WorldWideScience

Sample records for nuclear plant closes

  1. Close down nuclear power plants. Materials for nuclear power phaseout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This is a brochure presented by the Greens in the Parliament of Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart, to document that it is possible for Baden-Wuerttemberg and, moreover, the entire Federal Republic of Germany to opt out of nuclear power immediately, and to show how this can be done. Most prominent in this context is a study worked out in connection with the bill for the nuclear-test ban. That study calculates the figures for two scenarios: scenario A is based on the immediate close-down of all nuclear power plants in 1986/87; the concept of scenario B is the immediate close-down of all nuclear power plants put into operation in 1980 at the latest, as well as the speedy closing-down step-by-step of all the remaining nuclear power plants until the beginning of the nineties. Opting out of nuclear energy must be accompanied also by changes in the energy economy in legal and structural regards. For that purpose, the programme for 'democratization and recommunalization of the energy economy' was designed. Opting out of nuclear energy finally presupposes a commitment to energy conservation techniques and to non-polluting, renewable energy sources. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Drought prompts government to close nuclear plant

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "A nuclear power plant was shut down Sunday because a record drought left insufficient water to cool down the reactor. The plant supplies more than 10 percent of Romania's electricity and closure prompted fears of a price hike" (1/2 page).

  3. How would closing nuclear plants affect climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodhe, H.; Bjorkstrom, A.

    1988-01-01

    If all the world's nuclear power were replaced by fossil fuels, the average global temperature in 2025 would increase by about 0.1 degrees C. This figure can be compared with an estimated total increase in temperature in 2030 of about 1.5 degrees C due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion and from certain industrial processes, agriculture, and forestry. The risk of climatic change, therefore, cannot be avoided or even significantly reduced through a worldwide expansion of nuclear energy. To limit future climatic changes, significant reductions are required in the use of fossil fuels, which would reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and in emissions of other gases from industrial processes, forestry, and agriculture. 11 references, 1 table

  4. Policies for closing down nuclear power plants. A Spanish review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Olmo, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of policies concerned with closing down the Spanish nuclear power plants is described, together with the role of Spanish Group of Municipalities affected by NPPs (AMAC) since its establishment in 1988. Currently there are 9 nuclear reactors operating in seven cities, contributing to the national network bu 39.3% of gross power generation, and one reactor dismantled after the accident in Vandellos in 1989. The main objectives of AMAC activity are concerned with security, economic development and transparency. It has an important role in improvement of the quality of life of the population in municipalities with operating NPPs. It is involved in solving the problems related to radioactive waste management and disposal

  5. Closed-cycle cooling systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The long experience in the field of closed-cycle cooling systems and high technological level of turbo machines and heat exchangers concurs to believe in the industrial realizability of nuclear systems of high thermodynamic efficiency and intrinsic safety [it

  6. The typical features of management forestry in the territory close to the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedshin, K.D.; Chilimov, A.I.; Soldatchenko, V.I.; Bezuglov, V.K.; Snytkin, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the present-day forestry in the territories close to radiation hazardous plants and the experience of work of the Federal Forestry Service of Russia and its leading research institution The Russian Scientific-research Institute of Forestry, in liquidation of after-effects at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, have revealed absolute nonreadiness of the forestry to work in emergency situations at the plant with radiation danger; have set a number of tasks before the forestry and proved the necessity of elaboration of corresponding requirements. the tasks in respect of forestry management in the territories close of radiation hazardous plants, including Nuclear Power Plant, both in case of running in normal technological regime and in emergency period, have been set. The typical features and distinctions in approaches and requirements to forestry management in the territories close to Nuclear Power Plant, have been pointed out. 4 refs

  7. The public opinion on emergency preparedness close to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultaaker, Oe.

    1984-07-01

    More than 1500 people have been interviewed on their attitudes towards and their knowledge of emergency actions on nuclear accidents at nuclear power plants. Of the people addressed, 768 lived in the inner zones close to the power plants. 775 were farmers near the four nuclear power sites in Sweden. The farmers lived both in inner zones and zones further away. A majority consider themselves not well-informed on health risks after a nuclear accident. More than a third would want more information on what to do in case of accident. Farmers outside the inner zones are more dissatisfied with the information status than other groups. Farmers from the inner zones consider the information given inadequate regarding risks to their health and also health risks for their live stock. The results of interviews are in some cases compared with the information given to the public. (Aa)

  8. Thermal Parameters of Ultra-High-Temperature Reactors for Closed-Cycle Nuclear MHD Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilli, P.V.

    1968-01-01

    Thermal parameters of ultra-high temperature reactors for closed-cycle MHD power plants are investigated. The 'pressure dilemma' (core and heat exchangers requiring highworking pressures for high performance; the MHD duct requiring low working pressures for strong non-equilibrium ionization and high power density) turns out to be less serious than is often assumed because: the core power density of present-day high temperature reactors is determined by nuclear considerations rather than thermal ones; higher plant efficiency reduces thermal power; larger temperature rise and higher efficiency lead to reduced mass flow rate; for the same ratio of pumping power to net output, core pressure loss ratio may be higher than in a conventional HTR; the cost of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel is considerably reduced at lower gas pressure. Dimensional and dimensionless equations are deduced that show the dependence of core dimensions and coolant flow data on thermodynamic parameters, and on thermal properties and state of the coolant. Helium, neon, and argon are compared, as are mixtures of them, showing advantages. Film and fuel temperature differences are small in comparison with gas temperature rise, particularly for the combined MHD/steam cycle. Maximum fuel element temperature - the crucial parameter - therefore occurs at the hot end of the channel. A worked example demonstrates that power densities only slightly lower than in conventional HTR's should be achievable with helium at a pressure of 5 to 10 bar and moderate pressure losses, even if the difference between maximum fuel temperature and mixed mean gas outlet temperature is only 150 to 250°C. There may be some penalty for fuel manufacturing and fuel inventory cost. Fuel cycle cost will, however, benefit from increased plant efficiency. Radial power and temperature flattening is of paramount importance; it requires a low age factor and thus a fuel management scheme with fuel reprocessing, relatively low

  9. Radiocesium contamination in house dust within evacuation areas close to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Yoshida-Ohuchi, Hiroko

    2018-02-27

    Outdoor decontamination efforts have been ongoing since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident; however, little is known about indoor contamination. Therefore, house dust was sampled based on particle size in 21 wooden buildings (19 residential houses and 2 community centers) within the evacuation area close to the FDNPP, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Activities of radiocesium ( 137 Cs) per gram of house dust increased with decreasing particle size (mean: 6.1 × 10 3 , 2.6 × 10 3 , 1.6 × 10 3 , 7.5 × 10 2 , 5.0 × 10 2 , and 4.6 × 10 2  Bq/g for <4-20, 20-63, 63-180, 180-500, 500-1000, and 1000-2000 μm, respectively). The 137 Cs concentrations in house dust were inversely related to the square of distance from the FDNPP for <4-1000 μm particles. From the results of the multiple linear regression analysis, distance from the FDNPP and direction from the FDNPP (northwest) were significantly related to the radioactivity of house dust. It was found that 19%, 33%, and 48% of 137 Cs in house dust were extracted in water, 1 M HCl, and not extracted, respectively. Considering the bioaccessibility and assuming a 20 mg/day daily intake of house dust, the daily doses would be 7.2 Bq/day (mean) and 18 Bq/day (95th percent quantile). These results provide valuable insight into indoor radioactive Cs contamination in the area around the FDNPP and possible oral exposure to indoor radioactive Cs after returning home. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. A survey of habits of people living close to the Sellafield nuclear processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, T.H.; Fulker, M.J.; Jones, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey has been carried out of the habits of people living within 3 km of the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. The survey included estimates of consumption rates of foodstuffs for a range of ages and of time spent indoors, outdoors and away from home. A high proportion of those interviewed were farmers and they provided additional data on time spent in the various farming activities. A comparison is made of the food consumption rates and generalised values recommended for critical groups by the NRPB and MAFF. (author)

  11. Closing the sky. The total dismantling of the Jose Cabrera nuclear power plant demonstrates maturity in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to put the situation of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants in the world into perspective as an already consolidated activity and with an important future of industrial activity. The decommissioning project that Enresa is currently performing in the old Jose Cabrera plant is being explained in detail, by providing data of the newest and most relevant technical aspects as well as the lessons learned to be reusable in other decommissioning projects. The previous background, the project planning, the activities performed and those still to be done as well as their timing are being explained in detail. (Author)

  12. Development of the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of nuclear power plant severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naitoh, Masanori; Ujita, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Hiroichi [Nuclear Power Corp. (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has initiated a long-term program to develop the simulation system {open_quotes}IMPACT{close_quotes} for analysis of hypothetical severe accidents in nuclear power plants. IMPACT employs advanced methods of physical modeling and numerical computation, and can simulate a wide spectrum of senarios ranging from normal operation to hypothetical, beyond-design-basis-accident events. Designed as a large-scale system of interconnected, hierarchical modules, IMPACT`s distinguishing features include mechanistic models based on first principles and high speed simulation on parallel processing computers. The present plan is a ten-year program starting from 1993, consisting of the initial one-year of preparatory work followed by three technical phases: Phase-1 for development of a prototype system; Phase-2 for completion of the simulation system, incorporating new achievements from basic studies; and Phase-3 for refinement through extensive verification and validation against test results and available real plant data.

  13. Emergency cooling system for a nuclear reactor in a closed gas turbine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutschi, H.U.

    1974-01-01

    In undisturbed operation of the closed gas turbine plant with compressor stages, reactor, and turbine, a compressor stage driven by a separate motor is following with reduced power. The power input this way is so small that the working medium is just blown through without pressure increase. The compressor stage is connected with the reactor by means of a reactor feedback pipe with an additional cooler and with the other compressor stages by means of a recuperator in the pipe between these and the turbine. In case of emergency cooling, e.g. after the rupture of a pipe with decreasing pressure of the working medium, the feedback pipe is closed short and the additional compressor stage is brought to higher power. It serves as a coolant blower and transfers the necessary amount of working medium to the reactor. The compressor stage is controlled at a constant torque, so that the heat removal from the reactor is adapted to the conditions of the accident. (DG) [de

  14. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  15. A computational fluid dynamics approach to the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the close vicinity of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Junior, Milton Alves

    2006-12-01

    Most studies of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides released from Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are based on Gaussian plume models or on the use of a convection-diffusion equation. Such models are inexpensive and can be useful in the atmospheric Mesoscale, of the order of 2-2000 Km from the NPP. However, they fail to take into account the turbulence generated by the interaction of the wind with buildings, the terrain, and with the convective forces of the released material stream, which are the dominant factors in the local scale, of the order of 0-2 Km from the source of emission. This thesis presents a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach to the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the close vicinity of NPPs. Large Eddy Simulation based on the Navier-Stokes equations, dynamic adaptive finite element meshes, and parallel computing techniques, are combined in a computer code designed to take into account the effect of the locally generated turbulence on the dispersion of the released radioactive material. The results obtained, although preliminary, are encouraging and show the potential of CFD tools to address this important safety assessment problem. (author)

  16. Close or renew? Factors affecting local community support for rebuilding nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Malý, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 140 (2017), s. 134-143 ISSN 0301-4215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04483S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : nuclear power plants * rebuilding * community acceptance Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 4.140, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421517300599

  17. Closed-loop automatic photogrammetry-geodesy information system for the construction of the Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detrekoei, Akos; Eoery, Karacson; Sarkoezy, Ferenc

    1984-01-01

    The stereo photogrammetric data collection, measurement and data processing system operating within the Geodesy Plan of the Paks nuclear power plant is described. The interactive graphic computer system, its functions and operation, together with plotters and displays for the generation of graphic output are presented. (R.P.)

  18. Nuclear power plant exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degot, D.

    1987-01-01

    Framatome export expertise is discussed. Framatome can accept different types of contracts - for the supply of nuclear steam supply systems or for nuclear islands (both of which can be produced solely by Framatome) or for complete plants. Cooperation with the local industry is possible -this can involve technology transfer. Examples of exports in the following countries are given; Belgium (where there is close cooperation between Framatome and two major companies), South Africa (where Framatome has been involved in the building of a two-992 MWe unit at Koeberg), South Korea (where Framatome is building two-900 MWe nuclear islands in cooperation with Korean industry, Knu 9 and Knu 10) and China (where Framatome is to build two-1000 MWe class pressurized water reactors at Daya Bay). As well as supplying the French domestic nuclear market Framatome is a major force in the future of nuclear power in the world. (UK)

  19. Close or renew? Factors affecting local community support for rebuilding nuclear power plants in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frantál, Bohumil; Malý, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 140 (2017), s. 134-143 ISSN 0301-4215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-04483S Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : nuclear power plants * rebuilding * community acceptance Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 4.140, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421517300599

  20. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a quick-acting valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear power plant. The engineering design of the valve is to be improved. To the main valve disc, a piston-operated auxiliary valve disc is to be assigned closing a section of the area of the main valve disc. This way it is avoided that the drive of the main valve disc has to carry out different movements. 15 sub-claims. (UWI) [de

  1. Nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.; Laurer, E.

    1977-01-01

    The invention is concerned with a quick-closing valve on the main-steam pipe of a nuclear reactor plant. The quick-closing valve serves as isolating valve and as safety valve permitting depressurization in case of an accident. For normal operation a tube-shaped gate valve is provided as valve disc, enclosing an auxiliary valve disc to be used in case of accidents and which is opened at increased pressure to provide a smaller flow cross-section. The design features are described in detail. (RW) [de

  2. Submarine nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The submarine nuclear power plant has revolutionised the strategy and tactics of under-sea warfare. Present day submarine nuclear power plants are discussed, as well as future developments. The endurance, speed, noise and diving depth of nuclear submarines are also outlined. (U.K.)

  3. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  4. Modeling closed nuclear fuel cycles processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shmidt, O.V. [A.A. Bochvar All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for Inorganic Materials, Rogova, 5a street, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Makeeva, I.R. [Zababakhin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics, Vasiliev street 13, Snezhinsk, Chelyabinsk region, 456770 (Russian Federation); Liventsov, S.N. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Lenin Avenue, 30, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-01

    Computer models of processes are necessary for determination of optimal operating conditions for closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) processes. Computer models can be quickly changed in accordance with new and fresh data from experimental research. 3 kinds of process simulation are necessary. First, the VIZART software package is a balance model development used for calculating the material flow in technological processes. VIZART involves taking into account of equipment capacity, transport lines and storage volumes. Secondly, it is necessary to simulate the physico-chemical processes that are involved in the closure of NFC. The third kind of simulation is the development of software that allows the optimization, diagnostics and control of the processes which implies real-time simulation of product flows on the whole plant or on separate lines of the plant. (A.C.)

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  7. Nuclear power plant with a closed multiple-loop gas coolant circuit. Kernkraftwerk mit geschlossenem, mehrstraengig ausgefuehrtem Gaskuehlkreislauf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, E.; Brodmann, N.; Roeser, H.

    1972-08-23

    The dimension of the prestressed concrete pressure vessel of the HTR with a closed multiple-loop gas coolant circuit is kept as small as possible by special measures. In each loop several heat exchanger units are supplied by a ring segment-type piping system. This principle is applied to the supply of turbine gas to the recuperators as well as to the supply of the cold, compressed gas to the tube bundles of the recuperators and to the removal of the cold gas from the precoolers. Short stub lines connect the ring segment channels with the corresponding outlets of the gas turbine set. The arrangement of the components may be kept for each increase of power.

  8. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  9. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  10. Development of a technique for dismantling geometric complicated and thick components of closed down nuclear power plants with the principle of arc-waterjet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.W.; Bruening, D.

    1989-04-01

    1. Status of research: With arc waterjet cutting it is possible to cut stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 30 mm under water. An application of this technique in 20 m water depth is possible. 2. Aim of research work: A thermal cutting process which is empolyed in a water depth of 20 m is to be developed. Stainless steel up to a wall thickness of 100 mm must be sectile. Cutting of plane parts with variable wall thickness and geometric must be possible. Pipes and pipe assemblies are to be cut from inside or outside. 3. Method of research: A torch was developed which can melt the work piece with a wire electrode. The ignition of cutting will be done with short circuit with a concentrial around the wire out going water jet the liquid metal will be washed away. 4. Results: It is possible to cut stainless steel under water up to a wall thickness of 100 mm. There is no influence to the cutting process in a water depth of 20 m. 5. Suitability: With arc waterjet cutting remote controlled dismantling of thick-walled components of closed down nuclear power plants under water is possible. (orig.) With 35 refs., 6 tabs., 65 figs [de

  11. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Susumu.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to prevent the degradation in the quality of condensated water in a case where sea water leakage should occur in a steam condenser of a BWR type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Increase in the ion concentration in condensated water is detected by an ion concentration detector and the leaking factor of sea water is calculated in a leaking factor calculator. If the sea water leaking factor exceeds a predetermined value, a leak generation signal is sent from a judging device to a reactor power control device to reduce the reactor power. At ehe same tiem, the leak generation signal is also sent to a steam condenser selection and isolation device to interrupt the sea water pump of a specified steam condenser based on the signal from the ion concentration detector, as well as close the inlet and outlet valves while open vent and drain valves to thereby forcively discharge the sea water in the cooling water pipes. This can keep the condensate desalting device from ion breaking and prevent the degradation in the quality of the reactor water. (Horiuchi, T.)

  12. Nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otway, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    Action at the international level will assume greater importance as the number of nuclear power plants increases, especially in the more densely populated parts of the world. Predictions of growth made prior to October 1973 [9] indicated that, by 1980, 14% of the electricity would be supplied by nuclear plants and by the year 2000 this figure would be about 50%. This will make the topic of international co-operation and standards of even greater importance. The IAEA has long been active in providing assistance to Member States in the siting design and operation of nuclear reactors. These activities have been pursued through advisory missions, the publication of codes of practice, guide books, technical reports and in arranging meetings to promote information exchange. During the early development of nuclear power, there was no well-established body of experience which would allow formulation of internationally acceptable safety criteria, except in a few special cases. Hence, nuclear power plant safety and reliability matters often received an ad hoc approach which necessarily entailed a lack of consistency in the criteria used and in the levels of safety required. It is clear that the continuation of an ad hoc approach to safety will prove inadequate in the context of a world-wide nuclear power industry, and the international trade which this implies. As in several other fields, the establishment of internationally acceptable safety standards and appropriate guides for use by regulatory bodies, utilities, designers and constructors, is becoming a necessity. The IAEA is presently planning the development of a comprehensive set of basic requirements for nuclear power plant safety, and the associated reliability requirements, which would be internationally acceptable, and could serve as a standard frame of reference for nuclear plant safety and reliability analyses

  13. Surveillance system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeracki, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated surveillance system for nuclear power plant application. The author explores an expanded role for closed circuit television, with remotely located cameras and infrared scanners as the basic elements. The video system, integrated with voice communication, can enhance the safe and efficient operation of the plant, by improving the operator's knowledge of plant conditions. 7 refs

  14. Quantitative and radiological assessment of PYRO-SFR closed fuel cycle against direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Muhammad Minhaj; Lee, Suhong; Cheong, Jaehak; Whang, Jooho

    2016-01-01

    Calculations have been made to estimate the generation of SNF including Plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MAs) from PWR and PHWR NPPs by using the IAEA code Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) for the period of 2016, 2030 as 12 more NPPs will be added by the year 2029. In order to find the optimize option for SNF management through sustainable use of nuclear energy system and reduce the associated radiological risk, 4 scenarios to burnout the Pu and MAs are analyzed. Estimation for the amount of SNF including major radionuclides has made for the year of 2016, 2030, 2089 and 2109 with an approximate amount of 148,19.65MT, 248,34.6 MT, 41572.23 MT and 61272.24 MT of SNF will be generated respectively. Radioactivity and radiotoxicity is calculated in order to access the radiological risk in terms of ingestion. Four Transmutation strategies is predicted to make Korean NPPs sustainable by incorporating KALIMER-600 (Burner) reactor in Korean nuclear fleet with an approximate transmutation rate of 99.77%, 96.57%, 95.34% and 97.58% for MA only (scenario-1), (MA & Pu) scenario-2, scenario-3 (MA only till the year 2125) and scenario-4 MA & Pu till the year 2148) respectively.

  15. Quantitative and radiological assessment of PYRO-SFR closed fuel cycle against direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Minhaj; Lee, Suhong; Cheong, Jaehak; Whang, Jooho [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Calculations have been made to estimate the generation of SNF including Plutonium (Pu) and minor actinides (MAs) from PWR and PHWR NPPs by using the IAEA code Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (NFCSS) for the period of 2016, 2030 as 12 more NPPs will be added by the year 2029. In order to find the optimize option for SNF management through sustainable use of nuclear energy system and reduce the associated radiological risk, 4 scenarios to burnout the Pu and MAs are analyzed. Estimation for the amount of SNF including major radionuclides has made for the year of 2016, 2030, 2089 and 2109 with an approximate amount of 148,19.65MT, 248,34.6 MT, 41572.23 MT and 61272.24 MT of SNF will be generated respectively. Radioactivity and radiotoxicity is calculated in order to access the radiological risk in terms of ingestion. Four Transmutation strategies is predicted to make Korean NPPs sustainable by incorporating KALIMER-600 (Burner) reactor in Korean nuclear fleet with an approximate transmutation rate of 99.77%, 96.57%, 95.34% and 97.58% for MA only (scenario-1), (MA & Pu) scenario-2, scenario-3 (MA only till the year 2125) and scenario-4 MA & Pu till the year 2148) respectively.

  16. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  17. Nuclear plant scram reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegle, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Utility Management and Human Resources Committee (NUMARC) is a confederation of all 55 utilities with nuclear plants either in operation or under construction. NUMARC was formed in April 1984 by senior nuclear executives with hundreds of man-years of plant experience to improve (plant) performance and resolve NRC concerns. NUMARC has adopted 10 commitments in the areas of management, training, staffing and performance. One of these commitments is to strive to reduce automatic trips to 3 per year per unit for calendar year 1985 for plants in commercial operation greater than 3 years (with greater than 25% capacity factor). This goal applies to any unplanned automatic protection system trips at any time when the reactor is critical. Each utility has committed to develop methods to thoroughly evaluate all unplanned automatic trips to identify the root causes and formulate plans to correct the root causes thus reducing future unplanned scrams. As part of this program, the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) collects and evaluates information on automatic reactor trips. It publishes the results of these evaluations to aid the industry to identify root causes and corrective actions

  18. Nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, P.A.; Bhatt, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the next 10 years, nuclear plant license renewal is expected to become a significant issue. Recent Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studies have shown license renewal to be technically and economically feasible. Filing an application for license renewal with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) entails verifying that the systems, structures, and components essential for safety will continue to perform their safety functions throughout the license renewal period. This paper discusses the current proposed requirements for this verification and the current industry knowledge regarding age-related degradation of structures. Elements of a license renewal program incorporating NRC requirements and industry knowledge including a schedule are presented. Degradation mechanisms for structural components, their significance to nuclear plant structures, and industry-suggested age-related degradation management options are also reviewed

  19. PWR reactors for BBR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure and functioning of the nuclear steam generator system developed by BBR and its components are described. Auxiliary systems, control and load following behaviour and fuel management are discussed and the main data of PWR given. The brochure closes with a perspective of the future of the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power plant. (GL) [de

  20. Nuclear Plant Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, C.P.; Turner, M.R.; Spore, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities

  1. Ardennes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-12-01

    The SENA nuclear power plant continued to operate, as before, at authorized rated power, namely 905MWth during the first half year and 950MWth during the second half year. Net energy production:2028GWh; hours phased to the line: 7534H; availability factor: 84%; utilization factor: 84%; total shutdowns:19; number of scrams:10; cost per KWh: 4,35 French centimes. Overall, the plant is performing very satisfactory. Over the last three years net production has been 5900GWh, corresponding to in average utilization factor of 83%

  2. On nuclear power plant uprating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S. Allen; Bailey, James V.; Maginnis, Stephen T.

    2004-01-01

    Power uprating for commercial nuclear power plants has become increasingly attractive because of pragmatic reasons. It provides quick return on investment and competitive financial benefits, while involving low risks regarding plant safety and public objection. This paper briefly discussed nuclear plant uprating guidelines, scope for design basis analysis and engineering evaluation, and presented the Salem nuclear power plant uprating study for illustration purposes. A cost and benefit evaluation of the Salem power uprating was also included. (author)

  3. Floating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindt, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the legal regime for floating nuclear power plants (FNPs), in view of the absence of specific US legislation and the very limited references to artificial islands in the Law of the Sea Convention. The environmental impacts of FNPs are examined and changes in US regulation following the Three Mile Island accident and recent US court decisions are described. References in the Law of the Sea Convention relevant to FNPs are outlined and the current status of international law on the subject is analysed. (author)

  4. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  5. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  6. Nuclear power plant operator licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The guide applies to the nuclear power plant operator licensing procedure referred to the section 128 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. The licensing procedure applies to shift supervisors and those operators of the shift teams of nuclear power plant units who manipulate the controls of nuclear power plants systems in the main control room. The qualification requirements presented in the guide also apply to nuclear safety engineers who work in the main control room and provide support to the shift supervisors, operation engineers who are the immediate superiors of shift supervisors, heads of the operational planning units and simulator instructors. The operator licensing procedure for other nuclear facilities are decided case by case. The requirements for the basic education, work experience and the initial, refresher and complementary training of nuclear power plant operating personnel are presented in the YVL guide 1.7. (2 refs.)

  7. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabert, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear power plant is described which includes a steam generator supplied via an input inlet with feedwater heated by reactor coolant to generate steam, the steam being conducted to a steam engine having a high pressure stage to which the steam is supplied, and which exhausts the steam through a reheater to a low pressure stage. The reheater is a heat exchanger requiring a supply of hot fluid. To avoid the extra load that would be placed on the steam generator by using a portion of its steam output as such heating fluid, a portion of the water in the steam generator is removed and passed through the reheater, this water having received at least adequate heating in the steam generator to make the reheater effective, but not at the time of its removal being in a boiling condition

  8. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uruma, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In the first embodiment of the present invention, elements less activated by neutrons are used as reactor core structural materials placed under high neutron irradiation. In the second embodiment of the present invention, materials less activated by neutrons when corrosive materials intrude to a reactor core are used as structural materials constituting portions where corrosion products are generated. In the third embodiment, chemical species comprising elements less activated by neutrons are used as chemical species to be added to reactor water with an aim of controlling water quality. A nuclear power plant causing less radioactivity can be provided by using structural materials comprising a group of specific elements hardly forming radioactivity by activation of neutrons or by controlling isotope ratios. (N.H.)

  9. Wuergassen nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Federal Court of Administration concerns an application for immediate decommissioning of a nuclear power plant (Wuergassen reactor): The repeal of the permit granted. The decision dismisses the appeal for non-admission lodged by the plaintiffs against the ruling of the Higher Court of Administration (OVG) of North-Rhine Westphalia of December 19th 1988 (File no. 21 AK 8/88). As to the matter in dispute, the Federal Court of Administration confirms the opinion of the Higher Court of Administration. As to the headnotes, reference can be made to that decision. Federal Court of Administration, decision of April 5th 1989 - 7 B 47.89. Lower instance: OVG NW, Az.: 21 AK 8/88. (orig./RST) [de

  10. Images of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Katsuhisa; Misumi, Jyuji; Yamada, Akira; Sakurai, Yukihiro; Seki, Fumiyasu; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Misumi, Emiko; Kinjou, Akira; Kubo, Tomonori.

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to check and see, using Hayashi's quantification method III, whether or not the respondents differed in their images of a nuclear power plant, depending on their demographic variables particularly occupations. In our simple tabulation, we compared subject groups of nuclear power plant employees with general citizens, nurses and students in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. The results were that while the nuclear power plant employees were high in their evaluations of facts about a nuclear power plant and in their positive images of a nuclear power plant, general citizens, nurses and students were overwhelmingly high in their negative images of a nuclear power plant. In our analysis on category score by means of the quantification method III, the first correlation axis was the dimension of 'safety'-'danger' and the second correlation axis was the dimension of 'subjectivity'-'objectivity', and that the first quadrant was the area of 'safety-subjectivity', the second quadrant was the area of 'danger-subjectivity', the third quadrant as the area of 'danger-objectivity', and the forth quadrant was the area of 'safety-objectivity'. In our analysis of sample score, 16 occupation groups was compared. As a result, it was found that the 16 occupation groups' images of a nuclear power plant were, in the order of favorableness, (1) section chiefs in charge, maintenance subsection chiefs, maintenance foremen, (2) field leaders from subcontractors, (3) maintenance section members, operation section members, (4) employees of those subcontractors, (5) general citizens, nurses and students. On the 'safety-danger' dimension, nuclear power plant workers on the one hand and general citizens, nurses and students on the other were clearly divided in terms of their images of a nuclear power plant. Nuclear power plant workers were concentrated in the area of 'safety' and general citizens, nurses and students in the area of 'danger'. (J.P.N.)

  11. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  12. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  13. Nuclear power plant component protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, E.; Ruf, R.; Dorner, H.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a nuclear power plant installation which includes a concrete biological shield forming a pit in which a reactor pressure vessel is positioned. A steam generator on the outside of the shield is connected with the pressure vessel via coolant pipe lines which extend through the shield, the coolant circulation being provided by a coolant pump which is also on the outside of the shield. To protect these components on the outside of the shield and which are of mainly or substantially cylindrical shape, semicylindrical concrete segments are interfitted around them to form complete outer cylinders which are retained against outward separation radially from the components, by rings of high tensile steel which may be interspaced so closely that they provide, in effect, an outer steel cylinder. The invention is particularly applicable to pressurized-water coolant reactor installations

  14. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This small folder presents a digest of some useful information concerning the nuclear power plants worldwide and the situation of nuclear industry at the end of 1997: power production of nuclear origin, distribution of reactor types, number of installed units, evolution and prediction of reactor orders, connections to the grid and decommissioning, worldwide development of nuclear power, evolution of power production of nuclear origin, the installed power per reactor type, market shares and exports of the main nuclear engineering companies, power plants constructions and orders situation, evolution of reactors performances during the last 10 years, know-how and development of nuclear safety, the remarkable facts of 1997, the future of nuclear power and the energy policy trends. (J.S.)

