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Sample records for nuclear physics osaka

  1. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sang, David (Bishop Luffa Comprehensive School, Chichester (UK))

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Physics covers the aspects of radioactivity and nuclear physics dealt with in the syllabuses of all the A-level examination boards; in particular, it provides detailed coverage of the Joint Matriculation Board option in nuclear physics. It deals with the discovery of the atomic nucleus, the physics of nuclear processes, and nuclear technology. (author).

  2. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  3. Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contents: V Dinucleons, published in The Physical Review , v93 n4 p908-909, 15 Feb 1954; Concentration of a Cyclotron Beam by Strong Focusing Lenses...published in The Review of Scientific Instruments, v25 n4 p365-367, Apr 1954; and Photon Splitting in a Nuclear Electrostatic Field, published in The Physical Review , v94 n2 p367-368, 15 Apr 1954.

  4. Proceedings of the symposium on frontier nuclear physics (FRONP99)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi [ed.

    2000-01-01

    The symposium on Frontier Nuclear Physics (FRONP99), organized by the Research Group for Hadron Science, Advanced Science Research Center, under close cooperation with the Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University and High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI on August 2 to 4, 1999. The symposium was devoted for discussions and presentations of research results in wide variety of fields such as hyper nuclear physics, lepton nuclear physics, quark nuclear physics, unstable nuclear physics, superheavy elements and heavy-ion physics. Three talks on the joint project between JAERI (Neutron Science Research Center) and KEK (JHF) were presented in a public session. Thirty three talks on these topics presented at the symposium aroused lively discussions among approximately 70 participants. This report contains 26 papers submitted from the lecturers. (author)

  5. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  6. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  7. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  8. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  9. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are discus

  10. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faessler, Amand

    2003-04-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics will develop quite fast: (1) Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region. (2) Nuclear structure at the limits. (3) High energy heavy ion collisions. (4) Nuclear astrophysics. (5) Neutrino physics. (6) Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: (1) The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon Σ-term. (2) VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renaissance. (3) Measurement of important astrophysical nuclear reactions in the Gamow peak. (4) The solar neutrino problem. As examples for testing new physics beyond the standard model by rare processes I had prepared to speak about the measurement of the electric neutron dipole moment and of the neutrinoless double beta decay. But the time is limited and so I have to skip these points, although they are extremely interesting.

  11. Particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio

  12. Nuclear Physics Department annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This annual report presents articles and abstracts published in foreign journals, covering the following subjects: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, applied physics, instrumentation, nonlinear phenomena and high energy physics

  13. Theoretical nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Blatt, John M

    2010-01-01

    A classic work by two leading physicists and scientific educators endures as an uncommonly clear and cogent investigation and correlation of key aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. It is probably the most widely adopted book on the subject. The authors approach the subject as ""the theoretical concepts, methods, and considerations which have been devised in order to interpret the experimental material and to advance our ability to predict and control nuclear phenomena.""The present volume does not pretend to cover all aspects of theoretical nuclear physics. Its coverage is restricted to

  14. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  15. Perspectives of Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, A

    2002-01-01

    The organizers of this meeting have asked me to present perspectives of nuclear physics. This means to identify the areas where nuclear physics will be expanding in the next future. In six chapters a short overview of these areas will be given, where I expect that nuclear physics willdevelop quite fast: A. Quantum Chromodynamics and effective field theories in the confinement region; B. Nuclear structure at the limits; C. High energy heavy ion collisions; D. Nuclear astrophysics; E. Neutrino physics; F. Test of physics beyond the standard model by rare processes. After a survey over these six points I will pick out a few topics where I will go more in details. There is no time to give for all six points detailed examples. I shall discuss the following examples of the six topics mentionned above: 1. The perturbative chiral quark model and the nucleon $\\Sigma$-term, 2. VAMPIR (Variation After Mean field Projection In Realistic model spaces and with realistic forces) as an example of the nuclear structure renais...

  16. Nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Amsler, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear and Particle Physics provides an introductory course on nuclear and particle physics for undergraduate and early-graduate students, which the author has taught for several years at the University of Zurich. It contains fundamentals on both nuclear and particle physics, giving emphasis to the discovery and history of developments in the field, and is experimentally/phenomenologically oriented. It contains detailed derivations of formulae such as 2–3 body phase space, the Weinberg-Salam model, and neutrino scattering. Originally published in German as Kern- und Teilchenphysik, several sections have been added to this new English version to cover modern topics, including updates on neutrinos, the Higgs boson, the top quark and bottom quark physics.

  17. Physics in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, Simon R; Phelps, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Physics in Nuclear Medicine - by Drs. Simon R. Cherry, James A. Sorenson, and Michael E. Phelps - provides current, comprehensive guidance on the physics underlying modern nuclear medicine and imaging using radioactively labeled tracers. This revised and updated fourth edition features a new full-color layout, as well as the latest information on instrumentation and technology. Stay current on crucial developments in hybrid imaging (PET/CT and SPECT/CT), and small animal imaging, and benefit from the new section on tracer kinetic modeling in neuroreceptor imaging.

  18. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Murakami

    Full Text Available The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone, Tokyo (∼230 km, and Osaka (∼580 km after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario. The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1 and 2700 µSv (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1 and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2 in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1 and 11%-25% (Case 2 in Fukushima City [corrected].

  19. Estimated dietary intake of radionuclides and health risks for the citizens of Fukushima City, Tokyo, and Osaka after the 2011 nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Oki, Taikan

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 pose a health risk. In this study, we estimated the 1st-year average doses resulting from the intake of iodine 131 (131I) and cesium 134 and 137 (134Cs and 137Cs) in drinking water and food ingested by citizens of Fukushima City (∼50 km from the nuclear power plant; outside the evacuation zone), Tokyo (∼230 km), and Osaka (∼580 km) after the accident. For citizens in Fukushima City, we considered two scenarios: Case 1, citizens consumed vegetables bought from markets; Case 2, citizens consumed vegetables grown locally (conservative scenario). The estimated effective doses of 134Cs and 137Cs agreed well with those estimated through market basket and food-duplicate surveys. The average thyroid equivalent doses due to ingestion of 131I for adults were 840 µSv (Case 1) and 2700 µSv (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 370 µSv in Tokyo, and 16 µSv in Osaka. The average effective doses due to 134Cs and 137Cs were 19, 120, 6.1, and 1.9 µSv, respectively. The doses estimated in this study were much lower than values reported by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, whose assessments lacked validation and full consideration of regional trade in foods, highlighting the importance of including regional trade. The 95th percentile effective doses were 2-3 times the average values. Lifetime attributable risks (LARs) of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 1.7-37×10-6 (Case 1) and5.6-79×10-6 (Case 2) in Fukushima City, 0.73-13×10-6 in Tokyo, and 0.04-0.49×10- 6 in Osaka. The contributions of LARs of thyroid cancers due to ingestion were 5.4%-11% of all exposure (Case 1) and 11%-25% (Case 2) in Fukushima City [corrected].

  20. Advances in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Review articles on three topics of considerable current interest make up the present volume. The first, on A-hypernuclei, was solicited by the editors in order to provide nuclear physicists with a general description of the most recent developments in a field which this audience has largely neglected or, perhaps, viewed as a novelty in which a bizarre nuclear system gave some information about the lambda-nuclear intersection. That view was never valid. The very recent developments reviewed here-particularly those pertaining to hypernuclear excitations and the strangeness exchange reactions-emphasize that this field provides important information about the models and central ideas of nuclear physics. The off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is a topic which was at first received with some embarrassment, abuse, and neglect, but it has recently gained proper attention in many nuclear problems. Interest was first focused on it in nuclear many-body theory, but it threatened nuclear physicists'comf...

  1. Panel report: nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Joseph A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartouni, Edward P [LLNL

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that

  2. Nuclear Physics Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  3. Perturbative nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2009-01-01

    We present a new formulation of effective field theory for nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions which treats pion interactions perturbatively, and we offer evidence that the expansion converges satisfactorily to third order in the expansion, which we have computed analytically for s and d wave NN scattering. Starting with the Kaplan-Savage-Wise (KSW) expansion about the nontrivial fixed point corresponding to infinite NN scattering length, we cure the convergence problems with that theory by summing to all orders the singular short distance part of the pion tensor interaction. This method makes possible a host of high precision analytic few-body calculations in nuclear physics.

  4. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  5. Nuclear physics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lilley, J S

    2001-01-01

    This title provides the latest information on nuclear physics. Based on a course entitled Applications of Nuclear Physics. Written from an experimental point of view this text is broadly divided into two parts, firstly a general introduction to Nuclear Physics and secondly its applications.* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in the appendix* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory, but emphasising the many and important applicat

  6. International Nuclear Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    We are pleased to announce that the 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC2016) will take place in Adelaide (Australia) from September 11-16, 2016. The 25th INPC was held in Firenze in 2013 and the 24th INPC in Vancouver, Canada, in 2010. The Conference is organized by the Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter at the University of Adelaide, together with the Australian National University and ANSTO. It is also sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and by a number of organisations, including AUSHEP, BNL, CoEPP, GSI and JLab. INPC 2016 will be held in the heart of Adelaide at the Convention Centre on the banks of the River Torrens. It will consist of 5 days of conference presentations, with plenary sessions in the mornings, up to ten parallel sessions in the afternoons, poster sessions and a public lecture. The Conference will officially start in the evening of Sunday 11th September with Registration and a Reception and will end late on the afternoon of ...

  7. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Thermonuclear reactions in stars is a major topic in the field of nuclear astrophysics, and deals with the topics of how precisely stars generate their energy through nuclear reactions, and how these nuclear reactions create the elements the stars, planets and - ultimately - we humans consist of. The present book treats these topics in detail. It also presents the nuclear reaction and structure theory, thermonuclear reaction rate formalism and stellar nucleosynthesis. The topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves bo

  8. An introduction to nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Yatramohan

    2015-01-01

    AN INTRODUCTION TO NUCLEAR PHYSICS explores the nucleus - its size, shape and structure, its static and dynamic properties, its interaction with external system (particles and radiation), and above all the nuclear interaction in the two-nucleon and many-nucleon systems. It covers all aspects of the nucleus, divided into five Parts and nineteen Chapters. Part-1 introduces nuclear binding energy, separation energy and nuclear stability. Part-2 explores the two-nucleon potential through the study of the deuteron problem, nucleon-nucleon scattering, and also presents a meson theoretical description of the nuclear potential. Part-3 deals with the nuclear structure through different models, e.g., liquid-drop model, Fermi gas model, nuclear shell model, collective model. Part-4 develops different theoretical models for nuclear reactions, e.g., compound nucleus, statistical model, continuum model, optical model, direct reaction mechanism.

  9. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  10. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battistoni G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  11. Nuclear physics of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Iliadis, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Most elements are synthesized, or ""cooked"", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book

  12. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  13. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    McKeown, R D

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  14. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Bob [bmck@jlab.org

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  15. Introduction to nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J A

    1998-01-01

    Photons for counting or imaging applications in nuclear medicine result from several processes. Gamma rays are produced from excited state transitions after beta decay and electron capture. Annihilation photons result from positron decay. The de-excitation of the atom after electron capture results in the production of characteristic x rays or Auger electrons. Metastable state transitions result in gamma ray emission or internal conversion electrons. All radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine applications are tagged with radionuclides that emit photons as a result of one of these processes.

  16. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  17. Nuclear medicine physics the basics

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    For decades this classic reference has been the book to review to master the complexities of nuclear-medicine physics. Part of the renowned The Basics series of medical physics books, Nuclear Medicine Physics has become an essential resource for radiology residents and practitioners, nuclear cardiologists, medical physicists, and radiologic technologists. This thoroughly revised Seventh Edition retains all the features that have made The Basics series a reliable and trusted partner for board review and reference. This handy manual contains key points at the end of each chapter that help to underscore principal concepts. You'll also find review questions at the end of each chapter—with detailed answers at the end of the book—to help you master the material. This edition includes useful appendices that elaborate on specific topics, such as physical characteristics of radionuclides and CGS and SI Units.

  18. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  19. Deep sedimentary structure model beneath the Osaka plain; Osaka heiya ni okeru shinbu chika kozo no model ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, K.; Kagawa, T.; Echigo, T. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Restructuring was carried out on a sedimentary basin structure model of the Osaka plain including Osaka Bay by using newly obtained underground structural data. After the Hygoken-nanbu Earthquake of 1995, a large number of underground structure investigations have been performed in Osaka Bay and urban areas of Kobe and Osaka. However, very few surveys have been done in areas peripheral to Osaka Prefecture, such as the Ikoma area. Therefore, an attempt has been made to increase the number of measuring points to acquire underground structural data of these areas. Estimation of basic rock depths has utilized the dominant cycles in H/V spectra obtained from micro vibration survey, and good correlation of the base rock depths derived by a refraction exploration and a deep-bed boring investigation. With regard to bed division and P- and S- wave velocities in sedimentary beds in the Osaka sedimentary basin, an underground structure model was prepared, which was divided into four beds according to the refraction exploration and the micro vibration investigation. Data obtained by using this model agreed well with depth data acquired from physical exploration and other types of investigations. However, no good agreement was recognized in the data for such areas where the basic depth changes abruptly as the Rokko fault and the Osaka bay fault. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. National Nuclear Physics Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 National Nuclear Physics Summer School (NNPSS) will be held from Monday July 18 through Friday July 29, 2016, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The summer school is open to graduate students and postdocs within a few years of their PhD (on either side) with a strong interest in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. The program will include the following speakers: Accelerators and Detectors - Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Brookhaven National Laboratory Data Analysis - Michael Williams, MIT Double Beta Decay - Lindley Winslow, MIT Electron-Ion Collider - Abhay Deshpande, Stony Brook University Fundamental Symmetries - Vincenzo Cirigliano, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hadronic Spectroscopy - Matthew Shepherd, Indiana University Hadronic Structure - Jianwei Qiu, Brookhaven National Laboratory Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 1 - Jamie Nagle, Colorado University Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 2 - Wilke van der Schee, MIT Lattice QCD - Sinead Ryan, Trinity College Dublin Neutrino Theory - Cecil...

  1. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  2. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  3. Fractional Authorship in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2015-01-01

    Large, multi-institutional groups or collaborations of scientists are engaged in nuclear physics research projects, and the number of research facilities is dwindling. These collaborations have their own authorship rules, and they produce a large number of highly-cited papers. Multiple authorship of nuclear physics publications creates a problem with the assessment of an individual author's productivity relative to his/her colleagues and renders ineffective a performance metrics solely based on annual publication and citation counts. Many institutions are increasingly relying on the total number of first-author papers; however, this approach becomes counterproductive for large research collaborations with an alphabetical order of authors. A concept of fractional authorship (the claiming of credit for authorship by more than one individual) helps to clarify this issue by providing a more complete picture of research activities. In the present work, nuclear physics fractional and total authorships have been inv...

  4. Application of nuclear physics in medical physics and nuclear medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, Cornelia

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear physics has a long history of influencing and advancing medical fields. At TRIUMF we use the applications of nuclear physics to diagnose several diseases via medical isotopes and treat cancer by using proton beams. The Life Science division has a long history of producing Positron Emission Tomography (PET) isotopes but we are also investigating the production of SPECT and PET isotopes with a potential shortage for clinical operation or otherwise limited access to chemists, biologists and medical researchers. New targets are being developed, aided by a simulation platform investigating the processes inside a target under proton irradiation - nuclear, thermodynamic, and chemical. Simulations also aid in the development of new beam-shaping devices for TRIUMF's Proton Therapy facility, Canada's only proton therapy facility, as well as new treatment testing systems. Both promise improved treatment delivery for cancer patients.

  5. Nuclear Physics from Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Detmold, Silas Beane, Konstantinos Orginos, Martin Savage

    2011-01-01

    We review recent progress toward establishing lattice Quantum Chromodynamics as a predictive calculational framework for nuclear physics. A survey of the current techniques that are used to extract low-energy hadronic scattering amplitudes and interactions is followed by a review of recent two-body and few-body calculations by the NPLQCD collaboration and others. An outline of the nuclear physics that is expected to be accomplished with Lattice QCD in the next decade, along with estimates of the required computational resources, is presented.

  6. [Experimental nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    An earlier study of unusual electromagnetic decays in {sup 86}Zr was extended in order to make comparisons with its isotone {sup 84}Sr and with {sup 84}Zr. The K=14 (t {sub {1/2}} = 70 ns) high-spin isomer in {sup 176}W was found to have a 13% branch directly to the K=O ground-state band, one of the strongest violations of K-selection rules known. A new program to search for a predicted region of oblate deformation involving neutron deficient isotopes in the Rn/Fr/Ra region was begun. In the area of nuclear astrophysics, as part of a study of the onset of the rp-Process, a set of measurements searching for possible new resonances for {sup 14}O+{alpha} and {sup 17}F+p reactions was completed and a coincidence experiment measuring the {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne({alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 19}F({sup 3}He,t){sup 19}Ne(p){sup 18}F reactions in order to determine the rates of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O and {sup 18}F(p,{gamma}){sup 19}Ne reactions was begun. Experimental measurements of {beta}n{alpha} coincidences from the {sup 15}N(d,p){sup 16}N({beta}{sup {minus}}{nu}){sup 16}O({alpha}){sup 12}C reaction have also been completed and are currently being analyzed to determine the rate of the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}) reaction. In the APEX collaboration, we have completed the assembly and testing of two position-sensitive Na barrels which surround the axial silicon detector arrays and serve as the e{sup +} triggers by detecting their back-to-back annihilation quanta were completed. The HI@AGS and RHIC collaborations, construction and implementation activities associated with the space-time-tracker detector and in the design of the central detector for the PHENIX experiment were carried out. Operation of the ESTU tandem accelerator has been reliable, delivering beam on target at terminal voltages as high as 19.3 MV and running for as long as 143 days between tank openings. Fabrication and bench testing of a new negative ion source system have been completed.

  7. Radiation physics for nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine is expanding rapidly, with the development of exciting new diagnostic methods and treatments. This growth is closely associated with significant advances in radiation physics. In this book, acknowledged experts explain the basic principles of radiation physics in relation to nuclear medicine and examine important novel approaches in the field. The first section is devoted to what might be termed the "building blocks" of nuclear medicine, including the mechanisms of interaction between radiation and matter and Monte Carlo codes. In subsequent sections, radiation sources for medical applications, radiopharmaceutical development and production, and radiation detectors are discussed in detail. New frontiers are then explored, including improved algorithms for image reconstruction, biokinetic models, and voxel phantoms for internal dosimetry. Both trainees and experienced practitioners and researchers will find this book to be an invaluable source of up-to-date information.

  8. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  9. Particle physics using nuclear targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferbel, T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of nuclear targets in particle physics is discussed and some recent results obtained in studies of hadronic interactions on nuclei summarized. In particular experimental findings on inclusive production and on coherent dissociation of mesons and baryons at high energies are presented. 41 references.

  10. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Radioactive target needs for nuclear reactor physics and nuclear astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, B.; Barreau, G.; Bacri, C. O.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A - In press.; Nuclear reaction cross sections of short-lived nuclei are key inputs for new generation nuclear reactor simulations and for models describing the nucleosynthesis of elements. After discussing various topics of nuclear astrophysics and reactor physics where the demand of nuclear data on unstable nuclei is strong, we describe the general characteristics of the targets needed to measure the requested data. In some cases t...

  13. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  14. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on separation of radioactive isotopes from particle bombarded target. The main interest is production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic and therapy. The investigation program includes measurements of nuclear reaction cross sections,, band resolution technique, preparation of radioactive sources, detection of non-radioactive trace elements. An independent project on desulphurization of flue gases is also carried out in the Laboratory. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory - Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory -conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out. (author).

