steam pipe rupture accidents in a main steam tunnel chamber. Constitution: The outer circumference at the penetration portion of a nuclear reactor container is tightly closed and the main steam tunnel chamber has a tightly closed vessel structure, which is cooled by a local cooler during normal operation. The main steam tunnel chamber is in communication with a pressure control chamber by way of a release line and a releaf valve is disposed at the midway of the release line. Upon occurrence of rupture accident to the main steam pipes in the main steam tunnel chamber, while steams are issued from the ruptured portion, they are discharged through the release line to the suppression chamber and condensated. As a result, excess pressure in the main steam tunnel can be prevented and when the rupture accident is detected, the main steam isolation valve is closed rapidly to interrupt the steam feeding, whereby the steam released from the ruptured pipeways is stopped to avoid the radioactivity release to the atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  8. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  9. Cooling water recipients for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, F.-E.; Saetre, H.J.

    1971-10-01

    The hydrographical and hydrological conditions at 17 prospective nuclear power plant sites in the Oslofjord district are evaluated with respect to their suitability as recipients for thermal discharges from nuclear power plants. No comparative evaluations are made. (JIW)

  10. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Minoru.

    1995-01-01

    In a condensate cleanup system and a reactor water cleanup system of a BWR-type reactor, in which primary coolants flow, there is disposed a filtering and desalting device using hollow thread membrane filter and ion exchange resin for a condensate cleanup system, and using a high temperature filter made of a metal, a metal oxide or ceramics as a filtering material and a precoat filter made of a powdery ion exchange resin as a filtering material for a reactor water cleanup system. This can completely remove cruds generated in the condensate system. Since the reactor water cleanup system comprises the powdery resin precoat-type filtering and desalting device and the high temperature filter using ceramics, ionic impurities such as radioactive materials can be removed. Accordingly, cruds are not carried into the inside of the reactor, and since the radioactive concentration in the reactor water is reduced, radiation exposure upon periodical inspection can be minimized almost to zero, to attain a clean plant. (T.M.)

  11. Advanced nuclear plant control complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, S.; Manazir, R.M.; Rescorl, R.L.; Harmon, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An advanced control room complex for a nuclear power plant, including a discrete indicator and alarm system which is nuclear qualified for rapid response to changes in plant parameters and a component control system which together provide a discrete monitoring and control capability at a panel in the control room. A separate data processing system, which need not be nuclear qualified, provides integrated and overview information to the control room and to each panel, through CRTs and a large, overhead integrated process status overview board. The discrete indicator and alarm system and the data processing system receive inputs from common plant sensors and validate the sensor outputs to arrive at a representative value of the parameter for use by the operator during both normal and accidental conditions, thereby avoiding the need for him to assimilate data from each sensor individually. The integrated process status board is at the apex of an information hierarchy that extends through four levels and provides access at each panel to the full display hierarchy. The control room panels are preferably of a modular construction, permitting the definition of inputs and outputs, the man machine interface, and the plant specific algorithms, to proceed in parallel with the fabrication of the panels, the installation of the equipment and the generic testing thereof. (author)

  12. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essmann, J.

    1981-01-01

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  13. Fire prevention in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayla, J.P.; Jacquet-Francillon, J.; Matarozzo, F.

    2014-01-01

    About 80 fire starts are reported in EDF nuclear power plants every year but only 3 or 4 turn into a real fire and none has, so far, has led to a major safety failure of a nuclear plant. A new regulation has been implemented in july 2014 that strengthens the concept of defense in depth, proposes an approach that is proportionate to the stakes and risks, this proportionality means that the requirements for a power reactor are not the same as for a nuclear laboratory, and imposes an obligation or result rather than of means. The second article deals with the fire that broke out in the waste silo number 130 at La Hague plant in january 1981. The investigation showed that the flammability of the silo content had been underestimated. The third article presents the consequences of the fire that broke out in a power transformer at the Cattenom plant in june 2013. The fire was rapidly brought under control thanks to the immediate triggering of the emergency plan. The article details also the feedback experience of this event. (A.C.)

  14. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  15. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  16. Safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeberlein, K.

    1987-01-01

    In nuclear power plants large amounts of radioactive fission products ensue from the fission of uranium. In order to protect the environment, the radioactive material is confined in multiple 'activity barriers' (crystal matrix of the fuel, fuel cladding, coolant boundary, safety containment, reactor building). These barriers are protected by applying a defense-in-depth concept (high quality requirements, protection systems which recognize and terminate operational incidents, safety systems to cope with accidents). In spite of a favorable safety record of German nuclear power plants it is obvious - and became most evident by the Chernobyl accident - that absolute safety is not achievable. At Chernobyl, however, design disadvantages of that reactor type (like positive reactivity feedback of coolant voiding, missing safety containment) played an important role in accident initiation and progression. Such features of the Russian 'graphite-moderated pressure tube boiling water reactor' are different from those of light water reactors operating in western countries. The essential steps of the waste management of the nuclear fuel cycle ('Entsorgung') are the interim storage, the shipment, and the reprocessing of the spent fuel and the final repository of radioactive waste. Reprocessing means the separation of fossil material (uranium, plutonium) from radioactive waste. Legal requirements for radiological protection of the environment, which are identical for nuclear power plants and reprocessing plant, are complied with by means of comprehensive filter systems. Safety problems of a reprocessing plant are eased considerably by the fact that system pressures, process temperatures and energy densities are low. In order to confine the radioactive waste from the biosphere for a very long period of time, it is to be discarded after appropriate treatment into the deep geological underground of salt domes. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices

  18. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  19. 4. Nuclear power plant component failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power plant component failures are dealt with in relation to reliability in nuclear power engineering. The topics treated include classification of failures, analysis of their causes and impacts, nuclear power plant failure data acquisition and processing, interdependent failures, and human factor reliability in nuclear power engineering. (P.A.). 8 figs., 7 tabs., 23 refs

  20. Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana, J. M.; Sanchez, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    With this article about the Maintenance in nuclear power plants we will try to give to see the importance of this kind of installations but the problems found by the clients and contractors to face it, and some possible solutions to improve it. It is necessary to understand this problem like something inner to the installation and must be considerate like a benefit for the same. Of course, there must be adequate Sevices Companies in direct relation with the installation that take the responsibility of assuming and understanding the correct fulfillment of the fixed milestones to get the optimal working of the whole plant systems. (Author)

  1. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  2. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  3. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  4. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of the Elecnuc booklet summarizes in tables all numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the PRIS database managed by the IAEA. The following aspects are reviewed: 2004 highlights; main characteristics of reactor types; map of the French nuclear power plants on 2005/01/01; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 2004; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by reactor-type group; nuclear power plants under construction on 2004; evolution of nuclear power plant capacities connected to the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2004; performance indicator of PWR units in France; trend of the generation indicator worldwide; 2004 load factor by owners; units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2004; status of licence renewal applications in USA; nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2004; shutdown reactors; exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; exported nuclear power plants under construction or order; exported and national nuclear capacity under construction or order; recycling of plutonium in LWR; Mox licence plant projects; Appendix - historical development; acronyms, glossary

  6. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  7. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Nuclear power plants - Quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This International Standard defines principles for the establishment and implementation of quality assurance programmes during all phases of design, procurement, fabrication, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning of structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants. These principles apply to activities affecting the quality of items, such as designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, testing, commissioning, operating, inspecting, maintaining, repairing, refuelling and modifying and eventually decommissioning. The manner in which the principles described in this document will be implemented in different organizations involved in a specific nuclear power project will depend on regulatory and contractual requirements, the form of management applied to a nuclear power project, and the nature and scope of the work to be performed by different organizations

  9. Exploiting nuclear plants in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    This document outlines that the French fleet of 58 reactors is only 25 year old in average, and that nuclear safety is strongly regulated, and notably relies on improved indicators and on a decennial re-assessment. It outlines that nuclear energy is a response to energy challenges and that it is therefore relevant to operate the nuclear fleet beyond the initially foreseen lifetime (40 years). Due to maintenance and renewal activities, plants are supposed to be safer and more efficient. To guarantee an always safer and more efficient operation in time, five actions are highlighted: decennial controls, installation and equipment modifications, control and anticipation of installation and equipment wear, competencies and ability renewal, better knowledge of techniques and technologies

  10. Community attitudes toward nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed

  11. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  12. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  13. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  14. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  15. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  16. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  18. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  19. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  20. Nuclear Plant Integrated Outage Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstberger, C. R.; Coulehan, R. J.; Tench, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of an emerging concept for improving nuclear plant outage performance - integrated outage management. The paper begins with an explanation of what the concept encompasses, including a scope definition of the service and descriptions of the organization structure, various team functions, and vendor/customer relationships. The evolvement of traditional base scope services to the integrated outage concept is addressed and includes discussions on changing customer needs, shared risks, and a partnership approach to outages. Experiences with concept implementation from a single service in 1984 to the current volume of integrated outage management presented in this paper. We at Westinghouse believe that the operators of nuclear power plants will continue to be aggressively challenged in the next decade to improve the operating and financial performance of their units. More and more customers in the U. S. are looking towards integrated outage as the way to meet these challenges of the 1990s, an arrangement that is best implemented through a long-term partnering with a single-source supplier of high quality nuclear and turbine generator outage services. This availability, and other important parameters

  1. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  2. Advanced plant design recommendations from Cook Nuclear Plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    A project in the American Electric Power Service Corporation to review operating and maintenance experience at Cook Nuclear Plant to identify recommendations for advanced nuclear plant design is described. Recommendations so gathered in the areas of plant fluid systems, instrument and control, testing and surveillance provisions, plant layout of equipment, provisions to enhance effective maintenance, ventilation systems, radiological protection, and construction, are presented accordingly. An example for a design review checklist for effective plant operations and maintenance is suggested

  3. Nuclear power plant V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-2 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction December 1976; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 7 August 1984, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 2 August 1985; Connection to the grid: RU1 20 August 1984, RU2 9 August 1985; Commercial operation: RU1 14 February 1985, RU2 18 December 1985. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V213 is depicted. The major technological equipment are described. Principles of nuclear power plant operation safety (safety barriers, active and passive safety systems, centralized heat supply system, as well as technical data of the Bohunice V-2 NPP are presented

  4. Nuclear power plant V-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the short history of commissioning of Bohunice V-1 NPP is reviewed (beginning of construction 24 April 1972; First controlled reactor power, Reactor Unit 1 (RU1): 27 November 1978, Reactor Unit 2 (RU2): 15 March 1980; Connection to the grid: RU1 17 December 1978, RU2 26 March 1980; Commercial operation: RU1 1 April 1980, RU2 7 January 1981. The scheme of the nuclear reactor WWER 440/V230 is depicted. The major technological equipment (primary circuit, nuclear reactor, steam generators, reactor coolant pumps, primary circuit auxiliary systems, secondary circuit, turbine generators, NPP electrical equipment, and power plant control) are described. Technical data of the Bohunice V-1 NPP are presented

  5. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of construction scheme of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. Electricity generation in a nuclear power plant is described. Instrumentation and control system as well as nuclear safety principles applied on the NPP are presented

  6. Nuclear power plants in populated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachsmann, F.

    1973-01-01

    The article first deals with the permanently increasing demand for electical power. Considering the ever growing energy demand which can no longer be covered by conventional power plants, it has become necessary to set up nuclear power plants of larger range. The author presents in a survey the basic function of nuclear power plants as well as the resulting risks and safety measures. The author concludes that according to present knowledge there is no more need to erect nuclear power plants outside densely populated urban areas but there is now the possibility of erecting nuclear power plants in densely populated areas. (orig./LH) [de

  7. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Off-shore nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.

    1980-01-01

    In order to avoid losses of energy and seawater pollution an off-shore nuclear power plant is coupled with a power plant which utilizes the temperature difference between seawater and hot reactor cooling water. According to the invention the power plant has a working media loop which is separated from the nuclear power plant. The apparative equipment and the operational characteristics of the power plant are the subject of the patent. (UWI) [de

  9. Nuclear power. Volume 1. Nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, E.S.

    1978-01-01

    NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DESIGN is intended to be used as a working reference book for management, engineers and designers, and as a graduate-level text for engineering students. The book is designed to combine theory with practical nuclear power engineering and design experience, and to give the reader an up-to-date view of the status of nuclear power and a basic understanding of how nuclear power plants function. Volume 1 contains the following chapters; (1) nuclear reactor theory; (2) nuclear reactor design; (3) types of nuclear power plants; (4) licensing requirements; (5) shielding and personnel exposure; (6) containment and structural design; (7) main steam and turbine cycles; (8) plant electrical system; (9) plant instrumentation and control systems; (10) radioactive waste disposal (waste management) and (11) conclusion

  10. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  11. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  12. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  13. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  15. Safety culture in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weihe, G. von; Pamme, H.