  15. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  16. Public regulation of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtheret, M.; Cormis, de

    1980-01-01

    The construction and operation of nuclear plants are subject to a complex system of governmental administration. The authors list the various governmental authorisations and rules applicable to these plants. In the first part, they describe the national regulations which relate specifically to nuclear plants, and emphasize the provisions which are intended to ensure the safety of the installations and the protection of the public against ionizing radiation. However, while the safety of nuclear plants is a major concern of the authorities, other interests are also protected. This is accomplished by various laws or regulations which apply to nuclear plants as well as other industrial installations. The duties which these texts, and the administrative practice based thereon, impose on Electricite de France are covered in the second part [fr

  17. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1991-07-01

    This report indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies. The report includes all plants operating, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review, but does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. Part 1 of the report lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants or licensees and percentage ownership. Part 2 lists applicants or licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part 1 also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OLS)

  18. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellstroem, B.

    1996-01-01

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  19. Determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities by liquid scintillation counting in the environmental samples close to French nuclear power plants located on Loire and Garonne rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, G.; Mokili, M.B.; Le Roy, C.; Deniau, I. [SUBATECH, IN2P3 (France); Gontier, G.; Boyer, C. [EDF-DPI-DIN-CIDEN (France); Hemidy, P.Y. [EDF-DPN-UNIE-GPRE-IEV (France); Chardon, P. [CNRS/IN2P3 (France)

    2014-07-01

    The protection of the aquatic and terrestrial environment from a wide range of radioactive contaminants released by nuclear industry requires continuous monitoring of radionuclides released into the environment. Specific measurement methods depending of the radionuclide are used to determinate this contribution. A lot of radionuclide can easily be measured at low level by gamma spectrometry, like {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co..., but others like {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni or {sup 55}Fe require prior specific radiochemical separations. Activity of {sup 90}Sr values in environmental samples are available but only few measurements of {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe activities have been carried out in samples collected in the environment close to French nuclear power plants located on the Loire and Garonne rivers despite they represent 12% to 24% for {sup 63}Ni activity and <1% for {sup 55}Fe + other minor radionuclides of total activity of their liquid effluent discharges. {sup 90}Sr is not rejected by the liquid effluent discharges of Nuclear Power Plants and can be found in the environmental samples because of thermonuclear test and subsequently after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Considering the French Nuclear Power Plant located on Loire and Garonne rivers, the determination of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 63}Ni and {sup 55}Fe levels in the environmental samples around French nuclear power plants is carried out to detect the traces of these radionuclides originating from nuclear technology activities. The environment around five French nuclear Power Plants was investigated for 4 years between 2009 and 2014. The radionuclide activities determined by liquid scintillation counting after chemical steps were performed on a large set of various matrix samples likely to be encountered in environmental monitoring as soils, sediments, terrestrial and aquatic bio-indicators. It was found that the mean activity concentration of the most frequently detected was for the radionuclide {sup 90

  20. Robotics for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, Takanori; Watanabe, Atsuo; Miyasawa, Tatsuo

    1984-01-01

    Demand for robots in nuclear power plants is increasing of late in order to reduce workers' exposure to radiations. Especially, owing to the progress of microelectronics and robotics, earnest desire is growing for the advent of intellecturized robots that perform indeterminate and complicated security work. Herein represented are the robots recently developed for nuclear power plants and the review of the present status of robotics. (author)

  1. Organizing nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, H.W.; Rekittke, K.

    1987-01-01

    With the preliminary culmination in the convoy plants of the high standard of engineered safeguards in German nuclear power plants developed over the past twenty years, the interest of operators has now increasingly turned to problems which had not been in the focus of attention before. One of these problems is the organization of nuclear power plant operation. In order to enlarge the basis of knowledge, which is documented also in the rules published by the Kerntechnischer Ausschuss (Nuclear Technology Committee), the German Federal Minister of the Interior has commissioned a study of the organizational structures of nuclear power plants. The findings of that study are covered in the article. Two representative nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany were selected for the study, one of them a single-unit plant run by an independent operating company in the form of a private company under German law (GmbH), the other a dual-unit plant operated as a dependent unit of a utility. The two enterprises have different structures of organization. (orig.) [de

  2. Partner of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, M.; Lauer, F.; Pauli, W.; Ruzek, W.

    1992-01-01

    Sulzer, the Swiss technology group, is a supplier of components and systems for nuclear power plants. Important parts of Swiss nuclear power stations, such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, primary pipings, are made in Winterthur. Sulzer Thermtec AG and some divisions of Sulzer Innotec focus their activities on servicing and backfitting nuclear power plants. The European market enjoys priority. New types of valves or systems are developed as economic solutions meeting more stringent criteria imposed by public authorities or arising from operating conditions. (orig.) [de

  3. Building of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Takashi.

    1997-01-01

    A first nuclear plant and a second nuclear power plant are disposed in adjacent with each other in a building for a nuclear reactor. A reactor container is disposed in each of the plants, and each reactor container is surrounded by a second containing facility. A repairing chamber capable of communicating with the secondary containing facilities for both of the secondary containing facilities is disposed being in contact with the second containing facility of each plant for repairing control rod driving mechanisms or reactor incorporated-type recycling pumps. Namely, the repairing chamber is in adjacent with the reactor containers of both plants, and situated between both of the plants as a repairing chamber to be used in common for both plants. Air tight inlet/exit doors are formed to the inlets/exits of both plants of the repairing chamber. Space for the repairing chamber can be reduced to about one half compared with a case where the repairing chamber is formed independently on each plant. (I.N.)

  4. Nuclear plant simulation using the Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Laats, E.T.; Wagner, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), a state-of-the-art computerized safety analysis and engineering tool, was employed to simulate nuclear plant response to an abnormal transient during a training exercise at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in Washington, DC. Information relative to plant status was taken from a computer animated color graphics display depicting the course of the transient and was transmitted to the NRC Operations Center in a manner identical to that employed during an actual event. Recommendations from the Operations Center were implemented during on-line, interactive execution of the RELAP5 reactor systems code through the NPA allowing a degree of flexibility in training exercises not realized previously. When the debriefing was conducted, the RELAP5 calculations were replayed by way of the color graphics display, adding a new dimension to the debriefing and greatly enhancing the critique of the exercise

  5. VISIT - Virtual visits to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaret, Jean-Christophe

    2001-01-01

    For more than twenty years, EDFs Communication Division has conducted a policy of opening its generation sites to the general public. Around 300,000 people visit a nuclear power plant every year. However, for the security of persons and the safety of facilities, those parts of the plant situated in controlled areas are not accessible to visitors. For the sake of transparency, EDF has taken an interest in the technologies offered by virtual reality to show the general public what a nuclear power plant is really like, so as to initiate dialogue on nuclear energy, particularly with young people. Visit has been developed with virtual reality technologies. It serves to show the invisible (voyage to the core of fission), the inaccessible and to immerse the visitors in environments which are usually closed to the general public (discovery of the controlled area of a nuclear power plant). Visit is used in Public Information Centres which receive visitors to EDF power plants and during international exhibitions and conferences. Visit allows a virtual tour of the following controlled areas: locker room hot area/cold area, a necessary passage before entering the controlled areas; reactor building; fuel building; waste auxiliary building (liquid, solid and gaseous effluents). It also includes a tour of the rooms or equipment usually accessible to the general public: control room, turbine hall, transformer, air cooling tower

  6. Classification of nuclear plant cost to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    In order to understand why the fixed-cost/variable-cost method of classifying nuclear plant costs can lead to rate discontinuities, the author must examine the factors which lead to the decision to build a nuclear power plant and the interrelationship between demand (KW) and energy (KWH). The problems and inequities associated with the nuclear plants can be avoided by recognizing that fixed costs are related to both demand and energy and by using a costing methodology which closely relates to the functional purpose of the plant. Generally, this leads to classifying fixed costs of nuclear plants primarily to the energy function in an embedded cost-of-service study and through either implicit or explicit recognition of fuel savings in a marginal cost study. The large rate discontinuities which occurred in the scenario can be resolved. Costs associated with demand or energy charges remain relatively stable compared to actual capacity costs and customers would not experience large changes in their bills due solely to a particular costing convention

  7. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Robots for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1985-01-01

    In many industrial applications of robots, the objective is to replace human workers with machines that are more productive, efficient, and accurate. But for nuclear applications, the objective is not so much to replace workers as it is to extend their presence - for example, to project their reach into areas of a nuclear plant where the thermal or radiation environment prohibits or limits a human presence. The economic motivation to use robots for nuclear plant inspection and maintenance is centered on their potential for improving plant availability; a by-product is the potential for reducing the occupational radiation exposure of plant personnel. Robotic equipment in nuclear applications may be divided into two broad categories: single-purpose devices with limited ability to perform different operations, and reprogrammable, multi-purpose robots with some degree of computer-based artificial intelligence. Preliminary assessments of the potential for applying robotics in nuclear power plants - mainly at surveillance and inspection tasks - have been carried out. Future developments are considered

  9. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of the ALARA principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed through a variety of dose reduction techniques. Initiatives by the ICRP, NCRP, NRC, INPO, EPRI, and BNL ALARA Center have all contributed to a heightened interest and emphasis on dose reduction. The NCRP has formed Scientific Committee 46-9 which is developing a report on ALARA at Nuclear Power Plants. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction ($/person-Sv), quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report

  10. Medium-size nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.

    1977-01-01

    CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day

  11. Owners of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1979-12-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of December 1, 1979. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docketed for NRC safety and envionmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally cancelled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of antitrust license conditions and hearings, altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified

  12. Nuclear plant undergrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Bastidas, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Under Section 25524.3 of the Public Resources Code, the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission (CERCDC) was directed to study ''the necessity for '' and the effectiveness and economic feasibility of undergrounding and berm containment of nuclear reactors. The author discusses the basis for the study, the Sargent and Lundy (S and L) involvement in the study, and the final conclusions reached by S and L

  13. Space nuclear reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Ranken, W.A.; Koenig, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for electrical and propulsion power for space are expected to increase dramatically in the 1980s. Nuclear power is probably the only source for some deep space missions and a major competitor for many orbital missions, especially those at geosynchronous orbit. Because of the potential requirements, a technology program on space nuclear power plant components has been initiated by the Department of Energy. The missions that are foreseen, the current power plant concept, the technology program plan, and early key results are described

  14. NOGENT, just another power plant - but so close to Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Brigitte

    1993-01-01

    54 PWR type production units are today operating in France. Between 1980 and 1981, 11 units were under construction including both Nogent PWR-1300 units. The increasing consumption in the lie de France region in the early eighties affected the choice of the site so close to Paris on the banks of the Seine, not more than 95 km from Notre Dame Cathedral. In February 1975, the Champagne-Ardenne Regional Council gave a favourable opinion to installation of a nuclear power plant in the Marne or Seine valley. The location of the plant thus offered an economic opportunity to a region in which second homes were growing at the expense of primary residences. The Nogent plant is not the only one to be situated close to a city. One of the major concerns was related to the fact that the power plant was located on the banks of the river supplying Paris with drinking water. The plant has a geographical location whose political and media implications are Parisian, and thus national. Therefore, the plant was equipped with a public information centre which opened on 1st January 1988, and which in general receives some 20 000 visitors annually. It is located outside the controlled areas of the plant and access is free to all visitors. It gives a permanent exhibition on nuclear power and the Nogent plant in particular. Its auditorium can seat 120 for conferences and films on all subjects concerning nuclear power. The construction of the Information Centre cost 6 million francs. The visitors mainly come from the Paris region : many teachers bring their classes to find out about our installations. The EDF Divisions bring many notable visitors : foreign ministers, captains of industry, and any foreign nuclear company on an information visit to France. The opposition to Nogent comes mainly from Paris, in 1979 of a Committee for nuclear alternatives called Stop-Nogent was established. 1982,1983,1984 and 1985 were marked by strong action and local disputes, reported in the press (sabotage

  15. Method and means for abruptly terminating the flow of fluid in closed circulating systems of nuclear reactor plants or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiele, O.; Florjancic, D.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear steam supply system is described wherein each of a plurality of centrifugal pumps begins to operate with full cavitation in response to an abrupt drop of system pressure in the event of leakage. This is achieved by influencing the net positive suction head of each pump over the entire range of fluid flow and/or by influencing the net positive suction head upstream of the pumps. The first mode of causing the pumps to operate with full cavitation includes an appropriate selection of the inlet angle and/or inlet diameter of the pump impeller, the provision of auxiliary impellers which are located upstream of the pumps and can circulate the fluid in or counter to the direction of rotation of the respective pump impellers, or the provision of suitably curved guide vanes in the pumps. The second mode include interrupting the admission of undercooled fluid into the system upstream of the pumps

  16. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear security - New challenge to the safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ganjie

    2008-01-01

    preparation and drills of emergency preparedness of nuclear facilities and carried out actively the preparation of anti terrorism in nuclear sector. Although the international community has been working on the nuclear security with a series of measures, according to the author there is a need author to discuss the following key perspectives. (1) It is essential to determine the definition of the nuclear security for power plants and come to a common understanding in the nuclear sector as soon as possible. (2) An international unified design basis threat to nuclear security of nuclear power plants should be developed to apply to the design of the nuclear security system of newly-built nuclear power plants and to evaluate the existing nuclear security system in the operating nuclear power plants so as to take improved measures. (3) The dividing of responsibilities between national government and nuclear power plants should be redefined in the new regime of nuclear security of nuclear power plants. (4) The relationship between the requirements of nuclear security and of the economy of nuclear power development should be balanced. (5) The technical standard system that suitable for new regime of nuclear security of nuclear power plants should be developed and improved to accelerate the enhancing of capability in nuclear security of nuclear power plants. It was concluded that nuclear terrorism is the common enemy to all the human beings. To strengthen the capacity of nuclear security of power plants, to ensure nuclear safety, are in the common interest and the responsibility of the entire international society. Recognizing the significance of strengthening the international cooperation on nuclear security, it is expected that the international society should closely cooperate together to establish the regime for nuclear security, share information and crack down nuclear terrorism. It was stated that China, as a responsible member of the international community, will continue to

  18. Nuclear plant aging research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has established the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program in its Division of Engineering Technology. Principal contractors for this program include Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program goals are: to identify and characterize time-dependent degradation (aging) of nuclear plant safety-related electrical and mechanical components which could lead to loss of safety function; to identify and recommend methods for detecting and trending aging effects prior to loss of safety function so that timely maintenance can be implemented; and to recommend maintenance practices for mitigating the effects of aging. Research activities include prioritization of system and component aging in nuclear plants, characterization of aging degradation of specific components including identification of functional indicators useful for trending degradation, and testing of practical methods and devices for measuring the functional indicators. Aging assessments have been completed on electric motors, snubbers, motor-operated valves, and check valves. Testing of trending methods and devices for motor-operated valves and check valves is in progress

  19. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Hiroshi; Akita, Minoru; Sakurai, Mikio; Mizutani, Akira; Ishimaru, Hitoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the occurrence of laminar flow phenomenon in feedwater pipeways at the upstream to the junction with coolant clean-up circuits. Method: When a laminar flow phenomenon occurs, thermal stress are generated to the pipeways due to the temperature difference between the upper and the lower portions thereof, which undesirably makes the strength condition severer for the pipeways and the support structures. In view of the above, an automatic valve is disposed to a feedwater pump warming pipeway and adapted such that the valve is closed to shut the warming pipeway during a period in which the feedwater flow rate is low to possibly cause laminar flow due to water draining, while the valve is opened in the period when the feedwater flow rate is increased to such a level as capable of preventing the generation of the laminar flow. Further, the automatic valve is closed to shut the warming pipeways in the period when the feedwater flow rate is increased in which there is no possibility for the generation of the laminar flow and the feedwater temperature is low and no warming is necessary. When the feedwater temperature rises, the automatic valve is opened to start the warming. The foregoing purpose can thus be attained. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amamiya, Shu; Inagaki, Shuichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro.

    1992-01-01

    The plant of the present invention can suppress the amount of clad in feedwater when drains of a moisture content separation heater or a high pressure feedwater heater are recovered. That is, the moisture content separation heater has ferrite or austenite type stainless steel heat transfer pipes. A chromium-enriched layer is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe by chromizing treatment or flame spraying. Then, a stainless steel heat transfer pipe having chromium-enriched layer is incorporated to at least one of the moisture content separation heater or the high pressure feedwater heater. During plant operation, the temperature of heated steams is as high as 235 to 282degC. Accordingly, this is a severe corrosion region for ferrite or austenite stainless steel. However, the chromium-enriched layer of excellent corrosion resistance is formed on the surface of the heat transfer pipe. Accordingly, metal ingredients are less leached. As a result, even if the drains are recovered to feedwater, increase of concentration of the clads in the feedwater can be prevented. (I.S.)

  2. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. David A. Petti

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a demonstration of the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology for the production of process heat, electricity, and hydrogen. This nuclear- based technology can provide high-temperature process heat (up to 950°C) that can be used as a substitute for the burning of fossil fuels for a wide range of commercial applications (see Figure 1). The substitution of the HTGR for burning fossil fuels conserves these hydrocarbon resources for other uses, reduces uncertainty in the cost and supply of natural gas and oil, and eliminates the emissions of greenhouse gases attendant with the burning of these fuels. The HTGR is a passively safe nuclear reactor concept with an easily understood safety basis that permits substantially reduced emergency planning requirements and improved siting flexibility compared to other nuclear technologies.

  3. BWR type nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yoshio; Okano, Kimifumi; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Okura, Minoru

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a BWR plant capable of reducing the size of the reactor building while maintaining reliability of a pool water cooling and cleaning facility even when two fuel storage pools are disposed in the reactor building. Namely, in the reactor building, two fuel storage pools, a temporality storing pool for temporary storing incore structures and a suppression pool are disposed. A primary cleaning facility for cooling and cleaning pool water for each of fuel storage pools comprises a serge tank, a pump, a heat exchanger and a filtration desalting device. A secondary cleaning facility for cleaning pool water in the suppression pool comprises a pump and a filtration desalting device. The first cleaning facility can be switched to be used for the secondary cleaning facility. Specifically, upstream and downstream of the pump of the primary cleaning facility and those of the pump of the secondary cleaning facility are connected by communication pipelines. (I.S.)

  4. Performance review: PBMR closed cycle gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.N.; Tourlidakis, A.; Pilidis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Helium is considered as one of the ideal working fluid for closed cycle using nuclear heat source due to its low neutron absorption as well as high thermodynamic properties. The commercial viability of the Helium turbo machinery depends on operational success. The past attempts failed due to poor performances manifested in the form of drop in efficiency, inability to reach maximum load, slow response to the transients etc. Radical changes in the basic design were suggested in some instances as possible solutions. A better understanding of the operational performance is necessary for the detailed design of the plant and the control systems. This paper describes the theory behind the off design and transient modelling of a closed cycle gas turbine plant. A computer simulation model has been created specifically for this cycle. The model has been tested for various turbine entry temperatures along the steady state and its replications at various locations were observed. The paper also looks at the various control methods available for a closed cycle and some of the options were simulated. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plants: structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrie, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include: steam electric plants; BWR type reactors; PWR type reactors; thermal efficiency of light water reactors; other types of nuclear power plants; the fission process and nuclear fuel; fission products and reactor afterheat; and reactor safety

  6. Relative costs to nuclear plants: international experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jair Albo Marques de

    1992-03-01

    This work approaches the relative costs to nuclear plants in the Brazil. It also presents the calculation methods and its hypothesis to determinate the costs, and the nacional experience in costs of investment, operating and maintenance of the nuclear plants

  7. Passive Nuclear Plants Program (UPDATE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimeno, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    The light water passive plants program (PCNP), today Advanced Nuclear Power Plants Program (PCNA), was constituted in order to reach the goals of the Spanish Electrical Sector in the field of advanced nuclear power plants, optimize the efforts of all Spanish initiatives, and increase joint presence in international projects. The last update of this program, featured in revision 5th of the Program Report, reflects the consolidation of the Spanish sector's presence in International programs of the advanced power plants on the basis of the practically concluded American ALWR program. Since the beginning of the program , the PCNP relies on financing from the Electrical sector, Ocide, SEPI-Endesa, Westinghouse, General Electric, as well as from the industrial cooperators, Initec, UTE (Initec- Empresarios Agrupados), Ciemat, Enusa, Ensa and Tecnatom. The program is made up of the following projects, already concluded: - EPRI's Advanced Light Water Plants Certification Project - Westinghouse's AP600 Project - General Electric's SBWR Project (presently paralyzed) and ABWR project Currently, the following project are under development, at different degrees of advance: - EPP project (European Passive Plant) - EBWR project (European Advanced Boiling Water Reactor)

  8. Children's reactions to the threat of nuclear plant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwebel, M.; Schwebel, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the wake of Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, questionnaire and interview responses of children in elementary and secondary schools revealed their perceptions of the dangers entailed in the continued use of nuclear reactors. Results are compared with a parallel study conducted close to 20 years ago, and implications for mental health are examined

  9. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  10. SECURE nuclear district heating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson; Hannus, M.

    1978-01-01

    The role foreseen for the SECURE (Safe Environmentally Clean Urban REactor) nuclear district heating plant is to provide the baseload heating needs of primarily the larger and medium size urban centers that are outside the range of waste heat supply from conventional nuclear power stations. The rationale of the SECURE concept is that the simplicity in design and the inherent safety advantages due to the use of low temperatures and pressures should make such reactors economically feasible in much smaller unit sizes than nuclear power reactors and should make their urban location possible. It is felt that the present design should be safe enough to make urban underground location possible without restriction according to any criteria based on actual risk evaluation. From the environmental point of view, this is a municipal heat supply plant with negligible pollution. Waste heat is negligible, gaseous radioactivity release is negligible, and there is no liquid radwaste release. Economic comparisons show that the SECURE plant is competitive with current fossil-fueled alternatives. Expected future increase in energy raw material prices will lead to additional energy cost advantages to the SECURE plant

  11. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castano, J.; Schivo, M.

    1987-01-01

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  12. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  13. Perceived nuclear risk, organizational commitment, and appraisals of management: A study of nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivimaeki, M.; Kalimo, R.; Salminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined to what extent nuclear risk perceptions, organizational commitment (OC), and appraisals of management are associated with each other among nuclear power plant personnel. The sample consisted of 428 nuclear power plant workers who completed a questionnaire at their workplace. Perceived nuclear risk and OC were most closely related to the appraisals of the top management of the organization. As the trust in and satisfaction with the top management increased, perceived nuclear safety and acceptance of the organizational goals and values heightened. This result is discussed in the context of industrial safety management. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots will enhance safety and operations in nuclear plants. E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligent, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  15. Expert robots in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Fisher, J.J.; DeVries, K.R.; Martin, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Expert robots enhance a safety and operations in nuclear plants. E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Savannah River Laboratory, is developing expert mobile robots for deployment in nuclear applications at the Savannah River Plant. Knowledge-based expert systems are being evaluated to simplify operator control, to assist in navigation and manipulation functions, and to analyze sensory information. Development work using two research vehicles is underway to demonstrate semiautonomous, intelligence, expert robot system operation in process areas. A description of the mechanical equipment, control systems, and operating modes is presented, including the integration of onboard sensors. A control hierarchy that uses modest computational methods is being used to allow mobile robots to autonomously navigate and perform tasks in known environments without the need for large computer systems

  16. Exploiting nuclear plants in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    This document outlines that the French fleet of 58 reactors is only 25 year old in average, and that nuclear safety is strongly regulated, and notably relies on improved indicators and on a decennial re-assessment. It outlines that nuclear energy is a response to energy challenges and that it is therefore relevant to operate the nuclear fleet beyond the initially foreseen lifetime (40 years). Due to maintenance and renewal activities, plants are supposed to be safer and more efficient. To guarantee an always safer and more efficient operation in time, five actions are highlighted: decennial controls, installation and equipment modifications, control and anticipation of installation and equipment wear, competencies and ability renewal, better knowledge of techniques and technologies

  17. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, E.G.; Penteado Filho, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  18. Operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, P.

    1988-04-01

    The textbook for training nuclear power plant personnel is centred on the most important aspects of operating modes of WWER-440 reactors. Attention is devoted to the steady state operation of the unit, shutdown, overhaul with refuelling, physical and power start-up. Also given are the regulations of shift operation and the duties of individual categories of personnel during the shift and during the change of shifts. (Z.M.). 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  20. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  1. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  2. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  3. Nuclear plant analyzer desktop workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5

  4. Nuclear export controls - Closing the gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fritz W.

    2005-01-01

    Concerns over a nuclear 'black market' have focused international attention on the effectiveness of nuclear export controls. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei has stated that the emergence of a multinational illicit network demonstrated the inadequacy of the present export control system, that international cooperation on export controls lay on informal arrangements that were not only not binding but also limited in membership, and that export control information was not systematically shared with the IAEA. This criticism, often heard on the political level, does not really do justice to the work of export control groups. The emergence of a multinational illicit network does not necessarily prove failures in export control systems. Criminal activities, by definition, try to circumvent existing rules and regulations, or they exploit the absence of such rules on State level. To fight such individual cases is not so much a task of regular export control systems, whose function lies primarily in establishing standards and procedures for export controls on State level, but rather the task for intelligence services and their international cooperation. The basis of the export control regime is the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Export controls can - and do - play an important role in fostering this universality goal by demanding the implementation of internationally agreed security standards in recipient countries before export licenses are granted. Drawn from the deliberations in the NPT conferences, the current standards to be demanded as conditions of supply are the following: Safeguards, Physical Protection, National export control provisions. According to the NPT system, export controls require IAEA verification in the recipient country. In addition, export controls enable States to provide information to the IAEA on exports and imports as required by the Additional Protocol. The 2005 NPT Review Conference will be an opportunity to review developments

  5. Occupational dose control in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viktorsson, C.; Lochard, J.; Benedittini, M.; Baum, J.; Khan, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Reduction in occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is desirable not only in the interest of the health and safety of plant personnel, but also because it enhances the safety and reliability of the plants. This report summarises the current trends of doses to workers at nuclear power plants and the achievements and developments regarding methods for their reduction

  6. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migaud, D.; Hutin, J.P.; Jouette, I.; Eymond, P.; Devie, P.; Cudelou, C.; Magnier, S.; Frydman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This document gathers different articles concerning the maintenance of the French nuclear power plants. The first article analyses the impact of the recent law on the energetic transition that sets the share of nuclear power at 50% of the electricity produced by 2025. A consequence may be the decommissioning of 17 to 20 reactors by 2025 and the huge maintenance program called 'Grand Carenage' whose aim is to extend operating life over 40 years will have to be re-considered in order to avoid useless expenses. The second article shows that in 2015 the French nuclear reactor fleet got very good results in terms of availability and safety. There were 49 scheduled outages and among them some ended ahead of time. The third article describes the specificities of the maintenance of a nuclear power plant, for instance the redundancy of some systems implies that maintenance has to deal with systems that have never functioned but must be ready to operate at any moment. Another specificity is the complexity of a nuclear power plant that implies an essential phase of preparation for maintenance operations. Because of safety requirements any maintenance operation has to be controlled, checked and may provide feedback. The fourth article presents the 'Grand Carenage' maintenance program that involves the following operations: the replacement of steam generators, the re-tubing of condensers, the replacement of the filtering drums used for cooling water, the testing of the reactor building, the hydraulic test of the primary circuit and the inspection of the reactor vessel. The fifth article focuses on the organization of the work-site for maintenance operations and the example of the Belleville-sur-Loire is described in the sixth article. Important maintenance operations like 'Grand Carenage' requires a strong collaboration with a network of specialized enterprises and as no reactor (except Flamanville EPR) is being built in France, maintenance

  7. Barsebaeck nuclear plant February-99

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, Ann-Christin

    1999-01-01

    Barsebaeck should, according to the government decision, have been closed before the 1st of July 1998, but the Supreme Administrative Court ruled on Stay of Execution, after Barsebaeck Kraft had applied for judicial review. The Threat of a Phase out of Barsebaeck 1 started in 1980, due to the accident at Three Mile Island. Swedish opinion Opinion polls (Nov 97, March 98 and May 98) shows that about 80 percent of the Swedish population want to use nuclear power until the existing reactors have to be stopped for safety or economical reasons. About 20 percent of these want to develop nuclear power. Average or high confidence in Barsebaeck has 94 percent on the Swedish side and 74 percent in Copenhagen 1998. From February 1997 till August 1998 Barsebaeck personnel have executed several information activities to stress our message that Barsebaeck is necessary for the environment, the jobs and the economy

  8. Nuclear Plant Integrated Outage Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstberger, C. R.; Coulehan, R. J.; Tench, W. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of an emerging concept for improving nuclear plant outage performance - integrated outage management. The paper begins with an explanation of what the concept encompasses, including a scope definition of the service and descriptions of the organization structure, various team functions, and vendor/customer relationships. The evolvement of traditional base scope services to the integrated outage concept is addressed and includes discussions on changing customer needs, shared risks, and a partnership approach to outages. Experiences with concept implementation from a single service in 1984 to the current volume of integrated outage management presented in this paper. We at Westinghouse believe that the operators of nuclear power plants will continue to be aggressively challenged in the next decade to improve the operating and financial performance of their units. More and more customers in the U. S. are looking towards integrated outage as the way to meet these challenges of the 1990s, an arrangement that is best implemented through a long-term partnering with a single-source supplier of high quality nuclear and turbine generator outage services. This availability, and other important parameters

  9. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  10. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  11. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2005 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  12. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  13. Simulators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancarani, A.; Zanobetti, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different types of simulator for nuclear power plants depend on the kind of programme and the degree of representation to be achieved, which in turn determines the functions to duplicate. Different degrees correspond to different simulators and hence to different choices in the functions. Training of nuclear power plant operators takes advantage of the contribution of simulators of various degrees of complexity and fidelity. Reduced scope simulators are best for understanding basic phenomena; replica simulators are best used for formal qualification and requalification of personnel, while modular mini simulators of single parts of a plant are best for replay and assessment of malfunctions. Another category consists of simulators for the development of assistance during operation, with the inclusion of disturbance and alarm analysis. The only existing standard on simulators is, at present, the one adopted in the United States. This is too stringent and is never complied with by present simulators. A description of possible advantages of a European standard is therefore offered: it rests on methods of measurement of basic simulator characteristics such as fidelity in values and time. (author)

  14. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  15. Estimation of nuclear power plant aircraft hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.