  15. Essentials of nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Powsner, Rachel A; Powsner, Edward R

    2013-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear medicine physics This Third Edition of Essentials of Nuclear Medicine Physics and Instrumentation expands the finely developed illustrated review and introductory guide to nuclear medicine physics and instrumentation. Along with simple, progressive, highly illustrated topics, the authors present nuclear medicine-related physics and engineering concepts clearly and concisely. Included in the text are introductory chapters on relevant atomic structure, methods of radionuclide production, and the interaction of radiation with matter. Fu

  16. Anthropic considerations in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meißner, Ulf-G

    2014-01-01

    In this short review, I discuss the sensitivity of the generation of the light and the life-relevant elements like carbon and oxygen under changes of the parameters of the Standard Model pertinent to nuclear physics. Chiral effective field theory allows for a systematic and precise description of the forces between two, three, and four nucleons. In this framework, variations under the light quark masses and the electromagnetic fine structure constant can also be consistently calculated. Combining chiral nuclear effective field theory with Monte Carlo simulations allows to further calculate the properties of nuclei, in particular of the Hoyle state in carbon, that plays a crucial role in the generation of the life-relevant elements in hot, old stars. The dependence of the triple-alpha process on the fundamental constants of Nature is calculated and some implications for our anthropic view of the Universe are discussed.

  17. Lattice QCD for nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    With ever increasing computational resources and improvements in algorithms, new opportunities are emerging for lattice gauge theory to address key questions in strongly interacting systems, such as nuclear matter. Calculations today use dynamical gauge-field ensembles with degenerate light up/down quarks and the strange quark and it is possible now to consider including charm-quark degrees of freedom in the QCD vacuum. Pion masses and other sources of systematic error, such as finite-volume and discretization effects, are beginning to be quantified systematically. Altogether, an era of precision calculation has begun, and many new observables will be calculated at the new computational facilities.  The aim of this set of lectures is to provide graduate students with a grounding in the application of lattice gauge theory methods to strongly interacting systems, and in particular to nuclear physics.  A wide variety of topics are covered, including continuum field theory, lattice discretizations, hadron spect...

  18. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikulski, J. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic. Recently, the main interest was in {sup 111} In which is a promising tracer for cancer diagnostic. To increase the effectiveness of production of indium {sup 111} In the reaction with deuterons on the enriched cadmium target was carried out instead of the previously used one with alpha particles on natural silver. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory -Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory - conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out.

  19. Physics and technology of nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ursu, Ioan

    2015-01-01

    Physics and Technology of Nuclear Materials presents basic information regarding the structure, properties, processing methods, and response to irradiation of the key materials that fission and fusion nuclear reactors have to rely upon. Organized into 12 chapters, this book begins with selectively several fundamentals of nuclear physics. Subsequent chapters focus on the nuclear materials science; nuclear fuel; structural materials; moderator materials employed to """"slow down"""" fission neutrons; and neutron highly absorbent materials that serve in reactor's power control. Other chapters exp

  20. Nuclear physics with polarized particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2012-07-01

    The measurement of spin-polarization observables in reactions of nuclei and particles is of great utility and advantage when the effects of single-spin sub-states are to be investigated. Indeed, the unpolarized differential cross-section encompasses the averaging over the spin states of the particles, and thus loses details of the interaction process. This introductory text combines, in a single volume, course-based lecture notes on spin physics and on polarized-ion sources with the aim of providing a concise yet self-contained starting point for newcomers to the field, as well as for lecturers in search of suitable material for their courses and seminars. A significant part of the book is devoted to introducing the formal theory - a description of polarization and of nuclear reactions with polarized particles. The remainder of the text describes the physical basis of methods and devices necessary to perform experiments with polarized particles and to measure polarization and polarization effects in nuclear reactions. The book concludes with a brief review of modern applications in medicine and fusion energy research. For reasons of conciseness and of the pedagogical aims of this volume, examples are mainly taken from low-energy installations such as tandem Van de Graaff laboratories, although the emphasis of present research is shifting to medium- and high-energy nuclear physics. Consequently, this volume is restricted to describing non-relativistic processes and focuses on the energy range from astrophysical energies (a few keV) to tens of MeV. It is further restricted to polarimetry of hadronic particles. (orig.)

  1. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  2. Quantum chaos in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunakov, V. E., E-mail: bunakov@VB13190.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    A definition of classical and quantum chaos on the basis of the Liouville–Arnold theorem is proposed. According to this definition, a chaotic quantum system that has N degrees of freedom should have M < N independent first integrals of motion (good quantum numbers) that are determined by the symmetry of the Hamiltonian for the system being considered. Quantitative measures of quantum chaos are established. In the classical limit, they go over to the Lyapunov exponent or the classical stability parameter. The use of quantum-chaos parameters in nuclear physics is demonstrated.

  3. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    CERN Document Server

    Pritychenko, B

    2014-01-01

    The increase in authorship of nuclear physics publications has been investigated using the large statistical samples. This has been accomplished with nuclear data mining of nuclear science references (NSR) and experimental nuclear reaction (EXFOR) databases. The results of this study will be discussed and conclusions will be given.

  5. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-11-06

    A look at how authorship of physics publications (particularly nuclear publications) have changed throughout the decades by comparing data mined from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) with observations.

  6. Intriguing Trends in Nuclear Physics Articles Authorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-11-06

    A look at how authorship of physics publications (particularly nuclear publications) have changed throughout the decades by comparing data mined from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) with observations.

  7. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  8. Modern topics in theoretical nuclear physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, B. K.; Schwenk, A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past five years there have been profound advances in nuclear physics based on effective field theory and the renormalization group. In this brief, we summarize these advances and discuss how they impact our understanding of nuclear systems and experiments that seek to unravel their unknowns. We discuss future opportunities and focus on modern topics in low-energy nuclear physics, with special attention to the strong connections to many-body atomic and condensed matter physics, as wel...

  9. Summaries of FY 1978 research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    Programs funded in Fiscal Year 1978 by the Division of Nuclear Physics Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, U.S. Department of Energy are briefly summarized. Long-range goals and major objectives of nuclear physics are stated. Research projects are listed alphabetically by institution under the following headings: medium-energy nuclear physics--research; medium-energy nuclear physics--operations; heavy-ion nuclear physics--research; heavy-ion nuclear physics--operations; and nuclear theory. (RWR)

  10. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2013-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Dr. Gopal B. Saha’s Physics and Radiobiology of Nuclear Medicine was prompted by the need to provide up-to-date information to keep pace with the perpetual growth and improvement in the instrumentation and techniques employed in nuclear medicine since the last edition published in 2006. Like previous editions, the book is intended for radiology and nuclear medicine residents to prepare for the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, American Board of Radiology, and American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine examinations, all of which require a strong physics background. Additionally, the book will serve as a textbook on nuclear medicine physics for nuclear medicine technologists taking the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board examination.

  11. Theoretical nuclear physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    As the three-year period FY93-FY96 ended, there were six senior investigators on the grant full-time: Bulgac, Henley, Miller, Savage, van Kolck and Wilets. This represents an increase of two members from the previous three-year period, achieved with only a two percent increase over the budget for FY90-FY93. In addition, the permanent staff of the Institute for Nuclear Theory (George Bertsch, Wick Haxton, and David Kaplan) continued to be intimately associated with our physics research efforts. Aurel Bulgac joined the Group in September, 1993 as an assistant professor, with promotion requested by the Department and College of Arts and Sciences by September, 1997. Martin Savage, who was at Carnegie-Mellon University, jointed the Physics Department in September, 1996. U. van Kolck continued as research assistant professor, and we were supporting one postdoctoral research associate, Vesteinn Thorssen, who joined us in September, 1995. Seven graduate students were being supported by the Grant (Chuan-Tsung Chan, Michael Fosmire, William Hazelton, Jon Karakowski, Jeffrey Thompson, James Walden and Mitchell Watrous).

  12. Basic Nuclear Physics Research Needs for Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tony

    2008-10-01

    Basic nuclear physics research will play a central role in the development of the future nuclear facilities. Federal requirements for higher efficiencies, lower operating and construction costs, and advanced safeguards can all be impacted by the quality of nuclear data used in the fuel cycle calculations for design and licensing. Uncertainties in the underlying nuclear data propagate to uncertainties in integral and operational parameters, which drive margins and cost. Department of Energy (DOE) programs are underway to help develop the necessary nuclear research infrastructure. The Nuclear Energy office of DOE leads the development of new nuclear energy generation technologies to meet energy and climate change goals and advanced, proliferation resistant nuclear fuel technologies that maximize energy from nuclear fuel, while maintaining and enhancing the national nuclear infrastructure. These activities build on important work started over the last three years to deploy new nuclear plants in the United States by early in the next decade, and to develop advanced, next-generation nuclear technology. In this talk, I will discuss some of the foreseen opportunities and needs for basic nuclear research in nuclear energy.

  13. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Already while making his famous contributions in uncontrolled nuclear fusion for wartime uses, Edward Teller contemplated how the abundant energy release through nuclear fusion might serve peacetime uses as well. His legacy in controlled nuclear fusion, and the associated physics of plasmas, spans both magnetic and inertial confinement approaches. His contributions in plasma physics, both the intellectual and the administrative, continue to impact the field.

  14. Tours Symposium on Nuclear Physics III. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium); Lewitowicz, M. [GANIL (France); Oganessian, Y.T. [FLNR-JINR (Russia); Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.; Wada, T. [Konan University (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Tours symposium on Nuclear Physics held in Tours, France in September, 1997. The symposium was devoted to three fields of nuclear physics: (1) synthesis of superheavy elements including studies of fusion{minus}fission dynamics and sub{minus}barrier fusion; (2) physics of exotic nuclei; and (3) astronuclear physics. Some of the specific topics discussed include, nuclear models, gamma spectroscopy with radioactive beams, double giant resonance states, inelastic proton scattering of unstable nuclei, thermonuclear reactions and neutrino astrophysics. There were 63 papers presented at the Symposium and out of these, 5 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database.(AIP)

  15. Overview of Opportunities in Underground Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nigel

    2016-09-01

    The field of deep underground nuclear physics is within an exciting and burgeoning phase, demonstrated by the recent award of the 2105 Nobel Prize in physics for the observation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino flavor change, with new detector systems in construction and deployment to further develop this scientific field. This talk will overview the current status of the fields within deep underground nuclear physics, focusing on the study of astrophysical neutrino sources, the intrinsic nature of the neutrino, and nuclear astrophysics. The opportunities available in these fields in the near-future will also be discussed.

  16. Nuclear Physics for National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Douglass

    2006-10-01

    Being a nuclear physicist and working at a national laboratory provides many opportunities to ply one's skills in support of national security and the benefit of all mankind. Over the last 40 years, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been pioneering the field of Domestic and International Safeguards through the research and development of instrumentation and systems used to monitor nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. With a projected increase in the use of nuclear energy, effective systems must be designed to reduce the possibility that nuclear materials may be diverted for used in weapons. The recent focus has been the many applications of radiation detection used for safeguarding nuclear material and to support Homeland Security. There is a critical need for trained nuclear scientists who can understand and overcome measurement complexities, combinations of multiple sensor inputs, data reduction, and automated analysis for these applications. This talk will focus on the opportunities and experiences afforded physicists in the support of national security, beyond the weapons program and travel to interesting locales.

  17. PREFACE: XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof

    2011-10-01

    In the present volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the 'XXXIV Symposium on Nuclear Physics', which was held from 4-7 January 2011 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings consist of 19 contributions that were presented as invited talks at the meeting. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. From the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium has been organized every year without interruption, which makes the present Symposium the 34th in a row. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks and 17 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure (Draayer, Pittel, Van Isacker, Fraser, Lerma, Cejnar, Hirsch, Stránský and Rath) and nuclear reactions (Aguilera, Gómez-Camacho, Scheid, Navrátil and Yennello) to radioactive beams (Padilla-Rodal and Galindo-Uribarri), nuclear astrophysics (Aprahamian, Civitarese and Escher), hadronic physics (Bijker, Valcarce and Hess), fundamental symmetries (Liu, Barrón-Palos and Baessler) and LHC physics (Menchaca-Rocha and Paic). The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. Libertad Barr

  18. Fantasy physics for nuclear testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    In November a group of scientists will scour a small patch of the Middle East for signs that a nuclear explosion has taken place. Edwin Cartlidge describes their delicate mission and the sophisticated gadgetry they will rely on.

  19. Overview of Nuclear Physics at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, Robert D. [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and associated experimental equipment at Jefferson Lab comprise a unique facility for experimental nuclear physics. This facility is presently being upgraded, which will enable a new experimental program with substantial discovery potential to address important topics in nuclear, hadronic, and electroweak physics. Further in the future, it is envisioned that the Laboratory will evolve into an electron-ion colliding beam facility.

  20. PREFACE: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemmerer, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Europhysics Conference `Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics III' (NPA3) took place from 26 31 March 2007 in Dresden, Germany, hosted by Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The present special issue of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics contains all peer-reviewed contributions to the proceedings of this conference. NPA3 is the third conference in the Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics series of conferences devoted to the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. The first and second editions of the series were held in 2002 and 2005 in Debrecen, Hungary. NPA3 has been organized under the auspices of the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society as its XXI Divisional Conference. The conference marks the 50th anniversary of the landmark paper B2FH published in 1957 by E M Burbidge, G R Burbidge, W A Fowler and F Hoyle. A public lecture by Claus Rolfs (Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany) commemorated the progress achieved since 1957. NPA3 aimed to bring together experimental and theoretical nuclear physicists, astrophysicists and astronomers to address the important part played by nuclear physics in current astrophysical problems. A total of 130 participants from 71 institutions in 26 countries attended the conference, presenting 33 invited and 38 contributed talks and 25 posters on six subject areas. The astrophysical motivation and the nuclear tools employed to address it are highlighted by the titles of the subject areas: Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Stellar Nucleosynthesis and Low Cross Section Measurement Explosive Nucleosynthesis and Nuclear Astrophysics with Photons Nuclei far from Stability and Radioactive Ion Beams Dense Matter in Neutron Stars and Relativistic Nuclear Collisions Neutrinos in Nuclear Astrophysics The presentations and discussions proved that Nuclear Astrophysics is a truly interdisciplinary subject. The remarkable progress in astronomical observations achieved in recent years is matched by advances in

  1. Recent Experimental Results on Nuclear Cluster Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on nuclear cluster physics has increased considerably since the pioneering discovery of 12C+12C resonances half a century ago and nuclear clustering remains one of the most fruitful domains of nuclear physics, facing some of the greatest challenges and opportunities in the years ahead. The occurrence of "exotic" shapes and/or Bose-Einstein alpha condensates in light N-Z alpha-conjugate nuclei is investigated. Evolution of clustering from stability to the drip-lines examined with clustering aspects persisting in light neutron-rich nuclei is consistent with the extension of the "Ikeda-diagram" to non alpha-conjugate nuclei.

  2. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  3. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in…

  4. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  5. Nuclear physics at small distances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Jain

    2003-11-01

    We report on the study of meson and resonance production in nuclear collisions near the threshold. Because of the large momentum transfer, these reactions occur at length scales less than the size of the hadrons. We explore whether they are best described in terms of the quark–gluon picture or the meson-exchange picture. Comparing our results with the available experimental data we conclude that the spin-averaged cross-sections are best described in meson-exchange picture. The description of the observed nucleon–nucleus and hyperon–nucleus spin-orbit potentials are found to be consistent with the quark–gluon exchange picture.

  6. Learning to Embrace Nuclear Physics through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadanei, Camelia

    2010-01-01

    Due to its achievements, nuclear physics is more and more present in life of every member of the society. Its applications in the medical field and in nuclear energy, as well as the advanced research, always pushing the limits of science towards micro cosmos and macro cosmos, are subjects frequently presented in the media. In addition to their invaluable benefits, these achievements involve also particular rules to prevent potential risks. These risks are also underlined by the media, often being presented in an unfriendly manner. Specialists in nuclear physics are familiar with these problems complying with the specific rules in order to reduce risks at insignificant levels. The development of a specific field ("Radiation protection") defining norms and requirements for "assuring the radiological safety of the workers, population and environment," and its dynamics represent a proof of a responsible attitude regarding nuclear safety. Dedicated international bodies and experts analyze and rigorously evaluate risks in order to draw the right ways of managing activity in the field. The improvement of the formal and informal education of public regarding the real risks of nuclear applications is very important in order to understand and better assimilate some general rules concerning the use of these techniques, as well as for their correct perception, leading to an increase of interest towards nuclear physics. This educational update can be started even from elementary school and continued in each stage of formal education in adapted forms. The task of informing general public is to be carried out mainly by specialists who, unlike 30-40 years ago, can rely on a much more efficient generation of communications' mean. Taking into account the lack of interest for nuclear, an attractive way of presenting the achievements and future possibilities of nuclear physics would contribute to youth orientation towards specific universities in order to become next generation of

  7. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF gives a full listing of contributors and organisation members. In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the "XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics", that was held from January 5-8, 2010 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings contain the plenary talks that were presented during the conference. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 33rd in a row. This year's meeting was dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who passed away on April 1, 2009. Dr. Moshinsky was the most distinguished pioneer and promoter of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America and holds the record of 31 (out of 32) participations at the Symposium. In the inaugural session, Alejandro Frank (ICN-UNAM), Peter Hess (ICN-UNAM) and Jorge Flores (IF-UNAM) spoke in his honor and recalled the virtues that characterized him as a teacher, scientist, founder of schools and academic institutions, colleague and friend. His generosity, excellence and honesty were emphasized as the personal qualities that characterized both his personal and academic life. moshinksky_photo "Marcos Moshinsky (1921-2009)" The scientific program consisted of 26 invited talks and 20 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear

  8. Semi-classical methods in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, David M.

    These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.

  9. Foundations of nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Donnelly, T William; Holstein, Barry R; Milner, Richard G; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.

  10. Physics and radiobiology of nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Gopal B

    2010-01-01

    From a distinguished author comes this new edition for technologists, practitioners, residents, and students in radiology and nuclear medicine. Encompassing major topics in nuclear medicine from the basic physics of radioactive decay to instrumentation and radiobiology, it is an ideal review for Board and Registry examinations. The material is well organized and written with clarity. The book is supplemented with tables and illustrations throughout. It provides a quick reference book that is concise but comprehensive, and offers a complete discussion of topics for the nuclear medicine and radi

  11. Characterization of bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, S.; Hoshika, A.; Tatsumoto, H.

    1995-06-01

    The physical, chemical, and dewatering characteristics of 19 bottom sediments from Osaka Bay, Japan, have been analyzed to aid in the development of sediments in the coastal bay area. The sediments in the east near Osaka Port were highly polluted from the influence of human activities and were difficult to dewater. These sediments were composed of fine particles, low in pH, zetapotential, and initial settling rate, and were high in ignition loss, metal concentrations, compression volume, specific resistance, cake water content, and drying index. However, the sediments near Akashi Channel showed the reverse where they are affected by strong tidal current. A correlation analysis has been made of all the parameters. There are significant relationships between all the dewatering parameters. Therefore, sediments difficult to dewater by gravity settling are also difficult to dewater by vacuum filtration and solar evaporation. Sediments containing fine particles and pollutants are difficult to dewater. Several forms of pollutants can occur in the sediments.

  12. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  13. Nuclear physics in particle therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Marco; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-09-01

    Charged particle therapy has been largely driven and influenced by nuclear physics. The increase in energy deposition density along the ion path in the body allows reducing the dose to normal tissues during radiotherapy compared to photons. Clinical results of particle therapy support the physical rationale for this treatment, but the method remains controversial because of the high cost and of the lack of comparative clinical trials proving the benefit compared to x-rays. Research in applied nuclear physics, including nuclear interactions, dosimetry, image guidance, range verification, novel accelerators and beam delivery technologies, can significantly improve the clinical outcome in particle therapy. Measurements of fragmentation cross-sections, including those for the production of positron-emitting fragments, and attenuation curves are needed for tuning Monte Carlo codes, whose use in clinical environments is rapidly increasing thanks to fast calculation methods. Existing cross sections and codes are indeed not very accurate in the energy and target regions of interest for particle therapy. These measurements are especially urgent for new ions to be used in therapy, such as helium. Furthermore, nuclear physics hardware developments are frequently finding applications in ion therapy due to similar requirements concerning sensors and real-time data processing. In this review we will briefly describe the physics bases, and concentrate on the open issues.