    2003-01-01

    Experience shows that German nuclear power plants have always been operated reliably and safely. Over the years, the safety level in these plants has been raised considerably so that they can stand any comparison with other countries. This is confirmed by the two reports published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment on the nuclear safety convention. Behind this, there must obviously stand countless appropriate 'good practices' and a safety management system in nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-03-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  17. HVDC transmission from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yukio; Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Taniguchi, Haruto; Ueda, Kiyotaka

    1980-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from a nuclear power plant is expected as one of the bulk power transmission systems from distant power generating area. Successively from the analysis of HVDC transmission from BWR-type nuclear power plant, this report discusses dynamic response characteristics of HVDC transmission (double poles, two circuits) from PWR type nuclear power plant due to dc-line faults (DC-1LG, 2LG) and ac-line faults (3LG) near inverter station. (author)

  18. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  19. Summary of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Saburo

    1973-01-01

    Various conditions for the construction of nuclear power plants in Japan without natural resources were investigated. Expansion of the sites of plants, change of reactor vessels, standardization of nuclear power plants, possiblity of the reduction of construction period, approaching of nuclear power plants to consuming cities, and group construction were studied. Evaluation points were safety and economy. Previous sites of nuclear power plants were mostly on plane ground or cut and enlarge sites. Proposals for underground or offshore plants have been made. The underground plants were made at several places in Europe, and the ocean plant is now approved in U.S.A. as a plant on a man-made island. Vessels for containing nuclear reactors are the last barriers to the leakage of radioactive substance. At the initial period, the vessels were made of steel, which were surrounded by shielding material. Those were dry well type containers. Then, vessel type changed to pressure-suppression type wet containers. Now, it tends to concrete (PC or RC) type containers. There is the policy on the standardization of nuclear power plants by U.S.A.E.C. in recent remarkable activity. The merit and effect of the standardization were studied, and are presented in this paper. Cost of the construction of nuclear power plants is expensive, and interest of money is large. Then, the reduction of construction period is an important problem. The situations of plants approaching to consuming cities in various countries were studied. Idea of group construction is described. (Kato, T.)

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  1. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  2. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  3. The operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The duties to be performed in managing the operation of a nuclear power plant are highly diverse, as will be explained in this contribution by the examples of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Station. The excellent safety record and the high availabilities of German nuclear power plants demonstrate that their operators have adopted the right approaches. Systematic evaluation of the operating experience accumulated inhouse and in other plants is of great significance in removing weak spots and improving operation. The manifold and complex activities in the structure of organization and of activities in a nuclear power plant require a high degree of division of labor. (orig.) [de

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa plant units were held during the report period. All events during this quarter are classified as Level hero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below authorised limits. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  5. Emergency control centers for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Guidance is provided for the development and implementation of emergency control centers for nuclear power plants, including nuclear plant control room, nuclear plant company headquarters, emergency control center, and nuclear plant alternate emergency control center. Requirements and recommendations are presented for the mission, communications, instrumentation and equipment associated with each type of control center. Decisional aids, manning requirements and resources are also given; the decision aids cover both the accident assessment and protective action areas. Both normal and alternate means of communications are considered. Off-site emergency control centers, although not covered in the strict sense by this standard, are considered in an appendix

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  7. Nuclear accidents and safety measures of domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zurong; Che Shuwei; Pan Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the design standards for the safety of nuclear and radiation in nuclear power plants, the three accidents in the history of nuclear power are analyzed. And the main factors for these accidents are found out, that is, human factors and unpredicted natural calamity. By combining the design and operation parameters of domestic nuclear plants, the same accidents are studied and some necessary preventive schemes are put forward. In the security operation technology of domestic nuclear power plants nowadays, accidents caused by human factors can by prevented completely. But the safety standards have to be reconsidered for the unpredicted neutral disasters. How to reduce the hazard of nuclear radiation and leakage to the level that can be accepted by the government and public when accidents occur under extreme conditions during construction and operation of nuclear power plants must be considered adequately. (authors)

  8. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  9. Waste from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The report presents proposals for organizing and financing of the treatment and deposition of spent fuel and radioactive waste. Decommissioning of plants is taken into consideration. The proposals refer to a program of twelve reactors. A relatively complete model for the handling of radioactive waste in Sweden is at hand. The cost for the years 1980 to 2000 is estimated at approx 1040 million SKr. Also the expense to dispose of the rest of the waste is calculated up to the year 2060, when the waste is planned to be put into final deposit. The state must have substantial influence over the organization which should be closely connected to the nuclear industry. Three different types of organization are discussed, namely (i) a company along with a newly created authority, (ii) a company along with the existing Nuclear Power Inspectorate or (iii) a company along with a board of experts. The proposals for financing the cost of handling nuclear waste are given in chief outlines. The nuclear industry should reserve means to special funds. The allocations are calculated to 1.4 oere per delivered kWh up to and including the year 1980. The accumulated allocations for 1979 should thus amount to 1310 million SKr. The charge for supervision and for certain research and development is recommended to be 0.1 oere per kWh which corresponds to approx 23 million SKr for 1980. The funds should be assured by binding agreements which must be approved by the state. The amounts are given in the monetary value of the year 1979. (G.B.)

  10. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  11. Commissioning of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, P.M.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Angra 2, located at Itaorna Beach-Angra dos Reis is the first plant of the Brazilian-German Agreement to be commissioned. The Nuclear Power Plant is a pressurized water reactor rated at 3765 Mw thermal/1325 Mw electrical. For commissioning purpose the plant is divided into 110 systems. Plant commissioning objective is to demonstrate the safe and correct operation of each plan component, system and of the whole plant in agreement with design conditions, licensing requirements and contractual obligations. This work gives a description of plant commissioning objectives, activities their time sequence, and documentation. (Author) [pt

  12. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Development of nuclear power plant Risk Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaoming; Sun Jinlong; Ma Chao; Wang Lin; Gu Xiaohui; Bao Zhenli; Qu Yong; Zheng Hao

    2014-01-01

    Risk Monitor is a tool to monitor the real-time risk of a nuclear power plant for risk management and comprehensive decision-making, which has been widely used all over the world. The nuclear power plant Risk Monitor applies the real-time risk model with low-complicacy that could reflect the plant's actual configuration, automatically reads the plant's configuration information from the engineering system through the developed interface, and efficiently analyzes the plant's risk Dy the intelligent parallel-computing method in order to provide the risk basement for the safety management of nuclear power plant. This paper generally introduces the background, architecture, functions and key technical features of a nuclear power plant Risk Monitor, and validates the risk result, which could well reflect the plant's risk information and has a significant practical value. (authors)

  14. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Environmental Assessment... Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437...

  15. Nuclear power plant operating experience, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports issued annually that summarize the operating experience of U.S. nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure and radioactive effluents for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1976 data from 55 plants--23 boiling water reactor plants and 32 pressurized water reactor plants

  16. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  17. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  18. Nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, U.; Stuermer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Under the influence of the polarization between belief in progress, on the one hand, and the moral rigorism of our society, on the other hand, the risks of modern large technical systems have helped the highest level of technical safety to be attained in Germany. It has been reached especially by opting for maximum quality, maximum utility and reliability, complete documentation, continuous in-service checks during operation and, last but not least, by including man and human fallibility. Our concern should be that this strategy pursued in the Western industrialized countries becomes the rule, at least in its main characteristics, also in the Eastern countries. The hazards associated with reactors in Eastern countries affect us all, and it is especially the safety of those reactors which is causing concern. The experience accumulated with the 417 nuclear power plants now in operation, especially the incidents and accidents, shows that hazard potential management is admissible only with a highly developed safety strategy. (orig.) [de

  19. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  20. BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kosuke.

    1991-01-01

    In a BWR type nuclear power plant in which reactor water in a reactor pressure vessel can be drained to a waste processing system by way of reactor recycling pipeways and remaining heat removal system pipeways, a pressurized air supply device is disposed for supplying air for pressurizing reactor water to the inside of the reactor pressure vessel by way of an upper head. With such a constitution, since the pressurized air sent from the pressurized air supply device above the reactor pressure vessel for the reactor water discharging pressure upon draining, the water draining pressure is increased compared with a conventional case and, accordingly, the amount of drained water is not reduced even in the latter half of draining. Accordingly, the draining efficiency can be improved and only a relatively short period of time is required till the completion of the draining, which can improve safety and save labors. (T.M.)

  1. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  3. Nuclear hydrogen production programme in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is focused on demonstrating the economic, commercial-scale production of hydrogen using process heat derived from nuclear energy. NHI-supported research has concentrated to date on three technologies compatible with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP): high temperature steam electrolysis (HTE); sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical; and hybrid sulphur (HyS) thermochemical. In 2009 NHI will down select to a single technology on which to focus its future development efforts, for which the next step will be a pilot-scale experiment. (author)

  4. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  5. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  6. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  7. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-03-01

    In the third quarter of 1993, all of Finland's four nuclear power plant units were in power operation, with the exception of the annual maintenance outages of the Loviisa units. The load factor average of the plant units was 83.6 %. None of the events which occurred during this annual quarter had any bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  9. Radiological characterization of nuclear plants under decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincarini, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the present work a description of major problems encountered in qualitative and quantitative radiological characterization of nuclear plants for decommissioning and decontamination purpose is presented. Referring to several nuclear plant classes activation and contamination processes, direct and indirect radiological analysis and some italian significant experience are descripted

  10. Accidents with nuclear power plants, ch. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A recalculation of the consequences of nuclear power plant accidents is presented taking into account different parameters or different quantities than those usually accepted. A case study of a nuclear power plant planned for the Eems-river estuary in the Netherlands is presented

  11. Slovak Electric, plc, Mochovce Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this popular scientific brochure a brief description of history construction of Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant is presented. The chart of electricity generation in WWER 440/V-213 nuclear power plant is described. Operation and safety improvements at Mochovce NPP as well as environment protection are presented. Basic data of Mochovce NPP are included

  12. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.E.; Reizenstein, P.; Stenke, L.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  14. HVDC transmission from isorated nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Takasaki, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Tatemi; Hayashi, Toshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    HVDC transmission directly from nuclear power plant is considered as one of the patterns of long distance and large capacity transmission system. This reports considers two route HVDC transmission from PWR type nuclear power plant, and analyzes dynamic response characteristics due to bus fault, main protection failure and etc. using the AC-DC Power System Simulator. (author)

  15. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Slovak Electric, plc, Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant in 1998 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Operation and electric power generation; (2) Nuclear and radiation safety; (3) Maintenance and scheduled refuelling out-gages; (4) Investment and WWER units upgrading; (5) Power Plants Personnel; (6) Public relations

  17. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, M.G.

    1984-05-01

    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  18. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-09-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost all the time in the first quarter of 1992. The load factor average was 99.8%. All events which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the Scale. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure, originating from the nuclear power plants, were detected in samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  19. Millstone nuclear power plant emergency system assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmad Khusyairi

    2011-01-01

    U.S.NRC determined an obligation to build a nuclear power plant emergency response organization for both on-site and off-site. Millstone Nuclear Power Plants have 3 nuclear reactors and 2 of 3 still in commercial operation. Reactor unit 1, BWR type has been permanently shut down in 1998, while the two others, units 2 and 3 obtain the extended operating license respectively until 2035 and 2045. As a nuclear installation has the high potential radiological impact, Millstone nuclear power plant emergency response organization must establish both on-site or off-site. Emergency response organization that is formed must involve several state agencies, both state agencies and municipality. They have specific duties and functions in a state of emergency, so that protective measures can be undertaken in accordance with the community that has been planned. Meanwhile, NRC conduct their own independent assessment of nuclear power plant emergencies. (author)

  20. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cooling towers of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikyska, L.