    1978-01-01

    The standard procedures for estimating aircraft risk to nuclear power plants provide a conservative estimate, which is adequate for most sites, which are not close to airports or heavily traveled air corridors. For those sites which are close to facilities handling large numbers of aircraft movements (airports or corridors), a more precise estimate of aircraft impact frequency can be obtained as a function of aircraft size. In many instances the very large commercial aircraft can be shown to have an acceptably small impact frequency, while the very small general aviation aircraft will not produce sufficiently serious impact to impair the safety-related functions. This paper examines the in between aircraft: primarily twin-engine, used for business, pleasure, and air taxi operations. For this group of aircraft the total impact frequency was found to be approximately once in one million years, the threshold above which further consideration of specific safety-related consequences would be required

  16. Licensing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1984-01-01

    De Witt, who as an advocate represents the interests of citizen's initiatives in lawsuits concerning nuclear power plants, contests an independent scope of discretion of the administration and criticizes the reduction of the control density of courts which can be noticed recently. The shift of emphasis from the courts to the administration would not only change the balance within the constitutional separation of powers but could also lead to a weakening of the protection of fundamental rights. When assessing the technical risks he wants above all to take into account the possible extent of the damage. De Witt also shows that - beyond the discretion of refusal according to section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act and the exertion of influence of the executive on public utilities - it could be possible to develop means - not used until now - to control the social impacts of nuclear energy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Closed cycle MHD power plant and retrofit optimization application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J. C.; Owens, W. R.; Sheth, P. R.; Griswold, J.; Wehrey, M.

    1980-06-01

    The results of two independent studies of closed-cycle MHD power systems are presented. A combined cycle consisting of an MHD closed-cycle topping unit retrofitted to an existing steam bottoming plant is considered. Preliminary results of an ongoing parametric study of an MHD closed-cycle system utilizing an integrated pressurized coal gasifier are discussed.

  19. Nuclear power plant operation 2016. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2017-05-15

    A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2016, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in a further issue.

  20. Environmental survey around EDF nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of various types of environmental test carried out under the responsibility of the Operator of nuclear power plants in France, with taking Fessenheim nuclear power plant as an example: permanent monitoring of radioactivity, periodic radioecological assessments, main results of measurements taken, showing that there are no detectable effects of the plant on the environment, policy of openness by publication of these results

  1. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  2. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1989-01-01

    To ensure the safety operation of nuclear power plant, one should strictly adhere to the implelmentation of safety codes and the establishment of nuclear safety code system, as well as the applicable basic safety principles of nuclear power plants. This article briefly introduce the importance of nuclear codes and its economic benefits and the implementation of basic safety principles to be accumulated in practice for many years by various countries

  3. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  5. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  6. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  7. Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The multidisciplinary aspects of the activities involved in the nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing, are presented. The activities of CNEN's technical staff in the licensing of Angra-1 and Angra-2 power plants are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sozzi, G.L.; Dahl, C.C.; Gross, R.S.; Voeller, J.G. III

    1995-01-01

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1993-09-01

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear safety and radiation protection which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers safety significant. Safety-enhancing modifications at the nuclear power plants and issues relating to the use of nuclear energy which are of general interest are also reported. The reports include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the first quarter of 1993, a primary feedwater system pipe break occurred at Loviisa 2, in a section of piping after a feedwater pump. The break was erosion-corrosion induced. Repairs and inspections interrupted power generation for seven days. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as a level 2 incident. Other events in the first quarter of 1993 had no bearing on nuclear safety and radiation protection

  10. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  11. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  12. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  13. Appraisal of nuclear power plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applegren, G.H.; Beckwith, R.; Jakubowski, C.L.; Whysong, J.L.; Rossin, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of large power plants at Commonwealth Edison is evaluated. There are seven nuclear units with a total capacity of about 5500 MW(e); six of the units are 800 MW(e) in size or larger. Fossil-fired capacity totals about 10,600 MW, primarily coal-fired. There are five coal-fired units 600 MW in size or larger. All large units have been installed since 1964. It is found that the nuclear plants in the system are more economical than coal-fired plants even at capacity factors well below 65 percent; that the nuclear plants have slightly better availability than the fossil plants; and that system characteristics have a strong influence on the performance of all of the plants. A cost comparison is shown of electric power generation from nuclear, a combination of Illinois and Western coal, and Western coal plants. (U.S.)

  14. Preventive fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kordina, K.; Dobbernack, R.

    1988-01-01

    Fire risk considerations in nuclear power plants and questions of preventive fire protection have so far not been dealt with sufficient attention. For this reason a research program was proposed and financed by the government of the Federal Republic of Germany in order to clarify these questions and to optimise preventive fire protection measures especially in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  15. Medical consequences of a nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, S.E.; Reizenstein, P.; Stenke, L.

    1987-01-01

    The report gives background information concerning radiation and the biological medical effects and damages caused by radiation. The report also discusses nuclear power plant accidents and efforts from the medical service in the case of a nuclear power plant accident. (L.F.)

  16. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  17. Quality assurance in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.T. de

    1981-01-01

    The factors related to the licensing procedures of a nuclear power plant (quality assurance and safety analysis) are presented and discussed. The consequences of inadequate attitudes towards these factors are shown and suggestions to assure the safety of nuclear power plants in Brazil are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  18. EPRI nuclear power plant decommissioning technology program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Karen S.; Bushart, Sean P.; Naughton, Michael; McGrath, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is a non-profit research organization that supports the energy industry. The Nuclear Power Plant Decommissioning Technology Program conducts research and develops technology for the safe and efficient decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  19. Nuclear power plants in electric power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicman, J.; Vokurka, F.

    1985-01-01

    The paper analyzes the demands placed by the power system on operating qualities of nuclear power plants with regard to the prospective tasks of nuclear power in the Czechoslovak power system. The characteristics of the operation of Czechoslovak nuclear plants are given taking into account the frequency and voltage deviations of the network, operating and control properties of nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors considering the technical conditions of operation, the required operating schedule of a nuclear power plant unit. For comparison, the demands are summed up of foreign power systems as are the control properties of foreign nuclear power units in regulating output, regulating delivered electric power and in emergency states of the system. Recommendations for further research and development are drawn from the data. (author)

  20. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  1. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  3. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeglin, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.) [de

  4. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  5. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  6. Nuclear plants: France and the export market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic contingencies are causing the French industry to expand its activity abroad. After a review of the nuclear industry in France: uranium extraction, enrichment, irradiated fuel reprocessing and France's present programme; the competitive market among countries exporting and countries interested in importing nuclear power plants are examined. Finally France's position in the world nuclear power plant market is outlined with that of its foreign competitors [fr

  7. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  8. Effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.R.; Manweiler, R.W.; Davis, R.R.

    1977-09-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation consists of a transient pulse of high intensity electromagnetic fields. These intense fields induce current and voltage transients in electrical conductors. Although most nuclear power plant cables are not directly exposed to these fields, the attenuated EMP fields that propagate into the plant will couple some EMP energy to these cables. The report predicts the probable effects of the EMP transients that could be induced in critical circuits of safety-related systems. It was found that the most likely consequence of EMP for nuclear plants is an unscheduled shutdown. EMP could prolong the shutdown period by the unnecessary actuation of certain safety systems. In general, EMP could be a nuisance to nuclear power plants, but it is not considered a serious threat to plant safety

  9. Chemistry management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Katsumi; Maeda, Katsuji

    1998-01-01

    Recently, the chemistry management in the nuclear power plants has been changing from the problem solution to the predictive diagnosis and maintenance. It is important to maintain the integrity of plant operation by an adequate chemistry control. For these reasons, many plant operation data and chemistry analysis data should be collected and treated effectively to evaluate chemistry condition of the nuclear power plants. When some indications of chemistry anomalies occur, quick and effective root cause evaluation and countermeasures should be required. The chemistry management system has been developed as to provide sophisticate chemistry management in the nuclear power plants. This paper introduces the concept and functions of the chemistry management system for the nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1999 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1999; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; grid connection forecasts; world electric power market; electronuclear owners and share holders in EU, capacity and load factor; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; 1999 gross load factor by operator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  11. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  12. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1980-08-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  13. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Developmental trends on nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 1999 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 72 electric companies in 31 nations and regions in the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; location of the plants; the plants in the world; and so forth. And, it also has some survey results on the 'Liberalization of electric power markets and nuclear power generation' such as some 70% of respondents in nuclear power for future option, gas-thermal power seen as power source with most to gain from liberalization, merits on nuclear power generation (environmental considerations and supply stability), most commonly voiced concern about new plant orders in poor economy, and so forth. (G.K.)

  15. Gas release from pressurized closed pores in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.; Donnelly, S.E.; Armour, D.G.; Matzke, H.

    1988-01-01

    Gas release from the nuclear fuels UO 2 and UN out of pressurized closed pores produced by autoclave anneals has been studied by Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS). Investigation of gas release during heating and cooling has indicated stress related mechanical effects leading to gas release. This release occurred in a narrow temperature range between about 1000 and 1500 K for UO 2 , but it continued down to ambient temperature for UN. No burst release was observed above 1500 K for UO 2 . (orig.)

  16. Seismic reevaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennart, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The codes and regulations governing Nuclear Power Plant seismic analysis are continuously becoming more stringent. In addition, design ground accelerations of existing plants must sometimes be increased as a result of discovery of faulting zones or recording of recent earthquakes near the plant location after plant design. These new factors can result in augmented seismic design criteria. Seismic reanalysius of the existing Nuclear Power Plant structures and equipments is necessary to prevent the consequences of newly postulated accidents that could cause undue risk to the health or safety of the public. This paper reviews the developments of seismic analysis as applied to Nuclear Power Plants and the methods used by Westinghouse to requalify existing plants to the most recent safety requirements. (author)

  17. Nuclear plant data systems - some emerging directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.D.; Humphress, G.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Significant changes have occurred in recent years in the nuclear power industry to accentuate the need for data systems to support information flow and decision making. Economic conditions resulting in rapid inflation and larger investments in new and existing plants and the need to plan further ahead are primary factors. Government policies concerning environmental control, as well as minimizing risk to the public through increased nuclear safety regulations on operating plants are additional factors. The impact of computer technology on plant data systems, evolution of corporate and plant infrastructures, future plant data, system designs and benefits, and decision making capabilities and data usage support are discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Improved IAEA safeguards for closed nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The paper recognises the limitations of nuclear material accountancy in applying safeguards to future large scale processing plants. For those plants the following will be necessary: (i) The inclusion of safeguards requirements in design criteria. (ii) Extensive application of containment and surveillance with monitors on personnel and goods exits, pipework, tanks, etc. (iii) Continuous inspectorate measurement of input and output flows. Local IAEA laboratories to ensure timeliness. (iv) Upgrading of process control information to enable the inspectorate to monitor the in-process inventory. The inspectorates knowledge of the in-process inventory will be valuable in their assessment of any alarms given by the containment-surveillance system

  19. Seismic detectors for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Matsumoto, Takuji; Gunyasu, Kenzo; Tanabe, Akira.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of a nuclear power plant by placing seismic detectors in the periphery of the nuclear power plant at the position capable of sensing the seismic waves at least 2 seconds before they arrive at the power plant, and reducing the reactor power by a scram setter upon reception of the seismic waves. Constitution: Seismic detectors are plated on a same circle around the nuclear power plant at a distance capable of detecting seismic waves before they arrive at the power plant, and they are connected to a scram setter. When the detectors detect the seismic waves, which exceeds a predetermined set value for the scram, the scram setter actuated control rod drives, by which control rods are inserted in the nuclear reactor to reduce its output power, as well as prevents external disturbances such as turbine trips. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Nuclear power plant's safety and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1975-01-01

    Starting with a comprehensive safety strategy as evolved over the past years and the present legal provisions for the construction and operation of nuclear power plants, the risk of the intended operation, of accidents and unforeseen events is discussed. Owing to the excellent safety record of nuclear power plants, main emphasis in discussing accidents is given to the precautionary analysis within the framework of the licensing procedure. In this context, hypothetical accidents are mentioned only as having been utilized for general risk comparisons. The development of a comprehensive risk concept for a completely objective safety assessment of nuclear power plants remains as a final goal. (orig.) [de

  1. Safety assessment principles for nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The present Safety Assessment Principles result from the revision of those which were drawn up following a recommendation arising from the Sizewell-B enquiry. The principles presented here relate only to nuclear safety; there is a section on risks from normal operation and accident conditions and the standards against which those risks are assessed. A major part of the document deals with the principles that cover the design of nuclear plants. The revised Safety assessment principles are aimed primarily at the safety assessment of new nuclear plants but they will also be used in assessing existing plants. (UK)

  2. Methods of assessing nuclear power plant risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Kovacz, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of safety evalution is based on safety criteria -standards or set qualitative values of parameters and indices used in designing nuclear power plants, incorporating demands on the quality of equipment and operation of the plant, its siting and technical means for achieving nuclear safety. The concepts are presented of basic and optimal risk values. Factors are summed up indispensable for the evaluation of the nuclear power plant risk and the present world trend of evaluation based on probability is discussed. (J.C.)

  3. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  4. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Intelligent operation system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Toshihiko; Fukumoto, Akira; Suto, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants consist of many systems and are operated by skillful operators with plenty of knowledge and experience of nuclear plants. Recently, plant automation or computerized operator support systems have come to be utilized, but the synthetic judgment of plant operation and management remains as human roles. Toshiba is of the opinion that the activities (planning, operation and maintenance) should be integrated, and man-machine interface should be human-friendly. We have begun to develop the intelligent operation system aiming at reducing the operator's role within the fundamental judgment through the use of artificial intelligence. (author)

  6. Problems facing a first nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.

    1986-01-01

    Requirement of nuclear power generation. Reason for considering a nuclear power programme. Decision to 'go nuclear'. Existing antecedents in the country (nuclear research institution, conventional generating plants, other nuclear utilities). - First organizational steps. Feasibility studies. Site selection and power module. Eventual reactor type decision. Site approval. - Pre-purchasing activities. Eventual selection of a consultant. Domestic participation capabilities. Pre-qualification bids. - Definition of contract type and scopes. Turn-key/non-turn-key. Architect Engineer organization. Bidding documentation. Financing. Warranties. Role of the owner. Licensing procedures and regulations. (orig./GL)

  7. Environmental and security challenges of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The world population increase, the acceleration of global requirement for development and the need to expand energy production, have led to the depletion of natural resources. The international efforts are increasing to get clean, safe and economical energy sources . The electricity generated from nuclear energy considers less polluting and high economic competitiveness as well as reliability and efficiency. The nuclear power plants projects face significant challenges, especially after two major accidents, in Chernobyl 1986 and Fukushima 2011 including the fears of radiation effects, nuclear waste management and nuclear proliferation issues, as well as the lack of public acceptance. So those bodies interested in operating nuclear power plants work to increase nuclear safety standards, review the nuclear facilities safety, know the strict application of laws, seek to prove the economic competitiveness, maintain environmental security, assist in the nonproliferation regime and gain public acceptance. This article discusses the most important environmental and security challenges of nuclear power plants. It highlights the importance of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy as a source of sustainable development and environmental security. It also offers a number of recommendations to support the Arab countries trend towards the inclusion of nuclear energy option within their national programs to generate electricity. (author)

  8. Training program for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, M.; Ikeda, K.; Shinomiya, Y.; Hada, M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power generation in Japan reached 24.7% of its electric power supply with its capacity and time availability factors of 76.2% and 77.1%, respectively (in the calendar year 1986 - as of December 31, 1986). One of the reasons for such high performance is attributable to high quality of operating and maintenance personnel in the nuclear power plants. Ministry of International Trade and Industry of the Japanese Government has an overall responsibility with relation to the safety regulations and supervises all scope of training, while the Thermal and Nuclear Power Engineering Society is authorized to conduct licensing activities to qualify the chief shift supervisor of nuclear power plant operation and individual utility companies are required to train their plant operating and maintenance personnel. General status of training for plant personnel is briefly described in this paper, touching the practical education and training systems of utility companies and operation and maintenance training facilities

  9. Design quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the design phase of a nuclear plant, and is applicable to the design of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures, as identified by the owner. 1 fig

  10. Nuclear power plant V-1, V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this leaflet the principal scheme of the Bohunice V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants is presented. Thermal scheme of WWER 440-type NPP (primary circuit, secondary circuit, and cooling water circuit) is described

  11. A trend to small nuclear power plants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lameira, Fernando Soares

    2000-01-01

    The release of fossil fuel greenhouse gases and the depletion of cheap oil reserves outside the Persic Gulf suggest a promising scenario for the future of nuclear power. But the end of the Cold War, the crisis of the state, axiological questions and globalization may lead to a marked for small power plants. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these factors, since they are not always considered all together in the future scenarios for nuclear power. It is concluded that the current evolutionary trend of nuclear power projects toward big plants may become one of the main barriers for the introduction of new plants in the future. It is suggested that a combination of fission reactors with technologies unavailable in the 1950's, when the design characteristics of the current nuclear power plants were established, could be considered to overcome this barrier. (author)

  12. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, D.

    1973-04-01

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK) [de

  13. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-07-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author) [pt

  14. Structural dynamic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.; Koishi, N.; Prates, C.L.M.

    1986-01-01

    One of the most important items to be considered in order to guarantee the safety conditions of a Nuclear Power Plant is the design of the civil structures, the electrical and mechanical components and piping system taking into account non-conventional loading cases, e.g. earthquakes and explosions pressure waves. The general procedures used in the structural dynamic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented, specially for seismic and explosion loads. (Author) [pt

  15. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  16. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albinowski, S.; Dakowski, M.; Downarowicz, M.

    1990-01-01

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  17. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  18. Approval tests in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, V.; Rolf, F.

    1984-01-01

    The supplier contract of a Nuclear Power plant establishes the values of Netto electrical Power, specific heat rate and the steam humidity at the outlet of the steam generator. Based on the Nuclear Plant Angra 2 and 3 (1300 MW) the methodology of evaluation and execution of the tests is shown as well as the location of the measuring instruments and the results of the measurements including tolerances. (Author) [pt

  19. Operation reports of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The requirements aiming to standardize the program of nuclear power plant operation report, required by Brazilian Energy Commission - CNEN - to evaluate the activities related to the nuclear technical safety and to the radiation protection during the units operational phase, are showed. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  1. Selection procedures for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchler, R.

    1976-01-01

    Selection procedures in reference to experience in staffing two Wisconsin Electric Power Company nuclear project offices and the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant are discussed. Wisconsin Electric has had a great deal of experience in the application of psychological tests and evaluation procedures, and it was natural that a major consideration in staffing these facilities was the selection of testing procedures

  2. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayoto.

    1979-01-01

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  3. MODELLING OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DECOMMISSIONING FINANCING

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bemš, J.; Knápek, J.; Králík, T.; Hejhal, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Vašíček, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2015), s. 519-522 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear power plant * methodology * future decommissioning costs Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.894, year: 2015

  4. Architecture and aesthetics of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreu, P.

    1977-01-01

    Having first analysed the main aesthetical and architectural problems related to the establishment of nuclear sites, the first results of the description is given of studies undertaken by a group of architects asked by E.D.F. to conceive the main buildings of a nuclear power plant and to imagine their insert in the site [fr

  5. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.

    1980-01-01

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  6. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  7. Regulatory requirements for desalination plant coupled with nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik; Jo, Jong Chull; Kim, Hho Jung; Song, Jae Myung

    2005-01-01

    A small-to-medium sized reactor has been developed for multi-purposes such as seawater desalination, ship propulsion, and district heating since early 1990s in Korea. Now, the construction of its scaled-down research reactor, equipped with a seawater desalination plant, is planned to demonstrate the safety and performance of the design of the multi-purpose reactor. And the licensing application of the research reactor is expected in the near future. Therefore, a development of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant is necessary for the preparation of the forthcoming licensing review of the research reactor. In this paper, the following contents are presented: the design of the desalination plant, domestic and foreign regulatory requirements relevant to desalination plants, and a draft of regulatory requirements/guides for a desalination plant coupled with a nuclear reactor plant

  8. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. The economics of nuclear power plants today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    The debate about the use of nuclear power is currently entering a phase of new objectivity, also because of its economic background. A new nuclear power plant is being built by private operators in Finland. That decision was based on important energy policy reasons and on a positive answer to the question of the economic viability of that plant. Studies along these lines were conducted mainly by Professor Risto Tarjanne of the Technical University of Lappeenranta, Finland. In that study, different electricity generating plants were compared with respect to their electricity generating costs. The lowest costs were found for nuclear, gas-fired, and coal-fired power plants, without taking into account the assumed probable costs of emissions trading. When these were included, the electricity costs of fossil-fired plants increased markedly. Changes in the underlying cost assumptions were examined further in a sensitivity analysis. Nuclear power was found to show cost advantages even under conditions of unfavorably high real interest rates. These cost benefits, in addition, were seen to be rather insensitive to increases in fuel costs and capital costs. In gas and coal-fired power plants, on the other hand, generating costs rise significantly as a function of rising fuel costs, among other things. The Finnish studies indicate sound economic reasons for building a new nuclear power plant in Finland. (orig.)

  10. Closing the nuclear option: scenarios for societal change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copulos, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    On November 8, 1976, the Natural Resources Defense Council petitioned the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, requesting that the Commission hold hearings for the purpose of making a definitive determination that nuclear wastes could be disposed of safely. NRDC also requested that until such a determination was made the Commission ''...refrain from acting finally to grant pending or future requests for reactor operating licenses...'' On June 27, 1977, the Commission denied NRDC's petition. As a result, on November 7th of that year, NRDC filed suit in the Second Circuit Court asking the court to reverse the Commission's decision and require ''...the agency to conduct a rulemaking proceeding to determine whether radioactive wastes generated by commercial nuclear reactors can be and will be disposed of safely, prior to reactor licensing....'' The consequences of the most likely outcome of this litigation is examined to estimate our nation's future ability to provide electricity to its people. Capability margins were chosen as the primary indicator of overall reliability of the bulk power generation system. Four scenarios were used in the examination: (1) assumes shutdown is complete but that coal production meets it current targets; (2) assumes that the shutdown only affects plants scheduled to come on line after 1978, and again, no problems in meeting stated coal-conversion goals; (3) examines the possible slower growth of coal caused by existing institutional constraints; and (4) combines this possibility with a post-1978 nuclear moratorium

  11. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  12. Rock siting of nuclear power plants from a reactor safety standpoint. Status report October 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clearify the advantages and disadvantages of an underground nuclear power plant from a reactor safety point of view, compared to a plant above ground. Principles for the technical design of a rock sited BWR nuclear power plant is presented. Also questions of sabotage and closing down the plant at the end of the operational period are treated. (K.K.)

  13. IAEA activity on operator support systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.; Fujita, Y.; Juslin, K.; Haugset, K.; Lux, I.; Naser, J.

    1994-01-01

    Various operator support systems for nuclear power plants are already operational or under development in the IAEA Member States. Operator support systems are based on intelligent data processing and, in addition to plant operation, they are also becoming more important for safety. A key feature of operator support systems is their availability to restructure data to increase its relevance for a given situation. This can improve the user's ability to identify plant mode, system state, and component state and to identify and diagnose faults. Operator support systems can also assist the user in planning and implementing corrective actions to improve the nuclear power plant's availability and safety. In September 1991, the IAEA Committee for Contractual Scientific Services approved the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Operator Support Systems in Nuclear Power Plants'' in the framework of the Project ''Man-Machine Interface Studies''. The main objective of this programme is to provide guidance and technology transfer for the development and implementation of operator support systems. This includes the experience with human-machine interfaces and closely related issues such as instrumentation and control, the use of computers in nuclear power plants, and operator qualification. (author)

  14. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-02-01

    The Topical Report presented establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of the report

  15. Quality assurance program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamon, T.H.

    1976-06-01

    This topical report establishes and provides the basis for the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program for Nuclear Power Plants from which the Brown and Root Quality Assurance Manual is prepared and implemented. The Quality Assurance Program is implemented by the Brown and Root Power Division during the design, procurement, and construction phases of nuclear power plants. The Brown and Root Quality Assurance Program conforms to the requirements of Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulation 10 CFR 50, Appendix B; to approved industry standards such as ANSI N45.2 and ''Daughter Standards''; or to equivalent alternatives as indicated in the appropriate sections of this report

  16. How to forecast nuclear plant construction time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, B.W.; Denehy, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    A cumulative probability distribution curve is described which can help planners estimate the construction time for nuclear power plants. Accumulated construction data published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Construction Status Report - Nuclear Power Plants is the basis for the curves. A case for both optimism and pessimism in lead times can be argued, but a probability curve can be drawn by monitoring construction duration trends and forming a histogram on which to base cumulative probability. The curve can be adapted to project the time for a project already in progress. 6 figures

  17. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  18. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  19. Maintenance welding technology in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Fukuhisa

    1999-01-01

    Welding technology used for a nuclear power plant greatly differs depending on either when the plant is being constructed or when the plant is in operation. Welding used in plant construction does not much differ, in method and technology, from that used in ordinary thermal power, chemical or other plants. On the other hand, repair welding technology for the reactor section of a nuclear power plant in operation greatly differs from that used for those plants. The recent requests for the prolongation of the life of nuclear power plants have remarkably improved welding technology for maintenance and repair in the nuclear field. Thus, the existing welding technology has been improved and new advanced welding technologies have been created one after another. Problems with the reactor section and welding technology for its maintenance and repair are presented. The temper bead method and the laser beam cladding and modification method for reactor pressure vessels, SCC and irradiation-assisted SCC measures for vessel structures, and SCC measures for heat-exchange tubes and the overall replacement of a steam generator are presented. (N.H.)

  20. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  1. Holographic inspection of nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.L.; Armour, I.A.; Glanville, R.; Malcolm, G.J.; Wright, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The high resolution, enormous depth of field and high tolerance to radiation of holography mean that it has great potential as an inspection tool in the nuclear industry. In addition, the ability of double-pulse holography to yield detailed information on vibration over the whole field of both large and small structures provides measurements that often cannot be obtained in any other way. This paper reviews the development of equipment for the holographic inspection of nuclear fuel elements; a portable holocamera for use inside reactors; and the application of holographic techniques for vibration measurements in a nuclear power station. (author)

  2. Academic training for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the increasing emphasis being placed upon academic training of nuclear power plant operators, it is important that institutions of higher education develop and implement programs which will meet the educational needs of operational personnel in the nuclear industry. Two primary objectives must be satisfied by these programs if they are to be effective in meeting the needs of the industry. One objective is for academic quality. The other primary objective is for programs to address the specialized needs of the nuclear plant operator and to be relevant to the operator's job. The Center for Nuclear Studies at Memphis State University, therefore, has developed a total program for these objectives, which delivers the programs, and/or appropriate parts thereto, at ten nuclear plant sites and with other plants in the planning stage. The Center for Nuclear Studies program leads to a Bachelor of Professional Studies degree in nuclear industrial operations, which is offered through the university college of Memphis State University

  3. Nuclear power plants 1995 - a world survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The atw Statistics Report compiled by atw lists 428 nuclear power plants with 363 397 gross MWe in operation in 30 countries in late 1995. Another 62 units with 55 180 gross MWe were under construction in 18 countries. This adds up to a total of 490 units with an aggregate 418 577 MWe. In the course of 1995 four units in four countries started commercial operation. In the survey of electricity generation in 1995 for which no information was made available from China and Kasachstan, a total of 417 nuclear power plants were covered. In the year under review they generated an aggregate 2 282 614 GWH, which is 3.4% more than in the previous year. The highest nuclear generation again was recorded in the USA with 705 771 GWh, followed by France with 377 021 GWh. The Grohnde power station in Germany attained the maximum annual production figure of 11 359 GWh. The survey includes nine tables indicating the generating performance of each nuclear power plant, the development of electricity generation in nuclear plants, and status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1995 arranged by countries, types of reactors, and reactor manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  4. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook

  5. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.; Bohr, E.

    1976-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is a first attempt to give a survey of the kind of literature which is relevant for the ergonomic working conditions in nuclear power plants. Such a survey seems to be useful in view of the fact that the 'factor human being' comes recently more and more to the fore in nuclear power plants. In this context, the necessity is often pointed out to systematically include our knowledge of the performance capacity and limits of human beings when designing the working conditions for the personnel of nuclear power plants. For this reason, the bibliography is so much intended for the ergonomics experts as for the experts of nuclear engineering. (orig./LN) [de

  6. Investigation of human system interface design in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan; Zhang Yunbo; Wang Zhongqiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the importance of HFE in designing nuclear power plant, and introduces briefly the content and scope of HFE, discusses human system interface design of new built nuclear power plants. This paper also describes human system interface design of foreign nuclear power plant, and describes in detail human system interface design of domestic nuclear power plant. (authors)

  7. Availability Improvement of German Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    High availability is important for the safety and economical performance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The strategy for availability improvement in a typical German PWR shall be discussed here. Key parameters for strategy development are plant design, availability of safety systems, component reliability, preventive maintenance and outage organization. Plant design, availability of safety systems and component reliability are to a greater extent given parameters that can hardly be influenced after the construction of the plant. But they set the frame for maintenance and outage organisation which have shown to have a large influence on the availability of the plant. (author)

  8. More child leukemia near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    A French study shows that there are more cases of child leukemia near nuclear power plants but the statistics is low: only 14 cases detected. The same study shows that the excess is not due to the releases of gaseous effluents from the plant, there is no relationship between the excess and a particular type of plant or even a particular plant. Some experts suggest that it might be the movement and intermingling of populations in the plant area that ease the propagation of infectious agents involved in child acute leukemia. A similar result was obtained in Germany a few years ago. (A.C.)

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-09-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  10. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, P.

    1985-11-01

    These general reviews of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants concentrate on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as noteworthy. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and load factors of the plants. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. (author)

  11. Safety design of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Yu; Zhang Lian; Du Shenghua; Zhao Jiayu

    1984-01-01

    Safety issues have been greatly emphasized through the design of the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Reasonable safety margine has been taken into account in the plant design parameters, the design incorporated various safeguard systems, such as engineering safety feature systems, safety protection systems and the features to resist natural catastrophes, e. g. earthquake, hurricanes, tide and so on. Preliminary safety analysis and environmental effect assessment have been done and anti-accident provisions and emergency policy were carefully considered. Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant safety related systems are designed in accordance with the common international standards established in the late 70's, as well as the existing engineering standard of China

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reponen, H.; Viitasaari, O.

    1985-05-01

    This general review of the operation of the Finnish nuclear power plants in the third quarter of the year 1984 concentrates on such events and discoveries related to reactor and radiation safety that the regulatory body, the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, regards as significant. In the report period, no event essentially degraded plant safety nor posed a radiation hazard to the personnel or the environment. The report also includes a summary of the radiation safety of the personnel and the environment and tabulated data on the production and capacity factors of the plants. (author)

  13. Linguistic control of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeley, J.J.; Johnson, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A multivariable linguistic controller based on fuzzy set theory is discussed and its application to a pressurized water nuclear power plant control is illustrated by computer simulation. The nonlinear power plant simulation model has nine states, two control inputs, one disturbance input, and two outputs. Although relatively simple, the model captures the essential coupled nonlinear plant dynamics and is convenient to use for control system studies. The use of an adaptive version of the controller is also demonstrated by computer simulation

  14. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Ghazi, S.