  14. Nuclear physics experiments with low cost instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Bastos, Rodrigo; Adelar Boff, Cleber; Melquiades, Fábio Luiz

    2016-11-01

    One of the difficulties in modern physics teaching is the limited availability of experimental activities. This is particularly true for teaching nuclear physics in high school or college. The activities suggested in the literature generally symbolise real phenomenon, using simulations. It happens because the experimental practices mostly include some kind of expensive radiation detector and an ionising radiation source that requires special care for handling and storage, being subject to a highly bureaucratic regulation in some countries. This study overcomes these difficulties and proposes three nuclear physics experiments using a low-cost ion chamber which construction is explained: the measurement of 222Rn progeny collected from the indoor air; the measurement of the range of alpha particles emitted by the 232Th progeny, present in lantern mantles and in thoriated welding rods, and by the air filter containing 222Rn progeny; and the measurement of 220Rn half-life collected from the emanation of the lantern mantles. This paper presents the experimental procedures and the expected results, indicating that the experiments may provide support for nuclear physics classes. These practices may outreach wide access to either college or high-school didactic laboratories, and the apparatus has the potential for the development of new teaching activities for nuclear physics.

  15. The Nuclear Physics of Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2013-01-01

    We explore the unique and fascinating structure of neutron stars. Although neutron stars are of interest in many areas of Physics, our aim is to provide an intellectual bridge between Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics. We argue against the naive perception of a neutron star as a uniform assembly of neutrons packed to enormous densities. Rather, by focusing on the many exotic phases that are speculated to exist in a neutron star, we show how the reality is different and far more interesting.

  16. Solitonic approach to holographic nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Salvatore; Bolognesi, Stefano; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Koksal, Deniz

    2017-08-01

    We discuss nuclear physics in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the limit of a large number Nc of colors and large 't Hooft coupling λ . In this limit the individual baryons are described by classical solitons whose size is much smaller than the typical distance at which they settle in a nuclear bound state. We can thus use the linear approximation outside the instanton cores to compute the interaction potential. We find the classical geometry of nuclear bound states for baryon number up to 8. One of the interesting features that we find is that holographic nuclear physics provides a natural description for lightly bound states when λ is large. For the case of two nuclei, we also find the topology and metric of the manifold of zero modes and, quantizing it, we find that the ground state can be identified with the deuteron state. We discuss the relations with other methods in the literature used to study Skyrmions and holographic nuclear physics. We discuss 1 /Nc and 1 /λ corrections and the challenges to overcome to reach the phenomenological values to fit with real QCD.

  17. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  18. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  19. White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-04

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  20. Nuclear Physics from Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Chromodynamics and Quantum Electrodynamics, both renormalizable quantum field theories with a small number of precisely constrained input parameters, dominate the dynamics of the quarks and gluons - the underlying building blocks of protons, neutrons, and nuclei. While the analytic techniques of quantum field theory have played a key role in understanding the dynamics of matter in high energy processes, they encounter difficulties when applied to low-energy nuclear structure and reactions, and dense systems. Expected increases in computational resources into the exascale during the next decade will provide the ability to determine a range of important strong interaction processes directly from QCD using the numerical technique of Lattice QCD. This will complement the nuclear physics experimental program, and in partnership with new thrusts in nuclear many-body theory, will enable unprecedented understanding and refinement of nuclear forces and, more generally, the visible matter in our universe. In th...

  1. Nuclear Waste--Physics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearne, John H.

    1996-03-01

    Managing and disposing of radioactive waste are major policy and financial issues in the United States and many other countries. Low-level waste sites, once thought to be possible in many states, remain fixed at the few sites that have been operating for decades. High-level waste remains at former nuclear weapons facilities and at nuclear power plants, and the DOE estimates a repository is unlikely before 2010, at the earliest. Physics and chemistry issues relate to criticality, plutonium loading in glass, leach rates, and diffusion. The public policy issues concern non-proliferation, states' rights, stakeholder participation, and nuclear power. Cleaning up the legacy of cold war driven nuclear weapons production is estimated to cost at least $250 billion and take three-quarters of a century. Some possible steps towards resolution of these issues will be described.

  2. Random Matrices and Chaos in Nuclear Physics: Nuclear Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, G E; Weidenmueller, H A

    2010-01-01

    The application of random-matrix theory (RMT) to compound-nucleus (CN) reactions is reviewed. An introduction into the basic concepts of nuclear scattering theory is followed by a survey of phenomenological approaches to CN scattering. The implementation of a random-matrix approach into scattering theory leads to a statistical theory of CN reactions. Since RMT applies generically to chaotic quantum systems, that theory is, at the same time, a generic theory of quantum chaotic scattering. It uses a minimum of input parameters (average S-matrix and mean level spacing of the CN). Predictions of the theory are derived with the help of field-theoretical methods adapted from condensed-matter physics and compared with those of phenomenological approaches. Thorough tests of the theory are reviewed, as are applications in nuclear physics, with special attention given to violation of symmetries (isospin, parity) and time-reversal invariance.

  3. A Vision of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Hugh E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This paper will consist of a selected, personal view of some of the issues associated with the intersections of nuclear and particle physics. As well as touching on the recent developments we will attempt to look at how those aspects of the subject might evolve over the next few years.

  4. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1980 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelberger, E.G. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure and reactions, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by outside users, accelerators and ion sources, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  5. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1979 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelberger, E.G. (ed.)

    1979-07-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by users and visitors, accelerator and ion source development, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  6. Precision Atomic Physics Techniques for Nuclear Physics with Radioactive Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Blaum, Klaus; Nörtershäuser, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    Atomic physics techniques for the determination of ground-state properties of radioactive isotopes are very sensitive and provide accurate masses, binding energies, Q-values, charge radii, spins, and electromagnetic moments. Many fields in nuclear physics benefit from these highly accurate numbers. They give insight into details of the nuclear structure for a better understanding of the underlying effective interactions, provide important input for studies of fundamental symmetries in physics, and help to understand the nucleosynthesis processes that are responsible for the observed chemical abundances in the Universe. Penning-trap and and storage-ring mass spectrometry as well as laser spectroscopy of radioactive nuclei have now been used for a long time but significant progress has been achieved in these fields within the last decade. The basic principles of laser spectroscopic investigations, Penning-trap and storage-ring mass measurements of short-lived nuclei are summarized and selected physics results a...

  7. Resource Letter FNP-1: Frontiers of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, G. F.

    2004-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a bibliography of the current research activities in nuclear physics and also a guide for finding useful nuclear data. The major areas included are nuclear structure and reactions, symmetry tests, nuclear astrophysics, nuclear theory, high-density matter, and nuclear instrumentation.

  8. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. PREFACE: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    It was with great pleasure that the Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics of the University of Pavia and the INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) Structure of Pavia organised the XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society, which was held in the historical buildings of the University of Pavia from 5-9 September 2005. The Conference was devoted to the discussion of the most recent experimental and theoretical achievements in the field of Nuclear Physics applications, as well as of the latest developments in technological tools related to Nuclear Physics research. The University of Pavia has a long tradition in Physics and in Applied Physics, being the site where Alessandro Volta developed his "pila", the precursor of the modern battery. This is the place where the first experiments with electricity were conducted and where the term "capacitance" used for capacitors was invented. Today the University hosts a Triga Mark II nuclear reactor, which is used by the Departments of the University of Pavia and by other Universities and private companies as well. Moreover, Pavia is the site selected for the construction of the CNAO complex "Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica" (National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy), planned for 2005-2008 which represents a unique facility in Italy and will be among the first complexes of this type in Europe. The Conference has gathered together experts in various fields from different countries and has been the occasion to review the present status and to discuss the new emerging trends in Nuclear Physics and its applications to multidisciplinary researches and the development of new technologies. The following topics were treated: Nuclear Techniques in Medicine and Life Sciences (Cancer Therapy, new Imaging and Diagnostics Tools, Radioisotope production, Radiation Protection and Dosimetry). Applications of Nuclear Techniques in Art, Archaeometry and other Interdisciplinary fields

  10. Applications of Hubble Volume in Atomic Physics, Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Quantum Physics and Cosmic Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. V. S. Seshavatharam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to emphasize the major shortcomings of standard cosmology. It can be suggested that, the current cosmological changes can be understood by studying the atom and the atomic nucleus through ground based experiments. If light is coming from the atoms of the gigantic galaxy, then redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. In no way it seems to be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. With ‘cosmological increasing (emitted photon energy’, observed cosmic redshift can be considered as a measure of the age difference between our galaxy and any observed galaxy. If it is possible to show that, (from the observer older galaxy’s distance increases with its ‘age’, then ‘galaxy receding’ and ‘accelerating universe’ concepts can be put for a revision at fundamental level. At any given cosmic time, the product of ‘critical density’ and ‘Hubble volume’ gives a characteristic cosmic mass and it can be called as the ‘Hubble mass’. Interesting thing is that, Schwarzschild radius of the ‘Hubble mass’ again matches with the ‘Hubble length’. Most of the cosmologists believe that this is merely a coincidence. At any given cosmic time,’Hubble length’ can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. If one is willing to think in this direction, by increasing the number of applications of Hubble mass and Hubble volume in other areas of fundamental physics like quantum physics, nuclear physics, atomic physics and particle physics - slowly and gradually - in a progressive way, concepts of ‘Black hole Cosmology’ can be strengthened and can also be confirmed.

  11. FOREWORD: Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Naftali; Hass, Michael; Paul, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The fifth edition of the bi-annual 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics (NPA)' conference series was held in Eilat, Israel on April 3-8, 2011. This Conference is also designated as the 24th Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the EPS. The main purpose of this conference, as that of the four previous ones in this series, is to deal with those aspects of nuclear physics that are directly related to astrophysics. The concept of such a meeting was conceived by the Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society in 1998. At that time, the idea of such a conference was quite new and it was decided that this meeting would be sponsored by the EPS. The first meeting, in January 2001, was planned and organized in Eilat, Israel. Due to international circumstances the conference was moved to Debrecen, Hungary. Subsequent conferences were held in Debrecen again, in Dresden, Germany, and in Frascati, Italy (moved from Gran Sasso due to the tragic earthquake that hit the L'Aquila region). After 10 years the conference finally returned to Eilat, the originally envisioned site. Eilat is a resort town located on the shore of the Gulf of Eilat, which connects Israel to the Red Sea and further south to the Indian Ocean. It commands spectacular views of the desert and mountains, offering unique touristic attractions. The local scientific backdrop of the conference is the fact that the Israeli scientific scene exhibits a wide variety of research activities in many areas of nuclear physics and astrophysics. A new accelerator, SARAF at Soreq Nuclear Research Center is presently undergoing final acceptance tests. SARAF will serve as a platform for production of radioactive ion beams and nuclear-astrophysics research in Israel. The meeting in Eilat was organized by four Israeli scientific institutions, Hebrew University, Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Tel Aviv University and the Weizmann Institute of Science. The welcome reception and lectures were held at the King Solomon hotel and

  12. Optimal Physical Protection against Nuclear Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Doyoung; Kim, ChangLak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There is no attempt with nuclear weapons to attack any places for terror or military victory since the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. People have obviously experienced horrible destructive power of nuclear weapons and continuously remembered a terrible tragedy, lots of organizations and experts express their concerns about the nuclear terrorism and try to interchange opinions for prevention of deadly weapons. The purpose of this paper is to provide the information of nuclear terrorism and what the potential risk of Republic of Korea is and how to do the efficient physical protection. Terror is from the old French terreur, which is derived from Latin verb terror meaning 'great fear'. This is a policy to suppress political opponents through using violence and repression. Many scholars have been proposed, there is no consensus definition of the term 'terrorism.' In 1988, a proposed academic consensus definition: 'Terrorism is an anxiety-inspiring method of repeated violent action, employed by (semi-) clandestine individual, group or state actors, for idiosyncratic, criminal or political reasons, whereby - in contrast to assassination - the direct targets of violence are not the main targets. The immediate human victims of violence are generally chosen randomly (targets of opportunity) or selectively (representative or symbolic targets) from a target population, and serve as message generators. These attacks showed that particular terrorists groups sought to cause heavy casualties and extreme terrorists were spontaneously prepared to make sacrifices for completion of that ultimate goal. Creation of nuclear weapons was like opening Pandora's box. Barack Obama has called nuclear terrorism 'the greatest danger we face'. Nuclear terror is one of the lethal risks. Using nuclear weapons or materials from terrorist groups is a fatal catastrophe to a targeting state though there is no accident similar like that. South

  13. Some nuclear physics aspects of BBN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coc, Alain

    2017-09-01

    Primordial or big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is now a parameter free theory whose predictions are in good overall agreement with observations. However, the 7 Li calculated abundance is significantly higher than the one deduced from spectroscopic observations. Nuclear physics solutions to this lithium problem have been investigated by experimental means. Other solutions which were considered involve exotic sources of extra neutrons which inevitably leads to an increase of the deuterium abundance, but this seems now excluded by recent deuterium observations.

  14. Nuclear physics with radioactive ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozub, Raymond L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2015-07-23

    This is a final report on DOE Grant No. DE FG02 96ER40955, which was active at Tennessee Technological University (TTU) from 1 March 1996 to 29 May 2015. Generally, this report will provide an overall summary of the more detailed activities presented in the progress reports, numbered DOE/ER/40955-1 through DOE/ER/40955-18, which were submitted annually to the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics.

  15. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  16. Current status of nuclear physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University-Commerce (United States); Hussein, Mahir S., E-mail: hussein@if.usp.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2015-12-15

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 9}Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate

  17. Current Status of Nuclear Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the current status of research in nuclear physics which is being carried out in different centers in the world. For this purpose, we supply a short account of the development in the area which evolved over the last nine decades, since the discovery of the neutron. The evolution of the physics of the atomic nucleus went through many stages as more data became available. We briefly discuss models introduced to discern the physics behind the experimental discoveries, such as the shell model, the collective model, the statistical model, the interacting boson model, etc., some of these models may be seemingly in conflict with each other, but this was shown to be only apparent. The richness of the ideas and abundance of theoretical models attests to the important fact that the nucleus is a really singular system in the sense that it evolves from two-body bound states such as the deuteron, to few-body bound states, such as 4He, 7Li, 9Be, etc. and up the ladder to heavier bound nuclei containing up to more than 200 nucleons. Clearly, statistical mechanics, usually employed in systems with very large number of particles, would seemingly not work for such finite systems as the nuclei, neither do other theories which are applicable to condensed matter. The richness of nuclear physics stems from these restrictions. New theories and models are presently being developed. Theories of the structure and reactions of neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei, called exotic nuclei, halo nuclei, or Borromean nuclei, deal with the wealth of experimental data that became available in the last 35 years. Furthermore, nuclear astrophysics and stellar and Big Bang nucleosynthesis have become a more mature subject. Due to limited space, this review only covers a few selected topics, mainly those with which the authors have worked on. Our aimed potential readers of this review are nuclear physicists and physicists in other areas, as well as graduate students interested in

  18. White paper on nuclear astrophysics and low energy nuclear physics Part 1: Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bernstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib; Escher, Jutta E.; Fields, Brian D.; Fröhlich, Carla; Herwig, Falk; Hix, William Raphael; Iliadis, Christian; Lynch, William G.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Meyer, Bradley S.; Mezzacappa, Anthony; Nunes, Filomena; O'Shea, Brian W.; Prakash, Madappa; Pritychenko, Boris; Reddy, Sanjay; Rehm, Ernst; Rogachev, Grigory; Rutledge, Robert E.; Schatz, Hendrik; Smith, Michael S.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Steiner, Andrew W.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Timmes, F. X.; Townsley, Dean M.; Wiescher, Michael; Zegers, Remco G. T.; Zingale, Michael

    2017-05-01

    This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9-10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12-13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.

  19. Nuclear physics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear physics began long before the identification of fundamental particles, with J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron at the end of the 19th century, which implied the existence of a positive charge in the atom to make it neutral. In this Very Short Introduction Frank Close gives an account of how this area of physics has progressed, including the recognition of how heavy nuclei are built up in the cores of stars and in supernovae, the identification of quarks and gluons, and the development of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Exploring key concepts such as the stability of different configurations of protons and neutrons in nuclei, Frank Close shows how nuclear physics brings the physics of the stars to Earth and provides us with important applications, particularly in medicine. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our...

  20. Applied nuclear physics in support of SBSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strottman, D.

    1995-10-01

    Since the advent of the 800-MeV proton linear accelerator over 3 decades ago, the facilities on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) mesa have pioneered many developments that provide unique capabilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in the world. New technologies based on the use of the world`s most intense, medium-energy linac, LAMPF, are being developed. They include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, production of tritium, and experiments for the science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involve the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn establish new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. Other areas of technology such as neutron and proton therapy applications are also placing new requirements on nuclear data. The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) now under discussion combined with the appropriate instrumentation will have unique features and capabilities of which there were previously only aspirations.

  1. Inverse scattering: applications to nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mackintosh, Raymond S

    2012-01-01

    In what follows we first set the context for inverse scattering in nuclear physics with a brief account of inverse problems in general. We then turn to inverse scattering which involves the S-matrix, which connects the interaction potential between two scattering particles with the measured scattering cross section. The term `inverse' is a reference to the fact that instead of determining the scattering S-matrix from the interaction potential between the scattering particles, we do the inverse. That is to say, we calculate the interaction potential from the S-matrix. This review explains how this can now be done reliably, but the emphasis will be upon reasons why one should wish to do this, with an account of some of the ways this can lead to understanding concerning nuclear interactions.

  2. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, J M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J; Wiedeking, M; Wilk, P A; Wu, C Y

    2009-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  3. Calibration of the radiation monitors from DESY and SPring-8 at the quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams using 100 and 300 MeV 7Li(p,n) reaction at RCNP in Osaka Japan in November 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Albrecht; Asano, Yoshihiro; Klett, Alfred

    2017-09-01

    At the ring cyclotron facility of the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) Osaka University, Osaka, Japan a series of measurement campaigns had been continued with quasi mono-energetic neutron beams in November 2014. A 7Li target was bombarded with 100 and 300 MeV protons and the generated neutron beams were directed into a long time-of-flight tunnel at 0 and 25 degrees deflection angle with respect to the proton beam. At a distance of 41 m the cross section of the neutron beam was large enough for the illumination of square meter sized objects like extended range rem-counters. The research institutes SPring-8/RIKEN, Japan, and DESY, Germany, participated in this campaign for the calibration of 4 different types of active ambient dose rate monitors: LB 6411, LB 6411-Pb, LB 6419 and LB 6420. The measurements of their responses are reported and compared with the calculated values.

  4. Nuclear, particle and many body physics

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, Philip M; Feshbach, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear, Particle and Many Body Physics, Volume II, is the second of two volumes dedicated to the memory of physicist Amos de-Shalit. The contributions in this volume are a testament to the respect he earned as a physicist and of the warm and rich affection he commanded as a personal friend. The book contains 41 chapters and begins with a study on the renormalization of rational Lagrangians. Separate chapters cover the scattering of high energy protons by light nuclei; approximation of the dynamics of proton-neutron systems; the scattering amplitude for the Gaussian potential; Coulomb excitati

  5. A new tool in nuclear physics: Nuclear lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, chiral effective field theory has been successfully developed for and applied to systems with few nucleons. Here, I present a new approach for ab initio calculations of nuclei that combines these precise and systematic forces with Monte Carlo simulation techniques that allow for exact solutions of the nuclear A-body problem. A short introduction of this method is given and a few assorted results concerning the spectrum and structure of 12C and 16O are presented. The framework further allows one to study the properties of nuclei in worlds that have fundamental parameters different from the ones in Nature. This allows for a physics test of the anthropic principle by addressing the question how strongly the generation of the life-relevant elements depends on the light quark masses and the electromagnetic fine structure constant.