    1986-01-01

    The specifications are given of cooling towers of foreign nuclear power plants and a comparison is made with specifications of cooling towers with natural draught in Czechoslovak nuclear power plants. Shortcomings are pointed out in the design of cooling towers of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants which have been derived from conventional power plant design. The main differences are in the adjustment of the towers for winter operation and in the designed spray intensity. The comparison of selected parameters is expressed graphically. (J.B.)

  2. Nuclear power plants and their insurances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schludi, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    From the commencement of building to the time of decommissioning of nuclear power plants, the insurances provide continuous coverage, i.e. for construction, nuclear liability, nuclear energy hazards insurance, fire insurance, machinery insurance. The respective financial security is quantified. (DG) [de

  3. Lifting devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The regulation applies to lifts, cranes, winches, rail trolleys, load pick-up equipment and fuel charging machines for LWR reactors, as far as these are employed in plants for the production or fission of nuclear fuels or for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels or for the storage or other uses of nuclear fuels. (orig.) 891 HP [de

  4. Anatomy of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Q.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the Q model which attempts to classify arguments for use in the discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear power. The basic principles of nuclear energy production, operation of a nuclear power plant and a comparison with other electric power sources are presented and discussed. (ELC)

  5. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  6. Fire prevention in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The causes and frequency of fires at nuclear power plants in various countries are briefly given. Methods are described of fire hazard assessment at nuclear power plants, such as Gretener's method and the probabilistic methods. Approaches to the management of nuclear reactor fire protection in various countries as well as the provisions to secure such protection are dealt with. An overview and the basic characteristics of fire detection and extinguishing systems is presented. (Z.S.). 1 tab

  7. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  8. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  9. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-08-01

    In the Quarterly Reports on the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants such events and observations are described relating to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the plants' workers and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in commercial operation during the whole first quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 99.1 %. Failures have been detected in the uppermost spacing lattices of nuclear fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors. Further investigations into the significance of the failures have been initiated. In this quarter, renewed cooling systems for the instrumentation area were introduced at Loviisa 1. The modifications made in the systems serve to ensure reliable cooling of the area even during the hottest summer months when the possibility exists that the temperature of the automation equipment could rise too high causing malfunctions which could endanger plant safety. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were below prescribed limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive substances originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  11. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  12. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  15. Dosimetry in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lastra B, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    To control the occupationally exposed personnel dose working at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, two types of dosemeters are used, the thermoluminescent (TLD) which is processed monthly, and the direct reading dosemeter that is electronic and works as daily control of personal dose. In the case of the electronic dosemeters of direct reading conventional, the readings and dose automatic registers and the user identity to which he was assigned to each dosemeter was to carry out the restricted area exit. In activities where the ionizing radiation sources are not fully characterized, it is necessary to relocate the personal dosemeter or assigned auxiliary dosemeters (TLDs and electronics) to determine the dose received by the user to both whole body and in any specific area of it. In jobs more complicated are used a tele dosimetry system where the radiation protection technician can be monitoring the user dose to remote control, the data transmission is by radio. The dosimetry activities are documented in procedures that include dosemeter inventories realization, the equipment and dosemeters calibration, the dosimetry quality control and the discrepancies investigation between the direct reading and TLD systems. TLD dosimetry to have technical expertise in direct and indirect dosimetry and two technicians in TLD dosimetry; electronic dosimetry to have 4 calibration technicians. For the electronic dosemeters are based on a calibrator source of Cesium-137. TLD dosemeters to have an automatic radiator, an automatic reader which can read up to 100 TLD dosemeters per hour and a semiautomatic reader. To keep the equipment under a quality process was development a process of initial entry into service and carried out a periodic verification of the heating cycles. It also has a maintenance contract for the equipment directly with the manufacturer to ensure their proper functioning. The vision in perspective of the dosimetry services of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

  16. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  17. Effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.R.; Manweiler, R.W.; Davis, R.R.

    1977-09-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation consists of a transient pulse of high intensity electromagnetic fields. These intense fields induce current and voltage transients in electrical conductors. Although most nuclear power plant cables are not directly exposed to these fields, the attenuated EMP fields that propagate into the plant will couple some EMP energy to these cables. The report predicts the probable effects of the EMP transients that could be induced in critical circuits of safety-related systems. It was found that the most likely consequence of EMP for nuclear plants is an unscheduled shutdown. EMP could prolong the shutdown period by the unnecessary actuation of certain safety systems. In general, EMP could be a nuisance to nuclear power plants, but it is not considered a serious threat to plant safety

  18. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  19. Nuclear plant data systems - some emerging directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.D.; Humphress, G.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in recent years in the nuclear power industry to accentuate the need for data systems to support information flow and decision making. Economic conditions resulting in rapid inflation and larger investments in new and existing plants and the need to plan further ahead are primary factors. Government policies concerning environmental control, as well as minimizing risk to the public through increased nuclear safety regulations on operating plants are additional factors. The impact of computer technology on plant data systems, evolution of corporate and plant infrastructures, future plant data, system designs and benefits, and decision making capabilities and data usage support are discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Examining work structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; Boulette, M.D.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the work structure of ten nuclear power plants. Work structure factors are those factors that relate to the way in which work at all levels in a plant is organized, staffed, managed, rewarded, and perceived by plant personnel. Questionnaires given to a cross-section of personnel at the plants were the primary source of data collection. Structured ''critical incident'' interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The study revealed that a variety of work structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. The paper highlights a prioritized set of candidate research themes to be considered in EPRI's Work Structure and Performance Research Program

  1. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  2. Nuclear power plant containment construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Danisch, R.; Strickroth, E.

    1975-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Containment Construction includes the spherical steel safety enclosure for the reactor and the equipment associated with the reactor and requiring this type of enclosure. This steel enclosure is externally structurally protected against accident by a concrete construction providing a foundation for the steel enclosure and having a cylindrical wall and a hemispherical dome, these parts being dimensioned to form an annular space surrounding the spherical steel enclosure, the latter and the concrete construction heretofore being concentrically arranged with respect to each other. In the disclosed construction the two parts are arranged with their vertical axis horizontally offset from each other so that opposite to the offsetting direction of the concrete construction a relatively large space is formed in the now asymmetrical annular space in which reactor auxiliary equipment not requiring enclosure by the steel containment vessel or safety enclosure, may be located outside of the steel containment vessel and inside of the concrete construction where it is structurally protected by the latter

  3. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  4. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, C.

    1989-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.; Koponen, H.; Nevander, O.; Paltemaa, R.; Poellaenen, I.; Rannila, P.; Valtonen, K.; Vilkamo, O.

    1988-02-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  7. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimburger, H.

    1988-08-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  8. Fuzzy logic control of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Liangzhong; Guo Renjun; Ma Changwen

    1996-01-01

    The main advantage of the fuzzy logic control is that the method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. In this paper, the shortcomings and limitations of the model-based method in nuclear power plant control were presented, the theory of the fuzzy logic control was briefly introduced, and the applications of the fuzzy logic control technology in nuclear power plant controls were surveyed. Finally, the problems to be solved by using the fuzzy logic control in nuclear power plants were discussed

  9. Maintenance planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattu, R.K.; Cooper, S.E.; Lauderdale, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Maintenance planning for nuclear power plants is similar to that in other industrial plants but it is heavily influenced by regulatory rules, with consequent costs of compliance. Steps by the nuclear industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address that problem include development of guidelines for maintenance of risk-critical equipment, using PRA-based techniques to select a set of equipment that requires maintenance and reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) approaches for determining what maintenance is required. The result of the process is a program designed to ensure effective maintenance of the equipment most critical to plant safety. (author)

  10. Heat supply from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stach, V [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-05-01

    The current state of world power production and consumption is assessed. Prognoses made for the years 1980 to 2000 show that nuclear energy should replace the major part of fossil fuels not only in the production of power but also in the production of heat. In this respect high-temperature reactors are highly prospective. The question is discussed of the technical and economic parameters of dual-purpose heat and power plants. It is, however, necessary to solve problems arising from the safe siting of nuclear heat and power plants and their environmental impacts. The economic benefits of combined power and heat production by such nuclear plants is evident.

  11. Methods of assessing nuclear power plant risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Kovacz, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of safety evalution is based on safety criteria -standards or set qualitative values of parameters and indices used in designing nuclear power plants, incorporating demands on the quality of equipment and operation of the plant, its siting and technical means for achieving nuclear safety. The concepts are presented of basic and optimal risk values. Factors are summed up indispensable for the evaluation of the nuclear power plant risk and the present world trend of evaluation based on probability is discussed. (J.C.)

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, R.

    1988-09-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hzard to the personnel or the environment

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrates on such events and discoveries related to nuclear and radiation safety as the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tubulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment

  14. List of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempken, M.

    1984-01-01

    This list published once a year presents, subdivided into countries, data on all nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, or for which a contract has been placed, referring to the following aspects: Year the contract has been placed, name and/or size, owner or operator, design type, manufacturers, net output, first year of commercial operation, and total electricity output up to the data June 30, 1984. Two additional tables present a survey on the world's nuclear power plants, also grouped by countries, and the largest commercially used nuclear power plants of the world. (UA) [de

  15. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  16. Introduction to Exxon nuclear fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear low-enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant in Richland, Washington produces fuel assemblies for both pressurized water and boiling water reactors. The Richland plant was the first US bulk-handling facility selected by the IAEA for inspection under the US-IAEA Safeguards Agreement. The plant was under IAEA inspection from March 1981 through October 1983. This text provides a written description of the plant layout, operation and process. The text also includes a one ton-a-day model (or reference) plant which was adapted from the Exxon Nuclear plant. The Model Plant provides a generic example of a low-enriched uranium (LEU) bulk-handling facility. The Model Plant is used to illustrate in a more quantitative way some of the key safeguards requirements for a bulk-handling facility

  17. Safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, A.

    1993-01-01

    The role and purpose of safety principles for nuclear power plants are discussed. A brief information is presented on safety objectives as given in the INSAG documents. The possible linkage is discussed between the two mentioned elements of nuclear safety and safety culture. Safety culture is a rather new concept and there is more than one interpretation of the definition given by INSAG. The defence in depth is defined by INSAG as a fundamental principle of safety technology of nuclear power. Discussed is the overall strategy for safety measures, and features of nuclear power plants provided by the defence-in-depth concept. (Z.S.) 7 refs

  18. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  19. Seismic review of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, P.I.; Mayes, R.L.; Jones, L.R.

    1975-01-01

    Because of developments in the fields of earthquake and structural engineering over the last two decades, the codes, standards and design criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and other critical structures have changed substantially. As a result, plants designed only a few years ago do not satisfy the requirements for new plants. Accordingly, the Regulatory Agencies are requiring owners of older Nuclear Power Plants to re-qualify the plants seismically, using codes, standards, analytical techniques and knowledge developed in recent years. Seismic review consists of three major phases: establishing the design and performance criteria, re-qualifying the structures, and re-qualifying the equipment. The authors of the paper have been recently involved in the seismic review of existing nuclear power plants in the United States. This paper is a brief summary of their experiences

  20. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  1. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-12-01

    During the second quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. The feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1 and the resulting inspections and repairs at both Loviisa plant units brought about an outage the overall duration of which was 32 days. The annual maintenance outages of the TVO plant units were arranged during the report period and their combined duration was 31.5 days. Nuclear electricity accounted for 35.3% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 83.0%. Three events occurred during the report period which are classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale: feedwater pipe rupture at Loviisa 1, control rod withdrawal at TVO I in a test during an outage when the hydraulic scram system was rendered inoperable and erroneous fuel bundle transfers during control rod drives maintenance at TVO II. Other events during this quarter are classified as Level Zero (Below Scale) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. Only small amounts of nuclides originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  2. Nuclear power plants: 2009 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    At the turn of 2009/2010, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 30 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2008/2009 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 391 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 371 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants did not changed noticeably from 2008 to the end of 2009. In total 2 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2009. One NPP started operation in India and one in Japan. Three nuclear generating units in Japan (2) und Lithuania (1) were decomissioned in 2009. 52 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2008, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 51 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2009. New or continued projects are notified from (number of new projects): China (+9), Russia (1), and South Korea (1). Some 84 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  3. Nuclear power plants: 2008 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of 2008/2009, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 438 nuclear power plants, which is one plant less than at the 2007/2008 turn, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. The available gross power of nuclear power plants didn't changed noticeabely from 2007 to the end of 2008. No nuclear generating unit was commissioned in 2008. One nuclear generating unit in the Slovak Republic was decomissioned in 2008. 42 nuclear generating units, i.e. 10 plants more than at the end of 2007, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 38 GWe, were under construction in 14 countries end of 2008. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects): Bulgaria (2), China (5), South Korea (2), Russia (1), and the Slovak Republic (2). Some 80 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another approximately 120 units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1991-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO 1 and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 87.4 %. In consequence of a fire, which broke out in the switchgear building, connections to both external grids were lost and TVO II relied on power supplied by four back-up diesels for 7.5 hrs. The event is classified as Level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. The process of examining the non-leaking fuel bundles removed from the Loviisa nuclear reactors has continued. The examinations have revealed, so far, that the uppermost spacing lattices of the bundles exhibit deformations similar to those detected in the leaking fuel bundles removed from the reactors. This event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale) on the Scale. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has assessed the safety of the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants based on the new regulations issued on 14.2.1991 by the Council of State. The safety regulations are much more stringent than those in force when the Loviisa and Olkiluoto nuclear power plants were built. The assessment indicated that the TVO nuclear power plant meets these safety regulations. The Loviisa nuclear power plant meets the requirements with the exception of certain requirements related to the ensuring of safety functions and provision for accidents. At the Loviisa nuclear power plant there are several projects under consideration to enhance safety

  5. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  6. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabas, K [Ceskoslovenska Komise pro Atomovou Energii, Prague

    1978-05-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO/sub 2/, NO/sub 2/, ash and soot emissions with /sup 133/Xe and /sup 85/Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts.