    2008-01-01

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  15. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Problems of nuclear power plant safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is discussed with regard to external effects on the containment and to the human factor. As for external effects, attention is focused on shock waves which may be due to explosions or accidents in flammable material transport and storage, to missiles, and to earthquake effects. The criteria for evaluating nuclear power plant safety in different countries are shown. Factors are discussed affecting the reliability of man with regard to his behaviour in a loss-of-coolant accident in the power plant. Different types of PWR containments and their functions are analyzed, mainly in case of accident. Views are discussed on the role of destructive accidents in the overall evaluation of fast reactor safety. Experiences are summed up gained with the operation of WWER reactors with respect to the environmental impact of the nuclear power plants. (Z.M.)

  17. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, D.

    1984-05-01

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  18. Advancements in nuclear plant maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meligi, A.E.; Maras, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The viability of the nuclear option as a technology choice for present and future electricity generation will be decided primarily on the basis of operating cost to achieve plant performance objectives. In a nuclear plant, performance is judged not only on availability and output rate but also on safety risk and radiation exposure. Operating, cost is essentially made up of the fuel cost and operation and maintenance (O and M) cost. Over the past decade, the industry average nuclear plant performance has improved significantly; however, this improvement was accompanied by rising O and M cost. The net result was that the nuclear option lost its long-standing economic advantage over the coal option, based on the industry average comparison, around 1987 - with the gap narrowing slightly in the last 2 years. In recent times, gas-fired plants have also become a basis for comparison. The electric generation cost comparisons of various fuel options has led to even greater scrutiny of nuclear plant performance, with the poorer performing plants facing the risk of shutdown. While effective O and M programs improve plant performance, present industry data show that there is no direct correlation between the cost of a plant O and M program and its associated performance. There is a significant number of existing tools and techniques in the O and M area that have proved to be successful and have resulted in significant benefits and payback. This paper presents an overview of the nuclear industry efforts to improve the conduct of O and M activities, describes the basic elements of an effective O and M program, and addresses some of the state-of-the-art tools and techniques to enhance maintenance work planning, training, and procedures

  19. Function of nuclear membrane proteins in shaping the nuclear envelope integrity during closed mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ju; Iwamoto, Masaaki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2017-06-01

    The nuclear envelope (NE) not only protects the genome from being directly accessed by detrimental agents but also regulates genome organization. Breaches in NE integrity threaten genome stability and impede cellular function. Nonetheless, the NE constantly remodels, and NE integrity is endangered in dividing or differentiating cells. Specifically, in unicellular eukaryotes undergoing closed mitosis, the NE expands instead of breaking down during chromosome segregation. The newly assembling nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) penetrate the existing NE in interphase. A peculiar example of NE remodelling during nuclear differentiation in Tetrahymena involves formation of the redundant NE and clustered NPCs. Even under these conditions, the NE remains intact. Many recent studies on unicellular organisms have revealed that nuclear membrane proteins, such as LEM-domain proteins, play a role in maintaining NE integrity. This review summarizes and discusses how nuclear membrane proteins participate in NE integrity. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Calvert Cliffs.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed operator...

  1. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of Withdrawal of...) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, to withdraw its... for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, located in Calvert County, MD. The...

  2. Revised inspection program for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates nuclear power plants to assure adequate protection of the public and the environment from the dangers associated with nuclear materials. NRC fulfills this responsibility through comprehensive safety reviews of nuclear facilities, licensing of organizations that use nuclear materials, and continuing inspection. The NRC inspection program is currently conducted from the five regional offices in or near Philadelphia, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas and San Francisco. Inspectors travel from the regional offices to nuclear power plants in various phases of construction, test and operation in order to conduct inspections. However, in June 1977 the Commission approved a revision to the inspection program that will include stationing inspectors at selected plants under construction and at all plants in operation. In addition, the revised program provides for appraising the performance of licensees on a national basis and involves more direct measurement and observation by NRC inspectors of work and tests in progress. The program also includes enhanced career management consisting of improved training and career development for inspectors and other professionals. The report was requested in the Conference Report on the NRC Authorization for Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1978. The report provides a discussion of the basis for both the current and revised inspection programs, describes these programs, and shows how the NRC inspection force will be trained and utilized. In addition, the report includes a discussion of the actions that will be taken to assure the objectivity of inspectors

  3. Countermeasures to earthquakes in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazuhide

    1979-01-01

    The contribution of atomic energy to mankind is unmeasured, but the danger of radioactivity is a special thing. Therefore in the design of nuclear power plants, the safety has been regarded as important, and in Japan where earthquakes occur frequently, the countermeasures to earthquakes have been incorporated in the examination of safety naturally. The radioactive substances handled in nuclear power stations and spent fuel reprocessing plants are briefly explained. The occurrence of earthquakes cannot be predicted effectively, and the disaster due to earthquakes is apt to be remarkably large. In nuclear plants, the prevention of damage in the facilities and the maintenance of the functions are required at the time of earthquakes. Regarding the location of nuclear plants, the history of earthquakes, the possible magnitude of earthquakes, the properties of ground and the position of nuclear plants should be examined. After the place of installation has been decided, the earthquake used for design is selected, evaluating live faults and determining the standard earthquakes. As the fundamentals of aseismatic design, the classification according to importance, the earthquakes for design corresponding to the classes of importance, the combination of loads and allowable stress are explained. (Kako, I.)

  4. Plant Design Nuclear Fuel Element Production Capacity Optimization to Support Nuclear Power Plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang Galung Susanto

    2007-01-01

    The optimization production capacity for designing nuclear fuel element fabrication plant in Indonesia to support the nuclear power plant has been done. From calculation and by assuming that nuclear power plant to be built in Indonesia as much as 12 NPP and having capacity each 1000 MW, the optimum capacity for nuclear fuel element fabrication plant is 710 ton UO 2 /year. The optimum capacity production selected, has considered some aspects such as fraction batch (cycle, n = 3), length of cycle (18 months), discharge burn-up value (Bd) 35,000 up 50,000 MWD/ton U, enriched uranium to be used in the NPP (3.22 % to 4.51 %), future market development for fuel element, and the trend of capacity production selected by advances country to built nuclear fuel element fabrication plant type of PWR. (author)

  5. Thoughts on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouze, Michel

    1996-01-01

    In this article published before the Chernobyl accident (and the greenhouse effect issue), the author comments the evolution of the perception people have on nuclear energy: it was supposed to be the beginning of a golden age, and is finally perceived as a source of thermal and radioactive pollution and a major industrial risk. He outlines and criticizes the various and more or less violent reactions and debates about the fact that choosing nuclear energy means choosing a certain type of society. He considers that this point of view refuses reality. He states that the emerging new and renewable energies cannot be the solution. He comments the emergence of an energy crisis after the first oil crisis, and the associated questions about a possible reduction of consumption, the replacement of oil, the potential of renewable energies. He criticizes the excessive fear about nuclear materials and energy, discusses the actual risks associated with electronuclear production, and discusses the energy issue in the international context to outline the importance of nuclear energy. He finally addresses issues related to the definition and implementation of an energy policy, with EDF as a major actor

  6. Assuring nuclear plant safety before and after license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berto, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    It is important in establishing a plant license renewal program that the specific goals of the program be identified at the very start. A detailed program can then be developed to focus on the stated goals, and efforts not related to accomplishing these specific goals can be excluded from the program. The goal of establishing and performing a license renewal evaluation is, of course, to obtain a renewed operating license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This goal is tied directly to the closely related goal of assuring plant safety during the license renewal term. The goal of assuring plant safety (without unnecessary costs) is the focus of the discussion in this paper. Assuring plant safety during the license renewal term is directly coupled with assuring plant safety during the current license term

  7. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  8. Destruction of nuclear graphite using closed chamber incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senor, D.J.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Morgan, W.C.; Marianowski, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Closed chamber incineration (CCI) is a novel technique by which irradiated nuclear graphite may be destroyed without the risk of radioactive cation release into the environment. The process utilizes an enclosed combustion chamber coupled with molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs). The transport of cations is intrinsically suppressed by the MCFCs, such that only the combustion gases are conducted through for release to the environment. An example CCI design was developed which had as its goal the destruction of graphite fuel elements from the Fort St. Vrain reactor (FSVR). By employing CCI, the volume of high level waste from the FSVR will be reduced by approximately 87 percent. Additionally, the incineration process will convert the SiC coating on the FSVR fuel particles to SiO 2 , thus creating a form potentially suitable for direct incorporation in a vitrification process stream. The design is compact, efficient, and makes use of currently available technology

  9. Nuclear power plant in whose backyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.

    1981-01-01

    The authority to regulate the nuclear power industry resides largely with the federal government. But states have the responsibility to protect the health and safety of their citizens and to regulate land use within their borders. The siting of nuclear power plants can engender conflicts between these jurisdictions that are usually resolved in the courts. Most state challenges to federal control of nuclear power have been struck down or severely weakened by the preemption doctrine contained in the supremacy clause of Article VI of the Constitution, which provides for the preemption of federal law over state law in the event of direct conflict. The existing avenues for state control over siting and operation of nuclear power plants can be greatly strengthened while avoiding direct conflict with federal jurisdiction

  10. A nuclear power plant system engineering workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems

  11. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena G, P.; Balcazar, M.; Vega R, E.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  12. Review of nuclear power plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doehler

    1980-01-01

    This presentation starts with a brief description of the Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein (TUeV) and its main activities in the field of technical assessments. The TUeV-organisation is in general the assessor who performs the review if nuclear power plant systems, structures and equipment. All aspects relating to the safe operation of nuclear power plants are assessed by the TUeV. This paper stresses the review of the design of nuclear power plant systems and structures. It gives an outline on the procedure of an assessment, starting with the regulatory requirements, going into the papers of the applicant and finally ending with the TUeV-appraisal. This procedure is shown using settlement measuring requirements as an example. The review of the design of mechanical structures such as pipes, valves, pump and vessels is shown in detail. (RW)

  13. Closures for underground nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, with the appropriate selection of an access concept on the underground nuclear power plant, it is possible to design a gate complying with the increased requirements of the construction of an underground nuclear power plant. The investigations revealed that a comparison leakage of 42 mm in diameter for the failure of seals is too conservative. When selecting suitable seals a leakage being more extensive than the above mentioned one can be prevented even in case of disturbance lasting several months. The closure structures of the personnel and material accesses do not represent any weak point within the concept of the construction method for underground nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack

    2009-01-01

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs

  16. Nuclear plant cancellations: causes, costs, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study was commissioned in order to help quantify the effects of nuclear plant cancellations on the Nation's electricity prices. This report presents a historical overview of nuclear plant cancellations through 1982, the costs associated with those cancellations, and the reasons that the projects were terminated. A survey is presented of the precedents for regulatory treatment of the costs, the specific methods of cost recovery that were adopted, and the impacts of these decisions upon ratepayers, utility stockholders, and taxpayers. Finally, the report identifies a series of other nuclear plants that remain at risk of canellation in the future, principally as a result of similar demand, finance, or regulatory problems cited as causes of cancellation in the past. The costs associated with these potential cancellations are estimated, along with their regional distributions, and likely methods of cost recovery are suggested

  17. Design concepts of nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This has been motivated by a variety of factors, including economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, the growing need for worldwide energy supply diversification, the need to conserve limited supplies of fossil fuels, protecting the environment from greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially advantageous spin-off effects of nuclear technology for industrial development. Various studies, and at least one demonstration project, have been considered by Member States with the aim of assessing the feasibility of using nuclear energy for desalination applications under specific conditions. In order to facilitate information exchange on the subject area, the IAEA has been active for a number of years in compiling related technical publications. In 1999, an inter regional technical co-operation project on Integrated Nuclear Power and desalination System Design was launched to facilitate international collaboration for the joint development by technology holders and potential end users of an integrated nuclear desalination system. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. It is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination. Interested readers are also referred to two related and recent IAEA publications, which contain useful information in this area: Introduction of Nuclear Desalination: A Guidebook, Technical Report Series No. 400 (2000) and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Plants Coupled with Seawater Desalination Units, IAEA-TECDOC-1235 (2001)

  18. Decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, M.; Peltonen, E.; Poellaenen, L.; Salonen, P.

    1987-12-01

    A conceptual plan is presented for the decommissioning of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. Deferred dismantlement after a storage period of 30 years is the main alternative. No detailed work plan for the demolition of structures is included. However, the world-wide development of demolition techniques for nuclear facilities has proven that the task can be performed using the existing technology. The decommissioning waste will be packed into concrete containers and wooden boxes. The total package volume is estimated at 8.000 and 30.000 m 3 depending on the treatment method. The higher figure stands for packing without any volume reduction. The activated reactor core components (fuel channels, control rods, neutron flux detectors) from the operational time of the Olkiluoto power plant are included in the decommissioning plan. The total activity of the contaminated and activated structures to be dismantled will be about 1x10 16 Bq after 30 years from the shut-down. The corresponding figure for the activated core components will be about 2x10 16 Bq. The radiation doses to personnel can be kept very low if the surface contamination of the large systems remains at a low level as it has done so far. The decommissioning waste is planned to be disposed of at the Olkiluoto site next to the reactor waste repository in the granitic bedrock at a depth of 50-100 m. The decommissioning waste repository will consist of two silos for the low-level waste and a hall for the activated metal waste. The barriers in the case of the metal waste hall will consist of the waste packages themselves, of 0.75 and 1 m thick concrete walls, of the 1 m thick bentonite/crushed rock backfill, and of the bedrock. The dismantlement will be finished by the year 2050, and the repository can be closed and sealed by 2055. The estimated decommissioning cost is FIM 808 million including the long-term storage and disposal

  19. Nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritskij, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of nuclear fuel production at BNFL plants is described, as well as basic technological processes of UO 2 powder production including IDR process for automatic fabrication of fuel elements and fuel assemblies. Physical and chemical properties of UO 2 powder, fuel pellet sintering parameters, data on in-reactor operation of nuclear fuels fabricated from pellets of controlled porosity with CONPOR additives, are presented. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. Safety targets for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herttrich, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    By taking as an example the safety targets of the American nuclear energy authority US-NRC, this paper explains what is meant by global, quantitative safety targets for nuclear power plants and what expectations are associated with the selecton of such safety targets. It is shown how probabilistic methods can be an appropriate completion of proven deterministic methods and what are the sectors where their application may become important in future. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Investment issues in nuclear plant license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynon, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    A method that determines the operating lives for existing nuclear power plants is discussed. These assumptions are the basis for projections of electricity supply through 2020 reported in the Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 1999. To determine if plants will seek license renewal, one must first determine if they will be operating to the end of their current licenses. This determination is based on an economic test that assumes an investment of $150/kW will be required after 30 yr of operation for plants with older designs. This expenditure is intended to be equivalent to the cost that would be associated with any of several needs such as a one0time investment to replace aging equipment (steam generators), a series of investments to fix age-related degradation, increases in operating costs, or costs associated with decreased performance. This investment is compared with the cost of building and operating the lowest-cost new plant over the same 10-yr period. If a plant fails this test, it is assumed to be retired after 30 yr of service. All other plants are then considered candidates for license renewal. The method used to determine if it is economic to apply for license renewal and operate plants for an additional 20 yr is to assume that plants face an investment of $250 million after 40 yr of operation to refurbish aging components. This investment is compared with the lowest-cost new plant alternative evaluated over the same 20 yr that the nuclear plant would operate. If the nuclear plant is the lowest cost option, it is projected to continue to operate. EIA projects that it would be economic to extend the operating licenses for 3.7 GW of capacity (6 units)

  2. G. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The selection of a site for a nuclear power site is a complex process involving considerations of public health and safety, engineering design, economics, and environmental impact. Although policies adopted in various countries differ in some details, a common philosophy usually underlies the criteria employed. The author discusses the basic requirements, as they relate to New Zealand, under the headings: engineering and economics; health and safety; environmental factors

  3. Nuclear power plants; security strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Safety standards and approaches to NPPs safety resulting from multilayer experience are presented. It is stressed that sufficiency and efficiency of reactor safety measures should be payed constant attention. Real evolution of accidents reqires unlimited development of new safety means. It is evident that in nuclear power there should exist high s afety culture . NPPs safety should be guaranteed by joint measures of both specialists ans public

  4. A nuclear power plant status monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, B.B.; Conradi, L.L.; Weinzimmer, F.

    1986-01-01

    Power plant operation requires decisions that can affect both the availability of the plant and its compliance with operating guidelines. Taking equipment out of service may affect the ability of the plant to produce power at a certain power level and may also affect the status of the plant with regard to technical specifications. Keeping the plant at a high as possible production level and remaining in compliance with the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) can dictate a variety of plant operation and maintenance actions and responses. Required actions and responses depend on the actual operational status of a nuclear plant and its attendant systems, trains, and components which is a dynamic situation. This paper discusses an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Research Project, RP 2508, the objective of which is to combine the key features of plant information management systems with systems reliability analysis techniques in order to assist nuclear power plant personnel to perform their functions more efficiently and effectively. An overview of the EPRI Research Project is provided along with a detailed discussion of the design and operation of the PSM portion of the project

  5. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well as TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole third quarter of 1991. Longer interruptions in electricity generation were caused by the annual maintenances of the Loviisa plant units. The load factor average was 81.7 %. In a test conducted during the annual maintenance outage of Loviisa 1 it was detected that the check valve of the discharge line of one pressurized emergency make-up tank did not open sufficiently at the tank's hydrostatic pressure. In connection with a 1988 modification, a too tightly dimensioned bearing had been mounted on the valve's axle rod and the valve had not been duly tested after the operation. The event is classified as Level 1 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Other events in this quarter which are classified according to the International Nuclear Event Scale are Level Zero (Below Scale). Occupational radiation doses and releases of radioactive material off-site were below authorised limits in this quarter. Only small amounts of radioactive materials originating in nuclear power plants were detected in samples taken in the vicinity of nuclear power plants

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plants require exceptional safety guarantees which are reflected in a rigorous control of the employed materials, advanced construction technology, sophisticated methods of analysis and consideration of non conventional load cases such as the earthquake loading. In this paper, the current procedures used in the seismic analysis of Nuclear Power Plants are presented. The seismic analysis of the structures has two objectives: the determination of forces in the structure in order to design it against earthquakes and the generation of floor response spectra to be used in the design of mechanical and electrical components and piping systems. (Author) [pt

  7. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  8. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, M.

    1983-01-01

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author) [pt

  9. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  10. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This translation of an IAEA publication (Safety Series No. 50-SD-D2, Rev.1) is a safety guide for fire protection of above-ground nuclear power plants equipped with reactors working with thermal neutrons. It is aimed at designers and surveillance bodies as an aid for setting up the fire protection concept in the design of the nuclear power plant and in its operation. The publication defines generic requirements and aims of fire protection, prevention and extinguishing, gives hints for reducing the secondary impacts of fires, and lays down requirements for quality assurance and basic principles of fire protection. (M.D.). 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Studies in training nuclear plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    One of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident was that the nuclear industry was ineffective in learning from previous events at other plants. As training programs and methods have improved since TMI, the nuclear industry has searched for effective methods to teach the lessons learned from industry events. The case study method has great potential as a solution. By reviewing actual plant events in detail, trainees can be challenged with solving actual problems. When used in a seminar or discussion format, these case studies also help trainees compare their decision-making processes with other trainees, the instructor, and the personnel involved in the actual case study event

  12. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  13. Site survey for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This Safety Guide describes the first stage of the siting process for nuclear power plants - the site survey to select one or more preferred candidate sites. Its purpose is to recommend procedures and provide information for use in implementing a part of the Code of Practice on Safety in Nuclear Power Plant Siting (IAEA Safety Series No.50-C-S). The organization, procedures, methodologies, guidance for documenting the site survey process and examples of detailed procedures on some safety-related site characteristics are given in the Guide

  14. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  15. Position control of a floating nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, K.; Hamamoto, T.; Sasaki, R.; Kojima, M.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of the increasing demand of electricity in Japan, the sites of nuclear power plants suitable for conventional seismic regulations become severely limited. Under these circumstances, several types of advanced siting technology have been developed. Among them, floating power plants have a great advantage of seismic isolation that leads to the seismic design standardization and factory fabrication. The feasibility studies or preliminary designs of floating power plants enclosed by breakwaters in the shallow sea have been carried out last two decades in U.S. and Japan. On the other hand, there are few investigations on the dynamic behavior of floating power plants in the deep sea. The offshore floating nuclear power plants have an additional advantage in that large breakwaters are not required, although the safety checking is inevitable against wind-induced waves. The tension-leg platforms which have been constructed for oil drilling in the deep sea seem to be a promising offshore siting technology of nuclear power plants. The tension-leg mooring system can considerably restrain the heave and pitch of a floating power plant because of significant stiffness in the vertical direction. Different from seismic effects, wind-induced waves may be predicted in advance by making use of ocean weather forecasts using artificial satellites. According to the wave prediction, the position of the floating plant may be controlled by adjusting the water content in ballast tanks and the length of tension-legs before the expected load arrives. The position control system can reduce the wave force acting on the plant and to avoid the unfavorable response behavior of the plant. In this study a semi-submerged circular cylinder with tension-legs is considered as a mathematical model. The configuration of circular cylinder is effective because the dynamic behavior does not depend on incident wave directions. It is also unique in that it can obtain the closed-form solution of

  16. Seismic safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerpinar, A.; Godoy, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work performed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the areas of safety reviews and applied research in support of programmes for the assessment and enhancement of seismic safety in Eastern Europe and in particular WWER type nuclear power plants during the past seven years. Three major topics are discussed; engineering safety review services in relation to external events, technical guidelines for the assessment and upgrading of WWER type nuclear power plants, and the Coordinated Research Programme on 'Benchmark study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER type nuclear power plants'. These topics are summarized in a way to provide an overview of the past and present safety situation in selected WWER type plants which are all located in Eastern European countries. Main conclusion of the paper is that although there is now a thorough understanding of the seismic safety issues in these operating nuclear power plants, the implementation of seismic upgrades to structures, systems and components are lagging behind, particularly for those cases in which the re-evaluation indicated the necessity to strengthen the safety related structures or install new safety systems. (author)

  17. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  18. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0202] Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition,'' Section 3.7.4, ``Seismic Instrumentation.'' DATES: Submit... Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to a new Revision 3). The proposed...

  19. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG... Support of Nuclear Power Plants;'' NSIR/DPR-ISG-01, ``Interim Staff Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development of Evacuation Time Estimate Studies...

  20. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.; Graf, A.; Hofmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally specific requirements arising from nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS. The main features of these systems are a clear task related architecture with adaptable redundancy, a consequent application of standards for interfaces and communication, comprehensive tools for easy design and service and a highly ergonomic screen based man-machine-interface. The engineering tasks are supported by an integrated engineering system, which has the capacity for design, test and diagnosis of all I and C functions and the related equipment. TELEPERM XP is designed to optimally perform all automatic functions, which require no nuclear specific qualification. This includes all sequences and closed-loop controls as well as most man-machine-interface functions. TELEPERM XS is designed for all control tasks which require a nuclear specific qualification. This especially includes all function to initiated automatic countermeasures to prevent or to cope with accidents. By use of the complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS, advanced and likewise economical plant automation and man-machine-interfaces can be implemented into Nuclear Power Plant, assuring compliance with the relevant international safety standards. (author). 10 figs

  1. Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, H.W.; Graf, A.; Hofmann, H.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced I and C systems for nuclear power plants have to meet increasing demands for safety and availability. Additionally, specific requirements coming from the nuclear qualification have to be fulfilled. To meet both subjects adequately in the future, Siemens has developed advanced I and C technology consisting of the two complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS. The main features of these systems are the clear task related architecture with adaptable redundancy, the consequent application of standards for interfaces and communication, comprehensive tools for easy design and service and a highly ergonomic screen based man-machine-interface. The engineering tasks are supported by an integrated engineering system, which has the capacity for design, test and diagnosis of all I and C functions and the related equipment. TELEPERM XP is designed to optimally perform all automatic functions, which require no nuclear specific qualification. This includes all sequences and closed-loop controls as well as most man-machine-interface functions. TELEPERM XS is designed for all control tasks which require a nuclear specific qualification. This especially includes all functions to initiate automatic countermeasures to prevent or to cope with accidents. By use of the complementary I and C systems TELEPERM XP and TELEPERM XS, economical as well as advanced plant automation and man-machine-interfaces can be implemented into Nuclear Plants, assuring the compliance with the relevant international safety standards. (author). 10 figs

  2. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  3. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-05-01

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  4. Nuclear plant construction and investment risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studness, C.M.

    1984-01-01

    Escalated cost estimations, delays and cancellations in nuclear construction have caused a preoccupation with the risks of nuclear power plant construction that dominates utility stock investment, overshadowing increased earnings per share and recent growth in production. The issue will be resolved when increased power demand requires new construction, but the effect has so far been to erode the economic advantage of nuclear power and threaten the ability of utilities to get rate increases high enough to cover their costs. Projected delays and cost escalations and their effects must go into an economic appraisal of the investment risks

  5. Glossary of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A glossary is presented of the terminology for understanding and managing the ageing of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components. This glossary has been published by NEA, in cooperation with CEC and IAEA, as a handy reference to facilitate and encourage use of common ageing terminology. The main benefits are improved reporting and interpretation of plant data on SSC degradation and failure, and improved interpretation and compliance with codes, regulations and standards related to nuclear plant ageing. The goal is to provide plant personnel with a common set of terms that have uniform, industry-wide meanings, and to facilitate discussion between experts from different countries. The glossary is in five languages: English, French, German, Spanish and Russian. In each language section terms are listed alphabetically, with sequential members which are repeated in the English section thus allowing cross-reference between al languages. (R.P.)

  6. Dukovany nuclear power plant in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Data on the power generation, nuclear safety, and gaseous and liquid releases into the environment were extracted from the 1993 annual report of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Operation of the plant was safe and reliable in 1993. Three events were classed as INES category 1. The plant's Failure Commission dealt with 100 events which brought about a total electricity generation loss of 217,624 MWh, corresponding to about 22 reactor-days. Out of this, 26.8 % was due to human error. Three fires occurred at the power plant site. Releases of radioactive aerosols, tritium, noble gases and radioiodine into air and of tritium, corrosion products, and fission products into the aquatic environment were below annual limits. The collective dose equivalent was 1.78 manSv in 1993. (Z.S.). 2 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emilio; French, Amanda; Urso, Maria Elena; Deffrennes, Marc; Rothwell, Geoffrey; ); Rehak, Ivan; Weber, Inge; ); Carroll, Simon; Daniska, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  8. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  9. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request... that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

  10. Assessment of nuclear power plant siting methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.; Hobbs, B.F.; Pierce, B.L.; Meier, P.M.

    1979-11-01

    Several different methods have been developed for selecting sites for nuclear power plants. This report summarizes the basic assumptions and formal requirements of each method and evaluates conditions under which each is correctly applied to power plant siting problems. It also describes conditions under which different siting methods can produce different results. Included are criteria for evaluating the skill with which site-selection methods have been applied.

  11. Intelligent maintenance system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Okano, Hideharu; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Tokura, Takehiko.

    1997-01-01

    An advanced Intelligent Maintenance System has been developed to realize highly reliable and efficient maintenance operation in the future for nuclear power plants. This system is equipped with high level sensing and robotic technologies and is composed of the following 4 systems; (1) Common System of Intellectual Maintenance (2) Inspection System in Operating Plants (3) Underwater Inspection System (4) Full-Automated Welding System. This Project is promoted by MITI from FY 1991 to FY 1995. (author)

  12. Floating nuclear power plant safety assurance principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonarev, B.M.; Kuchin, N.L.; Sergeev, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    In the north regions of the Russian federation and low density population areas, there is a real necessity for ecological clean energy small power sources. For this purpose, floating nuclear power plants, designed on the basis of atomic ship building engineering, are being conceptualized. It is possible to use the ship building plants for the reactor purposes. Issues such as radioactive waste management are described

  13. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  14. Waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, P.O.

    1992-05-01

    This report is based on the assumption that all twelve nuclear power plants will be shut down no later than A.D. 2010, as was decided by the parliament after the referendum on the future of nuclear power in Sweden. The recent 'Party agreement on the energy policy' of January 15, 1991 does, indeed, leave the door open for an extension of the operational period for the nuclear reactors. This will, however, not change the recommendations and conclusions drawn in this report. The report consists of two parts. Part 1 discusses classification of waste from decommissioning and makes comparisons with the waste arising from reactor operation. Part 2 discusses the documentation required for decommissioning waste. Also this part of the report draws parallels with the documentation required by the authorities for the radioactive waste arising from operation of the nuclear power plants. To some extent these subjects depend on the future use of the nuclear power plant sites after decommissioning of the plants. The options for future site use are briefly discussed in an appendix to the report. There are many similarities between the waste from reactor operations and the waste arising from dismantling and removal of decommissioned nuclear power plants. Hence it seems natural to apply the same criteria and recommendations to decommissioning waste as those presently applicable to reactor waste. This is certainly true also with respect to documentation, and it is strongly recommended that the documentation requirements on decommissioning waste are made identical, or at least similar, to the documentation requirements for reactor waste in force today. (au)

  15. Management strategies for nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    More competitive energy markets have significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including, among others, the need for more efficient use of resources and effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Outage management is a key factor for safe, reliable and economic plant performance and involves many aspects: plant policy, coordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements, and all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. The IAEA has produced this report on nuclear power plant outage management strategies to provide both a summary and an update of a follow-up to a series of technical documents related to practices regarding outage management and cost effective maintenance. The aim of this publication is to identify good practices in outage management: outage planning and preparation, outage execution and post-outage review. As in in the related technical documents, this report aims to communicate these practices in such a way that they can be used by operating organizations and regulatory bodies in Member States. The report was prepared as part of an IAEA project on continuous process improvement. The objective of this project is to increase Member State capabilities in improving plant performance and competitiveness through the utilization of proven engineering and management practices developed and transferred by the IAEA

  16. Monitoring support system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, Yuichi; Kubota, Rhuji; Tanaka, Keiji; Takano, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear power plants in Japan reach to 49 plants and supply 41.19 million kW in their installed capacities, which is equal to about 31% of total electric power generation and has occupied an important situation as a stable energy supplying source. As an aim to keeping safe operation and working rate of the power plants, various monitoring support systems using computer technology, optical information technology and robot technology each advanced rapidly in recent year have been developed to apply to the actual plants for a plant state monitoring system of operators in normal operation. Furthermore, introduction of the emergent support system supposed on accidental formation of abnormal state of the power plants is also investigated. In this paper, as a monitoring system in the recent nuclear power plants, design of control panel of recent central control room, introduction to its actual plant and monitoring support system in development were described in viewpoints of improvement of human interface, upgrade of sensor and signal processing techniques, and promotion of information service technique. And, trend of research and development of portable miniature detector and emergent monitoring support system are also introduced in a viewpoint of labor saving and upgrade of the operating field. (G.K.)