  6. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  7. Atomic and nuclear physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Littlefield, T A

    1979-01-01

    After the death of Dr. Littlefield it was decided that I should undertake the revision ofthe whole of Atomic and Nuclear Physics: an Introduction for the third edition, and it was soon apparent that major changes were necessary. I am confident that these changes would have had Dr. Littlefield's approval. The prime consideration for the present edition has been to modernize at a minimum cost. As much as possible of the second edition has therefore been retained, but where changes have been made they have been fairly drastic. Thus the chapters on fine structure, wave mechanics, the vector model of the atom, Pauli's principle and the Zeeman effect have been completely restructured. The chapters on nuclear models, cosmic rays, fusion systems and fundamental particles have been brought up to date while a new chapter on charm and the latest ideas on quarks has been included. It is hoped that the presentation of the last named will give readers a feeling that physics research can be full of adventure and surprises.

  8. Physics of nuclear radiations concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Nuclear Radiations: Concepts, Techniques and Applications makes the physics of nuclear radiations accessible to students with a basic background in physics and mathematics. Rather than convince students one way or the other about the hazards of nuclear radiations, the text empowers them with tools to calculate and assess nuclear radiations and their impact. It discusses the meaning behind mathematical formulae as well as the areas in which the equations can be applied. After reviewing the physics preliminaries, the author addresses the growth and decay of nuclear radiations, the stability of nuclei or particles against radioactive transformations, and the behavior of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons, and neutrons. He then presents the nomenclature and physics reasoning of dosimetry, covers typical nuclear facilities (such as medical x-ray machines and particle accelerators), and describes the physics principles of diverse detectors. The book also discusses methods for measuring energy a...

  9. Quantum algorithms for computational nuclear physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višňák Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While quantum algorithms have been studied as an efficient tool for the stationary state energy determination in the case of molecular quantum systems, no similar study for analogical problems in computational nuclear physics (computation of energy levels of nuclei from empirical nucleon-nucleon or quark-quark potentials have been realized yet. Although the difference between the above mentioned studies might seem negligible, it will be examined. First steps towards a particular simulation (on classical computer of the Iterative Phase Estimation Algorithm for deuterium and tritium nuclei energy level computation will be carried out with the aim to prove algorithm feasibility (and extensibility to heavier nuclei for its possible practical realization on a real quantum computer.

  10. Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2005-02-02

    Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields which act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a {gamma}p energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the {rho}{sup 0}, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of ''new physics''.

  11. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2005-01-01

    The primary objectives of this book are, firstly, to present the essential theoretical background needed to understand recent fusion research and, secondly, to describe the current status of fusion research for graduate students and senior undergraduates. It will also serve as a useful reference for scientists and engineers working in the related fields. In Part I, Plasma Physics, the author explains the basics of magneto-hydrodynamics and kinetic theory in a simple and compact way and, at the same time, covers important new topics for fusion studies such as the ballooning representation, instabilities driven by energetic particles and various plasma models for computer simulations. Part II, Controlled Nuclear Fusion, attempts to review the "big picture" in fusion research. All important phenomena and technologies are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the topics of most concern in current research.

  12. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Just over one hundred years ago, Ernest Rutherford presented an interpretation of alpha-particle scattering experiments, performed a couple of years earlier by Geiger and Marsden, to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. The work was summarised shortly afterwards in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine. He postulated that a dense speck of matter must exist at the centre of an atom (later to become known as the nucleus) if the details of the experiments, particularly the yield of alpha particles scattered through large angles, were to be explained. The nuclear hypothesis, combined with the experimental work by Moseley on X-rays and Bohr's theoretical ideas, both also initiated at the Victoria University of Manchester, established our view of atomic structure and gave birth to the field of nuclear physics. The Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics was held at The University of Manchester in August 2011 to celebrate this anniversary by addressing the wide range of contemporary topics that characterise modern nuclear physics. This set of proceedings covers areas including nuclear structure and astrophysics, hadron structure and spectroscopy, fundamental interactions studied within the nucleus and results of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent research results at the conference; the proceedings stand as a testament to the excitement and interest that still pervades the pursuit of this field of physics. We would also like to thank those who contributed in other ways to the conference. To colleagues at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry for putting together an exhibition to coincide with the conference that included the manuscript of the 1911 paper, letters, notebooks and equipment used by Rutherford. These items were kindly loaned by Cambridge and Manchester Universities. Winton Capital generously supported this exhibition. We would also like to thank Professor Mary Fowler

  13. Methodical Instructions For Solutions of Problems in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Troitskaya, N I

    2005-01-01

    This is a set of methodical instructions for solutions of problems in Nuclear Physics. It is written on the basis of seminars to the course of lectures on``Nuclear Physics'' delivered at the Physical and Mechanical Faculty of the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University for the students of the 4th Course in ``Technical Physics'' and ``Medical Physics''. The main aim of these methodical instructions is to develop the experience of students in scientific approaches to solutions of practical problems in Nuclear Physics.

  14. The 26th International Nuclear Physics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was a pleasure to welcome all delegates and accompanying persons to Adelaide for the 26th International Conference in Nuclear Physics, INPC2016. As the major meeting in our field, it was a wonderful opportunity to catch up with colleagues from around the world, learn about the very latest developments and share ideas. We were grateful for the support of the Commission on Nuclear Physics, C12, of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), which chose Adelaide to host this meeting. We were also honoured that the President of IUPAP, Prof. Bruce McKellar was present at the meeting to welcome delegates and participate in the proceedings. We acknowledge the financial support for the conference which was made available by a number of organisations. We were especially grateful to the major sponsors, the Adelaide Convention Bureau, the University of Adelaide, the Australian National University and ANSTO, as well as IUPAP, the ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale (CoEPP) and several of the world's major nuclear physics laboratories, BNL, GSI, JLab and TRIUMF. As a result of these contributions we were able to offer support to attend the conference to more than 50 international students. Not only did we have a superb scientific program but, consistent with IUPAP guidelines, more than 40% of the invited plenary talks were presented by women. In order to reach out to the local community, Cynthia Keppel (from JLab) presented a public lecture on Hadron Beam Therapy on Tuesday evening, September 13th. As presenting a talk is now often a condition for financial support to attend an international conference, there were 11 simultaneous parallel sessions with more than 350 presentations. We are especially grateful to the International Advisory Committee, the Program Committee and the Conveners whose advice and hard work made it possible for all this to come together. I would also like to acknowledge the work of the Local Organising

  15. Nuclear Technology Series. Course l: Radiation Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Education Research Center, Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  16. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 12: Reactor Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  17. Second Mexican School of Nuclear Physics: Notes; Segunda Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear: Notas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, E.F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Chavez L, E.R. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hess, P.O. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    The II Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those last semesters students of the Physics career or post-graduate was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at April 16-27, 2001 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). A first school of a similar level in Nuclear Physics, was carried out in Mexico at 1977 as Latin american School of Physics. This book treats about the following themes: Interactions of radiation with matter, Evaluation of uncertainty in experimental data, Particle accelerators, Notions of radiological protection and dosimetry, Cosmic rays, Basis radiation (environmental), Measurement of excitation functions with thick targets and inverse kinematics, Gamma ray technique for to measure the nuclear fusion, Neutron detection with Bonner spectrometer, Energy losses of alpha particles in nickel. It was held the practice Radiation detectors. (Author)

  18. Summaries of FY 1992 research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report summarizes the research projects supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics in the Office of High Energy and Nuclear Physics during FY 1992. This Division is a component of the Office of Energy Research and provides about 85% of the funding for nuclear physics research in the United States. The objectives of the Nuclear Physics Program are two-fold: (1) to understand the interactions and structures of atomic nuclei and nuclear matter and the fundamental forces of nature as manifested in nuclear matter and (2) to foster application of this knowledge to other sciences and technical disciplines. These summaries are intended to provide a convenient guide for those interested in the research supported by the Division of Nuclear Physics. We remind the readers that this compilation is just an overview of the Nuclear Physics Program. What we attempt to portray correctly is the breadth of the program and level of activity in the field of nuclear physics research as well as the new capabilities and directions that continually alter the public face of the nuclear sciences. We hope that the limitations of space, constraints of fon-nat, and rigors of editing have not extinguished the excitement of the science as it was originally portrayed.

  19. Precise nuclear physics for the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    populated areas, mainly near the ocean shore and in arid regions. Thus, great effort is expended on the study of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Also the Sun, via the solar irradiance and via the effects of the so-called solar wind of magnetic particles on the Earth's atmosphere, may affect the climate. There is no proof linking solar effects to short-term changes in the Earth's climate. However, such effects cannot be excluded, either, making it necessary to study the Sun. The experiments summarized in the present work contribute to the present-day study of our Sun by repeating, in the laboratory, some of the nuclear processes that take place in the core of the Sun. They aim to improve the precision of the nuclear cross section data that lay the foundation of the model of the nuclear reactions generating energy and producing neutrinos in the Sun. In order to reach this goal, low-energy nuclear physics experiments are performed. Wherever possible, the data are taken in a low-background, underground environment. There is only one underground accelerator facility in the world, the Laboratory Underground for Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 0.4MV accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. Much of the research described here is based on experiments at LUNA. Background and feasibility studies shown here lay the base for future, higher-energy underground accelerators. Finally, it is shown that such a device can even be placed in a shallow-underground facility such as the Dresden Felsenkeller without great loss of sensitivity.

  20. Nuclear physics: Elusive transition spotted in thorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Marianna

    2016-05-01

    The highly precise atomic clocks used in science and technology are based on electronic transitions in atoms. The discovery of a nuclear transition in thorium-229 raises hopes of making nuclear clocks a reality. See Article p.47

  1. Teaching Nuclear Physics in a General Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesher, Shelly R.

    2017-01-01

    The general public is unaware how physics shapes the world. This is especially true for nuclear physics, where many people are scared of the words ``nuclear'' and ``radiation''. To combat these perceptions, the Physics Department at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse teaches a general education class on nuclear weapons, energy, and policy in society. This includes the social, economic, cultural, and political aspects surrounding the development of nuclear weapons and their place in the world, especially in current events. This talk will discuss the course, how it has grown, and sample student responses.

  2. The Nuclear Physics Programme at CERN (1/3)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This lecture series will focus on the two major facilities at CERN for nuclear physics: ISOLDE and nToF. ISOLDE is one of the world's leading radioactive beam facilities which can produce intense beams of unstable nuclei. Some of these beams can also be re-acclerated to energies around the Coulomb barrier and undergo nuclear reactions in turn. ISOLDE can address a wide range of Physics from nuclear structure to nuclear astrophysics (the origin of the chemical elements) and fundamental physics. The second major facility is nToF which is a neutron time-of-flight facility. Intense neutron beams are used to study nuclear reactions important both for nuclear astrophysics and for present and future reactor cycles. An overview will be given of these two facilities including highlights of their Physics programmes and the perspectives for the future.

  3. Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics. [Oregon State Univ. , Corvallis, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1992-01-01

    Work in nuclear structure and reaction theory, specifically, the relation of reactions to the nuclear structure. Other work was in intermediate energy physics, few-body problems, and computational physics that heavy ions can be used to measure simultaneously both neutron and proton multipole matrix elements of the target nucleus has added new interest to this area of nuclear structure. Considerable attention to the is therefore paid to the to the methods for calculating multiple matrix elements.

  4. Lessons about likelihood functions from nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Kenneth M

    2007-01-01

    Least-squares data analysis is based on the assumption that the normal (Gaussian) distribution appropriately characterizes the likelihood, that is, the conditional probability of each measurement d, given a measured quantity y, p(d | y). On the other hand, there is ample evidence in nuclear physics of significant disagreements among measurements, which are inconsistent with the normal distribution, given their stated uncertainties. In this study the histories of 99 measurements of the lifetimes of five elementary particles are examined to determine what can be inferred about the distribution of their values relative to their stated uncertainties. Taken as a whole, the variations in the data are somewhat larger than their quoted uncertainties would indicate. These data strongly support using a Student t distribution for the likelihood function instead of a normal. The most probable value for the order of the t distribution is 2.6 +/- 0.9. It is shown that analyses based on long-tailed t-distribution likelihood...

  5. 3. Mexican school of nuclear physics; 3. Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez L, E.R. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hess, P.O. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The III Mexican School of Nuclear Physics which is directed to those post graduate in Sciences and those of last semesters students of the Physics career or some adjacent career was organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, carrying out at November 18-29, 2002 in the installations of the Institute of Physics and the Institute of Nuclear Sciences both in the UNAM, and the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). In this as well as the last version its were offered 17 courses, 9 of them including laboratory practices and the rest were of theoretical character only. This book treats about the following themes: Nuclear physics, Electrostatic accelerators, Cyclotrons, Thermonuclear reactions, Surface barrier detectors, Radiation detection, Neutron detection, Bonner sphere spectrometers, Radiation protection, Biological radiation effects, Particle kinematics, Nucleosynthesis, Plastics, Muons, Quadrupoles, Harmonic oscillators, Quantum mechanics among many other matters. (Author)

  6. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1997. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. The main auxiliary equipment consists of a multi-detector system CACTUS, and presently with a unique locally designed silicon strip detector array SIRI. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  7. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics - Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This annual report summarizes the research and development activities of the Section for Nuclear Physics and Energy Physics at the University of Oslo in 1996. It includes experimental and theoretical nuclear physics, as well as other fields of physics in which members of the section have participated. The report describes completed projects and work currently in progress. As in previous years, the experimental activities in nuclear physics have mainly been centered around the Cyclotron Laboratory with the SCANDITRONIX MC-35 Cyclotron. Using CACTUS multidetector system, several experiments have been completed. Some results have been published while more data remains to be analyzed. In experimental nuclear physics the section staff members are engaged within three main fields: nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  8. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Mukherjee

    2001-07-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma–gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma–gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta–gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950–59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950’s and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960’s and 1970’s. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (,') and (,) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980’s with the availability of 40–80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (,) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicitysum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (,) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more

  9. Lattice QCD Calculations in Nuclear Physics towards the Exascale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Balint

    2017-01-01

    The combination of algorithmic advances and new highly parallel computing architectures are enabling lattice QCD calculations to tackle ever more complex problems in nuclear physics. In this talk I will review some computational challenges that are encountered in large scale cold nuclear physics campaigns such as those in hadron spectroscopy calculations. I will discuss progress in addressing these with algorithmic improvements such as multi-grid solvers and software for recent hardware architectures such as GPUs and Intel Xeon Phi, Knights Landing. Finally, I will highlight some current topics for research and development as we head towards the Exascale era This material is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office Of Science, Offices of Nuclear Physics, High Energy Physics and Advanced Scientific Computing Research, as well as the Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  10. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Kirejczyk, M.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1997 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contain the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  11. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University Annual Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1996 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction mechanisms and nuclear structure; Experimental methods and instrumentation and the third part contains the list of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` by NPD director prof. Ch. Droste.

  12. Nuclear Physics Division - Inst. of Experimental Physics - Warsaw University - Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirejczyk, M.; Szeflinski, Z. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Warsaw University Institute of Experimental Physics in year of 1998 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contains the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and list of published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  13. PREFACE: XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Morales-Agiss, Irving; Martínez-Quiroz, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    logo The XXXVI Symposium on Nuclear Physics, organized by the Division of Nuclear Physics of the Mexican Physical Society, took place from 7-10 January, 2013. As it is customary, the Symposium was held at the Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Conference photograph This international venue with many years of tradition was attended by outstanding physicists, some of them already regulars to this meeting and others who joined us for the first time; a total of 45 attendees from different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico and the United States). A variety of topics related to nuclear physics (nuclear reactions, radioactive beams, nuclear structure, fundamental neutron physics, sub-nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics, among others) were presented in 26 invited talks and 10 contributed posters. Local Organizing Committee Libertad Barrón-Palos (IF-UNAM)) Enrique Martínez-Quíroz (ININ)) Irving Morales-Agiss (ICN-UNAM)) International Advisory Committee Osvaldo Civitarese (UNLP, Argentina) Jerry P Draayer (LSU, USA)) Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri (ORNL, USA)) Paulo Gomes (UFF, Brazil)) Piet Van Isacker (GANIL, France)) James J Kolata (UND, USA)) Reiner Krücken (TRIUMF, Canada)) Jorge López (UTEP, USA)) Stuart Pittel (UD, USA)) W Michael Snow (IU, USA)) Adam Szczepaniak (IU, USA)) Michael Wiescher (UND, USA)) A list of participants is available in the PDF

  14. Theoretical nuclear physics at Yale University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Brief summaries of past and planned activities in the following areas are given: models of nuclear structure; models of hadronic structure; hot nuclei; chaos in nuclei; reactions and structure; dissipation, diffusion, and collective motion; and modeling equilibrium and nonequilibrium systems.

  15. Nuclear Physics Experiments with Ion Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinova, Yu A; Blaum, K; Bosch, F; Brandau, C; Chen, L X; Dillmann, I; Egelhof, P; Geissel, H; Grisenti, R E; Hagmann, S; Heil, M; Heinz, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Knöbel, R; Kozhuharov, C; Lestinsky, M; Ma, X W; Nilsson, T; Nolden, F; Ozawa, A; Raabe, R; Reed, M W; Reifarth, R; Sanjari, M S; Schneider, D; Simon, H; Steck, M; Stöhlker, T; Sun, B H; Tu, X L; Uesaka, T; Walker, P M; Wakasugi, M; Weick, H; Winckler, N; Woods, P J; Xu, H S; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Zhang, Y H

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

  16. Future prospects in nuclear physics and the Japanese hadron facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metag, V. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)]|[Giessen Univ. (Germany). 2. Physikalisches Inst.

    1998-05-01

    The Japanese Hadron Facility (JHF) will provide new perspectives for a broad research program covering nuclear and particle physics, condensed matter physics, material sciences, and life sciences. In this talk, the future prospects of nuclear physics, as they are discussed within the community, are addressed. Recommendations worked out by the study groups, evaluating the long term perspectives of GSI, have hereby been used as a guideline. Nuclear physics is considered here in a broad sense as the physics of extended structured objects bound by the strong interaction, i.e. mesons, baryons, and nuclei. Preference is given to those subfields which would benefit most from the new experimental possibilities to the JHF. Consequently, the structure of exotic nuclei and hypernuclei, the properties of compressed hadronic matter and medium modifications of hadrons, spectroscopy of mesons, glueballs and baryons, and the parton structure of the nucleon are addressed and analyzed with regard to their future physics potential. (orig.)

  17. Differential evolution algorithm for global optimizations in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chong

    2017-04-01

    We explore the applicability of the differential evolution algorithm in finding the global minima of three typical nuclear structure physics problems: the global deformation minimum in the nuclear potential energy surface, the optimization of mass model parameters and the lowest eigenvalue of a nuclear Hamiltonian. The algorithm works very effectively and efficiently in identifying the minima in all problems we have tested. We also show that the algorithm can be parallelized in a straightforward way.