  7. Nuclear power plants and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, K.

    1978-01-01

    The environmental impacts are compared of conventional coal-fired and oil-fired power plants and of nuclear power plants. The values are compared of SO 2 , NO 2 , ash and soot emmisions with 133 Xe and 85 Kr fission products release and the requirement for air for diluting these emissions in the atmosphere is assessed. Also compared are thermal pollution from an oil-fired power plant and from PWR and fast reactor power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that nuclear energy can solve the problem of increasing demand for electric and heat power while reducing negative environmental impacts. (O.K.)

  8. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  9. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  10. Fiber optic applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collette, P.; Kwapien, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic technology possesses many desirable attributes for applications in commercial nuclear power plants. The non-electrical nature of fiber optics is an important factor in an industry governed by federal safety regulations such as Class 1E isolation and separation criteria. Immunity from Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), an increasing industry problem area, is another significant characteristic. Because of the extremely wide bandwidth offered, fiber optics better addresses the data acquistion and communication requirements of the complex processes of a nuclear power plant. Potential for fiber optic sensor applications exists within the nuclear industry because their small size and physical flexibility allows access into normally inaccessible areas. They possess high accuracy and allow environmentally sensitive electronics to be remotely located. The purpose of this paper is to explore current applications for fiber optic technology in modern nuclear plants, document examples of present day usage in C-E plants and suggest possible future application areas

  11. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  12. A trend to small nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Fernando Soares

    2000-01-01

    The release of fossil fuel greenhouse gases and the depletion of cheap oil reserves outside the Persic Gulf suggest a promising scenario for the future of nuclear power. But the end of the Cold War, the crisis of the state, axiological questions and globalization may lead to a marked for small power plants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these factors, since they are not always considered all together in the future scenarios for nuclear power. It is concluded that the current evolutionary trend of nuclear power projects toward big plants may become one of the main barriers for the introduction of new plants in the future. It is suggested that a combination of fission reactors with technologies unavailable in the 1950's, when the design characteristics of the current nuclear power plants were established, could be considered to overcome this barrier. (author)

  13. Risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    1983-01-01

    The German risk analysis program for nuclear power plants aiming at the man and the environment is presented. An accident consequence model to calculate the radiological impact and the potential health effects is described. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Vital areas at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Vital area analysis of nuclear power plants has been performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Los Alamos National Laboratory from the late 1970's through the present. The Los Alamos Vital Area Study uses a fault-tree modeling technique to identify vital areas and equipment at nuclear power plants to determine their vulnerability. This technique has been applied to all operating plants and approximately one-half of those under construction in the US. All saboteur-induced loss-of-coolant accidents and transients and the systems needed to mitigate them are considered. As a result of this effort, security programs at nuclear power plants now include vulnerability studies that identify targets in a systematic manner, and thus unnecessary protection has been minimized. 1 ref., 8 figs., 1 tab

  15. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig

  16. ALARA for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, P.J.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is outlined in connection with nuclear power plant operations. The basis of the concept is reviewed and a specific example of ALARA action is presented. (author)

  17. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig.

  18. Environmental and security challenges of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The world population increase, the acceleration of global requirement for development and the need to expand energy production, have led to the depletion of natural resources. The international efforts are increasing to get clean, safe and economical energy sources . The electricity generated from nuclear energy considers less polluting and high economic competitiveness as well as reliability and efficiency. The nuclear power plants projects face significant challenges, especially after two major accidents, in Chernobyl 1986 and Fukushima 2011 including the fears of radiation effects, nuclear waste management and nuclear proliferation issues, as well as the lack of public acceptance. So those bodies interested in operating nuclear power plants work to increase nuclear safety standards, review the nuclear facilities safety, know the strict application of laws, seek to prove the economic competitiveness, maintain environmental security, assist in the nonproliferation regime and gain public acceptance. This article discusses the most important environmental and security challenges of nuclear power plants. It highlights the importance of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable development and environmental security. It also offers a number of recommendations to support the Arab countries trend towards the inclusion of nuclear energy option within their national programs to generate electricity. (author)

  19. Problems facing a first nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Requirement of nuclear power generation. Reason for considering a nuclear power programme. Decision to 'go nuclear'. Existing antecedents in the country (nuclear research institution, conventional generating plants, other nuclear utilities). - First organizational steps. Feasibility studies. Site selection and power module. Eventual reactor type decision. Site approval. - Pre-purchasing activities. Eventual selection of a consultant. Domestic participation capabilities. Pre-qualification bids. - Definition of contract type and scopes. Turn-key/non-turn-key. Architect Engineer organization. Bidding documentation. Financing. Warranties. Role of the owner. Licensing procedures and regulations. (orig./GL)

  20. Nuclear plant fire incident data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sideris, A.G.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Yeater, M.L.; Vesely, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized nuclear plant fire incident data file was developed by American Nuclear Insurers and was further analyzed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with technical and monetary support provided by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Data on 214 fires that occurred at nuclear facilities have been entered in the file. A computer program has been developed to sort the fire incidents according to various parameters. The parametric sorts that are presented in this article are significant since they are the most comprehensive statistics presently available on fires that have occurred at nuclear facilities

  1. Nuclear power plant with several reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanin, E I; Ilyunin, V G; Kuznetsov, I A; Murogov, V M; Shmelev, A N

    1972-05-10

    A design of a nuclear power plant suggested involves several reactors consequently transmitting heat to a gaseous coolant in the joint thermodynamical circuit. In order to increase the power and the rate of fuel reproduction the low temperature section of the thermodynamical circuit involves a fast nuclear reactor, whereas a thermal nuclear reactor is employed in the high temperature section of the circuit for intermediate heating and for over-heating of the working body. Between the fast nuclear and the thermal nuclear reactors there is a turbine providing for the necessary ratio between pressures in the reactors. Each reactor may employ its own coolant.

  2. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinowski, S.; Dakowski, M.; Downarowicz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  3. Nuclear power plant pressure vessels. Inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for the planning and reporting of inservice inspections of nuclear power plant pressure vessels are presented. The guide specifically applies to inservice inspections of Safety class 1 and 2 nuclear power plant pressure vessels, piping, pumps and valves plus their supports and reactor pressure vessel internals by non- destructive examination methods (NDE). Inservice inspections according to the Pressure Vessel Degree (549/73) are discussed separately in the guide YVL 3.0. (4 refs.)

  4. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  5. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  6. Method of operating a nuclear turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiraku; Ootawara, Yasuhiko; Imai, Tetsu

    1985-04-25

    A method is presented to prevent the lowering in the reactor feedwater temperature thereby secure necessary amount of steams even in a plant operation under low load. The feedwater temperature of a nuclear reactor is detected at the low load region of the plant and high enthalpy steams are supplied to a high pressure feedwater heater by opening a supply stream extract switching valve. This enables to maintain the feedwater temperature in the nuclear reactor at a constant level.

  7. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  8. Fire scenarios in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, I.B.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    This report defines a Design Base Fire and looks at 3 major areas of a hypothetical model for a Nuclear Power Plant. In each of these areas a Design Base Fire was developed and explained. In addition, guidance is given for comparing fire conditions of a given Nuclear Power Plant with the model plant described. Since there is such a wide variation in nuclear plant layouts, model areas were chosen for simplicity. The areas were not patterned after any existing plant area; rather several plant layouts were reviewed and a simplified model developed. The developed models considered several types of fires. The fire selected was considered to be the dominant one for the case in point. In general, the dominant fire selected is time dependent and starts at a specific location. After these models were developed, a comparison was drawn between the model and an operating plant for items such as area, cable numbers and weight, tray sizes and lengths. The heat loads of the model plant are summarized by area and compared with those of an actual operating plant. This document is intended to be used as a guide in the evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations and a summarization of one acceptable analytical methodology to accomplish this

  9. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  10. The safety of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Do nuclear power plants present an unjustifiable risk Can there be confidence in their safety The Uranium Institute invited a group of senior safety experts from eight different Western countries operating different types of reactors to provide an authoritative explanation for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application and their implications. The report presents the group's opinion on the level of safety achieved in the Western nuclear power plants with which the authors are directly familiar. Although many of the points made may well also be true for non-Western reactors, the report does not cover them except where specifically stated. It does describe and discuss the causes of the Chernobyl disaster. It does not compare nuclear power with other fuels, nor does it deal with its benefits, since however great the benefits from the peaceful use of nuclear power, and its own advantages over other fuels, they could not compensate for lack of safety. The conclusion reached is that the risk associated with electricity production at nuclear power plants can be kept very low. Proper use of the extensive knowledge available today can guarantee operation of nuclear power plants at very high safety levels, carrying very low risks, both to health and of contamination of the environment: risks that are continually lowered by upgrading existing plants and their operation, and by the design of future power plants. (author).

  11. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-12-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations related to nuclear and radiation safety which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing plant modifications and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and their load factors are also given. At the Loviisa 1 plant unit one of two specially-backed AC busbars was lost during the second quarter of 1993. A ca. 30 minute voltage break caused malfunctions in the plant unit's electrical equipment and rendered inoperable certain components important to safety. The event is rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) at level 1. In inspections carried out at TVO II during the annual maintenance outage, the number of cracks detected in control rod structural material was higher than usual. When cracks occur, part of boron carbide, the power regulating medium in control rods, may wash into the reactor water and control rod shutdown capability may be impaired. The event is rated on the INES at level 1. Other events in the second quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear or radiation safety. (4 figs., 5 tabs.)

  12. PWR reactors for BBR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and functioning of the nuclear steam generator system developed by BBR and its components are described. Auxiliary systems, control and load following behaviour and fuel management are discussed and the main data of PWR given. The brochure closes with a perspective of the future of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power plant. (GL) [de

  13. How safe are nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    After naming the countries in which power plants are operated today, the author discusses the attitudes of their governments towards the problem of nuclear safety as well as the question if today's measures are sufficient in developing countries considering the increasing utilization of nuclear energy.

  14. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Automated ultrasonic inspection of nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.A.; Dolbey, M.P.

    1982-01-01

    For reasons of safety and efficiency, automated systems are used in performing ultrasonic inspection of nuclear components. An automated system designed specifically for the inspection of headers in a nuclear plant is described. In-service inspection results obtained with this system are shown to correlate with pre-service inspection results obtained by manual methods

  16. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  17. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DECOMMISSIONING FINANCING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 519-522 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  18. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayoto.

    1979-01-01

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  19. Architecture and aesthetics of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P.

    1977-01-01

    Having first analysed the main aesthetical and architectural problems related to the establishment of nuclear sites, the first results of the description is given of studies undertaken by a group of architects asked by E.D.F. to conceive the main buildings of a nuclear power plant and to imagine their insert in the site [fr

  20. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  1. Engineering development in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, P.