  17. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Third Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the period from September 1991 to October 1992. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. His philosophy, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree of automation where a greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. To achieve this goal, a hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions was pursued in this research. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 stem plant. Emphasized in this Third Annual Technical Progress Report is the continuing development of the in-plant intelligent control demonstration for the final project milestone and includes: simulation validation and the initial approach to experiment formulation

  18. Periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Csilla

    2009-01-01

    Operational nuclear power plants (NPPs) are generally subject to routine reviews of plant operation and special safety reviews following operational events. In addition, many Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have initiated systematic safety reassessment, termed periodic safety review (PSR), to assess the cumulative effects of plant ageing and plant modifications, operating experience, technical developments, site specific, organizational and human aspects. These reviews include assessments of plant design and operation against current safety standards and practices. PSRs are considered an effective way of obtaining an overall view of actual plant safety, to determine reasonable and practical modifications that should be made in order to maintain a high level of safety throughout the plant's operating lifetime. PSRs can be used as a means to identify time limiting features of the plant. The trend is to use PSR as a condition for deciding whether to continue operation of the plant beyond the originally established design lifetime and for assessing the status of the plant for long term operation. To assist Member States in the implementation of PSR, the IAEA develops safety standards, technical documents and provides different services: training courses, workshops, technical meetings and safety review missions for the independent assessment of the PSR at NPPs, including the requirements for PSR, the review process and the PSR final reports. This paper describes the PSR's objectives, scopes, methods and the relationship of PSR with other plant safety related activities and recent experiences of Member States in implementation of PSRs at NPPs. (author)

  19. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  20. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  1. Probabilistic methods in nuclear power plant component ageing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    1992-03-01

    The nuclear power plant ageing research is aimed to ensure that the plant safety and reliability are maintained at a desired level through the designed, and possibly extended lifetime. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time- dependent decrease in reliability. The results of analyses can be used in the evaluation of the remaining lifetime of components and in the development of preventive maintenance, testing and replacement programmes. The report discusses the use of probabilistic models in the evaluations of the ageing of nuclear power plant components. The principles of nuclear power plant ageing studies are described and examples of ageing management programmes in foreign countries are given. The use of time-dependent probabilistic models to evaluate the ageing of various components and structures is described and the application of models is demonstrated with two case studies. In the case study of motor- operated closing valves the analysis are based on failure data obtained from a power plant. In the second example, the environmentally assisted crack growth is modelled with a computer code developed in United States, and the applicability of the model is evaluated on the basis of operating experience

  2. Quality management for nuclear power plant operation: A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The experience from well operated nuclear power plants shows that achievement of safe, reliable and economic performance is closely related to a strong commitment and involvement by the management personnel. A system of controls is necessary to ensure that satisfactory quality in operation is achieved and maintained over the long term. The key to achieving and assuring quality lies in the ability of management to define performance objectives and to ensure that significant safety and reliability problems are prevented or detected early and resolved. This Manual has been developed by the IAEA to assist plant managers in fulfilling their responsibility with regard to the control and direction of quality and of quality assurance activities in nuclear power plant operation. It emphasizes quality objectives for nuclear power plant operation and indicates the way in which a quality system based on quality assurance principles as established in the IAEA NUSS documents can be used by managers to accomplish these objectives. Since the Manual is mainly directed at management personnel, it is presented in the form of short highlighted practices complemented by typical examples of forms and procedures. Since not all the activities under the heading of quality in operation could be covered in a single document, the activities selected for this Manual comprise those where it was felt that practical advice is generally needed. A pragmatic document useful for direct application by plant managers was the envisaged objective

  3. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isard, W.; Reiner, T.; Van Zele, R.; Stratham, J.

    1976-08-01

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  4. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction

  5. Strengthening of nuclear power plant construction safety management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the warning of the Fukushima nuclear accident, and analyzes the major nuclear safety issues in nuclear power development in China, problems in nuclear power plants under construction, and how to strengthen supervision and management in nuclear power construction. It also points out that the development of nuclear power must attach great importance to the safety, and nuclear power plant construction should strictly implement the principle of 'safety first and quality first'. (author)

  6. Managing Siting Activities for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to ''seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world''. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The introduction of nuclear power brings new challenges to States - one of them being the selection of appropriates sites. It is a project that needs to begin early, be well managed, and deploy good communications with all stakeholders; including regulators. This is important, not just for those States introducing nuclear power for the first time, but for any State looking to build a new nuclear power plant. The purpose of the siting activities goes beyond choosing a suitable site and acquiring a licence. A large part of the project is about producing and maintaining a validated

  7. Fuel optimization of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Zejun; Li Zhuoqun; Kong Deping; Xue Xincai; Wang Shiwei

    2010-01-01

    Based on the design practice of the fuel replacement of Qin Shan nuclear power plant, this document effectively analyzes the shortcomings of current replacement design of Qin Shan. To address these shortcomings, this document successfully implements the 300 MW fuel optimization program from fuel replacement. fuel improvement and experimentation ,and achieves great economic results. (authors)

  8. Operator support system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuyuki; Tai, Ichiro; Sudo, Osamu; Naito, Norio.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear power generation in Japan maintains the high capacity factor, and its proportion taken in the total generated electric power exceeded 1/4, thus it has become the indispensable energy source. Recently moreover, the nuclear power plants which are harmonious with operators and easy to operate are demanded. For realizing this, the technical development such as the heightening of operation watching performance, the adoption of automation, and the improvement of various man-machine systems for reducing the burden of operators has been advanced by utilizing electronic techniques. In this paper, the trend of the man-machine systems in nuclear power plants, the positioning of operation support system, the support in the aspects of information, action and knowledge, the example of a new central control board, the operation support system using a computer, an operation support expert system and the problems hereafter are described. As the development of the man-machine system in nuclear power plants, the upgrading from a present new central control board system PODIA through A-PODIA, in which the operational function to deal with various phenomena arising in plants and safety control function are added, to 1-PODIA, in which knowledge engineering technology is adopted, is expected. (Kako, I.)

  9. Radiological protection and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    Dosimetric results obtained inside and outside nuclear power plants are examined with a review to proposing revision of the radiological protection standards. Dose limits are considered with regard to leukemia and genetic effects. Other topics discussed are: observed collective damage and mean risk; lethal exposure; healing and sign change of additional risk; and genetic effects of radiation on mice

  10. Capital investment costs of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woite, G.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to summarize capital cost experience and estimates in industrialized and developing Member States of the IAEA, and to provide some guidance for cost extrapolation. The relative merits of different types and sizes of nuclear and conventional power plants for an expanding electricity generation system are compared over an adequate planning period

  11. Vibrations in pipelines of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, M.R.L.V.; Bevilacqua, L.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented the main causes of vibrations in nuclear power plants pipelines to allow the identification of critical areas and correct the errors during the specification design. The methods of vibration analysis to give subsidies in the determination of the corrective providences when the problem appears during the commissioning or the generation energy, are also presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. Professional adaptability of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Huang Xiangrui

    2006-01-01

    The paper concerns in the results of analysis for nuclear power plant (NPP) operator job and analysis for human errors related NPP accidents. Based on the principle of ergonomics a full psychological selection system of the professional adaptability of NPP operators including cognitive ability, personality and psychological health was established. The application way and importance of the professional adaptability research are discussed. (authors)

  13. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapito, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.) [pt

  14. Atucha I nuclear power plant surveillance programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuk, D.

    1993-01-01

    After a review of the main characteristics of the Atucha I nuclear power plant and its pressure vessel, the embrittlement surveillance capsules and the irradiation conditions are described; Charpy impact tests and tensile tests were performed on the irradiated samples, and results are discussed and compared to theoretical calculations: transition temperature shifts, displacement per atom values. 6 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Dura Seal recommendations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Reactor systems (BWR, PWR and Candu) are briefly reviewed with reference to the pumping services encountered in each system, to indicate the conditions imposed on mechanical seals for nuclear power plant liquid handling equipment. A description of the Dura Seals used in each service is included. (U.K.)

  16. Nuclear power plant piping prefabrication and assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.

    1990-01-01

    The piping design for nuclear power plants projects reveals, at the beginning, a modification through the application of new fabrication techniques for prefabrication and assembly. This report presents a fabrication methodology which aims to minimize the fabrication and assembly costs as well as to improve and assure quality. (Author) [es

  17. Programmed system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, Pierre.

    1980-06-01

    The progress in the field of microprocessors and large scale integration circuits, have incited to introduce this new technologies into nuclear power plant protection system. The hardware and software design principles are briefly listed; then, a quad-redundant protection system for 1300 MWe PWR, developed in France is described [fr

  18. Availability estimation of international nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-11-01

    Results are presented of investigation on the factors influencing the availability of nuclear power plants of the PWR type; an estimation of expected values for the availability factor and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value are given. (Author) [pt

  19. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  20. Evaluation of nuclear power plant operator's ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Li; He Xuhong; Zhao Bingquan

    2004-01-01

    Based on the quantitative research on nuclear power plant (NPP) operator's psychological characteristics and performance, the Borda's method of fuzzy mathematics combined with the character of operator's task is used to evaluate their abilities. The result provides the reference for operator's reliability research and psychological evaluation. (author)

  1. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.E.; Reiner, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany, the term 'ageing management' comprises several aspects. A demand for a special ageing monitoring programme is not explicitly contained in the regulations. However, from the Atomic Energy Act and its regulations results the operator's obligation to perform extensive measures to maintain the quality of the plant and the operating personnel working in the plant. From this point of view, comprehensive ageing management in German nuclear power plants has taken place right from the start under the generic term of quality assurance. (author)

  2. Nuclear power plants documentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Since the amount of documents (type and quantity) necessary for the entire design of a NPP is very large, this implies that an overall and detailed identification, filling and retrieval system shall be implemented. This is even more applicable to the FINAL QUALITY DOCUMENTATION of the plant, as stipulated by IAEA Safety Codes and related guides. For such a purpose it was developed a DOCUMENTATION MANUAL, which describes in detail the before mentioned documentation system. Here we present the expected goals and results which we have to reach for Angra 2 and 3 Project. (author)

  3. Constitutional determinants of nuclear power plant upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Around half a year ago the European stress test for nuclear power plants, a precautionary measure initiated by the European Council in March 2011 in response to the Fukushima disaster, revealed that while German nuclear power plants show a high degree of robustness compared with those in other European countries, they nevertheless required upgrading in one or the other respect (earthquake warning systems, protection against crashing civil passenger airplanes). The present article investigates whether this upgrading requirement can justify an injunction to carry out structural retrofitting measures or whether obligations to this end can be excluded on grounds of reasonability in view of the recent decision taken by the German parliament to phase out nuclear energy.

  4. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  5. Artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plants was arranged in Helsink/Vantaa, Finland, on October 10-12, 1989, under auspices of the International Working Group of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA/IWG NPPCI). Technical Research Centre of Finland together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy answered for the practical arrangements of the meeting. 105 participants from 17 countries and 2 international organizations took part in the meeting and 58 papers were submitted for presentation. These papers gave a comprehensive picture of the recent status and further trends in applying the rapidly developing techniques of artificial intelligence and expert systems to improve the quality and safety in designing and using of nuclear power worldwide

  6. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant

  7. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  8. Nuclear power plants in the world - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2009 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2010/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2009), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2009, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2009, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2009, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2009, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2009, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2009, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  9. Modernization of turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing goal in the power generation industry is to maximize the output of currently installed assets. This is most important at nuclear power plants due to the large capital investments that went into these plants and their base loaded service demands. Recent trends in the United States show a majority of nuclear plants are either obtaining, or are in the process of obtaining NRC approvals for operating license extensions and power uprates. This trend is evident in other countries as well. For example, all Swedish nuclear power plants are currently working on projects to extend their service life and maximize capacity through thermal uprate and turbine-generator upgrade with newest technology. The replacement of key components with improved ones is a means of optimizing the service life and availability of power plants. Economic advantages result from increased efficiency, higher output, shorter startup and shutdown times as well as reduced outage times and service costs. The rapid advances over recent years in the development of calculation programs enables adaptation of the latest blading technology to the special requirements imposed by steam turbine upgrading. This results in significant potential for generating additional output with the implementation of new technology, even without increased thermal power. In contrast to maintenance and investment in pure replacement or repair of a component with the primary goal of maintaining operability and reliability, the additional output gained by upgrading enables a return on investment to be reaped. (orig.)

  10. Safety culture in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As a consequence of the INSAG-4 report on 'safety culture', published by the IAEA in 1991, the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (KSA) decided to hold a one-day seminar as a first step in this field. The KSA is an advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal Department of Transport and Energy (EVED). It comments on applications for licenses, observes the operation of nuclear power plants, assists with the preparation of regulations, monitors the progress of research in the field of nuclear safety, and makes proposals for research tasks. The objective of this seminar was to familiarise the participants with the principles of 'safety culture', with the experiences made in Switzerland and abroad with existing concepts, as well as to eliminate existing prejudices. The main points dealt with at this seminar were: - safety culture from the point of view of operators, - safety culture from the point of view of the authorities, - safety culture: collaboration between power plants, the authorities and research organisations, - trends and developments in the field of safety culture. Invitations to attend this seminar were extended to the management boards of companies operating Swiss nuclear power plants, and to representatives of the Swiss authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants. All these organisations were represented by a large number of executive and specialist staff. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to the Head of the Federal Department of Transport and Energy for his kind patronage of this seminar. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  11. The long view for nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses a strategic, anticipatory approach to maintenance as the key to the long-term viability of today's nuclear power plants. As many as 20 plants around the country now have life-cycle management (LCM) programs in place - integrated, forward-looking preventive maintenance and monitoring programs that preserve the plant's material condition and extend economical operation. Besides reducing the need for 'pounds of cure' decades in the future, LCM programs can produce significant near-term gains in plant performance and are valuable in addressing license renewal concerns. EPRI is supporting the industry's LCM activities with research on age-related degradation mechanisms, development of economic evaluation tools for applying LCM approaches, and assistance with life-cycle evaluations of major plant systems, structures, and components at selected utilities

  12. Regulatory framework for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Alcaniz, T.; Esteban Barriendos, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the framework of standards and requirements covering each phase of nuclear power plant project and operation developed, plant owners defined their licensing commitments (codes, rules and design requirements) during the project and construction phase before start-up and incorporated regulatory requirements imposed by the regulatory Body during the licensing process prior to operation. This produces a regulatory framework for operating a plant. It includes the Licensing Basis, which is the starting point for analyzing and incorporating new requirements, and for re-evaluation of existing ones. This presentation focuses on the problems of applying this regulatory framework to new operating activities, in particular to new projects, analyzing new requirements, and reconsidering existing ones. Clearly establishing a plant's licensing basis allows all organizations involved in plant operation to apply the requirements in a more rational way. (Author)

  13. Design of a nuclear steam reforming plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malherbe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a plant for the steam reforming of methane using a High Temperature Reactor has been studied by CEA in connection with the G.E.G.N. This group of companies (CEA, GAZ DE FRANCE, CHARBONNAGES DE FRANCE, CREUSOT-LOIRE, NOVATOME) is in charge of studying the feasibility of the coal gasification process by using a nuclear reactor. The process is based on the hydrogenation of the coal in liquid phase with hydrogen produced by a methane steam reformer. The reformer plant is fed by a pipe of natural gas or SNG. The produced hydrogen feeds the gasification plant which could not be located on the same site. An intermediate hydrogen storage between the two plants could make the coupling more flexible. The gasification plant does not need a great deal of heat and this heat can be satisfied mostly by internal heat exchanges

  14. IPRDS: component histories and nuclear plant aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, R.J.; Kahl, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of nuclear power plant component operating histories, maintenance histories, and design and fabrication details is essential to understanding aging phenomena. As part of the In-Plant Reliability Data System (IPRDS), an attempt is being made to collect and analyze such information from a sampling of US nuclear power plants. Utilizing the IPRDS, one can reconstruct the failure history of the components and gain new insight into the causes and modes of failures resulting from normal or premature aging. This information assembled from the IPRDS can be combined with operating histories and postservice component inspection results for cradle-to-grave assessments of component aging under operating conditions. A comprehensive aging assessment can then be used to provide guidelines for improving the detection, monitoring, and mitigation of aging-related failures

  15. Development of a nuclear plant analyzer (NPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vlaminck, M.; Mampaey, L.; Vanhoenacker, L.; Bastenaire, F.

    1990-01-01

    A Nuclear Plant Analyzer has been developed by TRACTABEL. Three distinct functional units make up the Nuclear Plant Analyser, a model builder, a run time unit and an analysis unit. The model builder is intended to build simulation models which describe on the one hand the geometric structure and initial conditions of a given plant and on the other hand command control logics and reactor protection systems. The run time unit carries out dialog between the user and the thermal-hydraulic code. The analysis unit is aimed at deep analyzing of the transient results. The model builder is being tested in the framework of the International Standard Problem ISP-26, which is the simulation of a LOCA on the Japanese ROSA facility

  16. LWR nuclear power plant component failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, W.H.

    1980-10-01

    An analysis of the most significant light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant component failures, from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank, shows that for both pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) plants the component category most responsible for reactor shutdowns is valves. Next in importance for PWR shutdowns is steam generators followed by seals of all kinds. For BWR plants, seals, and pipes and pipe fittings are the second and third most important component failure categories which lead to reactor shutdown. The data are for records extending from early 1972 through September 1978. A list of the most significant component categories and a breakdown of the number of component citations for both PWR and BWR reactor types are presented

  17. Modeling gas exchange in a closed plant growth chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornett, J. D.; Hendrix, J. E.; Wheeler, R. M.; Ross, C. W.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid transport models for fluxes of water vapor and CO2 have been developed for one crop of wheat and three crops of soybean grown in a closed plant growth chamber. Correspondence among these fluxes is discussed. Maximum fluxes of gases are provided for engineering design requirements of fluid recycling equipment in growth chambers. Furthermore, to investigate the feasibility of generalized crop models, dimensionless representations of water vapor fluxes are presented. The feasibility of such generalized models and the need for additional data are discussed.

  18. An Underwater Robot for the Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung-Uk; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min

    2007-01-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants has become more important than in the past. Inspection and maintenance of a component should be achieved continuously. Two reactor types PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) are normally operated in Korea. In the case of a PWR, the presence of any loose part affects the safety of a nuclear power plant. A loose part, which could be from failed components or an item inadvertently left during a construction, refueling or maintenance like as metallic parts, bolts, nuts and washers, can damage any part by frequently impacting that part in the system. Therefore, work that detects a loose part and removes it from a the nuclear reactor vessel is very important. Moreover, the inspection of the RCS (reactor coolant system) of PWR is also important. The RCS has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. But human workers can't access the RCS easily because of the complexity of the path and the radiation level. So a robotic system is needed to inspect the RCS closely. Research on an underwater robot for an inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel began in the 1990s. Since then, many underwater robots for a nuclear power plant have been developed. But the developed underwater robots were so heavy and also they only had one function that is to inspect the nuclear reactor vessel. In this paper, an underwater robotic system is developed for inspecting the bottom of the nuclear reactor vessel, hot legs and cold legs of reactor coolant system and also for removing some particles in them

  19. An Underwater Robot for the Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Uk; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The safety and reliability of nuclear power plants has become more important than in the past. Inspection and maintenance of a component should be achieved continuously. Two reactor types PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and PHWR (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) are normally operated in Korea. In the case of a PWR, the presence of any loose part affects the safety of a nuclear power plant. A loose part, which could be from failed components or an item inadvertently left during a construction, refueling or maintenance like as metallic parts, bolts, nuts and washers, can damage any part by frequently impacting that part in the system. Therefore, work that detects a loose part and removes it from a the nuclear reactor vessel is very important. Moreover, the inspection of the RCS (reactor coolant system) of PWR is also important. The RCS has a role to cool down the reactor's temperature. But human workers can't access the RCS easily because of the complexity of the path and the radiation level. So a robotic system is needed to inspect the RCS closely. Research on an underwater robot for an inspection of a nuclear reactor vessel began in the 1990s. Since then, many underwater robots for a nuclear power plant have been developed. But the developed underwater robots were so heavy and also they only had one function that is to inspect the nuclear reactor vessel. In this paper, an underwater robotic system is developed for inspecting the bottom of the nuclear reactor vessel, hot legs and cold legs of reactor coolant system and also for removing some particles in them.

  20. Development of advanced RFID application system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onda, Kimiharu; Wakabayashi, Eisuke; Arai, Ryota; Shigemi, Ryosuke; Muro, Keiro; Yuda, Shinya

    2008-01-01

    In late years there comes to be close request for traceability of the information such as production control, construction and maintenance record and work history of nuclear power plants. On the other hand, the Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology that can specify a product and personnel by an electric wave has raised the functionality and versatility as the base technology that can support ubiquitous information society around the mass production industry. In such a background, this article described the developed system, which applied the RFID to nuclear power plants in the areas of production control of the piping manufacture, the construction management and condition monitoring for maintenance works in order to improve their quality and reliability. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Technical guidelines for aseismic design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document is a translation, in its entirety, of the Japan Electric Association (JEA) publication entitled open-quotes Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants - JEAG 4601-1987.close quotes This guideline describes in detail the aseismic design techniques used in Japan for nuclear power plants. It contains chapters dealing with: (a)the selection of earthquake ground motions for a site, (b) the investigation of foundation and bedrock conditions, (c) the evaluation of ground stability and the effects of ground movement on buried piping and structures, (d) the analysis and design of structures, and (e) the analysis and design of equipment and distribution systems (piping, electrical raceways, instrumentation, tubing and HVAC duct). The guideline also includes appendices which summarize data, information and references related to aseismic design technology

  2. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  3. Radiological protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla R, S.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation sharing experiences which correspond to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This nuclear power plant is located at level 2 of four possible, in the classification performance of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), which means the mexican nuclear power plant is classified in terms of its performance indicators and above the average achieved by their counterparts americans and canadians. In the national context, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde has also been honored with several awards such as the National Quality Award, the Clean Industry Certificate, the distinction of Environmental Excellence and others of similar importance. For the standards of WANO, the basic idea is that there are shortcomings in one of nuclear power plant concern to all partners. The indicators used for the classification will always go beyond more compliance with regulations, which are assumed, and rather assume come or a path to excellence. Among the most important indicators are: the collective dose, the percentage of areas declared as contaminated, the number, type and tendency of contamination personal cases, the number of dosimetry alarms, the number of unplanned exposures, loss control of high radiation areas and the release of contaminated material outside the restricted areas. Furthermore, as already indicated, nuclear power plants are of special care situations, such as, carrying out work in areas with radiation fields of more than 15 mSv h -1 , the movement of spent fuel in the reload floor. The consideration of the minimum total effective dose equivalent as a criterion for prescribing tools that reduce exposures, but may increase the external cases of contaminated casualties, the experience in portals such as workers subject to radiology, where exposure in industrial radiography, and so on. Special mention deserve the conditions generated during fuel reload stops, which causes a massive personnel movement, working simultaneously on

  4. On seismic response characteristics of floating nuclear plant barge, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Masuko, Yoshio; Nakamura, Shuuji; Matsuura, Shinichi; Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1986-01-01

    Since Floating Nuclear Plants (FNP) are considered to be isolated from horizontal seismic motion, reduction and standardization of the aseismic design conditions of the floating plants are anticipated. However, studies on FNP in closed and shallow basin have almost not been executed to data, and there are many problems remaining unsolved. The purpose of the present report is to obtain sufficient elementary data and materials on the seismic response of floating body in the closed and shallow basin. Some interesting points to be extracted from shaking table tests, finite element analyses and simplified analyses are summarized as follows: 1) The seismic isolation characteristics of the floating body are remarkable to short period horizontal seismic motion. 2) Resonances of the floating body's motion, which coupled with surface waves, are induced by long period horizontal seismic motion. 3) Vertical seismic motion is transmitted directly to the floating body. (author)

  5. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation 1982. Proceedings of an international symposium on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Ever increasing demands for nuclear power plant safety and availability imply a need for the introduction of modern measurement and control methods, together with data processing techniques based on the latest advances in electronic components, transducers and computers. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation is therefore an extremely rapidly developing field. The present symposium, held in Munich, FR Germany, was prepared with the help of the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation and organized in close co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit, Federal Republic of Germany. A number of developments were highlighted at the Munich symposium: - The increased use of computers can bring clear advantages and this technique is now proven as a tool for supervising and controlling plant operation. Advanced computerized systems for operator support are being developed on a large scale in many countries. The progress in this field is quite obvious, especially in disturbance analysis, safety parameter display, plant operator guidance and plant diagnostics. The new trend of introducing computers and microprocessors in protection systems makes it easy to implement 'defence-in-depth' strategies which give better assurance of correct system responses and also prevent unnecessary reactor trips, thus improving plant availability. The introduction of computerized systems for control of reactor power, reactor water level and reactor pressure as well as for reactor start-up and shut-down could improve the reliability and availability of nuclear power plants. The rapid technical development in the area of control and instrumentation makes it necessary to plan for at least one replacement of obsolete equipment in the course of the 30 years lifetime of a nuclear power plant and retrofitting of currently operating reactors with new control systems. Major design improvements and regulatory requirements also require

  6. Effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the risk perception of residents near a nuclear power plant in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Zhou, Ying; Han, Yuting; Hammitt, James K; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2013-12-03

    We assessed the influence of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA) on the Chinese public's attitude and acceptance of nuclear power plants in China. Two surveys (before and after the FNA) were administered to separate subsamples of residents near the Tianwan nuclear power plant in Lianyungang, China. A structural equation model was constructed to describe the public acceptance of nuclear power and four risk perception factors: knowledge, perceived risk, benefit, and trust. Regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relationship between acceptance of nuclear power and the risk perception factors while controlling for demographic variables. Meanwhile, we assessed the median public acceptable frequencies for three levels of nuclear events. The FNA had a significant impact on risk perception of the Chinese public, especially on the factor of perceived risk, which increased from limited risk to great risk. Public acceptance of nuclear power decreased significantly after the FNA. The most sensitive groups include females, those not in public service, those with lower income, and those living close to the Tianwan nuclear power plant. Fifty percent of the survey respondents considered it acceptable to have a nuclear anomaly no more than once in 50 y. For nuclear incidents and serious incidents, the frequencies are once in 100 y and 150 y, respectively. The change in risk perception and acceptance may be attributed to the FNA. Decreased acceptance of nuclear power after the FNA among the Chinese public creates additional obstacles to further development of nuclear power in China and require effective communication strategies.

  7. Nuclear Power Plants | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created by splitting uranium atoms. In the event of a nuclear power plant emergency, follow instructions from emergency responders and public officials.

  8. Special safety requirements applied to Brazilian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepecki, W.P.S.; Hamel, H.J.E.; Koenig, N.; Vieira, P.C.R.; Fritzsche, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Some safety aspects of the Angra 2 and 3 nuclear power plants are presented. An analysis of the civil and mechanical project of these nuclear power plant having in view a safety analysis is done. (E.G.) [pt

  9. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  10. About a hypothetical terrorist attack on a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    After the terrorism attack on the World Trade Center, a record number ( two thirds) of US citizens favour the use of nuclear energy and consider nuclear plants to be safe. At the same time 59% definitely support building more nuclear plants, less than in March during the Californian crisis, but more than earlier., Most american citizens ( 84%) continue to support licence renewal for nuclear plants and 72 % agree with keeping the option open to build new nuclear plants in the future. The strongest supporters are those who have visited a nuclear plant or information centre. (N.C.)

  11. Update on the USNRC's nuclear plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAPS series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, The Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAPS simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  12. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tossavainen, K.

    1992-12-01

    The Finnish nuclear power plant units Loviisa 1 and 2 as well TVO I and II were in operation for almost the whole second quarter of 1992. Longer breaks in production were caused by the annual maintenance of the TVO plant units. The load factor was 87.4 %. At TVO I it was detected during the annual maintenance outage when removing nuclear fuel assemblies from the reactor that one assembly had been loaded into the reactor in an incorrect manner during the previous year's annual maintenance: the assembly was slightly higher than the other assemblies. The water cooling the nuclear fuel partly by-passed the fuel assembly and the coolant flow proper passing through the assembly was below design. The fuel assembly's cooling had been sufficient during the whole operating cycle but could have essentially deteriorated during certain transients with the danger of consequent damage to some fuel rods. On the International Nuclear Event Scale the event is classified as level 1. Other events in this quarter which are classified on the International Nuclear Event Scale were level 0/below scale on the scale

  13. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on the behavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e. psychological empowerment, naturally lead to innovation and rule breaking, the behavior can be analyzed, in such a regulated industry, as opposite to safety. Thus, this article aims at explaining the roots and discernable features of the observed psychological empowerment. Methods include an in-depth qualitative study in 4 nuclear power plants owned by Electricite de France (EDF), the French national nuclear power operator. Focused on the leading team of the plant, the set of data is composed of 35 interviews, 6 weeks of non-participant observation and internal documents. The content analysis has revealed two main pillars of psychological empowerment. On the first hand, the strong professional identity developed at the opening of the plants is based on initiative and risk-taking. In some ways, this professional identify fostered by commitment to a demanding job and the team, influences behavior more than do professional rules. On the second hand, the management discourse is perceived as ambiguous towards the strict application of the rules and tacitly legitimizes rule breaking behavior. This article details and exemplifies these phenomena and discusses the implications. (author)

  14. Update on the USNRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state-of-the-art nuclear reactor simulation capability. This computer software package integrates high fidelity nuclear reactor simulation codes such as the TRAC and RELAP5 series of codes with color graphics display techniques and advanced workstation hardware. An overview of this program was given at the 1984 Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC), with selected topics discussed at the 1985 and 1986 SCSCs. Since the 1984 presentation, major redirections of this NRC program have been taken. The original NPA system was developed for operation on a Control Data Corporation CYBER 176 computer, technology that is some 10 to 15 years old. The NPA system has recently been implemented on Class VI computers to gain increased computational capabilities, and is now being implemented on super-minicomputers for use by the scientific community and possibly by the commercial nuclear power plant simulator community. This paper addresses these activities and related experiences. First, the Class VI computer implementation is discussed. The trade-offs between gaining significantly greater computational speed and central memory, with the loss of performance due to many more simultaneous users is shown. Second, the goal of the super-minicomputer implementation is to produce a very cost-effective system that utilizes advanced (multi-dimensional, two-phase coolant) simulation capabilities at real wall-clock simulation times. Benchmarking of the initial super-minicomputer implementation is discussed. Finally, the technical and economic feasibility is addressed for implementing the super-minicomputer version of the NPA with the RELAP5 simulation code onto the Black Fox full scope nuclear power plant simulator

  15. Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants (DSNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphier, D.