  18. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  19. 4. Mexican School of Nuclear Physics; 4. Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Hernandez, E.; Hirsch, J.G. (ed.)e-mail: svp@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The IV Mexican School of Nuclear Physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, taken place from June 27 to July 8, 2005 in the Institute of Nuclear Sciences and the Institute of Physics of the UNAM and in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This school, as the previous ones, it was guided to the students of the last semesters of the career of Physics, of the Post grade of the same specialty, and of other adjacent careers. To give the students a current vision of some of the topics more important of the nuclear physics and their relationship with other near areas of the physics it was the objective of this School. The School covered a wide range of theoretical and experimental courses, imparted in its majority by Mexican expert professor-investigators in the subject to whom we thank them the one effort and the quality of their presentations, reflected in the content of this document. The answer of the students to the convocation was excellent, 31 students presented application for admission coming from the following institutions: Meritorious Autonomous University of Puebla, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Technological Institute of Orizaba, National Polytechnic Institute, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Autonomous University of the State de Mexico, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Autonomous University of Baja California, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, University of Guadalajara, University of Guanajuato, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University of Texas, at El Paso and University Veracruzana. They were admitted to those 22 students with the higher averages qualifications of the list of applicants. The organizers of this school thank the financial support granted by the following sponsor institutions: Institute of Nuclear Sciences, UNAM, Institute of Physics, UNAM, Coordination of the Scientific Research, UNAM, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Nuclear

  20. 4. Mexican School of Nuclear Physics. Papers; 4. Escuela Mexicana de Fisica Nuclear. Notas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, E.F.; Hernandez, E.; Hirsch, J. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The IV Mexican School of Nuclear Physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican Physics Society, takes place from June 27 to July 8, 2005 in the Nuclear Sciences and of Physics Institutes of the UNAM and in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). This school, as the previous ones, it was guided the students of the last semesters of the career of Physics, of the Post grade of the same specialty, and of other adjacent careers. To give the students a current vision of some of the topics more important of the nuclear physics and their relationship with other near areas of the physics it was the objective of this School. The School covered a wide range of theoretical and experimental courses, imparted in its majority by Mexican expert professor-investigators in the matter to who we thank them the one effort and the quality of their presentations, reflected in the content of this document. The answer of the students to the convocation was excellent, 31 students presented application for admission coming from the following institutions: Meritorious Autonomous University de Puebla, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Technological Institute of Orizaba, National Polytechnic Institute, The University of Texas at Brownsville, Autonomous University of the State de Mexico, Autonomous University of the State of Morelos, Autonomous University of Baja California, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi, University of Guadalajara, University of Guanajuato, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University of Texas, at El Paso and University Veracruzana. They were admitted to the 22 students with the higher averages qualifications of the list of applicants. The organizers of this school thank the financial support granted by the following sponsor institutions: Nuclear Sciences Institute, UNAM, Physics Institute of UNAM, Coordination of the Scientific Research UNAM, National Institute of Nuclear Research, Nuclear Physics Division of the Mexican

  1. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  2. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Innovation has been accelerated by nuclear physics in the areas of improving our health; making the world safer; electricity, environment, archaeology; better computers; contributions to industry; and training the next generation of innovators.

  3. Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailidis, Dimitris

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear Medicine Physics: The Basics. 7th ed. Ramesh Chandra, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer Business. Philadelphia, 2012. Softbound, 224 pp. Price: $69.99. ISBN: 9781451109412. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Orbach urges renewed commitment to nuclear physics work

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2002-01-01

    According to US Office of Science director Raymond Orbach, the Energy Department plans to issue a background paper in the coming months that will make the case for supporting the department's accelerator program for nuclear physics research (1 page).

  5. Strangeness nuclear physics: a critical review on selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, Elena; Garbarino, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in strangeness nuclear physics are critically reviewed. This includes production, structure and weak decay of $\\Lambda$--Hypernuclei, the $\\bar K$ nuclear interaction and the possible existence of $\\bar K$ bound states in nuclei. Perspectives for future studies on these issues are also outlined.

  6. Nuclear physics with superconducting cyclotron at Kolkata: Scopes and possibilities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sailajananda Bhattacharya

    2010-08-01

    The K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata, India is getting ready to deliver its first accelerated ion beam for experiment. At the same time, the nuclear physics programme and related experimental facility development activities are taking shape. A general review of the nuclear physics research opportunities with the superconducting cyclotron and the present status of the development of different detector arrays and other experimental facilities will be presented.

  7. Celebrating 40 years of research in Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Colin D.; Martin, Alan D.; Schwenk, Achim

    2015-09-01

    2015 marks the 40th anniversary of Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics. This editorial provides a brief history of the journal, and introduces a unique collection of invited articles from leading authors to celebrate the occasion.

  8. Physical cryptographic verification of nuclear warheads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R. Scott; Danagoulian, Areg; Macdonald, Ruaridh R.; Vavrek, Jayson R.

    2016-08-01

    How does one prove a claim about a highly sensitive object such as a nuclear weapon without revealing information about the object? This paradox has challenged nuclear arms control for more than five decades. We present a mechanism in the form of an interactive proof system that can validate the structure and composition of an object, such as a nuclear warhead, to arbitrary precision without revealing either its structure or composition. We introduce a tomographic method that simultaneously resolves both the geometric and isotopic makeup of an object. We also introduce a method of protecting information using a provably secure cryptographic hash that does not rely on electronics or software. These techniques, when combined with a suitable protocol, constitute an interactive proof system that could reject hoax items and clear authentic warheads with excellent sensitivity in reasonably short measurement times.

  9. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  10. HIE-ISOLDE: NUCLEAR PHYSICS NOW AT HIGHER ENERGIES

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    From biomedical applications to nuclear astrophysics, physicists at CERN’s nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, are probing the structure of matter. To stay at the cutting edge of technology and science, further development was needed. Now, 8 years since the start of the HIE-ISOLDE project, a new accelerator is in place taking nuclear physics at CERN to higher energies. With physicists setting their sights on even higher energies of 10 MeV in the future, with four times the intensity, they will continue to commission more HIE-ISOLDE accelerating cavities and beamlines in the years to come.

  11. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Naumenko, M. A.; Alekseev, A. P.; Rachkov, V. A.; Samarin, V. V.; Saiko, V. V.; Zagrebaev, V. I.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the principles of organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru/) which integrates a large amount of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and nuclear reaction cross sections with a wide range of computational programs for modeling of nuclear properties and various processes of nuclear dynamics which work directly in the browser of a remote user. The paper also gives an overview of the current situation in the field of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics. The features of the NRV knowledge base are illustrated in detail on the example of the analysis of nucleon transfer reactions within the distorted wave Born approximation.

  12. Proceedings of the 28. Workshop on nuclear physics in Brazil. Program and abstracts; Anais do 28. Reuniao de trabalho sobre fisica nuclear no Brasil. Programa e resumos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings cover the abstracts presented on the 28. Workshop on Nuclear Physics in Brazil, in the areas of nuclear reactions, high energy physics, hadronic physics, theoretical and experimental nuclear structure, nuclear matter, instrumentation, spectroscopy and thermonuclear reactions.

  13. Gravity anomalies and basement structure in Osaka plain; Osaka heiya no juryoku ijo to kiban kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, N.; Nakagawa, K. [Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science; Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnical College, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Many kinds of new information about the underground structure are necessary for elucidating problems on the distribution characteristics of the structural damage and the ground failure due to the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake. The gravity anomalies in and around the Osaka sedimentary basin, which is mainly composed of Mesozoic granitic basement and post Tertiary sedimentary layers covering the basement, has been compiled with the data additional gravity measurements in the Hanshin-Osaka area. Basement configuration plays the important role in concentration or dispersion of seismic waves. In general, trends of the gravity anomalies should be removed from obtained gravity anomalies in order to estimate the sub-surface structures. The local free-air anomalies, which are residual anomalies obtained by applying regression technique to regional trends, exhibit linear relationship with the depth to the basement surface. In this study, therefore, the underground structure of the Osaka basin was estimated from the local free-air anomalies. First approximate model of basement surface was constructed by means of the method mentioned above, based upon the two layer (basement rock and the sedimentary cover) model. Further three dimensional model was developed based on the characteristic distribution of density inferred from seismic exploration analysis. 19 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  14. AGS experiments in nuclear/QCD physics at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Presti, P.

    1998-07-01

    This report contains a diagram of the experimental setup for each experiment as well as giving a brief discussion of its purpose and list of collaborators for the experiment. Thirty-one experiments in the areas of nuclear physics and particle physics are covered. It concludes with a list of publications of the AGS experiments.

  15. 2nd International Conference on Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; The European Physical Journal A : Volume 27, Supplement 1, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Launched in 2004, "Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics" has established itself in a successful topical conference series addressing the forefront of research in the field. This volume contains the selected and refereed papers of the 2nd conference, held in Debrecen in 2005 and reprinted from "The European Physical Journal A - Hadrons and Nuclei".

  16. Towards Nuclear Physics of OHe Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu; Soldatov, Evgeny Yu

    2011-01-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the Universe can consist of new stable charged particles, bound in heavy "atoms" by ordinary Coulomb interaction. If stable particles $O^{--}$ with charge -2 are in excess over their antiparticles (with charge +2), the primordial helium, formed in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, captures all $O^{--}$ in neutral "atoms" of O-helium (OHe). Interaction with nuclei plays crucial role in the cosmological evolution of OHe and in the effects of these dark atoms as nuclear interacting dark matter. Slowed down in terrestrial matter OHe atoms cause negligible effects of nuclear recoil in underground detectors, but can experience radiative capture by nuclei. Local concentration of OHe in the matter of detectors is rapidly adjusted to the incoming flux of cosmic OHe and possess annual modulation due to Earth's orbital motion around the Sun. The potential of OHe-nucleus interaction is determined by polarization of OHe by the Coulomb and nuclear force of the approaching nucleus. Stark-like effect b...

  17. Future directions in particle and nuclear physics at multi-GeV hadron beam facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geesaman, D.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [ed.

    1993-11-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics in particle and nuclear physics: hadron dynamics; lepton physics; spin physics; hadron and nuclear spectroscopy; hadronic weak interactions; and Eta physics. These papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  18. Development of Osaka gas type planar SOFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iha, M.; Shiratori, A.; Chikagawa, O. [Murata Mfg. Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Osaka Gas Co. has been developing a planar type SOFC (OG type SOFC) which has a suitable structure for stacking. Murata Mfg. Co. has begun to develop the OG type SOFC stack through joint program since 1993. Figure 1 shows OG type cell structure. Because each cell is sustained by cell holders acting air manifold, the load of upper cell is not put on the lower cells. Single cell is composed of 3-layered membrane and LaCrO{sub 3} separator. 5 single cells are mounted on the cell holder, connected with Ni felt electrically, and bonded by glassy material sealant. We call the 5-cell stack a unit. Stacking 13 units, we succeeded 870 W generation in 1993. But the power density was low, 0.11 Wcm{sup -2} because of crack in the electrolyte and gas leakage at some cells.

  19. Neutron physics for nuclear reactors unpublished writings by Enrico Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Fermi, Enrico; Pisanti, O

    2010-01-01

    This unique volume gives an accurate and very detailed description of the functioning and operation of basic nuclear reactors, as emerging from yet unpublished papers by Nobel Laureate Enrico Fermi. In the first part, the entire course of lectures on Neutron Physics delivered by Fermi at Los Alamos is reported, according to the version made by Anthony P French. Here, the fundamental physical phenomena are described very clearly and comprehensively, giving the appropriate physics grounds for the functioning of nuclear piles. In the second part, all the patents issued by Fermi (and coworkers) on

  20. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  1. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  2. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, J.; Bartak, L. [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Senovazne nam. 9, 110 00 Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes comprehensively past and present of physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials in the Czech Republic, particularly: the changes made in ensuring and legislation of physical protection following the political changes in 1989; the basic concept and regulation in physical protection and the effort made to strengthen the national regulatory programmes, as well as a brief survey of the nuclear facilities in the Czech Republic; experience in design, operation, inspection and licensing of the integrated physical protection system for nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors; the role of the police as a response force and the role of the new private security companies; the upgrading of the physical protection systems at the different types of the nuclear installations to fulfill the more strict requirements of the new Atomic Law No. 18/1997 Coll. and Regulation No. 144/1997 Coll., on physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities; the follow up actions in connection with IAEA IPPAS missions carried out in 1998 and 2002 are given.

  3. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 4: early solar research in Osaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Nakamura, Tsuko; Ishiguro, Masato

    2016-12-01

    For about two years, from late 1949, Minoru Oda and Tatsuo Takakura carried out solar observations from Osaka, initially with a hand-made horn and later with a small parabolic antenna connected to a 3.3 GHz receiver, but they only published one short paper on this work. At about the same time, Ojio and others at Osaka City University presented the concept of a solar grating array at a meeting of the Japan Physical Society, but this was never built. In this paper, we provide brief biographical accounts of Oda and Takakura before examining their radio telescopes and the observations that they made. We also briefly discuss the proposed Japanese solar grating array.

  4. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  5. Applied nuclear physics group - activities report. 1977-1997; Grupo de fisica nuclear aplicada - relatorio de atividades. 1977-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    1998-06-01

    This report presents the activities conducted by the Applied Nuclear Physics group of the Londrina State University - Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory - Brazil, from the activities beginning (1977) up to the end of the year 1997.

  6. Physics with post accelerated beams: nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, A. St J.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, recent studies so far conducted with post accelerated beams at the ISOLDE facility in the area of nuclear astrophysics are reviewed. Two experiments in particular are highlighted, that each feature novelty and innovation. Three future experiments are also briefly presented. Collectively, these works advance our understanding of big bang nucleosynthesis, quiescent and explosive burning in novae and x-ray bursts, and core-collapse supernovae, both in terms of the underlying explosion mechanism and gamma-ray satellite observable radioisotopes.

  7. Foundations of Nuclear and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, T. William; Formaggio, Joseph A.; Holstein, Barry R.; Milner, Richard G.; Surrow, Bernd

    2017-03-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Symmetries; 3. Building hadrons from quarks; 4. The standard model; 5. QCD and confinement; 6. Chiral symmetry and QCD; 7. Introduction to lepton scattering; 8. Elastic electron scattering from the nucleon; 9. Hadron structure via lepton-nucleon scattering; 10. High-energy QCD; 11. The nucleon-nucleon interaction; 12. The structure and properties of few-body nuclei; 13. Overview of many-body nuclei; 14. Models of many-body nuclei; 15. Electron scattering from discrete states; 16. Electroexcitation of high-lying excitations of the nucleus; 17. Beta decay; 18. Neutrino physics; 19. The physics of relativistic heavy-ions; 20. Astrophysics; 21. Beyond the standard model physics; Appendix A. Useful information; Appendix B. Quantum theory.

  8. NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, V.; Denikin, A. S.; Alekseev, A. P.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Rachkov, V. A.; Naumenko, M. A.; Saiko, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Principles underlying the organization and operation of the NRV web knowledge base on low-energy nuclear physics (http://nrv.jinr.ru) are described. This base includes a vast body of digitized experimental data on the properties of nuclei and on cross sections for nuclear reactions that is combined with a wide set of interconnected computer programs for simulating complex nuclear dynamics, which work directly in the browser of a remote user. Also, the current situation in the realms of application of network information technologies in nuclear physics is surveyed. The potential of the NRV knowledge base is illustrated in detail by applying it to the example of an analysis of the fusion of nuclei that is followed by the decay of the excited compound nucleus formed.

  9. Ion traps in nuclear physics-Recent results and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, Tommi; Kankainen, Anu; Äystö, Juha

    2016-11-01

    Ion traps offer a way to determine nuclear binding energies through atomic mass measurements with a high accuracy and they are routinely used to provide isotopically or even isomerically pure beams of short-living ions for post-trap decay spectroscopy experiments. In this review, different ion-trapping techniques and progresses in recent nuclear physics experiments employing low-energy ion traps are discussed. The main focus in this review is on the benefit of recent high accuracy mass measurements to solve some key problems in physics related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics as well as neutrinos. Also, several cases of decay spectroscopy experiments utilizing trap-purified ion samples are summarized.

  10. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  11. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  12. Nuclear Science Outreach in the World Year of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Margaret

    2006-04-01

    The ability of scientists to articulate the importance and value of their research has become increasingly important in the present climate of declining budgets, and this is most critical in the field of nuclear science ,where researchers must fight an uphill battle against negative public perception. Yet nuclear science encompasses important technical and societal issues that should be of primary interest to informed citizens, and the need for scientists trained in nuclear techniques are important for many applications in nuclear medicine, national security and future energy sources. The NSAC Education Subcommittee Report [1] identified the need for a nationally coordinated effort in nuclear science outreach, naming as its first recommendation that `the highest priority for new investment in education be the creation by the DOE and NSF of a Center for Nuclear Science Outreach'. This talk will review the present status of public outreach in nuclear science and highlight some specific efforts that have taken place during the World Year of Physics. [1] Education in Nuclear Science: A Status Report and Recommendations for the Beginning of the 21^st Century, A Report of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee Subcommittee on Education, November 2004, http://www.sc.doe.gov/henp/np/nsac/docs/NSACCReducationreportfinal.pdf.

  13. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  14. Nuclear physics and stable isotopes; Physique nucleaire et isotopes stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutte, D. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee

    1994-12-31

    The aim of this paper is to show that fundamental research in nuclear physics requires utilization of stable isotopes; stable isotopes are essential as target material since a large quantity of nucleus have to be studied in order to appreciate all the complexity of the nuclear structure, but also as a tool, such as beams, for the same purpose. Examples are given with samarium, tin and germanium isotopes. 7 figs.

  15. Nuclear physics with neutrons - fundamental and applied researches

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, V I

    2001-01-01

    The investigations in the field of the nuclear neutron physics in JINR are discussed briefly. The following problems are considered: realization of the project of a new source of resonance neutrons (IREN); development and testing the new perspective techniques for experiments at IREN; studying the symmetry breaking in fundamental interactions in nuclei and obtaining the actual technological nuclear data. The neutron energy is in the range of 10 sup - sup 9 eV-10 MeV

  16. Accelerating Innovation: How Nuclear Physics Benefits Us All

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    From fighting cancer to assuring food is safe to protecting our borders, nuclear physics impacts the lives of people around the globe every day. In learning about the nucleus of the atom and the forces that govern it, scientists develop a depth of knowledge, techniques and remarkable research tools that can be used to develop a variety of often unexpected, practical applications. These applications include devices and technologies for medical diagnostics and therapy, energy production and exploration, safety and national security, and for the analysis of materials and environmental contaminants. This brochure by the Office of Nuclear Physics of the USDOE Office of Science discusses nuclear physics and ways in which its applications fuel our economic vitality, and make the world and our lives safer and healthier.

  17. Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research & Development - A Physics Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maceira, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blom, Philip Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maccarthy, Jonathan K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Euler, Garrett Gene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Begnaud, Michael Lee [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ford, Sean R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Pasyanos, Michael E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Orris, Gregory J. [Naval Research Laboratory; Foxe, Michael P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Arrowsmith, Stephen J. [Sandia National Laboratory; Merchant, B. John [Sandia National Laboratory; Slinkard, Megan E. [Sandia National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    This document entitled “Trends in Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development – A Physics Perspective” reviews the accessible literature, as it relates to nuclear explosion monitoring and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT, 1996), for four research areas: source physics (understanding signal generation), signal propagation (accounting for changes through physical media), sensors (recording the signals), and signal analysis (processing the signal). Over 40 trends are addressed, such as moving from 1D to 3D earth models, from pick-based seismic event processing to full waveform processing, and from separate treatment of mechanical waves in different media to combined analyses. Highlighted in the document for each trend are the value and benefit to the monitoring mission, key papers that advanced the science, and promising research and development for the future.

  18. Nuclear Physics of Dark Matter Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J.; Pittel, S.; Vogel, P.

    We describe the elastic scattering of weakly interacting dark matter particles from nuclei, with laboratory detection in mind. We focus on the lightest neutralino (a neutral fermion predicted by supersymmetry) as a likely candidate and discuss the physics needed to calculate its elastic scattering cross section and interpret experimental results. Particular emphasis is placed on a proper description of the structure of the proposed detector nuclei. We include a brief discussion of expected count rates in some detectors.