    1979-01-01

    Proceeding from the up-to-now experience in the erection of nuclear power stations, especially of the first and second unit of the Greifswald nuclear power plant, the following essential aspects of the development of constructional engineering are discussed: (1) constructional features and criteria, (2) organizational management, (3) current status and problems in prelimary operations, and (4) possibilities of further expenditure reductions in constructing nuclear power stations

  2. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  3. Insurance risk of nuclear power plant concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, J.

    1976-01-01

    The limited number of sites available in the Federal Republic of Germany for the erection of nuclear power plants has resulted in the construction of multiple nuclear generating units on a few sites, such as Biblis, Gundremmingen and Neckarwestheim. At a value invested of approximately DM 1,200/kW this corresponds to a property concentration on one site worth DM 2 - 3 billion and more. This raises the question whether a concentration of value of this magnitude does not already exceed the limits of bearable economic risks. The property risk of a nuclear power plant, as that of any other industrial plant, is a function of the property that can be destroyed in a maximum probable loss. Insurance companies subdivide plants into so-called complex areas in which fire damage or nuclear damage could spread. While in some foreign countries twin nuclear power plants are built, where the technical systems of both units are installed in one building without any physical separation, dual unit plants are built in the Federal Republic in which the complexes with a high concentration of valuable property are physically separate building units. As a result of this separation, property insurance companies have no grounds for assessing the risk and hence, the premium different from those of single unit plants. (orig.) [de

  4. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  5. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  6. Comparative studies between nuclear power plants and hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegassi, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows the quantitative evolution of the power plants in the main countries of the world. The Brazilian situation is analysed, with emphasys in the technical and economical aspects related to power production by hidroelectric or nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that the electricity produced by hidro power plants becomes not economics when is intended to be produced at large distances from the demand centers. (Author) [pt

  7. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  8. Nuclear power plant operational data compilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, S.

    1980-01-01

    Electricite de France R and D Division has set up a nuclear power plant operational data compilation system. This data bank, created through American documents allows results about plant operation and operational material behaviour to be given. At present, French units at commercial operation are taken into account. Results obtained after five years of data bank operation are given. (author)

  9. Nuclear power plants of the nineties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyermann, P.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power plants which will be available in the second half of the nineties are introduced. The demands which utilities must put on such a power plant that it covers their needs and meets the necessary acceptance of the public are presented. 8 figs

  10. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  11. The nuclear plants at Dodewaard and Borssele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessels, M.

    In this writing, the main benefits and drawbacks of the functioning of the Dutch nuclear power plants at Dodewaard and Borssele are discussed. First, an introductory chapter is devoted to the nuclear developments in the Netherlands and Europe after World War II. Next, the economic aspects of the possible dismantlement of the Dodewaard and Borssele plants are considered. The last part deals with some other aspects like nuclear research and industrial activities in the Netherlands and their relation with Borssele and Dodewaard; safety aspects; the waste problem and non-proliferation problems. (G.J.P.)

  12. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-02-01

    The Topical Report presented establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of the report

  13. Preinspection of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The general plans of the systems affecting the safety of the nuclear power plants are accepted by the Institute of Radiation Protection (IRP) on the basis of the preinspection of the systems. This is the prerequisite of the preinspection of the structures and components belonging to these systems. Exceptionally, when separately agreed, the IRP may perform the preinspection of a separate structure or component, although the preinspection documentation of the whole system, e.g. the nuclear heat generating system, has not been accepted. This guide applies to the nuclear power plant systems that have been defined to be preinspected in the classification document accepted by the IRP

  14. Losses in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abinger, R.

    1982-01-01

    The author illustrates the special features of engineering insurance for nuclear power plants. The shares of the Allianz Versicherungs-AG in the insurance of construction and erection work and in machinery insurance are dealt with. Risk estimation is usually based on statistical analysis of losses. Loss analysis in the conventional sector of nuclear power plants shows typical characteristics of traditional erection and machinery losses. In the nuclear field, however, costs are greatly increased by added safety measures. For this reason, additional cover is allocated and incorporated in premium assessment. Examples from erection and machinery reveal the greater costs involved in handling losses. (orig.) [de

  15. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This topical report establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of this report

  16. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  17. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  18. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  19. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  20. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  1. Nuclear power plants 1995 - a world survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The atw Statistics Report compiled by atw lists 428 nuclear power plants with 363 397 gross MWe in operation in 30 countries in late 1995. Another 62 units with 55 180 gross MWe were under construction in 18 countries. This adds up to a total of 490 units with an aggregate 418 577 MWe. In the course of 1995 four units in four countries started commercial operation. In the survey of electricity generation in 1995 for which no information was made available from China and Kasachstan, a total of 417 nuclear power plants were covered. In the year under review they generated an aggregate 2 282 614 GWH, which is 3.4% more than in the previous year. The highest nuclear generation again was recorded in the USA with 705 771 GWh, followed by France with 377 021 GWh. The Grohnde power station in Germany attained the maximum annual production figure of 11 359 GWh. The survey includes nine tables indicating the generating performance of each nuclear power plant, the development of electricity generation in nuclear plants, and status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1995 arranged by countries, types of reactors, and reactor manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  2. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1986-08-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  4. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.; Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. (author)

  6. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-01-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the second quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and availability of the plants. (author)

  7. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  8. Environmental impact due to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellermann, O.; Balfanz, H.P.

    1975-01-01

    The environmental impact due to nuclear power plants is smaller than that due to fossil-fired power plants. The risks of the nuclear power plant operation are determined by the quantity and the probability of the release of radioactive materials. According to the value, the risks of normal operation can be compared to the accident risks. An attempt should be made to effectively reduce the remaining risk at unfavourable sites with the emphasis on accidents with larger effects than design basis accidents. (orig./LH) [de

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  10. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  11. Nuclear power plants: 2013 atw compact statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2014-03-15

    At the end of 2013, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The available gross power of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 2 GWe from 2012 to the end of 2013. In total 4 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2013 in China (+2) and in the Republic Korea (+1). 6 nuclear generating units were decommissioned in 2013. Four units in the U.S.A. (-4) were shut down due to economical reasons. In Canada (-2) the operation status of 2 units was changed from long-term shutdown to permanently shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73 GWe, were under construction in 15 countries end of 2013. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects) China (+3), Belarus (+1), Rep. of Korea (+1) and the United Arab Emirates (+1). Some 115 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  12. Nuclear power plants: 2013 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2014-01-01

    At the end of 2013, nuclear power plants were available for energy supply in 31 countries of the world. A total of 437 nuclear power plants were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 393 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 372 GWe. This means that the number was unchanged compared to the previous year's number on 31 December 2012. The available gross power of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 2 GWe from 2012 to the end of 2013. In total 4 nuclear generating units were commissioned in 2013 in China (+2) and in the Republic Korea (+1). 6 nuclear generating units were decommissioned in 2013. Four units in the U.S.A. (-4) were shut down due to economical reasons. In Canada (-2) the operation status of 2 units was changed from long-term shutdown to permanently shutdown. 70 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of approx. 73 GWe, were under construction in 15 countries end of 2013. New or continued projects are notified from (in brackets: number of new projects) China (+3), Belarus (+1), Rep. of Korea (+1) and the United Arab Emirates (+1). Some 115 new nuclear power plants are in the concrete project design, planning and licensing phases worldwide; on some of them, contracts have already been awarded. Another units are in their preliminary project phases. (orig.)

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-05-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole fourth quarter of 1991. The load factor average was 94.7 % (the whole year 90.9 %). All the events in the last annual quarter, which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale, were below scale/level 0. Also the events which occurred in the other quarters of the year 1991 were rated at the scale's lowest levels. Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site remained well below authorised limits. Only quantities of radioactive material insignificant to radiation exposure originating in nuclear power plants were detected in the samples collected in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants

  14. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  15. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1994-06-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of the Finnish NPPs describe nuclear and radiation safety related events and observations which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Safety improvements at the plants and general matters relating to the use of nuclear energy are also reported. A summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, and tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors are also given. One event during the last quarter of 1993 was rated on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) as level 1. During this event at Loviisa 2, the secondary circuit emergency feedwater system was erroneously isolated from automatic start-up readiness. The error went unnoticed for 4.5 hours. During 1993 one level 2 incident and three level 1 incidents occurred at the Finnish NPPs. (8 figs., 4 tabs.)

  16. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  17. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  18. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  19. Nuclear power plants: 2004 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In late 2004, nuclear power plants were available for power supply or were under construction in 32 countries worldwide. A total of 441 nuclear power plants, i.e. two plants more than in late 2003, were in operation with an aggregate gross power of approx. 386 GWe and an aggregate net power, respectively, of 362 GWe, in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by approx. 5 GWe as a result of the additions by the six units newly commissioned: Hamaoka 5 (Japan), Ulchin 6 (Korea), Kalinin 3 (Russia), Khmelnitski 2 (Ukraine), Qinshan II-2 (People's Republic of China), and Rowno 4 (Ukraine). In addition, unit 3 of the Bruce A nuclear power plant in Canada with a power of 825 MWe was restarted after an outage of many years. Contrary to earlier plans, a recommissioning program was initiated for the Bruce A-1 and A-2 units, which are also down at present. Five plants were decommissioned for good in 2004; Chapelcross 1 to 4 with 50 MWe each in the United Kingdom, and Ignalina 1 with 1 300 MWe in Lithuania. 22 nuclear generating units with an aggregate gross power of 19 GWe in nine countries were under construction in late 2004. In India, construction work was started on a new project, the 500 MWe PFBR prototype fast breeder reactor. In France, the EDF utility announced its intention to build an EPR on the Flamanville site beginning in 2007. (orig.)

  20. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  1. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  2. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1990-08-01

    During the first quarter of 1990 the Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 and TVO I and II were in commercial operation for most of the time. Nuclear electricity accounted for 32.5% of the total Finnish electricity production during this quarter. The load factor average of the nuclear power plant units was 99.0%. An international nuclear event scale has been introduced for the classification of nuclear power plant events according to their nuclear and radiation safety significance. The scale first undergoes about a year long trial period in several countries. on the scale, events are divided into levels from 1 to 7 of which events at Level 7 are the most serious. Furthermore, Level 0 (Below Scale) is used for events with no safety significance. All events which occurred at the Finnish nuclear power plants this quarter are classified as Level 0. Occupational radiation doses and external releases of radioactivity were considerably below authorised limits. At the Loviisa plant, a back-up emergency feedwater system independent of the plant's other systems has been introduced which offers a new, alternative means of removing residual heat from the reactor. Owing to this system, the risk of a severe accident has been further reduced. At the TVO plants, systems have been introduced by which accident sequences which lead to containment failure could be eliminated and the consequences of a potential severe accident could be mitigated. In this report, also the release of short-lived radioactive materials along the transfer route of an irradiated sample is described which occured at the FiR 1 research reactor. The amounts of radioactive materials individuals received in their bodies in connection with this event were very low

  4. Safety provisions of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1994-01-01

    Safety of nuclear power plants is determined by a deterministic approach complemented by probabilistic considerations. Much use has been made of the wealth of information from more than 6000 years of reactor operation. Design, construction and operation is governed by national and international safety standards and practices. The IAEA has prepared a set of Nuclear Safety Standards as recommendations to its Member States, covering the areas of siting, design, operations, quality assurance, and governmental organisations. In 1988 the IAEA published a report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group on Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, summarizing the underlying objectives and principles of excellence in nuclear safety and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. The paper will summarize some of the key safety principles and provisions, and results and uses of Probabilistic Safety Assessments. Some comments will be made on the safety of WWER 440/230 and WWER-1000 reactors which are operated on Bulgaria. 8 figs

  5. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Many countries have recognised that greater use of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing carbon dioxide emissions. However, given the high capital cost and complexity of nuclear power plants, financing their construction often remains a challenge. This is especially true where such financing is left to the private sector in the context of competitive electricity markets. This study examines the financial risks involved in investing in a new nuclear power plant, how these can be mitigated, and how projects can be structured so that residual risks are taken by those best able to manage them. Given that expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the study highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear generating capacity

  6. Robotic devices for nuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E

    1986-05-01

    The article surveys the background of nuclear remote handling and its associated technology, robotics. Manipulators, robots, robot applications, extending the range of applications, and future developments, are all discussed.

  7. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Ghazi, S.