    1976-01-01

    A new simulation language DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power Plants) is being developed. It is a simple block oriented simulation language with an extensive library of component and auxiliary modules. Each module is a self-contained unit of a part of a physical component to be found in nuclear power plants. Each module will be available in four levels of sophistication, the fourth being a user supplied model. A module can be included in the simulation by a single statement. The precompiler translates DSNP statements into FORTRAN statements, takes care of the module parameters and the intermodular communication blocks, prepares proper data files and I/0 statements and searches the various libraries for the appropriate component modules. The documentation is computerized and all the necessary information for a particular module can be retrieved by a special document generator. The DSNP will be a flexible tool which will allow dynamic simulations to be performed on a large variety of nuclear power plants or specific components of these plants

  16. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviney, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Quality surveillance (QS) of nuclear power plants has been occurring for a number of years and is growing in importance as a management tool for assuring that power plants are operated and maintained safely. Quality surveillance can be identified by many terms, such as monitoring, assessment, technical audits, and others. The name given to the function is not important. Quality surveillance at nuclear power plants developed out of a need. Historically, audits were performed to verify compliance to quality program requirements. Verification of day-to-day implementation of activities was not being performed. This left a void in verification activities since inspections were mainly directed at hardware verification. Quality surveillance, therefore, was born out of a need to fill this void in verification. This paper discusses quality surveillance definition; objectives of QS, activities considered for QS, personnel performing QS. As in any human endeavor, people and the attitudes of those people make a program succeed or fail. In the case of QS this is even more critical because of the overview and exposure given to the nuclear industry. Properly trained and experienced personnel performing QS combined with the right attitude contribute to the successful performance of a QS. This is only one side of the success equation, however; acceptance of and actions taken by plant management establish the total success of a QS program

  17. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  18. The financing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.

    2009-01-01

    Existing nuclear generating capacity plays an important role in providing secure, economic and low-carbon electricity supplies in many OECD countries. At the same time, there is increasing recognition that an expansion of nuclear power could play a valuable role in reducing future carbon dioxide emissions. However, in recent years only a handful of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been built in just a few OECD countries. An important reason for this is the challenges associated with financing the construction of new NPPs. The just-published NEA report entitled The Financing of Nuclear Power Plants examines these challenges. In addition, recognizing that any expansion of nuclear power programmes will require strong and sustained government support, the report highlights the role of governments in facilitating and encouraging investment in new nuclear capacity. Key actions that should be considered by governments that wish to see investment in new NPPs include: - Provide clear and sustained policy support for the development of nuclear power, by setting out the case for a nuclear component in energy supply as part of a long-term national energy strategy. - Work with electricity utilities, financial companies and other potential investors, and the nuclear industry from an early stage to address concerns that may prevent nuclear investment and to avoid mistakes in establishing the parameters for new NPPs. - Establish an efficient and effective regulatory system which provides adequate opportunities for public involvement in the decision-making process, while also providing potential investors with the certainty they require to plan such a major investment. - Put arrangements in place for the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel, and show progress towards a solution for final disposal of waste. For investors in NPPs, the financial arrangements for paying their fair share of the costs must be clearly defined. - Ensure that electricity market regulation does

  19. Economic performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    From a global perspective, it is clear that there is no single group of key economic and financial measures that are applicable and useful for all countries and regions. The extent to which deregulation and privatization is occurring varies considerably throughout the world, with some countries continuing to foster regulated monopolies or government subsidies for power generation, while in others retail and wholesale electricity is sold in truly open market, competitive situations. Consequently, the requirement for key measures of financial and economic success for the nuclear power industry will continue to be diverse from one region or country to another. This report has been prepared for the benefit of nuclear plant managers and operators. Its primary purpose is to identify and define a number of economic performance measures for use at nuclear power plants operating in deregulated, competitive electricity markets. In addressing the value of economic measures, the report presents and discusses a general definition and classifications of nuclear economic indicators within the context of regulation, competition and the economic requirements for constructing, operating and decommissioning nuclear plants. Categories of economic measures, traditionally used in competitive enterprises, that have potential application in the operation of nuclear plants are also presented. A number of industry observations are discussed and presented as critical factors leading to a series of improvement strategies for the continued development and implementation of economic indicators, beyond those provided in this report, as well as for other related IAEA activities on the implementation and further development of the Nuclear Economic Performance Information System. On the basis of the collective opinions and judgements of the representatives of the participating countries, the report provides a 'preliminary' set of nuclear economic performance indicators, presented in standard Excel

  20. Reliability of microcircuits in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.M.; Taplin, R.C.

    1986-06-01

    The reliability problems associated with modernizing control systems in nuclear power plants, particularly by using new technology microcircuits, are discussed and twelve problem areas identified. These are: new technology introduction; variability in manufacture; derating necessities; distributed systems; use of redundancy; electrostatic discharge damage; electromagnetic interference; nuclear radiation; thermal effects; contamination, including humidity; mechanical effects, including vibration; and testing. Recommendations for the AECB are given in each area. Guidelines are given for the design, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance stages of use. Recommendations for further work are given

  1. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, H.

    2003-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors

  2. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  3. Reviewing computer capabilities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The OSART programme of the IAEA has become an effective vehicle for promoting international co-operation for the enhancement of plant operational safety. In order to maintain consistency in the OSART reviews, OSART Guidelines have been developed which are intended to ensure that the reviewing process is comprehensive. Computer technology is an area in which rapid development is taking place and new applications may be computerized to further enhance safety and the effectiveness of the plant. Supplementary guidance and reference material is needed to help attain comprehensiveness and consistency in OSART reviews. This document is devoted to the utilization of on-site and off-site computers in such a way that the safe operation of the plant is supported. In addition to the main text, there are several annexes illustrating adequate practices as found at various operating nuclear power plants. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance and plant metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure metabolite levels and metabolic fluxes, to probe the intracellular environment, and to follow transport and energetics nondestructively. NMR methods are therefore powerful aids to understanding plant metabolism and physiology. Both spectroscopy and imaging can help overcome the unique challenges that plants present to the metabolic engineer by detecting, identifying, quantifying, and localizing novel metabolites in vivo and in extracts; revealing the composition and physical state of cell wall and other polymers; allowing the identification of active pathways; providing quantitative measures of metabolic flux; and testing hypotheses about the effects of engineered traits on plant physiological function. The aim of this review is to highlight recent studies in which NMR has contributed to metabolic engineering of plants and to illustrate the unique characteristics of NMR measurements that give it the potential to make greater contributions in the future.

  5. Legal aspects of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.

    1987-01-01

    According to law the licensing boards can deny the licensing of new plants but in the case of non-compliance with the legal requirements. General safety scruples as a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident do not justify denials. The decommissioning of nuclear power plants cannot be decreed but in accordance with Para. 17, 18 of the Atomic Energy Law. Although the legislator is authorized to change laws, any law providing for the decommissioning of existing plants or providing for the legal basis of the decommissioning of plants would be equivalent to an expropriation and therefore involve damages according to article 14, section 3(2) of the Fundamental Law. (orig./HP) [de

  6. A comparison of availability and outage time of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatomi, Yu; Matsuo, Yuhji; Murakami, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Japan has recently been urged to implement measures to increase availability for nuclear power plants in order to address energy security and greenhouse gas emission cuts. The average availability for Japan's nuclear power plants in 2009 rose from 58.0% in 2008 to 64.7%, still below levels in other major nuclear power generation countries including South Korea and the United States. Some major foreign nuclear power generation countries have kept their availability for nuclear plants at high levels at or above 90% since 1990, while others including the United States and South Korea have raised their respective factors since 2000 following the 1990s when their factors were close to the Japanese level. The latter group made ambitious efforts to raise these factors. In considering specific measures to effectively utilize existing nuclear reactors, Japan should take full account of these overseas efforts and promote discussions on overall Japanese nuclear energy and safety approaches. (author)

  7. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S... Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide describes a method that NRC staff considers acceptable to... Regulations (10 CFR), section 73.56, ``Personnel Access Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants...

  8. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  9. Desalination demonstration plant using nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanra, M.S.; Misra, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the desalination plants which are operating throughout the world utilize the energy from thermal power station which has the main disadvantage of polluting the environment due to combustion of fossil fuel and with the inevitable rise in prices of fossil fuel, nuclear driven desalination plants will become more economical. So it is proposed to set up nuclear desalination demonstration plant at the location of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam. The desalination plant will be of a capacity 6300 m 3 /day and based on both Multi Stage Flash (MSF) and Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) processes. The MSF plant with performance ratio of 9 will produce water total dissolved solids (TDS-25 ppm) at a rate of 4500 m 3 /day from seawater of 35000 ppm. A part of this water namely 1000 m 3 /day will be used as Demineralised (DM) water after passing it through a mixed bed polishing unit. The remaining 3500 m 3 /day water will be mixed with 1800 m 3 /day water produced from the SWRO plant of TDS of 400 ppm and the same be supplied to industrial/municipal use. The sea water required for MSF and SWRO plants will be drawn from the intake/outfall system of MAPS which will also supply the required electric power pumping. There will be net 4 MW loss of power of MAPS namely 3 MW for MSF and 1 MW for SWRO desalination plants. The salient features of the project as well as the technical details of the both MSF and SWRO processes and its present status are given in this paper. It also contains comparative cost parameters of water produced by both processes. (author)

  10. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  12. Thermal coupling system analysis of a nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adak, A.K.; Srivastava, V.K.; Tewari, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    When a nuclear reactor is used to supply steam for desalination plant, the method of coupling has a significant technical and economic impact. The exact method of coupling depends upon the type of reactor and type of desalination plant. As a part of Nuclear Desalination Demonstration Project (NDDP), BARC has successfully commissioned a 4500 m 3 /day MSF desalination plant coupled to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) at Kalpakkam. Desalination plant coupled to nuclear power plant of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type is a good example of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plant. This paper presents the thermal coupling system analysis of this plant along with technical and safety aspects. (author)

  13. Licensed bases management for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.; Rumble, E.; Rodwell, E.

    2001-01-01

    Prospective Advanced Nuclear Plant (ANP) owners must have high confidence that the integrity of the licensed bases (LB) of a plant will be effectively maintained over its life cycle. Currently, licensing engineers use text retrieval systems, database managers, and checklists to access, update, and maintain vast and disparate licensing information libraries. This paper describes the demonstration of a ''twin-engine'' approach that integrates a program from the emerging class of concept searching tools with a modern Product Data Management System (PDMS) to enhance the management of LB information for an example ANP design. (author)

  14. Ardennes nuclear power plant. Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    At the beginning of the year 1975 the nominal power of the nuclear plant of the Ardennes was brought from 950 up to 1040 MWth, after a positive decision of the official safety organizations. Net energy produced: 2016 GWh, number of coupled hours: 6832 h, coefficient of availability: 75%, total number of standstills: 25. The functioning of the installations is, on the whole, very satisfying. Liquid wastes are clearly inferior to admissible maximum limits. The cost per KWh of the plant amounts to 5.57 French centimes. For the last 5 years net production has reached 9375 GWh, which means an average coefficient of availability of 76.7%

  15. World list of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Twice each year Nuclear News sends a questionnaire to each utility or agency on this list, asking for corrections or additions to the information listed. In cases where a response is not received, we try to follow up by phone or facsimile, though this is not always possible for plants outside the United States. The criterion for listing a unit is that either an order or a letter of intent has been signed for the reactor. In cases where the definition of open-quotes letter of intentclose quotes may be ambiguous, or where a special situation exists, the judgment of the utility is followed as to whether a plant should be included

  16. Taxonomy of the nuclear plant operator's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.; Fullerton, A.M.; Frey, P.R.; Dougherty, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    A program is presently under way at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to define the functional design requirements of operational aids for nuclear power plant operators. A first and important step in defining these requirements is to develop an understanding of the operator's role or function. This paper describes a taxonomy of operator functions that applies during all operational modes and conditions of the plant. Other topics such as the influence of automation, role acceptance, and the operator's role during emergencies are also discussed. This systematic approach has revealed several areas which have potential for improving the operator's ability to perform his role

  17. The performance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    A survey is presented of failures in the Dutch nuclear power plants Borssele (10) and Dodewaard (5) reported during the year 1988. This reporting takes place, since 1987, on the basis of the international failure-reporting system. This system is based on the 'Incident Reporting System' of the IAEA. During 1988 no failures did occur which made particular safety measurements necessary. Also these failures did not have any consequence for the environment. During all failures the reactor safety system of both power plants did operate well. (H.W.)

  18. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation

  19. Cyber security for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ruchi; Razdan, Mayuri; Munshi, Prabhat

    2005-01-01

    Cyber Security, cyber terrorism and cyber crime are the buzzwords in security related aspects of information technology. These terms are related to computers and networks that are critical for normal functionality and operations of nuclear power plants. At one end, this inter connected era is giving us the ease to perform various critical operation with a click of command, but on the other end it is giving rise to the new world of terrorism. In today's internet connected world, terrorism has left all the boundaries back and taken the new form, term it cyber terrorism or cyber crime. This paper aims to spread the awareness about cyber terrorism and how it can affect the overall security of nuclear power plants and establishments. (author)

  20. Control system security in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianghai; Huang Xiaojin

    2012-01-01

    The digitalization and networking of control systems in nuclear power plants has brought significant improvements in system control, operation and maintenance. However, the highly digitalized control system also introduces additional security vulnerabilities. Moreover, the replacement of conventional proprietary systems with common protocols, software and devices makes these vulnerabilities easy to be exploited. Through the interaction between control systems and the physical world, security issues in control systems impose high risks on health, safety and environment. These security issues may even cause damages of critical infrastructures and threaten national security. The importance of control system security by reviewing several control system security incidents that happened in nuclear power plants was showed in recent years. Several key difficulties in addressing these security issues were described. Finally, existing researches on control system security and propose several promising research directions were reviewed. (authors)

  1. Actions concerning nuclear power plant life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Fabbri, S.; Mizrahi, R.; Savino, E.J.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main activities to be undertaken by CNEA will be to provide technological assistance to NASA in problems concerning NPP operation. Works on life extensions of NPP are included in these activities. To fulfill these requirements the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) has constituted a technical committee for Nuclear Power Plants Support (CAPCEN). CAPCEN should be the knowledge reservoir of those issues concerning the performance, safety and life extension of Nuclear Power Plants. One of CAPCEN's most important activities is to promote research work connected with such issues. The main technical areas are: Pressure Vessel and Piping, Heat Exchanges and Fuel Channels and Reactor Inner Components. Efforts are focused on the identification of the main components susceptible of ageing, the study of their ageing mechanisms, the follow-up of their behaviour during operation, and the measures taken to extend their life. (author)

  2. Simulators for training nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  3. Precursor analyses for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babst, Siegfried; Gaenssmantel, Gerhard; Stueck, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Precursor analysis is an internationally recognized method for quantifying the safety-relevance of operational events in nuclear power plants. Precursors are operational events in nuclear power plants which had no serious impact, but which could have led to serious impacts, if additional malfunctions had occurred. Examples of such operational events are component failures or transients, for example, the loss of main feedwater. On the basis of the probabilities for the occurrence of additional malfunctions or initiating events precursor analyses determine the probability with which these additional malfunctions during the event occurred would have led to core damage. This conditional probability is a measure for the safety relevance of the operational event occurred. Events, for which the probability of core damages is > 10 -6 , are internationally classified as ''precursor''. (orig.)

  4. Utilization of a full-scope simulation for training the operating personel of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    A full-scope simulator of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant has been installed at the NUCLEBRAS Training Center in Mambucaba - close to the site where that Plant is being built -, the goal of providing training for the operating personnel of the KWU-design nuclear power plants to be installed in Brazil. Due to the delays which occurred in the construction of Angra-2, NUCLEBRAS has established an extensive program for the utilization of the simulator for the training of operators for German nuclear power plants and for Spain's Trillo Plant. Besides yielding profits to NUCLEBRAS, that program is resulting in considerable experience in the area of nuclear power plant operators' training generating international recognition to the NUCLEBRAS Training Center. (Author) [pt

  5. Nuclear power plants and house-building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    In this report, it is studied where and under what conditions houses can be built in the neighbourhood of nuclear power plants. Building norms and location distances are investigated. First, the Dutch and foreign norms with respect to population densities are listed. Only industrial, densely populated neighbour countries are considered. Next, it is calculated what consequences for housing a nuclear station may have within a radius of 20 km. Using these calculations it is studied whether the existing Dutch requirements are satisfied. Because it is expected that the norms are likely to be tightened up under the pressure of the nuclear controversy, the existing Dutch situation is also compared with the tighter foreign norms. Finally, the results of the study are summarized and some conclusions are drawn. (Auth.)

  6. Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    A comprehensive Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program was implemented by the US NRC office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in 1985 to identify and resolve technical safety issues related to the aging of systems, structures, and components in operating nuclear power plants. This is Revision 2 to the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program Plant. This planes defines the goals of the program the current status of research, and summarizes utilization of the research results in the regulatory process. The plan also describes major milestones and schedules for coordinating research within the agency and with organizations and institutions outside the agency, both domestic and foreign. Currently the NPAR Program comprises seven major areas: (1) hardware-oriented engineering research involving components and structures; (2) system-oriented aging interaction studies; (3) development of technical bases for license renewal rulemaking; (4) determining risk significance of aging phenomena; (5) development of technical bases for resolving generic safety issues; (6) recommendations for field inspection and maintenance addressing aging concerns; (7) and residual lifetime evaluations of major LWR components and structures. The NPAR technical database comprises approximately 100 NUREG/CR reports by June 1991, plus numerous published papers and proceedings that offer regulators and industry important insights to aging characteristics and aging management of safety-related equipment. Regulatory applications include revisions to and development of regulatory guides and technical specifications; support to resolve generic safety issues; development of codes and standards; evaluation of diagnostic techniques; (e.g., for cables and valves); and technical support for development of the license renewal rule. 80 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs

  7. Strategies change as nuclear plant construction declines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    As conditions in the nuclear industry change some companies are taking a positive approach to falling orders by moving into the area of servicing existing plant. How Newport News Industrial Corporation has made just such a move by offering preventive maintenance services is described. The company has several advantages to offer: large existing facilities and a wide range of skills available from their 23000 employees. (author)

  8. Airplane impact on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibl, J.

    2003-01-01

    A short report on investigations of nuclear power plants under airplane attack is given. It concerns the modeling of planes with regard to mass and stiffness, the relevant plane velocity and finally the determination of load-time functions. The necessary analysis of the concrete containment structure is shortly addressed. Finally a proposal for a structure to keep planes from such building structures is discussed. (author)

  9. Allocating nuclear power plant costs: an extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierman, H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The author modifies and extends the argument presented in the September 22, 1983 issue by Richard E. Nellis for using economic depreciation to allocate nuclear power plant costs. The two goals of his model are to charge constant real costs to consumers and to provide a fair return of .125 to investors in each period. The addition of other objectives requires further modification of the model since the schedule of revenues that are deemed to be optimum defines the depreciation schedule. 1 table

  10. Remote inspection system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, M.; Doi, A.; Harima, T.

    1977-01-01

    A remote inspection system for nuclear power plants was constructed based on an analysis of inspections performed by an operator on patrol. This system consists of an operator's console and a remote station. The remote station, equipped with five kinds of sensors, is steered along the inspection route by a photoelectric guiding system or may be manually controlled from an operator's console in a main control room. Signals for control and inspection data are multiplexed and transmitted through a coaxial cable

  11. Remanent life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, J.; Gomez Santamaria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of life in the nuclear power plants is very special. The main aceptions are: design life, economic life and useful life. The good management of NPP will do the prolongation of the life in the NPP. The remanent of management life summarizes certain activities in order to prolong the lifetime of the NPP. This article presents the activities of the RML program, the technological program and its benefits

  12. Obligatory provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloosters, W.

    2008-01-01

    To cover the expenses associated with decommissioning and disposal of their nuclear power plants, German nuclear power plant operators set aside a total of more than EUR 30 billion and entered the respective provisions into their balance sheets. One point of eminent importance in this regard is the question whether these provisions are adequate in amount and permitted under accounting and tax laws. The other point to be considered is whether the funds will be available reliably if and when needed. Against the backdrop of these issues, the practice and importance of making these provisions are described. This is followed by an outline of the basic accounting and taxation aspects. It is seen that obligations under public law can be the basis of financial provisions only if there is a obligation sufficiently concrete in terms of time and object. The following examination of applicable obligations under the Atomic Energy Act incumbent upon nuclear power plant operators with regard to decommissioning and disposal results in the finding that such obligations are only partly regulated in the Atomic Energy Act, and that specifications in terms of time and purpose are insufficient. If the national practice of making financial provisions is to be put on a reliable basis, it is recommended to express the law on decommissioning and its mode of financing in more concrete terms in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to unequivocal decommissioning and disposal obligations, the Atomic Energy Act should also incorporate regulations about financial provisions for decomissioning which are in need of more precise language. The present practice of making provisions is characterized by the risk that the funds necessary for planned decommissioning and disposal may not be available when needed. It is against this background that possible solutions reducing that risk are discussed. A recommendation is expressed to establish a public fund for decommissioning and disposal to which the

  13. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  14. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  15. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  16. Yak experience at Nuclear Power Plant Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.

    2000-01-01

    In Sept. 1998, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko started Y2K (Year 2000) Readiness Assessment Program and implementation of the Y2K-NEK Project (NEK Nuklearna Elektrana Kriko). Y2K-NEK Project and the term N EK Year 2000 Readiness Assessment Program'' applies to software, or software based system or interface, whose failure due to the Y2K problem would prevent the performance of the safety function of a structure, system, or component. This project also applies to any software, or software based system or interface, whose failure due to the Y2K problem would degrade, impair, or prevent operability of the nuclear facility. It is intended to supplement and use existing NEK procedures used for software quality control, configuration management and problem reporting. The main guideline and method definition documents for Y2K-NEK Project were: NEI/NUSMG 97-07: Nuclear Utility Year 2000 Readiness (October 1997), and NEI/NUSMG 98-07; Nuclear Utility Year 2000 Readiness Contingency Planning (Aug. 1998). This paper presents project Y2K implementation experience and post Y2K transition analysis of the plant hardware/software systems behavior compared to the expected systems behavior and expected-planned scenarios based on the results of the Y2K Readiness Assessment, implemented remediations and Y2K Contingency Planning. (author)

  17. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  18. Environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites is presented. The basic policy that no part of the ecosystem should be subjected to excessive (above natural) radiation exposure is realized by predictive methodology of environmental and dosimetric models. The validation of these models is achieved through environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites right from the pre-operational period through operational phase. The 'potential contaminated media' are monitored in pre-operational phase. The measurements carried out in the environmental matrices for assessment of the impact on the population demonstrate that the objectives of the Department of Atomic Energy are fully realized. These activities are carried out at each nuclear power plant site by establishing an Environmental Survey Laboratory, which operates under the administrative and technical control of the Health Physics Division of BARC. This arrangement ensures independence from the operating organisation and better public acceptance of data generated. The results of environmental monitoring indicate that the radiation dose received by members of the public is well below the regulatory limits. (author)

  19. The innovative simulator for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, A.; Ohashi, H.; Akiyama, M.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power simulators are becoming more and more important tools for ensuring the safety and the reliability during the whole cycle of plants from design to operation. Recently, there has been remarkable progress in computer science such as increase of computing speed, refinement of mathematical models and emergence of various AI technologies. By fully exploiting this progress to nuclear plant simulators, it becomes possible to achieve much faster, more extensive and more realistic simulation than ever. The Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) has organized a feasibility study on the advanced simulator since 1990, to develop the concept of nuclear power plant simulators in future. In this study, several academic organizations make fundamental researches on parallelization of transient analyses, large-scale parallel computing, thermal-hydraulic analysis using cellular automata, code development methodology by module-integration and task scheduling methods for parallel compilers. The concept and impact of the innovative simulator, as a multipurpose simulator complex, are summarized from the viewpoints of wide range scenarios including severe accidents, 3D multi-media interface, much faster than real-time simulation, and innovative algorithms for analyses of thermal-hydraulics, structure, neutronkinetics and their coupled phenomena. (orig.) (2 refs., 2 figs.)

  20. Nuclear plants near borders - legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.

    1990-01-01

    In public international law there are no rules prohibiting the construction or operation of nuclear plants, or regulating their siting. Emanations of nuclear plants - conventional or radioactive - are regarded as pollutants. Transfrontier pollution has to be prevented and controlled according to the rules of customary international law, which have developed on the basis of the Trail Smelter Award of 1941 and which are restated in the Montreal Rules of International Law Applicable to Transfrontier Pollution 1982 of the ILA. The neighbouring state has a right to obtain all reasonable information concerning the prospective siting of plants and has to be consulted in certain respects. These procedural duties are substantiated in bilateral agreements setting up mixed commissions. In the European Communities members are obliged to report any planned emanation of radioactive substances which might pollute the environment of another member to the EC Commission. Strict liability for any damage caused by a nuclear installation is stipulated in special conventions. As far as these conventions are not applicable, the general rules on state responsibility and on civil liability apply. States are not obliged under International Law to allow residents of neighbouring states to participate in administrative or judicial proceedings concerning the licensing. In practice, however, foreigners challenging the issue of a licence have the same standing as the citizens of the licensing state. (author)

  1. Development of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    2000-01-01

    The presentation evaluates the present situation of the Dukovany nuclear power plant operation. It analyses the present at the plant, and also in both the near and distant localities. Based on these analyses the conclusions and targets that are necessary for keeping the plant's safe operation are made. From the current situation the report about the results of the year 1999 in the operation and financial field, stress on the safety index, is presented. Further, there is a list of finished and semi-finished activities that are taking place within the harmonization of the Dukovany NPP. At the same time the report presents the terms of licensing and the going of implementation of the 'KAPA' project - the complex application of the Atomic Energy Act. In the part, comparison to the environment, there is an example of a comparison with the results of a plant in the EU. Further the report compares the advantages and disadvantages of the WWER reactors with other light water reactors. In the last part of the presentation there is a brief opinion of the author on the steps that are awaiting us in the future. First, the 'Harmonization program' of Dukovany NPP is explained, its philosophy and principles. The basic idea is to take the right steps and strategic decisions, with the vision for the operation till the year 2025 at least. There is also a list of the most important events that are planned to increase the safety. Further the report goes briefly over the current situation in the filed of nuclear energy in the period of joining the European Union and also mentions the risks that result from this process. It concludes with the prognosis for the further position of the Dukovany nuclear power plant. (author)

  2. Gland system, especially for nuclear power plant circulation pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, A.; Vesely, M.

    1975-01-01

    The invention claims a gland system suitable especially for the circulation pumps of nuclear power plants. The system prevents the release of the radioactive high-pressure cooling liquid in the atmosphere. The gland system consists of at least two mechanical glands arranged in series and of the closed circuit of the cooling high-pressure medium. The respective mechanical glands are linked with by-pass branches and discharge piping. The by-pass branches accommodating control manometers and flowmeters are linked with the storage reservoir with drain pipes provided with stop fittings. (Oy)

  3. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... material control and accounting performance requirements for special nuclear material at nuclear power... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0109] Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants...

  4. The closure of the Barsebaeck nuclear power plant. What is the experience so far?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmqvist, R.

    2000-01-01

    On 30 November 1999, Unit 1 of the Barsebaeck Nuclear power plant was closed down due to the political decision. This was a disaster not only for all those employed at the plant but also for the Municipality of Kavlinge and the entire region. The government has given the employees five-year job security and the Municipality of Kavlinge a study showing the consequences of the closure and nothing else. The municipalities with Nuclear power plants in Sweden are quite isolated in their demands for help and compensation for the losses caused by closure of NPPs, although 80% of the Swedish population opposes premature phasing out of nuclear power

  5. Safety assessment of emergency power systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is intended to assist the safety assessor within a regulatory body, or one working as a consultant, in assessing the safety of a given design of the emergency power systems (EPS) for a nuclear power plant. The present publication refers closely to the NUSS Safety Guide 50-SG-D7 (Rev. 1), Emergency Power Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. It covers therefore exactly the same technical subject as that Safety Guide. In view of its objective, however, it attempts to help in the evaluation of possible technical solutions which are intended to fulfill the safety requirements. Section 2 clarifies the scope further by giving an outline of the assessment steps in the licensing process. After a general outline of the assessment process in relation to the licensing of a nuclear power plant, the publication is divided into two parts. First, all safety issues are presented in the form of questions that have to be answered in order for the assessor to be confident of a safe design. The second part presents the same topics in tabulated form, listing the required documentation which the assessor has to consult and those international and national technical standards pertinent to the topics. An extensive reference list provides information on standards. 1 tab

  6. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur; Miano, Sandra C.

    2015-01-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  7. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  8. Underground siting of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, F.

    1982-01-01

    The symposium gave the opportunity for an international exchange of views on the concepts of underground nuclear power plants, which are presently world wide under consideration. The results of investigations into the advantages and disadvantages with regard to the technical safety aspects of the underground plants in comparison to plants on the surface led to open and sometimes controversal discussions. As a result of the symposium (32 contributions) a general agreement can be stated on the judgement concerning the advantages and the disadvantages of underground nuclear power plants (nnp). The advantages are: increased protection against external events; delayed release of fission products in accident situations, if the closures operate properly. The disadvantages are: increased costs of the construction of underground and restrictions to such sites where either large caverns or deep pits can be constructed, which also requires that certain technical problems must be solved beforehand. Also, additional safety certificates related to the site will be required within the licensing procedures. The importance of these advantages and disadvantages was in some cases assessed very differently. The discussions also showed, that there are a number of topics where some questions have not been finally answered yet. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the United States of America as a whole under widely varying economic assumptions and for individual U.S. nuclear facilities under baseline assumptions. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). Under baseline economic assumptions and using U.S. average costs of fuel and of nonfuel operations and maintenance, it is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity users about 3 U.S. cents/kW·h (3.7 cents/kW·h versus 7.2 cents/kW·h) compared with new coal fired (NEWCOAL) plants, which are viewed as the most likely competing option to NUPLEX. Under optimistic assumptions the savings swell to almost 10 cents/kW·h. More notably, however, NUPLEX still saves money under unlikely pessimistic assumptions. While NUPLEX is probably advantageous for most existing U.S. nuclear facilities, it appears more so for some than others. Preliminary evidence indicates that PLEX refurbishment may cost somewhat less on average for PWRs than for BWRs and will almost certainly cost less for newer vintage plants than for older vintages. In addition, PLEX (avoided cost) benefits are especially great for those regions in which alternative coal fired power is comparatively expensive because of relatively high delivered coal prices. On the basis of these and other considerations, the authors developed a parametric method for ranking existing plants in terms of the relative attractiveness of NUPLEX. The ALWR program calls for a simple evolutionary redesign of LWRs, incorporating the lessons learned in building and operating the current generation of nuclear units. In accordance with the utility developmental goals on construction costs, operating performance, and service life, the ALWR offers power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL plants. The assumptions of extended operating life contributes to the cost advantage. The

  10. Balance of Plant Requirements for a Nuclear Hydrogen Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley Ward

    2006-04-01

    This document describes the requirements for the components and systems that support the hydrogen production portion of a 600 megawatt thermal (MWt) Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). These systems, defined as the "balance-of-plant" (BOP), are essential to operate an effective hydrogen production plant. Examples of BOP items are: heat recovery and heat rejection equipment, process material transport systems (pumps, valves, piping, etc.), control systems, safety systems, waste collection and disposal systems, maintenance and repair equipment, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical supply and distribution, and others. The requirements in this document are applicable to the two hydrogen production processes currently under consideration in the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. These processes are the sulfur iodide (S-I) process and the high temperature electrolysis (HTE) process. At present, the other two hydrogen production process - the hybrid sulfur-iodide electrolytic process (SE) and the calcium-bromide process (Ca-Br) -are under flow sheet development and not included in this report. While some features of the balance-of-plant requirements are common to all hydrogen production processes, some details will apply only to the specific needs of individual processes.