  19. About some inverse problems of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Belashev, B Z

    2002-01-01

    Some inverse problems of high energy physics and NMR spectroscopy are observed. The methods of the Fourier transformation and the maximum entropy technique have been applied for their solutions. The integral images of the experimental distributions are informative for determination of the space-time characteristics of the particles generation domain and for the analysis of blurring spectra. These methods have been tested in comparison with the results which have been obtained independently

  20. Nuclear physics in the 1990's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dover, C.B.

    1986-10-01

    The report consists of a series of transparencies. The focus of this talk was a review of strong interactions of strange and antibaryon probes of the nucleus. The review is divided into 8 sections. These are (1) two body amplitudes, (2) quark/gluon versus meson exchange descriptions of strange particle interactions, (3) strange particles in nuclear physics, (4) Drell-Yan processes and structure functions in the nucleus, (5) using K/sup +/-nucleus elastic and total cross sections as a test of partial deconfinement, (6) nuclear physics with antinucleons, (7) antiproton induced reactions on nuclei, and (8) strangeness production in antiproton-nucleus annihilation.

  1. PREFACE: International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, Jens

    2011-09-01

    The International Nuclear Physics Conference 2010 (INPC 2010) was held from 4-9 July in Vancouver, Canada, hosted by TRIUMF, the Canadian National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics. The INPC is the main conference in the field of nuclear physics, endorsed and supported by IUPAP (International Union for Pure and Applied Physics) and held every three years. This year's conference was the 25th in the series and attracted over 750 delegates (150 graduate students) from 43 countries. The conference's hallmark is its breadth in nuclear physics; topics included structure, reactions, astrophysics, hadronic structure, hadrons in nuclei, hot and dense QCD, new accelerators and underground nuclear physics facilities, neutrinos and nuclei, and applications and interdisciplinary research. The conference started with a public lecture 'An Atom from Vancouver' by L Krauss (Arizona), who gave a broad perspective on how nuclear physics is key to a deeper understanding of how the Universe was formed and the birth, life, and death of stars. The conference opened its scientific plenary program with a talk by P Braun-Munzinger (GSI/EMMI Darmstadt) who highlighted the progress that has been made since the last conference in Tokyo 2007. The presentation showcased theoretical and experimental examples from around the world. All topics were well represented by plenary sessions and well attended afternoon parallel sessions where over 250 invited and contributed talks were presented, in addition to over 380 poster presentations. The poster sessions were among the liveliest, with high participation and animated discussions from graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. Many opportunities were found to connect to fellow nuclear physicists across the globe and, particularly for conferences like the INPC which span an entire field, many unexpected links exist, often leading to new discussions or collaborations. Among the scientific highlights were the presentations in the fields of

  2. Nuclear-physics applications of MYRRHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Lucia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK·CEN is currently working on the design of the MYRRHA research reactor, able to operate in both critical and sub-critical mode as an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS. When operated as an ADS, the MYRRHA reactor core will be coupled to an external neutron source, which is generated by a 600-MeV, 2- to 4-mA proton beam impinging on a lead-bismuth spallation target. By using a small fraction (up to 5% of the MYRRHA proton beam, intensities of 100-200 μA can be sent to a separate facility called ISOL@MYRRHA. Given the high proton energy, most isotopes known on the chart of nuclides can be produced. The production in the hot-target is followed by selective ionization and extraction of atoms in a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB. Following mass-purification, high-intensity RIBs will be delivered for a large variety of experimental programmes requiring long measurement times. By its experimental programme, the ISOL@MYRRHA facility will be complementary to running and planned Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL facilities in Europe and abroad.

  3. Supernovae, compact stars and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-08-25

    We briefly review the current understanding of supernova. We investigate the implications of rapid rotation corresponding to the frequency of the new pulsar reported in the supernovae remnant SN1987A. It places very stringent conditions on the equation of state if the star is assumed to be bound by gravity alone. We find that the central energy density of the star must be greater than 12 times that of nuclear density to be stable against the most optimistic estimate of general relativistic instabilities. This is too high for the matter to plausibly consist of individual hadrons. We conclude that the newly discovered pulsar, if its half-millisecond signals are attributable to rotation, cannot be a neutron star. We show that it can be a strange quark star, and that the entire family of strange stars can sustain high rotation under appropriate conditions. We discuss the conversion of a neutron star to strange star, the possible existence of a crust of heavy ions held in suspension by centrifugal and electric forces, the cooling and other features. 39 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwa, Rudolph C. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  5. Nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology (NPAC) capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The present document represents a summary self-assessment of the status of the Nuclear and Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (NPAC) capability across Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). For the purpose of this review, we have divided the capability into four theme areas: Nuclear Physics, Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology, and Applied Physics. For each theme area we have given a general but brief description of the activities under the area, a list of the Laboratory divisions involved in the work, connections to the goals and mission of the Laboratory, a brief description of progress over the last three years, our opinion of the overall status of the theme area, and challenges and issues.

  6. Physics with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE: nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, A.; Riisager, K.; Van Duppen, P.

    2017-04-01

    Nuclear-reaction studies have until now constituted a minor part of the physics program with post-accelerated beams at ISOLDE, mainly due to the maximum energy of REX-ISOLDE of around 3 MeV/u that limits reaction work to the mass region below A = 100. We give an overview of the current experimental status and of the physics results obtained so far. Finally, the improved conditions given by the HIE-ISOLDE upgrade are described.

  7. Nuclear data and reactor physics activities in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liem, P.H. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Tangerang (Indonesia). Center for Multipurpose Reactor

    1998-03-01

    The nuclear data and reactor physics activities in Indonesia, especially, in the National Atomic Energy Agency are presented. In the nuclear data field, the Agency is now taking the position of a user of the main nuclear data libraries such as JENDL and ENDF/B. These nuclear data libraries become the main sources for producing problem dependent cross section sets that are needed by cell calculation codes or transport codes for design, analysis and safety evaluation of research reactors. In the reactor physics field, besides utilising the existing core analysis codes obtained from bilateral and international co-operation, the Agency is putting much effort to self-develop Batan`s codes for reactor physics calculations, in particular, for research reactor and high temperature reactor design, analysis and fuel management. Under the collaboration with JAERI, Monte Carlo criticality calculations on the first criticality of RSG GAS (MPR-30) first core were done using JAERI continuous energy, vectorized Monte Carlo code, MVP, with JENDL-3.1 and JENDL-3.2 nuclear data libraries. The results were then compared with the experiment data collected during the commissioning phase. Monte Carlo calculations with both JENDL-3.1 and -3.2 libraries produced k{sub eff} values with excellent agreement with experiment data, however, systematically, JENDL-3.2 library showed slightly higher k{sub eff} values than JENDL-3.1 library. (author)

  8. PREFACE: XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (Varna2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina

    2014-09-01

    The present volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 16-22 September 2013 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. Financial support was also provided by the Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science. According to the long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year, 2013, we had the pleasure to welcome more than sixty distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, twenty young colleagues received the opportunity to present a short contribution. Ninety-four participants altogether enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The program of the School ranged from latest results in fundamental areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot issues of application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The main topics have been the following: Nuclear excitations at various energies. Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature. Structure and reactions far from stability. Symmetries and collective phenomena. Methods for lifetime measurements. Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure. Neutron nuclear physics. Nuclear data. Advanced methods in

  9. PREFACE: XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (VARNA 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Chavdar; Dimitrova, Sevdalina; Voronov, Victor

    2012-05-01

    This volume contains the lectures and short talks given at the XIX International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications. The School was held from 19-25 September 2011 in 'Club Hotel Bolero' located in the 'Golden Sands' (Zlatni Pyasaci) Resort Complex on the Black Sea coast, near Varna, Bulgaria. The School was organized by the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The co-organizer of the School was the Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency and the Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - Dubna. According to long-standing tradition the School has been held every second year since 1973. The School's program has been restructured according to our enlarged new international links and today it is more similar to an international conference than to a classical nuclear physics school. This new image attracts many young scientists and students from around the world. This year - 2011, we had the pleasure of welcoming more than 50 distinguished scientists as lecturers. Additionally, 14 young colleagues received the opportunity to each present a short contribution. The program ranged from recent achievements in areas such as nuclear structure and reactions to the hot topics of the application of nuclear methods, reactor physics and nuclear safety. The 94 participants enjoyed the scientific presentations and discussions as well as the relaxing atmosphere at the beach and during the pleasant evenings. The main topics were as follows: Nuclear excitations at various energies Nuclei at high angular moments and temperature Structure and reactions far from stability Symmetries and collective phenomena Methods for lifetime measurements Astrophysical aspects of nuclear structure Neutron nuclear physics Nuclear data Advanced methods in nuclear waste treatment Nuclear methods for applications Several colleagues helped with the organization of the School. We would like

  10. Networking for High Energy and Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harvey B.

    2007-07-01

    This report gives an overview of the status and outlook for the world's research networks and major international links used by the high energy physics and other scientific communities, network technology advances on which our community depends and in which we have an increasingly important role, and the problem of the Digital Divide, which is a primary focus of ICFA's Standing Committee on Inter-regional Connectivity (SCIC). Wide area networks of sufficient, and rapidly increasing end-to-end capability are vital for every phase of high energy physicists' work. Our bandwidth usage, and the typical capacity of the major national backbones and intercontinental links used by our field have progressed by a factor of more than 1000 over the past decade, and the outlook is for a similar increase over the next decade. This striking exponential growth trend, outstripping the growth rates in other areas of information technology, has continued in the past year, with many of the major national, continental and transoceanic networks supporting research and education progressing from a 10 Gigabits/sec (Gbps) backbone to multiple 10 Gbps links in their core. This is complemented by the use of point-to-point "light paths" to support the most demanding applications, including high energy physics, in a growing list of cases. As we approach the era of LHC physics, the growing need to access and transport Terabyte-scale and later 10 to 100 Terabyte datasets among more than 100 "Tier1" and "Tier2" centers at universities and laboratories spread throughout the world has brought the key role of networks, and the ongoing need for their development, sharply into focus. Bandwidth itself on an increasing scale is not enough. Realizing the scientific wealth of the LHC and our other major scientific programs depends crucially on our ability to use the bandwidth efficiently and reliably, with reliable high rates of data throughput, and effectively, where many parallel large-scale data

  11. Physical Mechanism of Nuclear Reactions at Low Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Oleinik, V P; Arepjev, Yu.D

    2002-01-01

    The physical mechanism of nuclear reactions at low energies caused by spatial extension of electron is considered. Nuclear reactions of this type represent intra-electronic processes, more precisely, the processes occurring inside the area of basic localization of electron. Distinctive characteristics of these processes are defined by interaction of the own field produced by electrically charged matter of electron with free nuclei. Heavy nucleus, appearing inside the area of basic localization of electron, is inevitably deformed because of interaction of protons with the adjoining layers of electronic cloud, which may cause nuclear fission. If there occur "inside" electron two or greater number of light nuclei, an attractive force appears between the nuclei which may result in the fusion of nuclei. The intra-electronic mechanism of nuclear reactions is of a universal character. For its realization it is necessary to have merely a sufficiently intensive stream of free electrons, i.e. heavy electric current, an...

  12. Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry to nuclear physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Z Y

    2002-01-01

    As an ultra high sensitive analyzing method, accelerator mass spectrometry is playing an important role in the studies of nuclear physics and astrophysics. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications in searching for violation of Pauli exclusion principle and study on supernovae are discussed as examples

  13. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, John G.; Ramirez, Maria G.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  14. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  15. NP2010: An Assessment and Outlook for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, James [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2014-05-22

    This grant provided partial support for the National Research Council’s (NRC) decadal survey of nuclear physics. This is part of NRC’s larger effort to assess and discuss the outlook for different fields in physics and astronomy, Physics 2010, which takes place approximately every ten years. A report has been prepared as a result of the study that is intended to inform those who are interested about the current status of research in this area and to help guide future developments of the field. A pdf version of the report is available for download, for free, at http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13438. Among the principal conclusions reached in the report are that the nuclear physics program in the United States has been especially well managed, principally through a recurring long-range planning process conducted by the community, and that current opportunities developed pursuant to that planning process should be exploited. In the section entitled “Building the Foundation for the Future,” the report notes that attention needs to be paid to certain elements that are essential to the continued vitality of the field. These include ensuring that education and research at universities remain a focus for funding and that a plan be developed to ensure that forefront-computing resources, including exascale capabilities when developed, be made available to nuclear science researchers. The report also notes that nimbleness is essential for the United States to remain competitive in a rapidly expanding international nuclear physics arena and that streamlined and flexible procedures should be developed for initiating and managing smaller-scale nuclear science projects.

  16. Basic study on behaviors of radioactive and toxic inorganic elements in environment, and environmental assessment for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Outline of the prize-winning study of the 12th Osaka Nuclear Science Corporation Prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujikawa, Yoko; Kudo, Akira [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.

    1999-01-01

    This study was made aiming to establish geological disposal technology for high-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power plant. A basic study for the technology was made using various radioactive materials containing Pu, U, Cs, Se, etc. as a tracer. First, adsorption mechanisms of various nuclides in ground water such as Cs, Co, Se, etc. onto rocks were investigated by indoor experiment. A certain correlation between the apparent adsorption rate of a nuclide onto rocks and diffusion coefficient into micropores in rocks was demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. To estimate the radionuclide migration during more than one thousand years based on the results from indoor experiments is difficult, so that construction of a mathematical model was attempted to make numerical simulation. Thus,it was suggested that the properties of underground barrier are considerably related to the adsorption rates of nuclides and also diffusion coefficients into micropores. In addition, the effects of soil microorganisms and organic compounds on the behaviors of radioactive nuclides in soil ecosphere were investigated by extra-low level analysis of long-life radioactivities. More than 10% of Pu derived from Atomic Bomb at Nagasaki were found to be strongly bound to organic compounds in soils, showing that the element is extremely reactive with organic substances. (M.N.)

  17. The ELI–NP facility for nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur, C.A., E-mail: calin.ur@eli-np.ro; Balabanski, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Gales, S.; Morjan, I.; Tesileanu, O.; Ursescu, D.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N.V.

    2015-07-15

    Extreme Light Infrastructure–Nuclear Physics (ELI–NP) is aiming to use extreme electromagnetic fields for nuclear physics research. The facility, currently under construction at Magurele–Bucharest, will comprise a high power laser system and a very brilliant gamma beam system. The technology involved in the construction of both systems is at the limits of the present-day’s technological capabilities. The high power laser system will consist of two 10 PW lasers and it will produce intensities of up to 10{sup 23}–10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. The gamma beam, produced via Compton backscattering of a laser beam on a relativistic electron beam, will be characterized by a narrow bandwidth (<0.5%) and tunable energy of up to almost 20 MeV. The research program of the facility covers a broad range of key topics in frontier fundamental physics and new nuclear physics. A particular attention is given to the development of innovative applications. In the present paper an overview of the project status and the overall performance characteristics of the main research equipment will be given. The main fundamental physics and applied research topics proposed to be studied at ELI–NP will also be briefly reviewed.

  18. 2nd Symposium on applied nuclear physics and innovative technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Symposium on Applied Nuclear Physics and Innovative Technologies will be held for the second time at Collegium Maius, the oldest building of the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, the same building where Nicolaus Copernicus has studied astronomy. Symposium is organized in the framework of the MPD programme carried out by the Foundation for Polish science based on the European Structural Funds. The aim of this conference is to gather together young scientists and experts in the field of applied and fundamental nuclear as well as particle physics. Aiming at interplay of fundamental and applied science the conference will be devoted to the following topics: * Medical imaging and radiotherapy * New materials and technologies in radiation detection * Fission, fusion and spallation processes * High-performance signal processing and data analysis * Tests of foundations of physics and search for a new kind of sub-atomic matter

  19. Uncertainty quantification in lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, Silas R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Savage, Martin J. [Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-02-05

    The numerical technique of Lattice QCD holds the promise of connecting the nuclear forces, nuclei, the spectrum and structure of hadrons, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions with the underlying theory of the strong interactions, quantum chromodynamics. A distinguishing, and thus far unique, feature of this formulation is that all of the associated uncertainties, both statistical and systematic can, in principle, be systematically reduced to any desired precision with sufficient computational and human resources. As a result, we review the sources of uncertainty inherent in Lattice QCD calculations for nuclear physics, and discuss how each is quantified in current efforts.

  20. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  1. Expo 70 - Osaka, Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1970-06-01

    Full Text Available The following pavillions at the Expo-70 in Osaka are outstanding. The West German Exhibit, with a structure reminiscent of an astronomical observatory. The U.R.R.S. Pavillion, which is 109 m high, and has a tubular support. The Motor Car Industry Display, which involves two units and a tent like roof. The Festival Palace, within the representative zone of the Exhibition, and houses the official ceremonies in honour of the participating nations. The Tashida IHI Pavillion, whose structure includes the use of 1,338 interconnected tetrapods. The Takara Group Display, which is an abstract concept, consisting of a large number of cube space forms. The firm Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd. has taken a very active part in the construction of 28 buildings, both Japanese and foreign.Destacan en la EXPO-70 los siguientes pabellones: el pabellón de la Alemania Occidental, con su estructura en forma de cúpula para observaciones astronómicas; el de la U.R.S.S., de 109 m de altura y estructura tubular; el de la Industria Automovilística, que consta de dos unidades y presenta una cubierta en forma de tienda de campaña; el palacio de Festivales, que forma parte de la zona representativa de la exposición; en él se desarrollan los actos dedicados a las naciones participantes; el pabellón Toshiba IHI, en cuya estructura se emplearon un total de 1.338 tetrápodos ensamblados; el pabellón del grupo Takara, diseñado con una concepción abstracta —a base de cubos—. La empresa «Takenaka Komuten, Co. Ltd.», ha intervenido eficazmente en la construcción de 28 pabellones, japoneses y extranjeros.

  2. Role of near threshold resonances in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Jain; N J Upadhyay

    2014-11-01

    The presence of a resonance close to the threshold strongly effects the dynamics of the interacting particles at low energies. Production of 12C, the element for life, in 4He burning in Sun is a classic example of such a situation. In intermediate energy nuclear physics, this situation arises in the interactions of an -meson with a nucleon and that of a −-meson with a proton at low energies, where both these systems have a resonance or a bound state near their thresholds, resulting in a strong attractive interaction. If putting these mesons in nuclear environment produces a strong attraction, it is possible that, in nature there may exist - and −-nuclear bound states. Such a tantalizing possibility has led to experimental and theoretical programmes to search for them. These efforts have produced positive results. This paper gives a brief critical overview of these studies, emphasizing especially the efforts led by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC).

  3. PREFACE: 12th Conference on ''Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2009-07-01

    These Proceedings contain the invited and contributed papers presented at the 12th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 8-10 October 2008. As usual, the meeting was held at il Palazzone, a 16th century castle owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennal conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of Nuclear Physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to promote collaborations between different groups. There were about 50 participants at the conference, coming from 14 Italian Universities (Cagliari, Catania, Ferrara, Firenze, Genova, Lecce, Milano, Napoli, Padova, Pavia, Pisa, Roma, Trento, Trieste). The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on six main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems, Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics, Nuclear Astrophysics, Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter, Nuclear Structure, Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes. Winfried Leidemann, Maria Colonna, Marcello Lissia, Elena Santopinto, Silvia Lenzi and Omar Benhar took the burden of giving general talks on these topics and reviewing the research activities of the various Italian groups. In addition, 19 contributed papers were presented, most of them by young participants. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Gianfranco Prete from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the Italian radioactive ion beam facility SPES and the status of the European project EURISOL, while Nicola Colonna from the INFN, Bari, gave an overview of the perspectives of development of fourth-generation nuclear reactors. We would like to thank the authors of the general reports for their hard work in reviewing the main achievements in

  4. The s Process: Nuclear Physics, Stellar Models, Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeppeler, Franz; Bisterzo, Sara; Aoki, Wako

    2010-01-01

    Nucleosynthesis in the s process takes place in the He burning layers of low mass AGB stars and during the He and C burning phases of massive stars. The s process contributes about half of the element abundances between Cu and Bi in solar system material. Depending on stellar mass and metallicity the resulting s-abundance patterns exhibit characteristic features, which provide comprehensive information for our understanding of the stellar life cycle and for the chemical evolution of galaxies. The rapidly growing body of detailed abundance observations, in particular for AGB and post-AGB stars, for objects in binary systems, and for the very faint metal-poor population represents exciting challenges and constraints for stellar model calculations. Based on updated and improved nuclear physics data for the s-process reaction network, current models are aiming at ab initio solution for the stellar physics related to convection and mixing processes. Progress in the intimately related areas of observations, nuclear...