    2008-01-01

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  8. Nuclear power plants: selected references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Books, articles, and US government documents cited in this bibliography cover the political, economic, environmental, scientific, and legal aspects of nuclear power. Because the question of safety has been such an important issue in the debate over nuclear power, safety aspects are treated in a substantial number of the publications cited. All material listed was published in the past 15 years, with the majority appearing since 1975

  9. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee.... Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant (Fitzpatrick), Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee), and...

  10. Advancements in nuclear plant maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meligi, A.E.; Maras, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of the nuclear option as a technology choice for present and future electricity generation will be decided primarily on the basis of operating cost to achieve plant performance objectives. In a nuclear plant, performance is judged not only on availability and output rate but also on safety risk and radiation exposure. Operating, cost is essentially made up of the fuel cost and operation and maintenance (O and M) cost. Over the past decade, the industry average nuclear plant performance has improved significantly; however, this improvement was accompanied by rising O and M cost. The net result was that the nuclear option lost its long-standing economic advantage over the coal option, based on the industry average comparison, around 1987 - with the gap narrowing slightly in the last 2 years. In recent times, gas-fired plants have also become a basis for comparison. The electric generation cost comparisons of various fuel options has led to even greater scrutiny of nuclear plant performance, with the poorer performing plants facing the risk of shutdown. While effective O and M programs improve plant performance, present industry data show that there is no direct correlation between the cost of a plant O and M program and its associated performance. There is a significant number of existing tools and techniques in the O and M area that have proved to be successful and have resulted in significant benefits and payback. This paper presents an overview of the nuclear industry efforts to improve the conduct of O and M activities, describes the basic elements of an effective O and M program, and addresses some of the state-of-the-art tools and techniques to enhance maintenance work planning, training, and procedures

  11. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  12. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  13. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-07-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. No event in the report period, or in the whole year of 1986, essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the adminstrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days in September

  14. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Pekka

    1987-05-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the perssonnel or the environment. For remedying certain defects found in the administrative procedures concerning plant operation and maintenance, the Loviisa power plant was shut down for several days

  15. Fatigue assessments in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.; Deardorff, A.F.; Peltola, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    In November 1991, the ASME Section XI Task Group on Operating Plant Fatigue Assessment was formed to develop criteria and evaluation methodology for evaluating the effects of cyclic operation in operating nuclear power plants. The objective was to develop guidelines for inclusion in Section XI that could be used by plant operators in evaluating fatigue concerns and their impact on serviceability. This paper discusses the work performed by the Task Group. It explores the concept of ''Fatigue Design Basis'' versus ''Fatigue Operating Basis'' by examining the roles of ASME Section III and ASME Section XI in the design and operation of the nuclear power plants. Guidelines are summarized that may help plant operators perform effective design transient cycle evaluations and optimize cycle counting and fatigue usage tracking. The alternative fatigue evaluation approach using flaw tolerance is also introduced

  16. Revised inspection program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates nuclear power plants to assure adequate protection of the public and the environment from the dangers associated with nuclear materials. NRC fulfills this responsibility through comprehensive safety reviews of nuclear facilities, licensing of organizations that use nuclear materials, and continuing inspection. The NRC inspection program is currently conducted from the five regional offices in or near Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and San Francisco. Inspectors travel from the regional offices to nuclear power plants in various phases of construction, test and operation in order to conduct inspections. However, in June 1977 the Commission approved a revision to the inspection program that will include stationing inspectors at selected plants under construction and at all plants in operation. In addition, the revised program provides for appraising the performance of licensees on a national basis and involves more direct measurement and observation by NRC inspectors of work and tests in progress. The program also includes enhanced career management consisting of improved training and career development for inspectors and other professionals. The report was requested in the Conference Report on the NRC Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1978. The report provides a discussion of the basis for both the current and revised inspection programs, describes these programs, and shows how the NRC inspection force will be trained and utilized. In addition, the report includes a discussion of the actions that will be taken to assure the objectivity of inspectors

  17. Safety goals for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    In its official policy statement on safety goals for the operation of nuclear power plants, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) set two qualitative goals, supported by two quantitative objectives. These goals are that (1) individual members of the public should be provided a level of protection from the consequences of nuclear power plant operation such that individuals bear no significant additional risk to life and health; and (2) societal risks to life and health from nuclear power plant operation should be comparable to or less than the risks of generating electricity by viable competing technologies and should not be a significant addition to other societal risks. As an alternative, this study proposes four quantitative safety goals for nuclear power plants. It begins with an analysis of the NRC's safety-goal development process, a key portion of which was devoted to delineating criteria for evaluating goal-development methods. Based on this analysis, recommendations for revision of the NRC's basic benchmarks for goal development are proposed. Using the revised criteria, NRC safety goals are evaluated, and the alternative safety goals are proposed. To further support these recommendations, both the NRC's goals and the proposed goals are compared with the results of three major probabilistic risk assessment studies. Finally, the potential impact of these recommendations on nuclear safety is described

  18. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  19. Nuclear power plants: 2005 atw compact statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power plants were available for power supply and under construction, respectively, in 32 countries of the world as per end of 2005. A total of 444 nuclear power plants, i.e. three plants more than at the end of 2004, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 389 GWe and an aggregate net power of 370 GWe, respectively, were in operation in 31 countries. The available capacity of nuclear power plants increased by some 4,5 GWe as a result of the capacities added by the four newly commissioned units of Higashidori 1 (Japan), Shika 2 (Japan), Tarapur 4 (India), and Tianwan 1 (China). In addition, unit A-1 of the Pickering nuclear power station in Canada, with 825 MWe, was restarted after a downtime of several years. Two plants were decommissioned for good in 2005: Obrigheim in Germany, and Barsebaeck 2 in Sweden. 23 nuclear generating units, i.e. one unit more than in late 2004, with an aggregate gross power of approx. 19 GWe were still under construction in nine countries by late 2005. In Pakistan, construction of a new project, Chasnupp 2, was started; in China, construction was begun of two units, Lingao Phase 2, units 3 and 4, and in Japan, the Shimane 3 generating unit is being built. (orig.)

  20. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  1. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants - active environment protection|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, I.

    1987-01-01

    The Federal Commission, which is studying energy scenarios, will doubtlessly come to the conclusion that a withdrawal from nuclear energy is technically and economically feasible. Feasibility alone however is no justification for action. Have the questions been asked correctly by the parliamentarians? Are the real problems being bypassed? Is the demand for a withdrawal from nuclear energy soundly based? Is it not oversimplified? Many people are afraid of nuclear energy because they do not understand it. It is necessary that specialists formulate their ideas so that the layman can easily understand them. The broad public can be educated to lose their fear of nuclear power plants which they compare with the nuclear bombs. They can also be educated to lose their fear of radioactivity. The public should also realize that the CO 2 problem is actual and very serious, and that nuclear energy can in fact help to alleviate this particular problem. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  3. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  4. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  5. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  6. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs

  7. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  8. Thoughts on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouze, Michel

    1996-01-01

    In this article published before the Chernobyl accident (and the greenhouse effect issue), the author comments the evolution of the perception people have on nuclear energy: it was supposed to be the beginning of a golden age, and is finally perceived as a source of thermal and radioactive pollution and a major industrial risk. He outlines and criticizes the various and more or less violent reactions and debates about the fact that choosing nuclear energy means choosing a certain type of society. He considers that this point of view refuses reality. He states that the emerging new and renewable energies cannot be the solution. He comments the emergence of an energy crisis after the first oil crisis, and the associated questions about a possible reduction of consumption, the replacement of oil, the potential of renewable energies. He criticizes the excessive fear about nuclear materials and energy, discusses the actual risks associated with electronuclear production, and discusses the energy issue in the international context to outline the importance of nuclear energy. He finally addresses issues related to the definition and implementation of an energy policy, with EDF as a major actor

  9. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  10. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested

  11. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  12. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  13. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  16. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  17. Nuclear power plant in whose backyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.

    1981-01-01

    The authority to regulate the nuclear power industry resides largely with the federal government. But states have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of their citizens and to regulate land use within their borders. The siting of nuclear power plants can engender conflicts between these jurisdictions that are usually resolved in the courts. Most state challenges to federal control of nuclear power have been struck down or severely weakened by the preemption doctrine contained in the supremacy clause of Article VI of the Constitution, which provides for the preemption of federal law over state law in the event of direct conflict. The existing avenues for state control over siting and operation of nuclear power plants can be greatly strengthened while avoiding direct conflict with federal jurisdiction

  18. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  19. NGNP Data Management and Analysis System Analysis and Web Delivery Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cynthia D. Gentillon

    2011-09-01

    Projects for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Technology Development Office provide data in support of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing of the very high temperature reactor. Fuel and materials to be used in the reactor are tested and characterized to quantify performance in high-temperature and high-fluence environments. The NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) at the Idaho National Laboratory has been established to ensure that VHTR data are (1) qualified for use, (2) stored in a readily accessible electronic form, and (3) analyzed to extract useful results. This document focuses on the third NDMAS objective. It describes capabilities for displaying the data in meaningful ways and for data analysis to identify useful relationships among the measured quantities. The capabilities are described from the perspective of NDMAS users, starting with those who just view experimental data and analytical results on the INL NDMAS web portal. Web display and delivery capabilities are described in detail. Also the current web pages that show Advanced Gas Reactor, Advanced Graphite Capsule, and High Temperature Materials test results are itemized. Capabilities available to NDMAS developers are more extensive, and are described using a second series of examples. Much of the data analysis efforts focus on understanding how thermocouple measurements relate to simulated temperatures and other experimental parameters. Statistical control charts and correlation monitoring provide an ongoing assessment of instrument accuracy. Data analysis capabilities are virtually unlimited for those who use the NDMAS web data download capabilities and the analysis software of their choice. Overall, the NDMAS provides convenient data analysis and web delivery capabilities for studying a very large and rapidly increasing database of well-documented, pedigreed data.

  20. Gundremmingen (KRB) nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-03-01

    Plant reliability and availability during 1973 was very good despite an unscheduled shutdown in October. A temporal availability of 79.42% and an operating availability of 79.07% yielded a usable current production of 1 634 000 000 000 kWh. In May, during the five-week inspection and refueling period, several machines and items of equipment were overhauled in addition to the major generator strip-down, and checks were also carried out on the safety and protection systems throughout the plant. Particular attention was paid to the fire-protection system so that, for example, a fire-protection valve was installed in the turbine oil circuit. The heating system was made independent of oil supplies and considerable economies were achieved by converting it from oil-firing to secondary steam operation. During October copper deposits from a feedwater pre-heater were discovered in the reactor core. The plant had to be shut down for five weeks in order to clean the reactor out with various items of cleaning equipment. After the plant had been started up again, it proved necessary to take the pre-heater releasing copper out of service. This was possible without any noteworthy loss of power. For further operation, it will be necessary to fit the pre-heater with high-grade steel tubes. Throughout the remainder of the year, the power plant operated under full load without any particular malfunction occurring. At the beginning of the year increasing amount of activity in the reactor water pointed to fuel element damage. It was possible to operate the plant at a constant, low level of water activity during the second half of the year after refuelling and the removal of the faulty elements. Faultless plant operation can likewise be expected for 1974. Owing to the officially required pressure test on the reactor pressure vessel, the inspection time will probably extend over six weeks. It is expected that plant availability during 1974 will exceed the 1973 figure

  1. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  2. Development of nuclear plant Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, I.; Okada, T.; Ishida, K.