  11. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1993-01-01

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  12. Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant Safety Upgrading Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Fagula, L.

    1996-01-01

    Bohunice nuclear Power Plant generation represents almost 50% of the Slovak republic electric power production. Due to such high level of commitment to nuclear power in the power generation system, a special attention is given to safe and reliable operation of NPPs. Safety upgrading and operational reliability improvement of Bohunice V-1 NPP was carried out by the Bohunice staff continuously since the plant commissioning. In the 1990 - 1993 period extensive projects were realised. As a result of 'Small Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP', the standards of both the nuclear safety and operational reliability have been significantly improved. The implementation of another modifications that will take place gradually during extended refuelling outages and overhauls in the course of 1996 through 1999, is referred to as the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 Plant. The general goal of the V-1 NPP safety upgrading is the achievement of internationally acceptable level of nuclear safety. Extensive and financially demanding modification process of Bohunice V-2 NPP is likely to be implemented after a completion of the Gradual Reconstruction of the Bohunice V-1 NPP, since the year 1999. With this in mind, a first draft of the strategy of the Bohunice V-2 NPP upgrading program based on Probabilistic Safety assessment consideration was developed. A number of actions with a general effect on Bohunice site safety is evident. All these activities are aimed at reaching the essential objective of Bohunice NPP Management - to ensure a safe, reliable and effective electric energy and heat generation at the Bohunice site. (author)

  13. Quality assurance during operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The general requirements applicable to the quality assurance of the Finnish nuclear power plants are presented in the Council of State Decision (395/91) and in the guide YVL 1.4. This guide specifies the quality assurance requirements to be applied during the operation of the nuclear power plants as well as of the other nuclear facilities. Quality assurance applies to all the activities and organizations with a bearing on the safe operation of the nuclear power plants. (5 refs.)

  14. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  15. Owners of nuclear power plants: Percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.S.

    1987-08-01

    The following list indicates percentage ownership of commercial nuclear power plants by utility companies as of June 1, 1987. The list includes all plants licensed to operate, under construction, docked for NRC safety and environmental reviews, or under NRC antitrust review. It does not include those plants announced but not yet under review or those plants formally canceled. In many cases, ownership may be in the process of changing as a result of altered financial conditions, changed power needs, and other reasons. However, this list reflects only those ownership percentages of which the NRC has been formally notified. Part I lists plants alphabetically with their associated applicants/licensees and percentage ownership. Part II lists applicants/licensees alphabetically with their associated plants and percentage ownership. Part I also indicates which plants have received operating licenses (OL's). Footnotes for both parts appear at the end of this document

  16. Nuclear power plant lifetime management strategies - The Spanish approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.; Carmena, P.; Gomez-Santamaria, J.; Regano, M.; Marcelles, I.

    2003-01-01

    Spanish nuclear power plant (NPP) owners are increasingly concerned with optimising Plant Life Management. As a result of this interest, they are setting up Lifetime Management Programmes with the strategic objective to operate the NPPs beyond the 40 years design life (long term operation). In addition, a close link exists between life management work and improved maintenance practices concerning safety, strategic and reliability aspects of NPPs. As result of these important considerations, utilities will increase and globalise programmes for monitoring and mitigation of ageing. Spanish utilities have carried out, under UNESA coordination, a common methodology for NPP lifetime management that is developed through a specific Life Management Programme for each plant. The methodology consists in the following main steps: definition of priorities and scope (SCC selection); identification and analysis of ageing mechanisms; evaluation of current maintenance practices; and, review of operation and maintenance programmes. Also described in the paper is the current Spanish regulatory framework related to the NPP life management. With no defined time limit for the NPP operation, the plant operating license is based on periodical renewals associated with Periodic Safety Reviews (PSR) done in general every ten years. Actually, the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Authority is working in determining specific aspects of the licensing process to be required for the NPP long term operation. (author)

  17. Advanced nuclear plant control room complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarola, K.; Jamison, D.S.; Manazir, R.M.; Rescorl, R.L.; Harmon, V.; Harmon, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    A control room complex is described for a nuclear power plant, the plant having a multiplicity of components and sensors outside of the control room, the complex comprising: a main control room having at least one console which includes parameter indicators for displaying values of plant operating parameters, alarms for warning of an abnormal condition in a parameter or component, controllers for operating components and indicating the status of the controlled component, a screen for generating visual images of fluidly connected components, values of associated operating parameters, and component status, and means for manually tripping the reactor; a first type of digital processor means associated with the parameter indicators, alarms, and controllers; a second type of digital processor means associated with the screen; a plant protection system and associated third type of digital processing means, responsive to at least some of the plant sensors, for automatically tripping the reactor upon the occurrence of an unsafe event; a safeguards system for controlling at least some of the plant components upon the occurrence of an unsafe event; a component control system for controlling the plant components during normal operation; a power control system for controlling reactor power level; means for transmitting data from the protection system, the safeguards system, the component control system, and the power control system to each of the first and second digital processor means; means in each of the first and second types of digital processing means for independently computing representative values of plant parameters; means for transmitting data between the first and second types of digital processor means; means associated with the second type of processor, for providing said screen with display values of operating parameters that are based on a comparison of the representative values from the first and second types of processors

  18. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC... the Perry Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (PNPP). The license provides, among other things, that the... licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published March 27, 2009...

  19. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  20. Operation guide device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsuneyasu

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to maintain the soundness of nuclear fuels and each of equipments by compensating the effect of the xenon density on the reactor core thermal power resulted upon load following operation of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: The device comprises an instrumentation system for measuring the status of the nuclear reactor, a reactor core performance calculator for calculating the reactor core performance based on the output from the instrumentation system, a xenon density calculator for calculating the xenon density based on the output from the performance calculator, a memory unit for storing the output from the reactor core performance calculator and the xenon density calculator and for transferring the stored memory to a nuclear reactor status forecasting device and an alternative load pattern searching device for searching, in cooperation with the memory unit, an alternative load pattern which is within an operation restrictive condition and most closed to a demanded load pattern when a monitor for the deviation from the flowrate distribution detects the deviation from the operation restrictive conditions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Application of analysis technology in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaoka, Keiko; Miura, Hiromi; Umeda, Kenji

    1996-01-01

    Recently, thanks to the rapid improvement of EWS performance, the authors have been able to carry out design evaluation comparatively, easily, utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. The Nuclear Plant Engineering Department has carried out some analyses in the past several years with the main purpose of evaluating the design of nuclear reactor internals. These studies included ''Thermal Hydraulic Analysis for Top Plenum'' and ''Flow Analysis for Lower Plenum''. It is considered to be a special matter in thermal hydraulic analysis of the top plenum that temperature distribution has been estimated with a relatively small number of meshes by means of an imaginary spray nozzle, and in the flow analysis for the lower plenum that flow distribution has been found to change largely, depending on the reactor internals. One of the ways to confirm the safety of nuclear plants, detailed structural analysis, is required for all possible combinations of transient and load conditions during operation. In particular, it is very important to clarify the thermal stress behavior under operating conditions and to evaluate fatigue analysis in accordance with the Code Requirements. However, it is very complicated and it takes a lot of time. A new system was developed which can operate continuously all of the definitions of the analytical model, the analyzation of pressurized thermal and external stress, and editing reports. In this paper, the authors introduce this system and apply it to a pressurized water reactor

  2. Reliable control system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tetsuo; Miyazaki, Shiro

    1980-01-01

    The System 1100 for nuclear power plants is the measuring and control system which utilizes the features of the System 1100 for electric power market in addition to the results of nuclear instrumentation with EBS-ZN series, and it has the following features. The maintenance and inspection in operation are easy. The construction of control loops is made flexibly by the combination of modules. The construction of multi-variable control system using mainly feed forward control is easy. Such functions as the automatic switching of control modes can be included. The switching of manual and automatic operations is easy, and if some trouble occurred in a module, the manual operation can be made. The aseismatic ability is improved by rigid structure cubicles. Nonflammable materials are used for wires, multi-core cables, paints and printed boards. The anti-noise characteristics are improved, and the reliability is high. The policy of developing the System 1100 for nuclear power plants, the type approval tests on modules and units and the type approval test on the system are described. The items of the system type approval test were standard performance test, earthquake test, noise isolation test, temperature and humidity test, and drift test. The aseismatic cubicle showed good endurance in its vibration test. (Kako, I.)

  3. Nuclear plant analyzer development and analysis applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is being developed as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) state of the art safety analysis and engineering tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. The NPA integrates the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5 and TRAC-BWR, both of which are well-developed computer graphics programs, and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. Utilizing the complex reactor behavior codes as well as the experiment data repositories enables simulation applications of the NPA that are generally not possible with more simplistic, less mechanistic reactor behavior codes. These latter codes are used in training simulators or with other NPA-type software packages and are limited to displaying calculated data only. This paper describes four applications of the NPA in assisting reactor safety analyses. Two analyses evaluated reactor operating procedures, during off-normal operation, for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a boiling water reactor (BWR), respectively. The third analysis was performed in support of a reactor safety experiment conducted in the Semiscale facility. The final application demonstrated the usefulness of atmospheric dispersion computer codes for site emergency planning purposes. An overview of the NPA and how it supported these analyses are the topics of this paper

  4. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  5. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo; Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion; Nieva, Marcelino Curiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  6. Application of balanced score card in the development of performance indicator system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Shuguang; Huang Fang; Fang Zhaoxia

    2013-01-01

    Performance indicator, which is one of ten performance monitoring tools recommended by WANO performance improvement model, has become an effective tool for performance improvement of nuclear power plant. At present, performance indicator system has been built in nuclear power plant. However, how to establish the performance indicator system that is reasonable and applicable for plant is still a question to be discussed. Performance indictor is closely tied to the strategic direction of a corporation by a balanced score card, and the performance indicator system is established from the point of performance management and strategic development. The performance indicator system of nuclear power plant is developed by introducing the balanced score card, and can be as a reference for other domestic nuclear power plants. (authors)

  7. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbino, H.; Plisson, P.; Friant, J.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  8. Localization of Manufacturing Capabilities in Setting Up Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, Sushil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    group for supply of forgings for nuclear reactor, vessels, steam generators, turbine generators and other safety critical components including pumps, valves, pipes and tubes, and other integration work for the balance of plant are summarized. In close association with its sister concerns like Kalyani Carpenter special Steels, the challenges to manufacture critical pieces of metal with advanced materials and alloys are being addressed. The paper would briefly touch upon these efforts on advanced materials and alloys. The company has planned significant investments for setting up an integrated manufacturing facility to clear the global bottleneck in the supply of ultra-heavy forgings for not only for light water reactors but also for a variety of other applications like conventional island rotors, shafts, etc. Bharat Forge is also setting up a dedicated steel plant and a large foundry to address the requirements of cast pieces, casings and the like in nuclear and conventional islands. The overall effort of the Group is to develop in-house capabilities for meeting most component specific requirement of nuclear power plants. Civil structuring involves execution by prior qualification with proven skills for specialized civil works needed in the construction of nuclear plants. Another group company is also gearing up to enhance its capabilities to undertake construction projects and execute EPC contracts. This company is also in dialogue with a number of nuclear design and engineering outfits of the world to sew up formidable combination of design, engineering, construction and execution strengths. In the context of Indian Nuclear Power Program, the various initiatives taken for overall human resource development to meet the demands requiring skills in high end technology manufacturing and project management are included. Kalyani Group's trans-continental efforts to join hands with various educational and training institutions to create and replicate world-class talent pool

  9. Atmospheric dispersion in nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway for the transport of radioactive releases from a nuclear power plant to the environment and thereby to man. It is necessary therefore to have adequate information about this pathway in order to estimate the dispersion of radioactive releases to the population in the region and thus be able to assess the radiological impact on man. The present Guide describes the meteorological phenomena and mechanisms involved in the dispersion of the released effluents in the atmosphere, discusses the methods which may be used to calculate the concentration and deposition in the region, specifies the data needed for input to these models, states the characteristics of the requisite instrumentation and data analysis systems and discusses certain related topics. Methods are presented for estimating concentration for short and long periods of emission over a wide range of types of radioactive releases. The evaluation of dose to individuals and population, given the concentration, is dealt with in national and international publications. It has been customary in the safety analysis of nuclear power plants to prepare dispersion estimates with different degrees of emphasis and various accuracy requirements at the stages of (a) site survey, (b) site evaluation, and (c) operation of the plant, and for accident contingency planning. Recommendations given in the present Guide generally apply to a distance of up to about 10 km depending upon the complexity of the terrain. The extension to longer distances may be made with caution and to the satisfaction of the regulatory authority

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  12. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  14. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  15. Analysis of color environment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natori, Kazuyuki; Akagi, Ichiro; Souma, Ichiro; Hiraki, Tadao; Sakurai, Yukihiro.

    1996-01-01

    This article reports the results of color and psychological analysis of the outlook of nuclear power plants and the visual environments inside of the plants. Study one was the color measurements of the outlook of nuclear plants and the visual environment inside of the plants. Study two was a survey of the impressions on the visual environments of nuclear plants obtained from observers and interviews of the workers. Through these analysis, we have identified the present state of, and the problems of the color environments of the nuclear plants. In the next step, we have designed the color environments of inside and outside of the nuclear plants which we would recommend (inside designs were about fuel handling room, operation floor of turbine building, observers' pathways, central control room, rest room for the operators). Study three was the survey about impressions on our design inside and outside of the nuclear plants. Nuclear plant observers, residents in Osaka city, residents near the nuclear plants, the operators, employees of subsidiary company and the PR center guides rated their impressions on the designs. Study four was the survey about the design of the rest room for the operators controlling the plants. From the results of four studies, we have proposed some guidelines and problems about the future planning about the visual environments of nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Heat recovery from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safa, H.

    2012-01-01

    The thermodynamic efficiency of a standard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is around 33%. Therefore, about two third of the heat generated by the nuclear fuel is literally wasted in the environment. Given the fact that the steam coming out from the high pressure turbine is superheated, it could be advantageously used for non electrical applications, particularly for district heating. Considering the technological improvements achieved these last years in heat piping insulation, it is now perfectly feasible to envisage heat transport over quite long distances, exceeding 200 km, with affordable losses. Therefore, it could be energetically wise to revise the modifications required on present reactors to perform heat extraction without impeding the NPP operation. In this paper, the case of a French reactor is studied showing that a large fraction of the wasted nuclear heat can be actually recovered and transported to be injected in the heat distribution network of a large city. Some technical and economical aspects of nuclear district heating application are also discussed. (author)

  17. Nuclear Power Plants and Uranium Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGHEI MĂRGULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent UN Climate Talks in Paris have put forward the goal of limiting the global temperature rise to two degrees Celsius by the end of the century. This is providing a strong political base for expanding the nuclear power capacity because of the critical role that nuclear power plants play in the production of electricity without emissions of greenhouse gases. In all, more than a dozen countries get over 25% of their energy from nuclear power, with 437 nuclear reactors operating around the world. On top of that, there are another 71 reactors under construction, 165 planned, and 315 proposed. Global uranium demand is expected to rise 40% by 2025 and 81% by 2035. Mined supply of uranium will struggle to keep pace amid rising demand and falling secondary supplies. A cumulative supply deficit is expected to emerge by 2021 while 2016 marks a huge inflection point for the industry, beeing the first year that demand will actually exceed supplies, creating a 60,000-tonne shortfall by 2018. Over the next 10 years, we're going to see uranium prices more than double while the bull run will begin in earnest in 2016.

  18. Strategies for competitive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This technical publication on competitive strategies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other documents that have been written on this topic have focused on how the environment in which NPPs operate is changing. This report instead focuses on strategies and techniques that operating organization and NPP managers can use to succeed in this environment. Of particular note is ongoing OECD/NEA work to describe the environment for nuclear power in competitive electricity markets. The main objective of the OECD/NEA study is to review the impacts of increasing market competition on the nuclear power sectors in OECD Member countries. The OECD/NEA study is identifying various nuclear aspects which have to be considered in relation to the regulatory reform of the electricity sector in OECD Member States. The OECD/NEA work was co-ordinated with the development of this IAEA report; staff members from the two organizations participated in the development and review of the associated documents. Thus, the strategies and techniques identified in this report are consistent with the impacts of increasing market competition identified in the OECD/NEA study

  19. A Practical Approach to a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustained Nuclear Energy - 12383

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D.; Del Cul, Guillermo D.; Spencer, Barry B.; Williams, Kent A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6152, Oak Ridge TN 37831 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Recent systems analysis studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have shown that sufficient information is available from previous research and development (R and D), industrial experience, and current studies to make rational decisions on a practical approach to a closed nuclear fuel cycle in the United States. These studies show that a near-term decision is needed to recycle used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States, to encourage public recognition that a practical solution to disposal of nuclear energy wastes, primarily UNF, is achievable, and to ensure a focus on essential near-term actions and future R and D. Recognition of the importance of time factors is essential, including the multi-decade time period required to implement industrial-scale fuel recycle at the capacity needed, and the effects of radioactive decay on proliferation resistance, recycling complexity, radioactive emissions, and high-level-waste storage, disposal form development, and eventual emplacement in a geologic repository. Analysis of time factors led to identification of the benefits of processing older fuel and an 'optimum decay storage time'. Further benefits of focused R and D can ensure more complete recycling of UNF components and minimize wastes requiring disposal. Analysis of recycling costs and nonproliferation requirements, which are often cited as reasons for delaying a decision to recycle, shows that (1) the differences in costs of nuclear energy with open or closed fuel cycles are insignificant and (2) nonproliferation requirements can be met by a combination of 'safeguards-by-design' co-location of back-end fuel cycle facilities, and applied engineered safeguards and monitoring. The study shows why different methods of separating and recycling used fuel components do not have a significant effect on nonproliferation requirements and can be selected on other bases, such as process efficiency, maturity, and cost-effectiveness. Finally, the study

  20. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  1. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the design documentation. An important objective of a configuration management program is to ensure that accurate information consistent with the physical and operational characteristics of the power plant is available in a timely manner for making safe, knowledgeable, and cost effective decisions with confidence. Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of this process as an effective way of limiting configuration errors and related risks. In this report the necessary attributes of a good operational CM are identified. It is recognized and emphasized that a CM is one aspect of the overall management system. Nevertheless, this is an important part of managerial activity focused on the compliance of knowledge of the plant personnel, plant documentation and records with the state of the plant technology. The concepts developed in this report present a basic approach to CM, taking into

  2. Structural mechanics in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liangbi

    1998-01-01

    The main research works in structural mechanics in reactor technology are emphatically introduced. It is completed by structural mechanics engineers at Shanghai Nuclear Research and Design Institute associated with the design and construction problems for Qinshan NPP Unit 1 and Pakistani CHASNUPP. About structural mechanics problem for the containment, the rock and soft soil two different bases are considered. For the later the interaction between soil and structure is carefully studied. About the structural mechanics problem for the equipment and pipings, the three dimensional stress and fracture analyses are studied. For the structural dynamics problem, including flow induced vibration, the response analyses under earthquake and loss coolant accident loadings are studied. For pipings, the leak before break technique has been emphatically introduced. A lot of mathematical models, the used computer codes, analytical calculations and experimental results are also introduced. This is a comprehensive description about structural mechanics problem in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

  3. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  4. The fourth nuclear power plant in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2017-01-15

    Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP-1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

  5. Radiation monitor system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Bingzhe; Guo Shusheng

    1990-12-01

    The system has 8 kinds of radiation monitors and 2 stage microcomputers designed for processing the data from each monitor, storaging the information, printing out and displaying on the colour CRT. The function of the system includes high-value alarm, warm alarm and failure alarm, so called t hree-level alarms . Two functions of the alarms are the threshold alarm and the tendency alarm, so that this system is an intelligency system. This system has high reliability and very wide range when LOCA accident takes place. It is aseismic and immune to industrial interference. The system can meet IEC-761-1 standard and is of nuclear safety 3rd class. Also the following monitors were designed: 133 Xe monitor, 131 I monitor, low-level liquid monitor and high radiation γ area monitor. The system can meet the requirements of nuclear power plants

  6. Nuclear power plant electrical cable damageability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, L.L.

    1982-10-01

    Under the direction of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Sandia National Laboratories has been conducting confirmatory research in fire protection for nuclear power plants. As a part of this research, a program was developed to determine the damageability of electrical-cable insulation to thermal radiation in a loaded cable tray. The critical flux or threshold level at which cable damage occurs in the form of electrical failure (short from conductor to tray) and nonpiloted ignition was determined for two types of electrical cable, one an IEEE-383 qualified cable and the other an unqualified cable. A program was also developed to determine the damageability of electrical-cable insulation to constant temperature, thermal exposure

  7. Nuclear Plant Analyzer: Installation manual. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.; Grush, W.H.; Jones, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report contains the installation instructions for the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) System. The NPA System consists of the Computer Visual System (CVS) program, the NPA libraries, the associated utility programs. The NPA was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of these analysis codes. The NPA also provides the user with a convenient means of interactively controlling the host program through user-defined pop-up menus. The NPA was designed to serve primarily as an analysis tool. After a brief introduction to the Computer Visual System and the NPA, an analyst can quickly create a simple picture or set of pictures to aide in the study of a particular phenomenon. These pictures can range from simple collections of square boxes and straight lines to complex representations of emergency response information displays

  8. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  9. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  10. The dual hydro x nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    An our daily life in modern society becomes more and more dependent on electricity, supply of this kind of energy should not only be a part of a global energy policy, but also lay down rigorous criteria to garanty the market supply. Planning actions of the electrical sector are more sensitive to unforseen events, either to brief interruptions in energy supply or to non-equilibrium at any time of the excess of supply over demand. In this way, the cost factor although basic, does not lead to optimal solutions in decisions which involve options between different technologies and energy sources to generate electricity. In this paper, we analyse the above situation in the case of deciding between utilization of nuclear or hydro power plants to supply the Brazilian demande for electricity. Our final objective was the search for parameters which could lead us to better identify and understand the adroitness and mistakes of the Brazilian Nuclear Program. (Author) [pt

  11. Use of computers at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen'kin, V.I.; Ozhigano, Yu.V.

    1974-01-01

    Applications of information and control computors in reacter central systems in Great Britain, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, and the USA is surveyed. For the purpose of increasing the reliability of the computers effective means were designed for emergency operation and automatic computerized controls, and highly reliable micromodel modifications were developed. Numerical data units were handled along with development of methods and diagrams for converting analog values to numerical values, in accordance with modern requirements. Some data are presented on computer reliability in operating nuclear power plants both proposed and under construction. It is concluded that in foreign nuclear power stations the informational and calculational computers are finding increasingly wide distribution. Rapid action, the possibility of controlling large parameters, and operation of the computer in conjunction with increasing reliability are speeding up the process of introducing computers in atomic energy and broadenig their functions. (V.P.)

  12. Safety related terms for advanced nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The terms considered in this document are in widespread current use without a universal consensus as to their meaning. Other safety related terms are already defined in national or international codes and standards as well as in IAEA's Nuclear Safety Standards Series. Most of the terms in those codes and standards have been defined and used for regulatory purposes, generally for application to present reactor designs. There is no intention to duplicate the description of such regulatory terms here, but only to clarify the terms used for advanced nuclear plants. The following terms are described in this paper: Inherent safety characteristics, passive component, active component, passive systems, active system, fail-safe, grace period, foolproof, fault-/error-tolerant, simplified safety system, transparent safety

  13. Nuclear power plants in the world as of June 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., has carried out the survey twice every year on the nuclear power stations in operation, under construction, ordered and in planning stage in the world, and this report is the summary of the results. In this survey as of June 30, 1980, the nuclear power stations in operation in the world were 233 plants, those under construction were 229 plants, those ordered were 52 plants, and those in planning stage were 130 plants. The total was 644 plants with the total capacity of 542.2 million kWe. As compared with the number at the end of 1979, 8 nuclear power stations with 5.79 million kWe capacity started the operation in six months. The cancellation of nuclear power station projects occurred only in U.S.A., and 3 plants under construction and 5 ordered plants were cancelled. It was decided to close down one plant each in West Germany, France and U.S.A. The countries surveyed this time were 41, same as before. The countries where nuclear power stations have been operated were 22. In terms of the installed capacity of nuclear power stations in operation, U.S.A. was the leader, followed by Japan, USSR, France, West Germany and Great Britain in this order. Communist countries have strong ambition to construct nuclear power stations. On the trend of respective countries in the first half of 1980, the outline is described. (Kako, I.)

  14. Safety Regulation of Nuclear Power Plant License Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoe; Liu, Ting; Qi, Yuan; Yang, LiLi

    2018-01-01

    China’s regulations stipulate that a nuclear power plant license is valid for a design life period (generally 30 or 40 years). Whether the nuclear power plant’s license is renewed after the expiration of the license is to be determined based on the safety and economy of the nuclear power plant..

  15. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power... nuclear power plants that were licensed before January 1, 1979, satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR Part 50...

  16. Belene nuclear power plant contracting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankosic, D.; Mignone, O.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, three main types of project execution and contractual approaches have been applied to energy and industrial projects, including nuclear projects. These approaches are grouped into three broad categories: 1) Turnkey Approach; 2) Split Package (Island) Approach; and 3)Multiple Package Approach. Based on a preliminary screening done by an ongoing feasibility study work for NPP Belene (NEK contract to Parsons E and C), the recommended approach is going to follow that general trend i.e., with some variation between the Split Package and the Turnkey approach. Before deciding on an execution approach or at least before issuing bid specifications for the nuclear power plant, it is prudent, even for a country with existing nuclear power program (like Bulgaria), to re-check/verify capabilities of the interested bidders to handle contracts of this size and nature. During the last decades, nuclear energy went through a substantial restructuring and most of the capabilities (human and financial) that existed before are not any more available. This re-checking should mainly cover the experience of the bidders as regards the design, construction and operation of the stations where they were involved, but also include items such as local experience, capability to bring favorable financing, liability coverage, general background, potential and organizational structures. The advantages and disadvantages for the Owner of the three contracting approaches can be briefly summarized as follows: Turnkey Approach - main advantages: all responsibilities rest in a Contractor or Consortium. Main disadvantages - limited project control by Owner and restricted local participation. For Split Package Contract Approach main advantage are more favorable financing conditions and increased local participation. Main disadvantage is the increased interface problems. For Multiple package Contract Approach main advantages are the opportunity to tailor the plant and maximum increase of local

  17. Uptake of radionuclides by farm animals close to a major nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, T.J.; Green, N.; Dodd, N.J.

    1984-01-01

    A field investigation of the transfer of artificially produced radionuclides in the pasture-cow-milk pathway has been made at a farm close to the nuclear fuel reprocessing installation at Sellafield. The routine discharges from the plant have resulted in enhanced levels of several artificial radionuclides in the local environment. The annual depositions of 90 Sr and 137 Cs at the farm were a factor of about five higher than the average deposition of these radionuclides in the UK. Even if extremely cautious assumptions concerning local eating habits are made, the consumption of meat and dairy products from this farm would give rise to an annual activity intake of less than one percent of the limit for adult members of the public. (orig./HP)

  18. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, W.J.; Thomaz, E.; Rideg, P.; Girao, M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  19. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees' performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)

  20. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  2. Designing nuclear power plants for improved operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this publication is to compile demonstrated, experience based design guidelines for improving the operability and maintainability of nuclear power plants. The guidelines are for use principally in the design of new nuclear power plants, but should also be useful in upgrading existing designs. The guidelines derive from the experience of operating and maintaining existing nuclear power plants as well as from the design of recent plants. In particular these guidelines are based on and consistent with both the EPRI advanced Light Water Reactor Utility Requirements Document, Volume 1, and the European Utility Requirements for LWR Nuclear Power Plants. 6 refs, 1 fig

  3. Provisions for Emergency Situations in the Krummel Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbs, W.; Welts, U.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the emergency response organisation and administration for the Krummel nuclear power station, a BWR plant located on the Elbe rive, close to Hamburg. They indicate the applied regulations and procedures which are translated in the operational manuals, and notably the emergency manual which comprises three parts: a first one dealing with organisation and administration, and two others dealing with the emergency training programme (working manual and procedures for accident management measures). They describe the most important technical measures implemented in the Krummel plant: installation of an emergency reactor pressure control system, installation of a filtered containment venting system, installation of a containment nitrogen-injection system, and so on. They describe the structure of emergency procedures, and then outline the necessity of changes in the organisation, discuss some aspects related to training, and present some additional planned accident management measures. They present the emergency training programme, and finally outline the involvement of the regulatory authority

  4. Power conditioning devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, Toichi.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically prevent the liquid level from lowering in a reactor even if a feedwater adjusting valve is locked in a bwr type nuclear power plant. Constitution: Where a feedwater adjusting valve should be locked, and if the mismatching degree between the main steam flow rate and the feedwater flow rate exceeds a predetermined value and the mismatched state continues for a certain period, the value set to a main control for setting the recycling flow rate is changed corresponding to the mismatching degree to compensate the same thereby preventing the liquid level from lowering in the reactor. (Ikeda, J.)