  5. On the physical interpretation of the nuclear molecular orbital energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charry, Jorge; Pedraza-González, Laura; Reyes, Andrés

    2017-06-07

    Recently, several groups have extended and implemented molecular orbital (MO) schemes to simultaneously obtain wave functions for electrons and selected nuclei. Many of these schemes employ an extended Hartree-Fock approach as a first step to find approximate electron-nuclear wave functions and energies. Numerous studies conducted with these extended MO methodologies have explored various effects of quantum nuclei on physical and chemical properties. However, to the best of our knowledge no physical interpretation has been assigned to the nuclear molecular orbital energy (NMOE) resulting after solving extended Hartree-Fock equations. This study confirms that the NMOE is directly related to the molecular electrostatic potential at the position of the nucleus.

  6. Cashless system for La Spa Osaka; La Spa OSAKA muke cashless system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    It is a bother and inconvenience for a user of a hot spring, pool, athletic club, etc., to carry a purse with him. Accordingly, in drinking, eating, buying, and renting for example in the premises, the user finds it more convenient if cash payment is unnecessary. Fuji Electric Co.,Ltd. developed a cashless system for the users of such facilities and delivered to La Spa Osaka. The main features are as following: (1) With a non-contact ID tag applied to a wristband, no wearing or staining is caused in the equipment when it reads the ID data.(2) Without giving and receiving of cash, the management of cash is highly secured.(3) The data of accounts receivable and proceeds are unitarily controlled by the server, enabling efficiency of business operation. (translated by NEDO)

  7. Monte Carlo methods and applications in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, J.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods for studying few- and many-body quantum systems are introduced, with special emphasis given to their applications in nuclear physics. Variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods are presented in some detail. The status of calculations of light nuclei is reviewed, including discussions of the three-nucleon-interaction, charge and magnetic form factors, the coulomb sum rule, and studies of low-energy radiative transitions. 58 refs., 12 figs.

  8. The J-PARC project-strangeness nuclear physics programs

    CERN Document Server

    Nagae, T

    2005-01-01

    Since Japanese fiscal year JFY01, which started on April 1, 2001, the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) has been in construction under a cooperation of two institutions, KEK and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). After a short introduction of the whole project, I will report on the current status of the construction. Then, I describe the initial programs on strangeness nuclear physics at J-PARC, in detail.

  9. FEL development at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, N. A.

    1993-07-01

    There are three different FEL projects at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics: 1) the FEL on the VEPP-3 storage ring which operates in the visible and ultraviolet region; 2) the high power FEL using a racetrack microtron recuperator (this machine will provide an average power of about tens of kilowatt in the infrared region); and 3) the compact infrared FEL project, using a microton, and a powerful FEL on a dedicated superconducting storage ring, which is under consideration now.

  10. Research program in nuclear and solid state physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronach, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The spectra of prompt gamma rays emitted following nuclear pion absorption were studied to determine the states of excited daughter nuclei, and the branching ratios for these states. Studies discussed include the negative pion absorption of C-12, S-32, and N-14; and the positive pion absorption on 0-16. Abstracts of papers submitted to the conference of the American Physical Society are included.

  11. A simple digital delay for nuclear physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, J.G., E-mail: jmarques@ctn.ist.utl.pt [C2TN, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Cruz, C. [LATR, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2014-05-01

    A simple high precision digital delay for nuclear physics experiments was developed using fast ECL electronics. The circuit uses an oscillator synchronized with the signal to be delayed and a presettable counter. It is capable of delaying a negative NIM signal by 2 µs with a precision better than 50 ps. The circuit was developed for use in slow-fast coincidence units for Perturbed Angular Correlation spectrometers but it is not limited to this application.

  12. Group theory in particle, nuclear, and hadron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abbas, Syed Afsar

    2016-01-01

    This user-friendly book on group theory introduces topics in as simple a manner as possible and then gradually develops those topics into more advanced ones, eventually building up to the current state-of-the-art. By using simple examples from physics and mathematics, the advanced topics become logical extensions of ideas already introduced. In addition to being used as a textbook, this book would also be useful as a reference guide for graduates and researchers in particle, nuclear and hadron physics.

  13. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.

  14. Nuclear Physics Programs for the Future RIBs Facility in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moon Chang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    We present nuclear physics programs based on the planned experiments using rare isotope beams (RIBs) for the future Korean Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility(KRIA). This ambitious facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability for producing RIBs and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. Low energy RIBs at Elab = 5 to 20 MeV per nucleon are for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics toward and beyond the drip lines while higher energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with the reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The planned programs have goals for investigating internal structures of the exotic nuclei toward and beyond the nucleon drip lines by addressing the following issues: how the shell structure evolves in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; whether the isospin symmetry maintains in isobaric mirror nuclei at and beyond the drip lines; how two-proton radioactivity affects abundances of the elements;what the role of the continuum states including resonant states above proton-decay threshold in exotic nuclei is in astrophysical nuclear reaction processes, and how the nuclear reaction rates triggered by unbound proton-rich nuclei make an effect on rapid proton capture processes in a very hot stellar plasma.

  15. Nuclear Physics Division Institute of Experimental Physics Warsaw University annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Warsaw University in 1994 are described. The report consist of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (12 articles); (ii) Experimental Methods and Instrumentation (2 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers is also given. In the first, leading article of the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  16. Physical modeling of spent-nuclear-fuel container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new physical simulation model was developed to simulate the casting process of the ductile iron heavy section spent-nuclear-fuel container. In this physical simulation model, a heating unit with DR24 Fe-Cr-Al heating wires was used to compensate the heat loss across the non-natural surfaces of the sample, and a precise and reliable casting temperature controlling/monitoring system was employed to ensure the thermal behavior of the simulated casting to be similar to the actual casting. Also, a mould system was designed, in which changeable mould materials can be used for both the outside and inside moulds for different applications. The casting test was carried out with the designed mould and the cooling curves of central and edge points at different isothermal planes of the casting were obtained. Results show that for most isothermal planes, the temperature control system can keep the temperature differences within 6 ℃ between the edge points and the corresponding center points, indicating that this new physical simulation model has high simulation accuracy, and the mould developed can be used for optimization of casting parameters of spent-nuclear-fuel container, such as composition of ductile iron, the pouring temperature, the selection of mould material and design of cooling system. In addition, to maintain the spheroidalization of the ductile iron, the force-chilling should be used for the current physical simulation to ensure the solidification of casting in less than 2 h.

  17. A Reconfigurable Instrument System for Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ziru; Li, Feng; Jiang, Xiao; Jin, Ge

    2014-04-01

    We developed a reconfigurable nuclear instrument system (RNIS) that could satisfy the requirements of diverse nuclear and particle physics experiments, and the inertial confinement fusion diagnostic. Benefiting from the reconfigurable hardware structure and digital pulse processing technology, RNIS shakes off the restrictions of cumbersome crates and miscellaneous modules. It retains all the advantages of conventional nuclear instruments and is more flexible and portable. RNIS is primarily composed of a field programmable hardware board and relevant PC software. Separate analog channels are designed to provide different functions, such as amplifiers, ADC, fast discriminators and Schmitt discriminators for diverse experimental purposes. The high-performance field programmable gate array could complete high-precision time interval measurement, histogram accumulation, counting, and coincidence anticoincidence measurement. To illustrate the prospects of RNIS, a series of applications to the experiments are described in this paper. The first, for which RNIS was originally developed, involves nuclear energy spectrum measurement with a scintillation detector and photomultiplier. The second experiment applies RNIS to a G-M tube counting experiment, and in the third, it is applied to a quantum communication experiment through reconfiguration.

  18. An introduction to using the FORTRAN programs provided with Computational Nuclear Physics 1 Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytos, Matthew A.; Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The authors of this paper have provided a set of ready-to-run FORTRAN programs that should be useful in the field of theoretical nuclear physics. The purpose of this document is to provide a simple synopsis of the programs and their use. A separate section is devoted to each program set and includes: abstract; files; compiling, linking, and running; obtaining results; and a tutorial.

  19. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  20. Application of AdS/CFT in Nuclear Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Pahlavani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review some recent progress in studying the nuclear physics especially nucleon-nucleon (NN force within the gauge-gravity duality, in context of noncritical string theory. Our main focus is on the holographic QCD model based on the AdS6 background. We explain the noncritical holography model and obtain the vector-meson spectrum and pion decay constant. Also, we study the NN interaction in this frame and calculate the nucleonmeson coupling constants. A further topic covered is a toy model for calculating the light nuclei potential. In particular, we calculate the light nuclei binding energies and also excited energies of some available excited states. We compare our results with the results of other nuclear models and also with the experimental data. Moreover, we describe some other issues which are studied using the gauge-gravity duality.

  1. Precision Nuclear Beta Spectroscopy as a Probe for BSM Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprow, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The shape of nuclear beta decay spectra is sensitive to new physics such as scalar and tensor currents, and weak magnetism. By selecting an appropriate nuclear species, it is possible to disentangle these effects. 45Ca, which undergoes a predominantly Gamow-Teller transition with an end-point energy of 256 keV, is an excellent probe for tensor couplings. Recently, the 45Ca beta decay spectrum was measured in the Caltech/UCNA 4 π magnetic spectrometer instrumented with large, highly-pixelated Si detectors at the Los Alamos National Laboratory UCN facility. This detection system, in conjunction with an extremely thin foil source preparation, allows for a full reconstruction of events to build a precise spectrum. Preliminary results of the analysis of this data will be presented.

  2. Physics of nuclear reactors; La physique des reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marguet, S. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Risques Industriels de Bourges, 18 (France); Institut de Transfert de Technologie d' EDF, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2011-07-01

    This manual covers all the aspects of the science of neutron transport in nuclear reactors and can be used with great advantage by students, engineers or even reactor experts. It is composed of 18 chapters: 1) basis of nuclear physics, 2) the interactions of neutrons with matter, 3) the interactions of electromagnetic radiations and charged-particles with matter, 4) neutron slowing-down, 5) resonant absorption, 6) Doppler effect, 7) neutron thermalization, 8) Boltzmann equation, 9) calculation methods in neutron transport theory, 10) neutron scattering, 11) reactor reactivity, 12) theory of the critical homogenous pile, 13) the neutron reflector, 14) the heterogeneous reactor, 15) the equations of the fuel cycle, 16) neutron counter-reactions, 17) reactor kinetics, and 18) calculation methods in neutron scattering

  3. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  4. Total cross-section measurements progress in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Mulvey, J H

    2013-01-01

    Total Cross-Section Measurements discusses the cross-sectional dimensions of elementary hadron collisions. The main coverage of the book is the resonance and high energy area of the given collision. A section of the book explains in detail the characteristic of a resonance region. Another section is focused on the location of the high energy region of collision. Parts of the book define the meaning of resonance in nuclear physics. Also explained are the measurement of resonance and the identification of the area where the resonance originates. Different experimental methods to measure the tota

  5. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  6. International Conference-Session of the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of RAS

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    From November 17 to 21, 2014 the Section of Nuclear Physics of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI will hold in MEPhI, Moscow, the International Conference-Session of SNP PSD RAS "Physics of Fundamental Interactions". The program of the session covers basic theoretical and experimental aspects of particle physics and related problems of nuclear physics and cosmology, and will consist of 30-minute highlight and review talks as well as 10-15-minute contributed reports. All highlight talks and part of contributed reports will be presented at plenary sessions of the conference. The remaining reports will be presented at the sections which will be formed after receiving of abstracts. On the recommendation of the Organizing Committee reports and talks containing new unpublished results will be published in special issues of journals "Nuclear Physics" and "Nuclear Physics and Engineering". For the institutions belonging to the Rosatom s...

  7. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  8. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  9. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorita, T., E-mail: yorita@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  10. Applications of nuclear physics to interdisciplinary research and to industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey

    2000-04-01

    Techniques that have been developed to understand nuclear structure can be used for interdisciplinary research and to determine useful properties. Both microscopic and macroscopic techniques can be used. The introduction discusses the diversity of fields that can benefit from applying nuclear physics techniques. Three current areas of research are used as illustrations. The use of gamma-ray spectroscopy following thermal neutron capture to better understand the formation and evolution of planetary bodies. Such measurements can be performed from orbit, on landers or on rovers, but each type of measurement puts different constraints on the instrument design. Nuclear resonant reaction analysis has recently been used to better understand the chemical kinetics in the curing of cement. Elemental concentrations of hydrogen have been measured with a spatial resolution of a few nanometers at the grain surface and about 20 nanometers at a depth of about two microns as a function of time during the reaction. Finally, x-ray techniques are being developed to provide an x-ray fluorescence instrument that can be used safely and reliably at a crime scene for investigative purposes. Unique problems of applying laboratory techniques to random, human-occupied locations and the requirements for providing a technically viable analysis that will be accepted by our legal system will be discussed.

  11. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of Warsaw University in 1995 are described. The report consists of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (11 articles); (ii) Instrumentation and Experimental Methods (9 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers are also given. The first, leading article in the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  12. Nb3Sn SRF Cavities for Nuclear Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremeev, Grigory

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear physics experiments rely increasingly on accelerators, which employ superconducting RF (SRF) technology. CEBAF, SNS, FRIB, ESS, among others exploit the low surface resistance of SRF cavities to efficiently accelerate particle beams towards experimental targets. Niobium is the cavity material of choice for all current or planned SRF accelerators, but it has been long recognized that other superconductors with high superconducting transition temperatures have the potential to surpass niobium for SRF applications. Among the alternatives, Nb3Sn coated cavities are the most advanced on the path to practical applications: Nb3Sn coatings on R&D cavities have Tc consistently close the optimal 18 K, very low RF surface resistances, and very recently were shown to reach above Hc1 without anomalous RF surface resistance increase. In my talk I will discuss the prospects of Nb3Sn SRF cavities, the research efforts to realize Nb3Sn coatings on practical multi-cell accelerating structures, and the path toward possible inclusion in CEBAF. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  13. The physical protection in the nuclear power plants; La proteccion fisica en las instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Zorilla, A.; Lardiez, P.

    2008-07-01

    Although from the time it was born the nuclear industry has hard a substantial level of physical protection, it has been since the creation of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear when specific national rules and regulations have begun to be enacted and when a progressive strengthening of this class of protection has taken place in Spain. This is especially true of recent years, when terrorist attacks of major consequences and ecologist actions of a certain importance have caused major concern in both Regulatory Body and the Sector itself. This is no doubt that this course of action to improve protective measures is going to be a constant feature in both the operation of existing installations and in the design and operation of newly built plants. (Author)

  14. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  15. The 'atom-splitting' moment of synthetic biology: Nuclear physics and synthetic biology share common features

    OpenAIRE

    Valentine, Alex J; Kleinert, Aleysia; Verdier, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology and nuclear physics share many commonalities in terms of public perception and funding. Synthetic biologists could learn valuable lessons from the history of the atomic bomb and nuclear power.

  16. Aurel Sandulescu—a life dedicated to nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, R. J.

    2013-02-01

    I was surprised to receive an invitation letter from Andrei Dorobantu, whom I did not know, to give a talk about pairing excitations at the Predeal International School of 1978, which I accepted. This was the first time that I would visit Romania, and I knew very little about the research that was performed in the country. In my talk I was showing the role of the pairing mode in a rather popular theory at that time which was called Nuclear Field Theory. Suddenly I was interrupted in a rather brusque fashion by a man with an acute and loud voice, telling me that it has been shown by somebody that the Nuclear Field Theory does not converge. I was very upset by this interruption, particularly because he was right. I told him this and asked him to wait up at the end of my talk. During the coffee break the man came to me and presented himself. It was the first time I came into contact with the extraordinary person that is Aurel Sandulescu. During the coffee break we spoke about his research, especially in alpha decay. I was interested in this subject because just then I had started to perform calculations in relation to experiments carried out at my Institution in Stockholm, which at that time was called the Research Institute of Physics. We continued with our discussions during the whole duration of the School, often with his wife, Violeta, present. I became amazed by the extensive work he had done since the late 1950s on microscopic treatments of alpha decay. He had studied the decay of both normal and superfluid as well as spherical and deformed nuclei, all within the framework of the shell model or its BCS equivalent. I was very enthusiastic about this, since I was convinced that one should, in principle, be able to describe the decay process by using a shell model representation. I was disappointed to realize that he did not agree with me. I insisted that from a purely theoretical point of view the shell model was, rather more than a model, an excellent

  17. Technology assessment of PACS in Osaka University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, K; Satoh, K; Kondoh, H; Mori, Y; Kozuka, T

    1994-05-01

    This paper describes a methodology of PACS technology assessment and gives examples of the results of measurement of 24 items of PACS-related situations of image diagnosis systems in Osaka University Hospital before a PACS is installed. These data are to be compared with the data which will be measured after PACS is installed in the new Osaka University Hospital, in order to complete our technology assessment. We propose common variables, units, and conditions of measurement, in order to establish a standard method of data comparison between before and after PACS installation in hospitals at large. We designed our PACS taking technology assessment into account. We do not stop the technology assessment at the efficacy evaluation, because PACS must be more than a tool for radiological practice. We extend the technology assessment into the effectiveness evaluation, so that PACS is a part of radiological practice itself, and diagnostic accuracy, economy and efficiency are the results of PACS operation.

  18. Progress in high energy physics and nuclear safety : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Safe Nuclear Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Polański, Aleksander; Begun, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The book contains recent results on the progress in high-energy physics, accelerator, detection and nuclear technologies, as well as nuclear safety in high-energy experimentation and in nuclear industry, covered by leading experts in the field. The forthcoming experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and cosmic-ray experiments are highlighted. Most of the current high-energy experiments and their physical motivation are analyzed. Various nuclear energy safety aspects, including progress in the production of new radiation-resistant materials, new and safe nuclear reactor designs, such as the slowly-burning reactor, as well as the use of coal-nuclear symbiotic methods of energy production can be found in the book.

  19. Systems Thinking Safety Analysis: Nuclear Security Assessment of Physical Protection System in Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ho Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical assessment has been performed in the aspect of the nuclear power plants (NPPs security. The physical protection system (PPS is constructed by the cyber security evaluation tool (CSET for the nuclear security assessment. The systems thinking algorithm is used for the quantifications by the Vensim software package. There is a period of 60 years which is the life time of NPPs' operation. The maximum possibility happens as 3.59 in the 30th year. The minimum value is done as 1.26 in the 55th year. The difference is about 2.85 times. The results of the case with time delay have shown that the maximum possibility of terror or sabotage incident happens as 447.42 in the 58th year and the minimum value happens as 89.77 in the 51st year. The difference is about 4.98 times. Hence, if the sabotage happens, the worst case is that the intruder can attack the target of the nuclear material in about one and a half hours. The general NPPs are modeled in the study and controlled by the systematic procedures.