    1998-01-01

    Recently it has become more important to detect a change in operational characteristics and to take appropriate corrective actions before it deteriorates to an incident in nuclear power plants. Therefore, aiming at earlier detection of a tendency change, swifter corrective actions and more effective application of operational data, we have developed Operation Management System which automatically acquires, accumulates and observes operational data of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station through cycles. (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant training simulator fidelity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The fidelity assessment portion of a methodology for evaluating nuclear power plant simulation facilities in regard to their appropriateness for conducting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's operating test was described. The need for fidelity assessment, data sources, and fidelity data to be collected are addressed. Fidelity data recording, collection, and analysis are discussed. The processes for drawing conclusions from the fidelity assessment and evaluating the adequacy of the simulator control-room layout were presented. 3 refs

  4. Improvement of communications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depigny, C.; Ghertman, F.; Lestien, A.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1983, Electricite de France (EDF) has been engaged in a major project to improve nuclear power plant communications. This project was launched following a series of incidents in which inappropriate communications practices and equipment were shown to be an aggravating, or in some cases, the determining factor. This paper presents the program established by EDF to resolve communications problems in its nuclear power stations

  5. Economic evaluation of nuclear plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolba, Adel.

    1988-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to prepare a ''fair price'' estimate to serve as bench mark in the course of economic evaluation of bids to construct nuclear power plants. The methodology of determining the present value of all capital investment is used. Running costs of nuclear fuel, operation, and maintenance are also determined. As a result, levelized energy cost is calculated. Sensitivity analysis for different parameters has been conducted, and the results of which are included in this paper

  6. Safety targets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herttrich, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    By taking as an example the safety targets of the American nuclear energy authority US-NRC, this paper explains what is meant by global, quantitative safety targets for nuclear power plants and what expectations are associated with the selecton of such safety targets. It is shown how probabilistic methods can be an appropriate completion of proven deterministic methods and what are the sectors where their application may become important in future. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Quality assurance and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Quality assurance in the nuclear industry was born in the late 1960s. Atomic Energy Control Board staff began its regulatory practice on quality assurance during that period. In this presentation the author traces the circumstances that first led to the establishment of Canadian nuclear power plant quality assurance programmes, summarizes progress over the last decade and a half, and outlines the current regulatory approach and what has been learned so far

  8. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  9. Design concepts of nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by a variety of factors, including economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, the growing need for worldwide energy supply diversification, the need to conserve limited supplies of fossil fuels, protecting the environment from greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially advantageous spin-off effects of nuclear technology for industrial development. Various studies, and at least one demonstration project, have been considered by Member States with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using nuclear energy for desalination applications under specific conditions. In order to facilitate information exchange on the subject area, the IAEA has been active for a number of years in compiling related technical publications. In 1999, an inter regional technical co-operation project on Integrated Nuclear Power and desalination System Design was launched to facilitate international collaboration for the joint development by technology holders and potential end users of an integrated nuclear desalination system. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. It is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination. Interested readers are also referred to two related and recent IAEA publications, which contain useful information in this area: Introduction of Nuclear Desalination: A Guidebook, Technical Report Series No. 400 (2000) and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Plants Coupled with Seawater Desalination Units, IAEA-TECDOC-1235 (2001)

  10. Studies in training nuclear plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was that the nuclear industry was ineffective in learning from previous events at other plants. As training programs and methods have improved since TMI, the nuclear industry has searched for effective methods to teach the lessons learned from industry events. The case study method has great potential as a solution. By reviewing actual plant events in detail, trainees can be challenged with solving actual problems. When used in a seminar or discussion format, these case studies also help trainees compare their decision-making processes with other trainees, the instructor, and the personnel involved in the actual case study event

  11. Nuclear Power Plant Temelin Technical Support Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizek, K.

    2000-01-01

    The erection of the Technical Support Centre for the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a relatively sophisticated and costly issue. It was by proper use of the existing systems, as e.g. I and C, ISE and other systems, that a robust system has been created that is able to meet any requirements laid on the performance of the Technical Support Centre. The decision of the utility CEZ, a.s. that made it possible to establish the Technical Support Centre at the Nuclear Power Plant Temelin has been a right step which shows the level of safety culture within the utility. (author)

  12. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  13. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  14. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  15. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  16. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  17. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  18. Barsebaeck nuclear plant February-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Ann-Christin

    1999-01-01

    Barsebaeck should, according to the government decision, have been closed before the 1st of July 1998, but the Supreme Administrative Court ruled on Stay of Execution, after Barsebaeck Kraft had applied for judicial review. The Threat of a Phase out of Barsebaeck 1 started in 1980, due to the accident at Three Mile Island. Swedish opinion Opinion polls (Nov 97, March 98 and May 98) shows that about 80 percent of the Swedish population want to use nuclear power until the existing reactors have to be stopped for safety or economical reasons. About 20 percent of these want to develop nuclear power. Average or high confidence in Barsebaeck has 94 percent on the Swedish side and 74 percent in Copenhagen 1998. From February 1997 till August 1998 Barsebaeck personnel have executed several information activities to stress our message that Barsebaeck is necessary for the environment, the jobs and the economy

  19. Decommissioning of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tadamichi

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear energy facilities, an abolished one is often difficult to reuse, and is difficult to subdivide because of its strong structure and its inclusion of many apparatus and constructions containing radioactive materials in them. And, it is required to consider radiation management under dismantling operation and radioactive wastes forming at its subdivision. Abolishment of nuclear power station is a measure carrying out subdivision removing of a facility ended its role to a condition unnecessary for its radiation administration, and is defined as all of measures to be done after unused condition before reaching green field condition. Here were described on basic principle on abolishment measure in Japan, processing and disposition of subdivided wastes, and system preparation. (G.K.)

  20. Commissioning Leibstadt nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, A.; Degen, R.; Nedelko, U.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the experience and benefits obtained from the use of temporary oil fired boilers of sufficient capacity to allow commissioning and no-load tests to be carried out on the turbine-generator months ahead of steam being available from the NSSS. The successful result at Leibstadt may be a model for other plants

  1. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  2. G. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of a site for a nuclear power site is a complex process involving considerations of public health and safety, engineering design, economics, and environmental impact. Although policies adopted in various countries differ in some details, a common philosophy usually underlies the criteria employed. The author discusses the basic requirements, as they relate to New Zealand, under the headings: engineering and economics; health and safety; environmental factors

  3. Nuclear power plants; security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Safety standards and approaches to NPPs safety resulting from multilayer experience are presented. It is stressed that sufficiency and efficiency of reactor safety measures should be payed constant attention. Real evolution of accidents reqires unlimited development of new safety means. It is evident that in nuclear power there should exist high s afety culture . NPPs safety should be guaranteed by joint measures of both specialists ans public

  4. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  5. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  6. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants'. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  7. Classification of nuclear plant cost to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to understand why the fixed-cost/variable-cost method of classifying nuclear plant costs can lead to rate discontinuities, the author must examine the factors which lead to the decision to build a nuclear power plant and the interrelationship between demand (KW) and energy (KWH). The problems and inequities associated with the nuclear plants can be avoided by recognizing that fixed costs are related to both demand and energy and by using a costing methodology which closely relates to the functional purpose of the plant. Generally, this leads to classifying fixed costs of nuclear plants primarily to the energy function in an embedded cost-of-service study and through either implicit or explicit recognition of fuel savings in a marginal cost study. The large rate discontinuities which occurred in the scenario can be resolved. Costs associated with demand or energy charges remain relatively stable compared to actual capacity costs and customers would not experience large changes in their bills due solely to a particular costing convention

  8. Operating experience in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany kept their portion of power supply into the public grid system constant in 1983, compared to 1982. The generation had an absolute increase of 3.6% and amounts now to 65.9 TWh. Particularly mentioned should be the generation of the Grafenrheinfeld Nuclear Power Plant which is holding the 'World Record' with 9.969 TWh. The availability of the plants was generally satisfactory, as far as long-term retrofit measures with long outage periods were not necessary, as it was the case in Brunsbuettel and Wuergassen. The planned retrofit phases have been completed in all power plants. As far as safety is concerned, there was no reason to recommended a change of the present fundamental planning- and operation aspects. (orig.) [de

  9. Glossary of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A glossary is presented of the terminology for understanding and managing the ageing of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components. This glossary has been published by NEA, in cooperation with CEC and IAEA, as a handy reference to facilitate and encourage use of common ageing terminology. The main benefits are improved reporting and interpretation of plant data on SSC degradation and failure, and improved interpretation and compliance with codes, regulations and standards related to nuclear plant ageing. The goal is to provide plant personnel with a common set of terms that have uniform, industry-wide meanings, and to facilitate discussion between experts from different countries. The glossary is in five languages: English, French, German, Spanish and Russian. In each language section terms are listed alphabetically, with sequential members which are repeated in the English section thus allowing cross-reference between al languages. (R.P.)

  10. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emilio; French, Amanda; Urso, Maria Elena; Deffrennes, Marc; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Carroll, Simon; Daniska, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  11. Dukovany nuclear power plant in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data on the power generation, nuclear safety, and gaseous and liquid releases into the environment were extracted from the 1993 annual report of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Operation of the plant was safe and reliable in 1993. Three events were classed as INES category 1. The plant's Failure Commission dealt with 100 events which brought about a total electricity generation loss of 217,624 MWh, corresponding to about 22 reactor-days. Out of this, 26.8 % was due to human error. Three fires occurred at the power plant site. Releases of radioactive aerosols, tritium, noble gases and radioiodine into air and of tritium, corrosion products, and fission products into the aquatic environment were below annual limits. The collective dose equivalent was 1.78 manSv in 1993. (Z.S.). 2 tabs., 11 figs

  12. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute has started research in human factors in nuclear power plants. One project, completed in March 1977, reviewed human factors problems in operating power plants and produced a report evaluating those problems. A second project developed computer programs for evaluating operator performance on training simulators. A third project is developing and evaluating control-room design approaches. A fourth project is reviewing human factors problems associated with power-plant maintainability and instrumentation and control technician activities. Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken four projects studying the application of human factors engineering principles to nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0202] Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 3.7.4, ``Seismic Instrumentation.'' DATES: Submit... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to a new Revision 3). The proposed...

  14. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG... Support of Nuclear Power Plants;'' NSIR/DPR-ISG-01, ``Interim Staff Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of Evacuation Time Estimate Studies...

  15. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified

  16. Quality management in nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.; Ehrnsperger, K.

    2001-01-01

    Quality assurance and therefore quality management are essential preconditions for the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. On the basis of the rules of the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss KTA 1401 the quality management in the former Bayernwerk AG and the Bayernwerk Kernenergie GmbH as well as in the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Auftragnehmerbeurteilung within the VGB Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators is described. (orig.) [de

  17. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  18. Nuclear safety in fuel-reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.; Koerting, K.

    1976-01-01

    The danger potential of nuclear power and fuel reprocessing plants in normal operation is compared. It becomes obvious that there are no basic differences. The analysis of possible accidents - blow-up of an evaporator for highly active wastes, zircaloy burning, cooling failure in self-heating process solutions, burning of a charged solvent, criticality accidents - shows that they are kept under control by the plant layout. (HP) [de

  19. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  20. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2009-01-01

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs

  1. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  2. Nuclear plant construction and investment risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Escalated cost estimations, delays and cancellations in nuclear construction have caused a preoccupation with the risks of nuclear power plant construction that dominates utility stock investment, overshadowing increased earnings per share and recent growth in production. The issue will be resolved when increased power demand requires new construction, but the effect has so far been to erode the economic advantage of nuclear power and threaten the ability of utilities to get rate increases high enough to cover their costs. Projected delays and cost escalations and their effects must go into an economic appraisal of the investment risks

  3. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csilla

    2009-01-01

    Operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) are generally subject to routine reviews of plant operation and special safety reviews following operational events. In addition, many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have initiated systematic safety reassessment, termed periodic safety review (PSR), to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments, site specific, organizational and human aspects. These reviews include assessments of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices. PSRs are considered an effective way of obtaining an overall view of actual plant safety, to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. PSRs can be used as a means to identify time limiting features of the plant. The trend is to use PSR as a condition for deciding whether to continue operation of the plant beyond the originally established design lifetime and for assessing the status of the plant for long term operation. To assist Member States in the implementation of PSR, the IAEA develops safety standards, technical documents and provides different services: training courses, workshops, technical meetings and safety review missions for the independent assessment of the PSR at NPPs, including the requirements for PSR, the review process and the PSR final reports. This paper describes the PSR's objectives, scopes, methods and the relationship of PSR with other plant safety related activities and recent experiences of Member States in implementation of PSRs at NPPs. (author)

  4. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  5. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  6. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  7. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  8. Operational experience with propulsion nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunichev, V.