  5. Probabilistic analysis of fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unione, A.; Teichmann, T.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a multilevel (i.e., staged) probabilistic analysis of fire risks in nuclear plants (as part of a general PRA) which maximizes the benefits of the FRA (fire risk assessment) in a cost effective way. The approach uses several stages of screening, physical modeling of clearly dominant risk contributors, searches for direct (e.g., equipment dependences) and secondary (e.g., fire induced internal flooding) interactions, and relies on lessons learned and available data from and surrogate FRAs. The general methodology is outlined. 6 figs., 10 tabs

  6. Knowledge management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal, C. de la; Barasoain, F.; Buedo, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to show the importance of knowledge management from different perspectives. In this first part part of the article, the overall approach that performs CNAT of knowledge management is described. In the second part, a specific aspect of knowledge management in ANAV, tacit knowledge transfer is showed. finally, the third part discusses the strategies and actions that are followed in CNCO for knowledge management. All this aims to show an overview of knowledge management held in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  7. Commissioning quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the commissioning phase of a nuclear power plant. This standard embodies the relevant quality assurance requirements of CSA Standard CAN3-N286.0, and is the governing Standard for commissioning quality assurance activities in the event of any conflicting requirements. This Standard applies to the commissioning of safety-related equipment, systems, and structures as identified by the owner. It may be applied to other equipment, systems, and structures at the discretion of the owner. 1 fig

  8. Sources of supply for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1975-01-01

    In a competitive commercial market situation, such as the one which now exists for nuclear power plants, it is necessary for each prospective buyer to make his own judgements as regards the risks and benefits, advantages and disadvantages of the different suppliers. These judgements should be based on factual data and on some firm criteria supplemented by considerations stemming from the local situation. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss these criteria and considerations and how they can be applied to the data basis. (orig./FW) [de

  9. Environmental impact of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, F.

    2008-01-01

    The environment, is radioactive, by reason of reception of rays of sky and earth, atoms on body and normal activities(fossil fuel). Activities on fossil fuel cycle, led to environmental pollutions. Also, the aim of this research is survey of environmental impact of nuclear power plant and determination management and monitoring policies. The result of this research showed that in the fossil fuel cycle (exploration, extraction, mill), produced different level radioactive wastes (low, middle, high), chemical material, heat, oily material and wastewater, that by use of radioactive waste management, destructive effect of pollutant can be decreased

  10. Construction quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This Standard contains the requirements for the quality assurance program applicable to the construction phase of a nuclear power plant. This Standard covers all activities carried out for and by the owner from the receipt of components or materials on the site to their incorporation in systems or structures as required by drawings or other formal engineering information. It also covers the provision of required support activities and equipment and applies at all stages on the site as far as the testing of components or systems before they are submitted for commissioning. 2 figs

  11. Premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononetz, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    The premature closure of the Trojan Nuclear Plant is discussed in outline form. The topics discussed include: an overview of Trojan; events leading to shutdown decision; Trojan's lifetime O ampersand M performance; Trojan's Regulatory performance; historical Trojan regulatory versus economic performance; applicable Oregon law; least-cost planning process; 1992 least cost plan; 1993 LCP update; LCP limitations; comparative performance analysis; management assessments; Trojan O ampersand M analysis; steam generator issues; quantification of deficiencies; quantification of impact of steam generator degradation; 'net benefits' test; conclusions from net benefits analysis; total disallowances; and conclusions and ramifications

  12. Safety culture of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Beixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a summary on the basis of DNMC safety culture training material for managerial personnel. It intends to explain the basic contents of safety, design, management, enterprise culture, safety culture of nuclear power plant and the relationship among them. It explains especially the constituent elements of safety culture system, the basic requirements for the three levels of commitments: policy level, management level and employee level. It also makes some analyses and judgments for some typical safety culture cases, for example, transparent culture and habitual violation of procedure. (authors)

  13. Pressurizer model for Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkansky, D.G.; Bedrossian, G.C.

    1993-01-01

    Since the models normally used for he simulation of eventual accidents at the Embalse nuclear power plant with the FIREBIRD III code did not work satisfactorily when the pressurizer becomes empty of liquid, a new model was developed. This report presents the governing equations as well as the calculation technique, for which a computer program was made. An example of application is also presented. The results show that this new model can easily solve the problem of lack of liquid in the pressurizer, as it lets the fluid enter and exit freely, according to the pressure transient at the reactor outlet headers. (author)

  14. Remote sensing for nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, B.S.; Welby, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enhance the selection and evaluation process for nuclear power plant siting. The principal advantage is the synoptic view which improves recognition of linear features, possibly indicative of faults. The interpretation of such images, in conjunction with seismological studies, also permits delineation of seismo-tectonic provinces. In volcanic terrains, geomorphic-age boundaries can be delineated and volcanic centers identified, providing necessary guidance for field sampling and regional model derivation. The use of such techniques is considered for studies in the Philippines, Mexico, and Greece. 5 refs

  15. Nuclear reactor plants and control systems therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Boer, G.A.; de Hex, M.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor plant is described comprising at least two hydraulically separated but thermally interconnected heat conveying circuits, of which one is the reactor circuit filled with a non-water medium and the other one is the water-steam-circuit equipped with a steam generator, a feed water conduit controlled by a valve and a steam turbine, and a control system mainly influenced by the pressure drop caused in said feed water conduit and its control valve and having a value of at least 10 bars at full load

  16. Operational safety of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1987-01-01

    The operational safety of nuclear power plants has become an important safety issue since the Chernobyl accident. A description is given of the various aspects of operational safety, including the importance of human factors, responsibility, the role and training of the operator, the operator-machine interface, commissioning and operating procedures, experience feedback, and maintenance. The lessons to be learnt from Chernobyl are considered with respect to operator errors and the management of severe accidents. Training of personnel, operating experience feedback, actions to be taken in case of severe accidents, and international cooperation in the field of operational safety, are also discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Piping engineering for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curto, N.; Schmidt, H.; Muller, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop piping engineering, an adequate dimensioning and correct selection of materials must be secured. A correct selection of materials together with calculations and stress analysis must be carried out with a view to minimizing or avoiding possible failures or damages in piping assembling, which could be caused by internal pressure, weight, temperature, oscillation, etc. The piping project for a nuclear power plant is divided into the following three phases. Phase I: Basic piping design. Phase II: Final piping design. Phase III: Detail engineering. (Author)

  18. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevans, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this First Annual Technical Progress report summarizes the first year tasks while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. One major addendum report, authored by M.A. Schultz, describes the ultimate goals and projected structure of an automatic distributed control system for EBR-2. The remaining tasks of the project develop specific implementations of various components required to demonstrate the intelligent distributed control concept

  19. Probability analysis of nuclear power plant hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The probability analysis of risk is described used for quantifying the risk of complex technological systems, especially of nuclear power plants. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous event and the significance of its consequences. The process of the analysis may be divided into the stage of power plant analysis to the point of release of harmful material into the environment (reliability analysis) and the stage of the analysis of the consequences of this release and the assessment of the risk. The sequence of operations is characterized in the individual stages. The tasks are listed which Czechoslovakia faces in the development of the probability analysis of risk, and the composition is recommended of the work team for coping with the task. (J.C.)

  20. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  1. Developments in nuclear power plant water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruzetti, K.; Wood, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates the changing role of water chemistry in current operation of nuclear power plants. Water chemistry was sometimes perceived as the cause of materials problems, such as denting in PWR steam generators and intergranular stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. However, starting in the last decade, new chemistry options have been introduced to mitigate stress corrosion cracking and reduce fuel performance concerns. In BWRs and PWRs alike, water chemistry has evolved to successfully mitigate many problems as they have developed. The increasing complexity of the chemistry alternatives, coupled with the pressures to increase output and reduce costs, have demonstrated the need for new approaches to managing plant chemistry, which are addressed in the final part of this paper. (orig.)

  2. Quality assurance auditing for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for establishing and implementing a system of internal and external audits during the design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants. It provides for the planning, performance, reporting and follow-up of the quality assurance audit activity. It defines in general terms the responsibilities of the auditing and audited organizations. The Guide also covers auditing in the context of supplier evaluation; it does not include inspection for the sole purpose of process control or product acceptance. Like the Code, the present Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  3. Nuclear Plants in the Vicinity of Borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, Elmar.

    1979-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants in border areas is decided according to 'national criteria' which are governed by the cost/benefit principle, i.e. a comparison between investment and profit; human values are taken into consideration by transforming them into financial values according to the 'quantification' procedure. However ecology cannot be quantified as it is linked to the great complexity of the natural system. To harmonize technical criteria and ecological requirements, the jurist suggests a legal system of indemnity which takes into account both damage which has already occurred and the degree of probability of its occurrence. Thus a new criterion would be introduced in the decision-making process on plant siting: compensation costs for the national population and for the neighbouring countries would then be a factor in cost/benefit calculations. (NEA) [fr

  4. Earthquake protection of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrotzki, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  5. Optimal estimation and control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purviance, J.E.; Tylee, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    Optimal estimation and control theories offer the potential for more precise control and diagnosis of nuclear power plants. The important element of these theories is that a mathematical plant model is used in conjunction with the actual plant data to optimize some performance criteria. These criteria involve important plant variables and incorporate a sense of the desired plant performance. Several applications of optimal estimation and control to nuclear systems are discussed

  6. Localization of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiteler, F.Z.; Rudek, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    -effective localization of nuclear power in Asia. Nuclear power is more capital intensive than most other power generation options. This results in the electricity cost to the end user being more influenced by the initial cost than fuel, and other operations and maintenance expenses. Because developing nations typically have lower wages, it's a natural conclusion to maximize local capabilities to drive the capital cost as low as possible. To facilitate localization, new approaches to expediting the formation of a credible nuclear technology infrastructure in these emerging commercial nuclear power nations is discussed. This paper will examine localization of nuclear technology as one of the most promising methods to make nuclear power more affordable to the emerging markets in Asia. Localization will allow for the utilization of lower cost, local labor in the design, manufacture and construction of new nuclear power plants. ABB's practical localization philosophy is discussed with reference to previous experience and future expectations. (author)

  7. Westinghouse AP600 advanced nuclear plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the cooperative US Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Program and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Westinghouse AP600 team has developed a simplified, safe, and economic 600-megawatt plant to enter into a new era of nuclear power generation. Designed to satisfy the standards set by DOE and defined in the ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD), the Westinghouse AP600 is an elegant combination of innovative safety systems that rely on dependable natural forces and proven technologies. The Westinghouse AP600 design simplifies plant systems and significant operation, inspections, maintenance, and quality assurance requirements by greatly reducing the amount of valves, pumps, piping, HVAC ducting, and other complex components. The AP600 safety systems are predominantly passive, depending on the reliable natural forces of gravity, circulation, convection, evaporation, and condensation, instead of AC power supplies and motor-driven components. The AP600 provides a high degree of public safety and licensing certainty. It draws upon 40 years of experience in light water reactor components and technology, so no demonstration plant is required. During the AP600 design program, a comprehensive test program was carried out to verify plant components, passive safety systems components, and containment behavior. When the test program was completed at the end of 1994, the AP600 became the most thoroughly tested advanced reactor design ever reviewed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The test results confirmed the exceptional behavior of the passive systems and have been instrumental in facilitating code validations. Westinghouse received Final Design Approval from the NRC in September 1998. (author)

  8. Ageing management in German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, Ulrich; Koring, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ageing management (AM) programmes have been launched in many countries. In the USA ageing management activities were initiated to demonstrate the long term integrity of nuclear power plants for plant life extension purposes. Also in other countries e.g. Switzerland AM programmes became an important issue. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published recommendations concerning the physical ageing of safety relevant systems. As a consequence of these international developments, the ageing management aspect was introduced to Germany, too, although plant life extension is definitely not the key subject in the German nuclear industry, today. The situation in Germany concerning long term integrity of safety relevant NPP-systems and components is determined by the requirements stated in regulations and codes. They contain basic requirements for continuous precaution measures according to the current state-of-the-art starting already with the plant commissioning. This included demands for redundant safety and for surveillance measures. A continuous adjustment related to the requirements of the respective state-of-the-art is provided by the German utilities and submitted to the responsible safety authority to demonstrate an appropriate integrity status of the safety relevant systems. In Germany, no specific programme named ageing management exists. The measures concerning long term integrity of safety relevant components are performed under different names. Nevertheless, the German utilities understand that the subject 'Ageing Management' is comprehensively covered by the entirety of the different precaution and maintenance measures and regulations already established. This paper presents the existing German utility integrity concept and its sound application to ageing management issues. (authors)

  9. The application of plant information system on third Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wangtian

    2005-01-01

    Plant overall control has been applied in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, which enhances the security of plant operation, but it is not enough to improve the technical administration level. In order to integrate the overall information and to improve the technical administration level more. Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant applies the plant information system. This thesis introduces the application of plant information system in Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and the effect to the plant after the system is carried into execution, in addition, it does more analysis and exceptions for application of plant information system in the future. (authors)

  10. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu

    2000-01-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  11. Nuclear power plant safety under military threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Mavko, B.

    1993-01-01

    The Krsko nuclear power plant in Slovenia was probably the first in the world that found itself in the middle of a war region. A number of preventive measures performed during and immediately after the war in summer 1991 by the plant personnel as well as some of related activities of the Reactor Engineering Division of the 'Jozef Stefan' Institute are described. All efforts were aimed at the minimization of the possible public radiological consequences during a military attack. The critical safety functions in such conditions were checked. Concern was further devoted to maintenance of the core cooling in the core and to integrity of the spent fuel pit. The cold shutdown mode was found to be the most appropriate option. After selecting the cold shutdown mode as a most suitable operational state of the plant, further studies of the vulnerability were done. In addition to possible direct damage to structures, that would cause release of radioactivity, two important subjects were considered: AC and DC power supply and the ultimate heat sink. A quick analysis during the crisis has shown that the consequences of a military attack against the plant by jet fighters could be serious, but with the proper preventive measures and preparedness the environmental consequences could be minimized. (Z.S.) 1 fig., 1 ref

  12. An integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Shimokawa, H.; Matsushima, H.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility in the nuclear field of the Government, utilities and manufactures has increased in the past years due to the need of stable operation and great reliability of nuclear power plants. The need to improve the reliability is not only for the new plants but also for those now running. So, several measures have been taken to improve reliability. In particular, the plant manufactures have developed a reliability management system for each phase (planning, construction, maintenance and operation) and these have been integrated as a unified system. This integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants contains information about plant performance, failures and incidents which have occurred in the plants. (author)

  13. Legal bases for the installation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, N.M. de; Barros, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the National Nuclear Energy Comission, the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy and the 'Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S.A.' for the installation of Nuclear Power Plants is presented. (A.L.) [pt

  14. Monitoring of occupational exposure at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The regulations concerning the monitoring of radiation doses of nuclear power plant workers and the reporting of radiation doses to the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are specified in the guide. (10 refs.)

  15. NOKIA - nuclear power plant monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The monitoring system is described developed specially for the LOVIISA-1 and -2 nuclear power plants with two WWER-440 units. The multiprocessor system of the WWER-440 contains 3 identical main computers. The in core instrumentation is based on stationary self-powered neutron detectors and on thermocouples for measuring the coolant temperature. The system has equipment for the automatic control of the insulation resistance of the self-powered detectors. It is also equipped with a wide range of standard and special programmes. The standard programmes permit the recording of analog and digital data at different frequencies depending on the pre-set requirements. These data are processed and form data files which are accessible from all programmes. The heart of the special programme is a code for the determination of the power distribution in the core of the WWER-440 reactor. The main part of the programme is the algorithm for computing measured neutron fluxes derived from the signals of the self-powered detectors and the algorithm for deriving the global distribution of the neutron flux in the core. The computed power distribution is used for the determination of instantaneous thermal loads and the distribution of burnup in the core. The production programme of the FINNATOM company for nuclear power plants is listed. (B.S.)

  16. Reviewing surveillance activities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    This document provides guidance to Operational Safety Review Teams (OSARTs) for reviewing surveillance activities at a nuclear power plant. In addition, the document contains reference material to support the review of surveillance activities, to assist within the Technical Support area and to ensure consistency between individual reviews. Drafts of the document have already been used on several OSART missions and found to be useful. The document first considers the objectives of an excellent surveillance programme. Investigations to determine the quality of the surveillance programme are then discussed. The attributes of an excellent surveillance programme are listed. Advice follows on how to phrase questions so as to obtain an informative response on surveillance features. Finally, specific equipment is mentioned that should be considered when reviewing functional tests. Four annexes provide examples drawn from operating nuclear power plants. They were selected to supplement the main text of the document with the best international practices as found in OSART reviews. They should in no way limit the acceptance and development of alternative approaches that lead to equivalent or better results. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  18. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1985-07-01

    This report presents cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1984. Also presented are data on units that were canceled during 1984. Three types of information are included: plant characteristics and ownership; construction costs; construction schedules; and milestone dates. The reactor-specific cost data presented include estimated final costs for plants in construction and disbursed costs for each unit (funds already expended and funds committed but not yet expended) as of December 31, 1984, as reported by the utilities. In EIA's last report on nuclear construction costs, published in November 1984, 43 units were reported to be under construction or completed but not in commercial operation as of March 31, 1984; 12 units were reported to be deferred as of March 31, 1984; and 2 units were planned. The status of those units as of December 31, 1984, is summarized. Of the 43 units under construction, 4 entered commercial operation, 38 were still under construction, and 1 was reported as deferred. Of the 12 units deferred as of March 31, 1984, 6 remained in deferred status, and 6 were canceled. The 2 planned units remained in the planning stage as of December 31, 1984.

  19. Experience with the export of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettl, A.

    1991-01-01

    Licensing and regulatory aspects represent an important issue during the definition and implementation phase of a nuclear power project. Strict adherence to the principles 'licensability in country of origin' and 'reference plant as built' may prove to be counterproductive on account of the differences in licensing infrastructure in vendor's and buyer's countries and of the difficulty in striking a balance between proven and up-to-date designs. In order to repeat good experience in safety, consistency of the applicable rules and regulations is important when performing the necessary adaptations to local requirements. The use of an internationally accepted body of rules such as NUSS as a yardstick for safety evaluation helps to identify special requirements in vendor's country, thus minimizing distortions in evaluation of competing bids. Benefitting from ongoing efforts to improve transparency and mutual understanding of the national safety approaches through bodies and missions like INSAG, WANO, OSART, a graded approach for implementing safety review during construction and operation is suggested, matching it to the scope of a national program of NPP construction. Together with efficient project control this will minimize the demands on resources - both human and financial - required for a successful launch of a nuclear power plant. (orig.)

  20. Feedwater temperature control device in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Masashi.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically and optimally control the temperature of feedwater supplied to the nuclear reactor of a nuclear power plant regardless the load on a steam turbine. Constitution: A pressure switch is disposed for detecting the turbine extract pressure within an extract pipeway leading to the feedwater heater and heating steams are supplied by selectively switching the control valve disposed to the pipeway for introducing the turbine extract or main steams to the feedwater heater by the signal from the pressure switch. Since the temperature at the exit of the feedwater heater is determined by the pressure inside of the respective equipments, the pressure inside the extract pipe is detected by the pressure switch, and the control valve is put to close and open based on the value to thereby control the entrance of steams to the feedwater heater. As a result, the temperature of the feedwater supplied to the nuclear reactor can be set and controlled automatically within a region where the steam is generated stably in the nuclear reactor. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Licensing Trends for Construction of New Nuclear Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Bae-Hyeuk; Ahn, Kyu-Suk; Kim, Young-Gyun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Baek, Jong-Hyuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Currently in Korea, an SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) technology proving stage reactor called PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV SFR) is being developed by KAERI and KEPCO E and C to be constructed by 2028. After the accident of the Fukushima nuclear power plants, how to regulate and license newly developing nuclear reactors requiring higher safety goals has been issued. As a result, in leading nuclear nations developing new reactors, the close cooperation between the developer and the regulator is becoming very important. In this study, the licensing processes of leading nuclear countries were surveyed and compared with that of Korea, and a new licensing direction for PGSFR was suggested. Reviewing licensing processes for newly developing reactors of other countries, the first step of the licensing process is the pre-safety review, which is to review the reactor design. This process is not legally binding, but is a review process for a better understanding of newly applied technologies by regulators prior to starting the legally binding licensing process as the construction and operation licensing. This process provides an opportunity for the reactor developer to adopt the regulator's licensing direction and a goal to designing newly developing reactors to meet the safety requirements.

  2. Closing the gap between theory and practice in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.; Poulos, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: The ultimate goal for any clinical teaching program is to have students who demonstrate clinical competence. The Nuclear Medicine Technologist like any health professional should graduate from their course: attaining a defined standard of core knowledge; demonstrating appropriate behaviour for the workplace; and, achieving a predetermined level of clinical skill. In the University of Sydney Nuclear Medicine course, revisions were made to the Clinical Education assessment tools to create a more incremental approach and define competencies that required a higher level of achievement. Nuclear Medicine theory delivery was changed to create a more contextual environment where the student was better prepared for the workplace. The aim of this study is firstly to analyse the relationship between assessment of contextual theory and assessment of clinical practice. A secondary aim is to investigate any relationship between individual clinical assessment tools. Clinical assessment tools include: clinical competencies; observed clinical skills examinations (OSCE); clinical and university supervisor assessments; and assignments. Nuclear Medicine theory assessment tools include: problem oriented teamwork presentations; assignment; and written examination. Method: Correlation of the students' overall marks in the subjects' Nuclear Medicine theory and Clinical Education in the years 2000 and 2001 was undertaken using SPSS. Correlation of the students' scores in the individual clinical assessment tools: Clinical Supervisor to University supervisor; Clinical Supervisor to OSCE; and University Supervisor to OSCE, was completed for the years 2000 and 2001. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found for the students' marks in Nuclear Medicine theory and Clinical Education for the same year. The University and Clinical Supervisors' results significantly correlated for all years. Correlation between the individual assessment tools used in Clinical Education was not

  3. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, J; Fernandez, R

    2000-01-01

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  4. Water cooled type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Shigeki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To construct high efficiency a PWR type nuclear power plant with a simple structure by preparing high temperature and pressure water by a PWR type nuclear reactor and a pressurizer, converting the high temperature and high pressure water into steam with a pressure reducing valve and introducing the steam into a turbine, thereby generating electricity. Constitution: A pressurizer is connected downstream of a PWR type nuclear reactor, thereby maintaining the reactor at high pressure. A pressure-reducing valve is provided downstream of the pressurizer, the high temperature and pressure water is reduced in pressure, thereby producing steam. The steam is fed to a turbine, and electric power is generated by a generator connected to the turbine. The steam exhausted from the turbine is condensed by a condenser into water, and the water is returned through a feedwater heater to the reactor. Since the high temperature and pressure water in thus reduced in pressure thereby evaporating it, the steam can be more efficiently produced than by a steam generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  5. Basic safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety requires a continuing quest for excellence. All individuals concerned should constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level. The quest, however, is most likely to be fruitful if it is based on an understanding of the underlying objectives and principles of nuclear safety, and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. This report is an attempt to provide a logical framework for such an understanding. The proposed objectives and principles of nuclear safety are interconnected and must be taken as a whole; they do not constitute a menu from which selection can be made. The report takes account of current issues and developments. It includes the concept of safety objectives and the use of probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability targets for safety systems are discussed. The concept of a 'safety culture' is crucial. Attention has been paid to the need for planning for accident management. The report contains objectives and principles. The objectives state what is to be achieved; the principles state how to achieve it. In each case, the basic principle is stated as briefly as possible. The accompanying discussion comments on the reasons for the principle and its importance, as well as exceptions, the extent of coverage and any necessary clarification. The discussion is as important as the principle it augments. 4 figs

  6. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  7. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiswinkel, Ruediger; Meyer, Julian; Schnell, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply. Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overview from approval aspects given by nuclear and construction law, with special attention to the interface between plant and construction engineering, to a building structure classification. All life cycle phases are considered, with the primary focus on execution. Accidental actions on structures, the safety concept and design and fastening systems are exposed to a particular treatment. Selected chapters of the German concrete yearbook ''Beton-Kalender'' are now available in English. The new English BetonKalender Series delivers internationally useful engineering expertise and industrial know-how from Germany.

  8. Modelling of radioactive fallout in the vicinity of Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel, Y.A.; Petrov, V.N.; Severov, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    Deposition of radioactive products escaping into the atmosphere for a long time from the Chernobylsk-4 reactor resulting in residual radioactive contamination of the region at a distance of up to 100 km from the nuclear power plant is considered. The suggested model may be used for estimation of the possible scope of nuclear danger in the regions of nuclear power plants and creation of conditions ensuring safety of the population at possible accidents. The following topics are developed: height of elevation and conditions of radionuclide transfer in the atmosphere; dynamics of release and dispersive composition of radioactive products; calculations of radiation levels at a close trace [fr

  9. Ventilation systems and components of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The most important radiation and nuclear safety requirements for the design and manufacture of nuclear power plant ventilation systems and components are presented in the guide. Also the regulatory activities of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) as regards the ventilation systems and components are explained. Documents and data which shall be submitted to STUK during the various phases of the regulatory procedure relating to the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the nuclear power plants are presented. (13 refs.)

  10. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschnick, F.; Engelhardt, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes background, objectives and select conceptual components of knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The concept focuses on the transfer of personal practice experience within and between nuclear power plants. The conceptual insights embrace aspects of knowledge content, structure, KM processes, organization, cooperation, culture, persuasion, leadership, technology, infrastructure, business impact and resilience. Key challenges are discussed, and related advice is provided for KM practitioners with similar endeavours in the field of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  11. Nuclear plant analyzer program for Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shier, W.; Kennett, R.

    1993-01-01

    An interactive nuclear plant analyzer(NPA) has been developed for use by the Bulgarian technical community in the training of plant personnel, the development and verification of plant operating procedures, and in the analysis of various anticipated operational occurrences and accident scenarios. The current NPA includes models for a VVER-440 Model 230 and a VVER-1000 Model 320 and is operational on an IBM RISC6000 workstation. The RELAP5/MOD2 computer code has been used for the calculation of the reactor responses to the interactive commands initiated by the NPA operator. The interactive capabilities of the NPA have been developed to provide considerable flexibility in the plant actions that can be initiated by the operator. The current capabilities for both the VVER-440 and VVER-1000 models include: (1) scram initiation; (2) reactor coolant pump trip; (3) high pressure safety injection system initiation; (4) low pressure safety injection system initiation; (5) pressurizer safety valve opening; (6) steam generator relief/safety valve opening; (7) feedwater system initiation and trip; (8) turbine trip; and (9) emergency feedwater initiation. The NPA has the capability to display the results of the simulations in various forms that are determined by the model developer. Results displayed on the reactor mask are shown through the user defined, digital display of various plant parameters and through color changes that reflect changes in primary system fluid temperatures, fuel and clad temperatures, and the temperature of other metal structures. In addition, changes in the status of various components and systems can be initiated and/or displayed both numerically and graphically on the mask. This paper provides a description of the structure of the NPA, a discussion of the simulation models used for the VVER-440 and the VVER-1000, and an overview of the NPA capabilities. Typical results obtained using both simulation models will be discussed

  12. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, Th.; Aufort, P.

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs

  13. Nuclear power plants in post-war thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toya, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This paper overviews how nuclear power plants have been talked about in the post-war thought. Science and technology sometimes significantly change the thinking way of humans, and nuclear power generation is an extreme technology. This paper overviews how nuclear power plants and humans are correlated. The following three points are discussed as the major issues of contemporary thought over nuclear power plants. First, on the danger of nuclear power plants, the risk of destructive power that nuclear energy has, and the danger of unreasoning development in science and technology civilization are discussed. Second, on the ethics issues surrounding nuclear power plants, the ethics that are based on unbalanced power relations, and democratic responsibility ethics based on discussion ethics are discussed. Third, on the issues of nuclear power plants and imagination, the limitations of democratic discussion surrounding nuclear power plants, the formation of imagination commensurate with the destructive power of nuclear power plants, and the formation of imagination that can represent the distant future are discussed. (A.O.)

  14. A study on expert system applications for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Young Hwan; Kim, Yeong Jin; Park, Nam Seog; Dong, In Sook; Choi, In Seon

    1987-12-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques to nuclear power plants such as expert systems is rapidly emerging. expert systems can contribute significantly to the availability and the improved operation and safety of nuclear power plants. The objective of the project is to develop an expert system in a selected application area in the nuclear power plants. This project will last for 3 years. The first year's tasks are: - Information collection and literature survey on expert systems. - Analysis of several applicable areas for applying AI technologies to the nuclear power plants. - Conceptual design of a few selected domains. - Selection of hardware and software tools for the development of the expert system

  15. Evaluation of Visual and Landscape Impacts of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algohary, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear power plant is a huge structure, and in terms of both size and function may result in an unacceptable visual conflict in both local and wider environment. Also, it has major implications in terms of physical, social, economic, environmental and impact on people. The environmental impacts include the visual and landscape aspects of these plants. This paper outlines the main general ideas of the architecture aspects of nuclear power plants, nuclear reactors. Also, it discusses the site selection considerations: Finally, it introduces an approach for the evaluation of visual and landscape impacts of nuclear power plants

  16. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkins, J.T.; Cunningham, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986

  17. Diagnosing method for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yukio.

    1991-01-01

    When an abnormality occurs in a nuclear power plant, the abnormality is diagnosed, at present, graphic waveforms obtained by applying signal processing such as high speed Fourier transformation, etc. to fluctuation ingredients (noises) of process signals such as neutron fluxes, and plotting a power spectral density relative to a frequency. However, expert technical knowledges are required for interpreting the waveforms and it is difficult for field operators and persons for maintenance to judge them. Then, in the present invention, patterns of the power spectral density are inputted for pattern recognition by using a neural net so that any of patterns experienced in the past can be identified. If an unknown pattern appears, it is automatically studied for identification in subsequent cases. Then, the known abnormality of the plant can be monitored and causes thereof can be identified in an early stage, as well as it is possible to diagnose unknown abnormalities in subsequent situation. This method is effective for monitoring and maintaining the integrity, and can avoid unnecessary scram to improve plant operation factor. (N.H.)

  18. Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    The nuclear plant aging research described in this plan is intended to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at commercial reactor facilities and their possible impact on plant safety. Emphasis has been placed on identification and characterization of the mechansims of material and component degradation during service and evaluation of methods of inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring and maintenance as means of mitigating such effects. Specifically the goals of the program are as follows: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects which, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and thereby impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance and monitoring, or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems, which will assure timely detection of significant aging effects prior to loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  19. Neutralization and storage of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minczewski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are described. The methods of radioactive wastes processing are shortly presented. Their volume is compared with the quantity of wastes from fossil-fuel power plants and municipal wastes. (A.S.)

  20. General description of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueras, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A general description of systems and components of the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear power plant is presented, for the primary system (NSSS), the secondary system (BOP), the energy generation system and for other auxiliaries in the plant. (author)