    2000-01-01

    Russia possesses a powerful icebreaker transport fleet which offers a solution for important socio-economic tasks of the country's northern regions by maintaining a year-round navigation along the Arctic Sea route. The total operating record of the propulsion nuclear reactors till now exceeds 150 reactor-years, their main equipment items operating life amounted to 120,000 h. Progressive design-constructional solutions being perfected continuously during 40 years of nuclear-powered ships creation in Russia and well proven technology of all components used in the marine nuclear reactors give grounds to recommend marine Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSSs) of KLT-40 type as energy sources for heat and power cogeneration plants and sea water desalination complexes, particularly as floating installations. Co-generation stations are considered for deployment in the extreme north of Russia. Nuclear floating desalination complexes can be used for drinkable water production in coastal regions of Northern Africa, the Near East, India etc. (author)

  9. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-01-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  10. The Robots for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min; Jung, Seung Ho; Choi, Young So

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear energy becomes a major energy source worldwide even though the debating environmental and safety dispute. In order to cope with the issues related to the nuclear power plant, the uncertain human factors need to be minimized by automating the inspection and maintenance work done by human workers. The demands of robotic system in nuclear industry have been growing to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, to detect early unusual condition of it through an inspection, to protect the human workers from irradiation, and to maintain it efficiently. NRL (Nuclear Robotics Laboratory) in KAERI has been developing robotic systems to inspect and maintain nuclear power plants in stead of human workers for over thirteen years. In order to carry out useful tasks, a nuclear robot generally requires the followings. First, the robot should be protected against radiation. Second, a mobile system is required to access to the work place. Third, a kind of manipulator is required to complete the tasks such as handling radioactive wastes and other contaminated objects, etc. Fourth, a sensing system such as cameras, ultrasonic sensors, temperature sensors, dosimetry equipments etc., are required for operators to observe the work place. Lastly, a control system to help the operators control the robots. The control system generally consists of a supervisory control part and remote control part. The supervisory control part consists of a man-machine interface such as 3D graphics and a joystick. The remote control part manages the robot so that it follow the operator's command

  11. Management strategies for nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    More competitive energy markets have significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including, among others, the need for more efficient use of resources and effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Outage management is a key factor for safe, reliable and economic plant performance and involves many aspects: plant policy, coordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements, and all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. The IAEA has produced this report on nuclear power plant outage management strategies to provide both a summary and an update of a follow-up to a series of technical documents related to practices regarding outage management and cost effective maintenance. The aim of this publication is to identify good practices in outage management: outage planning and preparation, outage execution and post-outage review. As in in the related technical documents, this report aims to communicate these practices in such a way that they can be used by operating organizations and regulatory bodies in Member States. The report was prepared as part of an IAEA project on continuous process improvement. The objective of this project is to increase Member State capabilities in improving plant performance and competitiveness through the utilization of proven engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA

  12. Life extension for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Federation of German Industries (BDI) commissioned a study of the ''Economic Effects of Alternative Lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants in Germany.'' The expert organizations invited as authors were the Power Economy Institute of the University of Cologne (EWI) and Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH (EEFA), Berlin. The reasons for commissioning the Study include the changed framework conditions (deregulation, CO 2 emission certificate trading, worldwide competition for resources), which have altered the energy supply situation in Europe. The findings of the Study were presented to the public by the BDI on October 26, 2005. The study deals with two scenarios of extended lifetimes for German nuclear power plants of 40 and 60 years as against the existing regulations with plant lifetimes limited to approx. 32 years. The longer service lives of plants are reflected in reduced electricity generation costs and thus may have a positive influence on electricity prices. Moreover, there would be additional growth of production together with additional jobs, all of which would add up to nearly 42,000 persons for all sectors of the economy as compared to the basic scenario. Also, CO 2 emissions could be curbed by up to 50 million tons of carbon dioxide. The Study offers ample and valid reasons in favor of extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants. In the interest of general welfare, politics would be well advised to relax the restrictions on plant life in the course of this legislative term. (orig.)

  13. Major plant retrofits at Monticello nuclear generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.E.; Hogg, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    For the past several years, Northern States Power (NSP) has been making major plant retrofits to Monticello Nuclear generating Station in order to improve plant availability and upgrade the plant components for the potential extension of the operating license (life extension). This paper discusses in detail three major retrofits that have been completed or in the process of completion; recirculation loop piping replacement, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) water level-instrumentation modification, core spray piping replacement, the authors will address the scope of work, design and installation concerns, and life extension considerations during the design and procurement process for these three projects

  14. Th-100 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Steenkampskraal Thorium Limited (STL) is a private company which is designing, marketing, licensing and commercializing a 100MWt thorium fueled pebble bed reactor. The concept plant design has been completed and work on the basic design has started. First site to determine the fuel cycle employed. Strong emphasis is placed on modular construction to reduce costs. STL hopes to start the licensing process within the next 6-8 months

  15. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.O.

    1992-05-01

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  16. Insurance cost of Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstrand, Aasa.

    1992-01-01

    What happens if a reactor accident occurs? Can victims of a nuclear accident be compensated for losses? The rights of a victim of a nuclear accident to be compensated for losses are governed by international conventions. These conventions make the licensee of a nuclear plant strictly liable. However, the maximum amount of compensation is limited. In Sweden the total liability of the plant-owner is maximized to 1.2 million Swedish Crowns, that is 0.02 oere/kWh. After the accidents of Harrisburg (1979) and Chernobyl (1986), it has become clear that the amounts of the various conventions are not at all sufficient to cover the damages caused by such an accident. In spite of these facts, there are a large number of reliable sources, who think that the insurance costs are negligible in the cost of production. A cost-benefit analysis based on a study performed by Ottinger et al. in 'Environmental costs of electricity' is therefore adopted to derive the costs of the external effects of nuclear plant operation and from releases to the environment during operation. The environmental externality costs of Swedish nuclear power plant operations are in this report estimated to 18.3 oere/kWh. This figure can be compared to the insurance cost, which for the present is 0.02 oere/kWh. The 'real' insurance cost including the external effects is calculated to approximately 1.12 billion Swedish Crowns] That is 900 times larger than the insurance premium, which the licensee of a nuclear plant faces] (au)

  17. Operator training simulator for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozuka, Hiromi

    1977-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, training of the operators is important. In Japan, presently there are two training centers, one is BWR operation training center at Okuma-cho, Fukushima Prefecture, and another the nuclear power generation training center in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture, where the operators of PWR nuclear power plants are trained. This report describes the BWR operation training center briefly. Operation of a nuclear power plant is divided into three stages of start-up, steady state operation, and shut down. Start-up is divided into the cold-state start-up after the shut down for prolonged period due to periodical inspection or others and the hot-state start-up from stand-by condition after the shut down for a short time. In the cold-state start-up, the correction of reactivity change and the heating-up control to avoid excessive thermal stress to the primary system components are important. The BWR operation training center offers the next three courses, namely beginner's course, retraining course and specific training course. The training period is 12 weeks and the number of trainees is eight/course in the beginner's course. The simulator was manufactured by modeling No. 3 plant of Fukushima First Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co. The simulator is composed of the mimic central control panel and the digital computer. The software system comprises the monitor to supervise the whole program execution, the logic model simulating the plant interlock system and the dynamic model simulating the plant physical phenomena. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Licensee responsibility for nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Simple sentences easy to grasp are desirable in regulations and bans. However, in a legal system, their meaning must be unambiguous. Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive on a community framework for the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities of June 2009 states that 'responsibility for the nuclear safety of a nuclear facility is incumbent primarily on the licensee.' The draft 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants, Revision D, April 2009' of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) (A Module 1, 'Safety Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants: Basic Safety Criteria' / '0 Principles' Paragraph 2) reads: 'Responsibility for ensuring safety rests with the licensee. He shall give priority to compliance with the safety goal over the achievement of other operational objectives.' In addition, the existing rules and regulations, whose rank is equivalent to that of international regulations, assign priority to the safety goal to be pursued by the licensee over all other objectives of the company. The operator's responsibility for nuclear safety can be required and achieved only on the basis of permits granted, which must meet legal requirements. The operator's proximity to plant operation is the reason for his 'primary responsibility.' Consequently, verbatim incorporation of Article 6, Paragraph 1 of the EURATOM Directive would only be a superscript added to existing obligations of the operator - inclusive of a safety culture designed as an incentive to further 'the spirit of safety-related actions' - without any new legal contents and consequences. In the reasons of the regulation, this would have to be clarified in addition to the cryptic wording of 'responsibility.. primarily,' at the same time expressing that operators and authorities work together in a spirit of openness and trust. (orig.)

  19. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  20. Decommissioning and back working of Greifswald nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittscher, D.; Leushacke, D.F.; Meyer, R.

    1998-01-01

    At Nuclear Power Plant Greifswald, the Energiewerke Nord are carrying out the presently world's largest decommissioning project. This requires the gathering up of experience from the operation of the nuclear power plants at Greifswald, the decommissioning of other nuclear power plants, waste management, project management and licensing procedures for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. That confirmed that the back working of nuclear plants is not a technical problem but a challenge for project management and logistics. It shows that the dismantling and disposal of nuclear plants is an ordinary process in our economic life. (orig.) [de

  1. Alternative Shutdown Panel. Amaraz Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Santa Maria Valin, J.

    2016-07-01

    Between 2010 and 2014 the Nuclear Power Plant of Almaraz conducted one of the most complex projects in its history: The installation of an Alternative Shutdown Panel with the capability to stop the plant in case of fire in the Control room or in the Cable room. This project represented a great economic and organizational effort for the plant, but at the same time has been a great improvement in the safety of the installation, which was demonstrated by the achievement of a major milestone in the history of Almaraz: The actual shutdown from outside of the Control room. (Author)

  2. Licensing operators for commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    The human element in the operation of commercial nuclear power plants is of utmost importance. Not only must the operators be technically competent in the execution of numerous complicated tasks, they must be capable of working together as a team to diagnose dynamic plant conditions to ensure that their plants are operated safely. The significance of human interaction skills and crew communications has been demonstrated most vividly in TMI and Chernobyl. It follows that the NRC must retain its high standards for licensing operators. This paper discusses activities and initiatives being employed by the NRC to enhance the reliability of its licensing examinations, and to build a highly qualified examiner work force

  3. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  4. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isard, W.; Reiner, T.; Van Zele, R.; Stratham, J.

    1976-08-01

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  5. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction

  6. How safe are nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The question 'how safe are nuclear power plants' can be answered differently - it depends on how the term 'safety' is understood. If the 'safety of supply' is left out as a possibility of interpretation, then the alternative views remain: Operational safety in the sense of reliability and safety of personnel and population. (orig.) [de

  7. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  8. Laser applications in nuclear power plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-09

    Jan 9, 2014 ... we have used laser techniques to cut stainless steel sheets up to 14 mm thickness and stainless steel weld up to ... radioactive environment, reasons being easiness in tool handling, flexibility, non-contact nature ... in nuclear power plants of NPCIL, India, by invoking different innovative techniques. Figure 1.

  9. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvatici, E.

    1981-01-01

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.) [pt

  10. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Code on Design (Safety Series 50-C-D (Rev. 1)) within the NUSS (Nuclear Safety Standards) programme of the IAEA points out the necessity of measures for protecting plant items which are important to safety against fires of internal and external origin. Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice. Figs, 1 tab

  11. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  12. Geodesy problems in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, K.

    1981-01-01

    The special geodetic problems encountered during the construction of the Paks nuclear power plants are treated. The main building with its hermetically connected components including the reactor, the steam generators, the circulation pumps etc. impose special requirements on the control net of datum points. The geodesy tasks solved during the construction of the main building are presented in details. (R.P.)

  13. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  14. French nuclear power plants. Results and outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, S.; Carbonnier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Operating results were good in 1997 for French nuclear power plants: safety levels were perfectly satisfactory; operating expenses continued to decrease (by 2% per annum from 1992 to 1997); there were spectacular results in radiation protection; and they had one of the world's highest availability rates (nearly 83%). (orig.) [de

  15. Map of the world's nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A pull-out wall chart is presented showing on a coloured map the locations of the world's nuclear power plants and indicating the type of reactor and number of units. The information is also included in an accompanying table which lists the stations alphabetically. (U.K.)

  16. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  17. Reliability of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-12-01

    Results of the analysis of factors influencing the reliability of international nuclear power plants of the PWR type are presented. The reliability factor is estimated and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value is discussed. (Author) [pt

  18. Availability estimation of international nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation on the factors influencing the availability of nuclear power plants of the PWR type; an estimation of expected values for the availability factor and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value are given. (Author) [pt

  19. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  20. Nuclear power plants management from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.

    1996-01-01

    The Three mile island and Chernobyl accidents developed a change for the operation and management of nuclear power plants. The present articles studies the state of the art the management of NPPs, the foundation of INPO and WANO and the future of operation in NPPs