  20. Waveform simulation of predominant periods in Osaka basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Tsurugi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Predominant period of strong ground motions is an important parameter in earthquake engineering practice. Resonance at predominant period may result in collapse of building. Usually, predominant periods are associated with the soil resonances. However, considering that strong ground motions are composed from source, path and site effects, predominant periods are affected by source and propagation path too. From another side, 3D basin interferences may amplify quite different periods, depending on site location relatively to the basin edges and independently on the soil depth. Moreover, constructive or destructive interference of waves from different asperities of a large source may enhance or diminish amplitudes at a particular predominant period respectively. In this study, to demonstrate variations of predominant periods due to complicated effects above, we simulated wavefield snapshots and waveforms at a few representative sites of Osaka basin, Japan. Seismic source is located in Nankai trough, hosting anticipated M9 earthquake. 3D velocity structure is combined from JIVSM velocity structure (Koketsu et al., 2012) and Osaka basin structure of Iwaki and Iwata, 2011. 3D-FDM method is used to simulate waveforms. Simulation results confirm some previous results that due to elongated elliptical shape of Osaka basin, interference effects are strong and peak amplitudes has characteristic stripped pattern elongated in parallel to the long axis of basin. We demonstrate that predominant periods have similar pattern and value of predominant period may strongly depend on the location of site and azimuthal orientation of waveform component.

  1. Nuclear Physics Solutions to the Primordial Lithium Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams E.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primordial lithium problem is one of the major outstanding issues in the standard model of the Big Bang. Measurements of the baryon to photon ratio in the cosmic microwave background constrain model predictions, giving abundances of 7Li two to four times larger than observed via spectroscopic measurements of metal-poor stars. In an attempt to reconcile this discrepancy, significant effort has been directed at measuring reaction cross sections of light nuclei at astrophysically relevant energies. However, there remain reaction cross sections with large uncertainties, and some that have not yet been measured. Particularly relevant are those involving the destruction of 7Be, a progenitor of 7Li. Key issues that can be improved by nuclear physics input will be highlighted, and the applicability of detectors and event reconstruction techniques recently developed at the ANU will be discussed.

  2. Current Status of Imaging Physics and Instrumentation In Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Diagnostic and functional imaging device have been developed independently. The recognition that combining of these two devices can provide better diagnostic outcomes by fusing anatomical and functional images. The representative examples of combining devices would be PET/CT and SPECT/CT. Development and their applications of animal imaging and instrumentation have been very active, as new drug development with advanced imaging device has been increased. The development of advanced imaging device resulted in researching and developing for detector technology and imaging systems. It also contributed to develop a new software, reconstruction algorithm, correction methods for physical factors, image quantitation, computer simulation, kinetic modeling, dosimetry, and correction for motion artifacts. Recently, development of MRI and PET by combining them together was reported. True integration of MRI and PET has been making the progress and their results were reported. The recent status of imaging and instrumentation in nuclear medicine is reported in this paper.

  3. Handbook on interdisciplinary use of European nuclear physics facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This handbook is intended to collect together, in an accessible way, the most pertinent information which might be needed by anyone contemplating the use of nuclear physics accelerators for research in other disciplines, or for industrial, biomedical, solid-state or other applications. Information for the publication was supplied by each laboratory represented here, and this was edited and supplemented where it was thought necessary, by additional material, often derived from the facilities' web-sites. The reader will find for each facility a technical description concerning the accelerator itself and its experimental equipment, followed by a 'what can be made there' section. 'at a glance' page contains a summary of contact names and addresses, transport, access and accommodation offered that will be of a great use for prospective user. 26 facilities in 12 European countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands) are presented.

  4. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisenberger, Andrew G. [JLAB; Kross, Brian J. [JLAB; Lee, Seung Joo [JLAB; McKisson, John E. [JLAB; Xi, Wenze [JLAB; Zorn, Carl J. [JLAB; Howell, Calvin [DUKE; Crowell, A.S. [DUKE; Reid, C.D. [DUKE; Smith, Mark [MARYLAND U.

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  5. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  6. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J. C. [Cylotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College station, TX, 77843-3366 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    For 60 years, superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision ({+-}0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix ({+-}0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from {sup 10}C to {sup 74}Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, G{sub V}, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, V{sub ud}. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  7. Annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snover, K.; Fulton, B. [eds.

    1996-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has for over 40 years supported a broad program of experimental physics research. Some highlights of the research activities during the past year are given. Work continues at a rapid pace toward completion of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in January 1997. Following four years of planning and development, installation of the acrylic vessel began last July and is now 50% complete, with final completion scheduled for September. The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) has completed a successful {sup 51}Cr neutrino source experiment. The first data from {sup 8}B decay have been taken in the Mass-8 CVC/Second Class Current study. The analysis of the measured barrier distributions for Ca-induced fission of prolate {sup 192}Os and oblate {sup 194}Pt has been completed. In a collaboration with a group from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre they have shown that fission anisotropies at energies well above the barrier are not influenced by the mass asymmetry of the entrance channel relative to the Businaro-Gallone critical asymmetry. They also have preliminary evidence at higher bombarding energy that noncompound nucleus fission scales with the mean square angular momentum, in contrast to previous suggestions. The authors have measured proton and alpha particle emission spectra from the decay of A {approximately} 200 compound nuclei at excitation energies of 50--100 MeV, and used these measurements to infer the nuclear temperature. The investigations of multiparticle Bose-Einstein interferometry have led to a new algorithm for putting Bose-Einstein and Coulomb correlations of up to 6th order into Monte Carlo simulations of ultra-relativistic collision events, and to a new fast algorithm for extracting event temperatures.

  8. Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear War. Papers Based on a Symposium of the Forum on Physics and Society of the American Physical Society, (Washington, D.C., April 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philip; And Others

    Three papers on nuclear weapons and nuclear war, based on talks given by distinguished physicists during an American Physical Society-sponsored symposium, are provided in this booklet. They include "Caught Between Asymptotes" (Philip Morrison), "We are not Inferior to the Soviets" (Hans A. Bethe), and "MAD vs. NUTS" (Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky).…

  9. Study of underground structure of Osaka basin and seismic ground motions; Osaka bonchi no chika kozo chosa to Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru jishindo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, Y. [Geo-Research Institute, Osaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on the study of underground structure of Osaka Basin and seismic ground motions caused by the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake. Elastic wave investigations using reflections intended for deep structures were carried out in the Hyogo prefectural area and the Osaka bay area by an association of the Geological Survey Institute, Hyogo Prefectural Government, Kobe Municipality and Universities. Reflection investigations were conducted in the Osaka land areas using the east-west traverse line along Yamato River (by the Geological Survey Institute), the south-north traverse line along the Naniwa street in the city of Osaka, and the east-west traverse line at the south end of the Uemachi fault. In addition, investigations using shallow bed reflections were performed in the Osaka bay area by the Hydrographic Office. Results of the active fault investigations using the reflection method may not agree with positions of faults which are estimated topographically. An existing structure model of the Osaka basin (something like of a primary approximation) and the result of inverse analysis on epicenter faults in the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake were used as the base for calculating seismic motions in the Abeno area in Osaka City. The result agreed relatively well with observations if the calculation is intended for waves having cycles longer than about two seconds. 6 figs.

  10. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  11. Nuclear structure studies at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics using gamma detector arrays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Banerjee

    2001-07-01

    In-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy, carried out at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in the recent past, using heavy-ion projectiles from the pelletron accelerator centres in the country and multi-detector arrays have yielded significant data on the structure of a large number of nuclei spanning different mass regions. The experiments included the study of two-fold -coincidence events for establishing decay schemes, directional correlation of oriented nuclei (DCO) for help in spin assignments and Doppler shift attenuation for lifetime information. The studies have led to the observation of rotational sequences of states in nuclei near closed shell in the mass = 110 region, vibrational spectra in nuclei with ∼ 60, interplay between single-particle and collective modes of excitation in the doubly-odd bromine isotopes, decoupled bands with large quadrupole deformation in 77Br, shape transition with rotational frequency within a band in 138Pm and octupole collectivity in 153Eu. Particle-rotor-model and cranked-shell-model calculations have been carried out to provide an understanding of the underlying nuclear structure

  12. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Moshe [LNS at Avery Point, University of Connecticut, Groton, CT 06340-6097, USA and Wright Lab, Dept. of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8124 and the Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) of the Technical Design Report (TDR) (United States)

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  13. Nuclear physics at GANIL. A compilation 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bex, M.; Galin, J. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    Different aspects of heavy ion reactions have been investigated at GANIL. Recent results on nuclear fragmentation and nuclear reaction kinetics are presented. 67 items are indexed and abstracted separately for INIS database. (K.A.).

  14. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration "for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass". Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  15. Section for nuclear physics and energy physics. Annual report January 1 to December 31, 1998[Oslo Univ., Oslo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The SCANDITRONIX MC-35 cyclotron laboratory, including the Oslo Cyclotron, has been in operation since 1980. The main auxiliary equipment consists of the multi-detector system CACTUS. During the last years, new, high efficiency Ge(HP) detectors were purchased and integrated in the CACTUS detector array. In connection with that, the electronical setup was revised and altered. Several drawbacks of the old setup could be pointed out and eliminated. A test of the performance of all detector array elements was made with high accuracy. The total beamtime used for experiments in 1998 was 1051 hours. 52 days were used by the Nuclear Physics section, 70 days by the University of Oslo Nuclear Chemistry section and the Norwegian Cancer Hospital used the cyclotron for 12 days. 42 days were spent on maintenance. In experimental nuclear physics, the section members are engaged within three main fields of research: Nuclei at high temperature, high spin nuclear structure and high and intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  16. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  17. Keynote address: One hundred years of nuclear physics – Progress and prospects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kailas

    2014-04-01

    Nuclear physics research is growing on several fronts, along energy and intensity frontiers, with exotic projectiles and targets. The nuclear physics facilities under construction and those being planned for the future make the prospects for research in this field very bright.

  18. Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheller, J.-M.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SACM, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Vinyar, I. [PELIN Limited Liability Company 27 A, Gzhatskaya Str, office 103 St. Petersbourg 195220 (Russian Federation); Relland, J. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SIS, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Commeaux, C. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, campus Universitaire-Bat 103, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2014-01-29

    In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

  19. Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, J.-M.; Vinyar, I.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G.; Relland, J.; Commeaux, C.

    2014-01-01

    In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

  20. Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics. Progress report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, R.H.; Madsen, V.A.

    1992-12-31

    Work in nuclear structure and reaction theory, specifically, the relation of reactions to the nuclear structure. Other work was in intermediate energy physics, few-body problems, and computational physics that heavy ions can be used to measure simultaneously both neutron and proton multipole matrix elements of the target nucleus has added new interest to this area of nuclear structure. Considerable attention to the is therefore paid to the to the methods for calculating multiple matrix elements.

  1. Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry in 100 and 300 MeV quasi-mono-energetic neutron field at RCNP, Osaka University, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Vladimir; Trinkl, Sebastian; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Masuda, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Satoh, Daiki; Yashima, Hiroshi; Shima, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes the results of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry measurements using an extended range Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (ERBSS) with 3He proportional counter performed in quasi-mono-energetic neutron fields at the ring cyclotron facility of the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Japan. Using 100 MeV and 296 MeV proton beams, neutron fields with nominal peak energies of 96 MeV and 293 MeV were generated via 7Li(p,n)7Be reactions. Neutrons produced at 0° and 25° emission angles were extracted into the 100 m long time-of-flight (TOF) tunnel, and the energy spectra were measured at a distance of 35 m from the target. To deduce the corresponding neutron spectra from thermal to the nominal maximum energy, the ERBSS data were unfolded using the MSANDB unfolding code. At high energies, the neutron spectra were also measured by means of the TOF method using NE213 organic liquid scintillators. The results are discussed in terms of ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), and compared with the readings of other instruments operated during the experiment.

  2. The Brazilian Nuclear Program and the consequences for medical physics; O Programa Nuclear Brasileiro e a fisica medica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Odair Dias [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: odairdg@cnen.gov.br

    2009-10-15

    The use of radioactive materials or nuclear phenomena in medicine begun before the Second World War; since then, the knowledge about nuclear power has been through a huge development. Impelled by the development of nuclear power plants, the application of nuclear techniques and processes in medicine also had a similar progress, as the same happened in Brazil. On the other hand, the parallel evolution did not happen in developing ways to guarantee the safe and secure use of such knowledge, which grew in the energy field faster and earlier than in medicine. This paper attempts to make a brief analysis of the progress in both fields throughout time, emphasizing the Brazilian Nuclear Program and its consequences on the field of medical physics. (author)

  3. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  4. Nuclear Physics Science Network Requirements Workshop, May 2008 - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Ed., Brian L; Dart, Ed., Eli; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Ernest, Michael; Hitchcock, Daniel; Johnston, William; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Maguire, Charles; Olson, Douglas; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Watson, Chip; Vale, Carla

    2008-11-10

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States of America. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In May 2008, ESnet and the Nuclear Physics (NP) Program Office of the DOE Office of Science organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by the NP Program Office. Most of the key DOE sites for NP related work will require significant increases in network bandwidth in the 5 year time frame. This includes roughly 40 Gbps for BNL, and 20 Gbps for NERSC. Total transatlantic requirements are on the order of 40 Gbps, and transpacific requirements are on the order of 30 Gbps. Other key sites are Vanderbilt University and MIT, which will need on the order of 20 Gbps bandwidth to support data transfers for the CMS Heavy Ion program. In addition to bandwidth requirements, the workshop emphasized several points in regard to science process and collaboration. One key point is the heavy reliance on Grid tools and infrastructure (both PKI and tools such as GridFTP) by the NP community. The reliance on Grid software is expected to increase in the future. Therefore, continued development and support of Grid software is very important to the NP science community. Another key finding is that scientific productivity is greatly enhanced by easy researcher-local access to instrument data. This is driving the creation of distributed repositories for instrument data at collaborating institutions, along with a corresponding increase in demand for network-based data transfers and the tools

  5. First Krakow-Berlin workshop on nuclear physics. Slide report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styczen, J. [comp.] [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Maier, K.H. [comp.] [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1992-12-31

    In this workshop new experimental and theoretical results in nuclear spectroscopy are presented. For several nuclei new data: energy level schemes, electromagnetic transitions, quadrupole moments, and nuclear deformation parameters are presented. New nuclei excitation methods and the new detector for the OSIRIS spectrometer are also discussed.

  6. 64 International conference "NUCLEUS-2014" Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasnikov, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Тезисы 64 международной конференции «ЯДРО-2014» (Фундаментальные проблемы ядерной физики, атомной энергетики и ядерных технологий), БГУ, Минск, 1 – 4 июля 2014 года. The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonon and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spin and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, ...

  7. Nuclear planetology: understanding planetary mantle and crust formation in the light of nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Goetz

    2017-04-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram is one of the most important diagrams in astronomy. In a HR diagram, the luminosity of stars and/or stellar remnants (white dwarf stars, WD's), relative to the luminosity of the sun, is plotted versus their surface temperatures (Teff). The Earth shows a striking similarity in size (radius ≈ 6.371 km) and Teff of its outer core surface (Teff ≈ 3800 K at the core-mantle-boundary) with old WD's (radius ≈ 6.300 km) like WD0346+246 (Teff ≈ 3820 K after ≈ 12.7 Ga [1]), which plot in the HR diagram close to the low-mass extension of the stellar population or main sequence. In the light of nuclear planetology [2], Earth-like planets are regarded as old, down-cooled and differentiated black dwarfs (Fe-C BLD's) after massive decompression, the most important nuclear reactions involved being 56Fe(γ,α)52Cr (etc.), possibly responsible for extreme terrestrial glaciations events ("snowball" Earth), together with (γ,n), (γ,p) and fusion reactions like 12C(α,γ)16O. The latter reaction might have caused oxidation of the planet from inside out. Nuclear planetology is a new research field, tightly constrained by a coupled 187Re-232Th-238U systematics [3-5]. By means of nuclear/quantum physics and taking the theory of relativity into account, it aims at understanding the thermal and chemical evolution of Fe-C BLD's after gravitational contraction (e.g. Mercury) or Fermi-pressure controlled collapse (e.g. Earth) events after massive decompression, leading possibly to an r-process event, towards the end of their cooling period [2]. So far and based upon 187Re-232Th-238U nuclear geochronometry, the Fe-C BLD hypothesis can successfully explain the global terrestrial MORB 232Th/238U signature [5]. Thus, it may help to elucidate the DM (depleted mantle), EMI (enriched mantle 1), EMII (enriched mantle 2) or HIMU (high U/Pb) reservoirs [6], and the 187Os/188Os isotopic dichotomy in Archean magmatic rocks and sediments [7]. Here I present a

  8. Spatial genetic structure of Salvia japonica Thunb. population (Labiatae in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Osaka Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDARMONO

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvia japonica Thunb. (Japan: Aki-no-Tamurasou was a perennial herb, protandry insect-pollinated, and self-incompatible with water-flow dispersed seed. We used allozyme loci to know genetic structure of a S. japonica population. We examined spatial autocorrelation of individuals within five distance class with Moran`s I statistics. The area of observation was in plot 5x5 m2 in Botanical Garden of Osaka City University, Kisaichi, Katano, Osaka Prefecture. The 8 loci examined were polymorphic, namely Aat-1, Aat-2, Pgi, Mnr, Pgm-1, Pgm-2, Idh, and 6-Pgd. Low levels of genetic diversity were found for 29 individuals. Ninety-two percent cases for all of distance class were similar and only 8% (8 of 105 cases were significant differences. This result indicated that the spatial genetic distributions in all of distance classes were all similar and no spatial autocorrelation of genotypes. Only in distance class 2 had one significantly positive cases (0.15 in Pgm-1c, indicating that spatial genetic structure in the study population was weak at most. In the other word that spatial pattern of the individuals within S. japonica population was random. Overall of the result was indicating that genotype among individuals of S. japonica changed distantly and tended to isolation in distance by seed dispersed.

  9. Seismic reflection survey of the Uemachi fault in Osaka Prefecture; Osaka Uemachi danso no hanshaho danseiha tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshizawa, M.; Hirooka, S. [Nikko Exploration and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yokota, H.; Ito, S. [Hanshin Consultant Co., Osaka (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Aizawa, H.

    1997-05-27

    Reflection survey is conducted using three traverse lines in Sakai City for confirming the presence of a southward stretch of the Uemachi fault underground along the western periphery of the Uemachi terrace, Osaka, and for elucidating its connection to the Sakamoto fault distributed near Izumi. Another reflection survey is conducted in the bed of Kanzaki river, Osaka, for the confirmation of its connection to the Nembutsuji-zan fault in Senri hillock. It is estimated on the basis of boring data that there exists another flexural structure approximately 3km south of the flexural structure whose presence is confirmed by the Sakai second traverse line. Accordingly, possibilities are high that the southward stretch of the Uemachi fault connects to the Sakamoto fault. The confirmation by the Kanzaki river traverse line of the flexural structure again confirms the continuity between the Uemachi fault and Nembutsuji-zan fault. The above-said findings enable an inference that the three faults of Nembutsuji-zan, Uemachi, and Sakamoto constitute a chain of active faults. Furthermore, there exists an active fault to the south of the Sakamoto fault, which zigzags to the south on the right-hand side as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. Accordingly, the Uemachi fault system as a whole spans approximately 43km from the northern end of the Nembutsuji-zan fault as far as the south of the Kumeda pond. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  10. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  11. A recipe for EFT uncertainty quantification in nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnstahl, R. J.; Phillips, D. R.; Wesolowski, S.

    2015-03-01

    The application of effective field theory (EFT) methods to nuclear systems provides the opportunity to rigorously estimate the uncertainties originating in the nuclear Hamiltonian. Yet this is just one source of uncertainty in the observables predicted by calculations based on nuclear EFTs. We discuss the goals of uncertainty quantification in such calculations and outline a recipe to obtain statistically meaningful error bars for their predictions. We argue that the different sources of theory error can be accounted for within a Bayesian framework, as we illustrate using a toy model.

  12. TEI Piraeus students' knowledge on the beneficial applications of nuclear physics: Nuclear energy, radioactivity - consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Pilakouta, Mirofora

    2011-01-01

    The recent nuclear accident in Japan revealed the confusion and the inadequate knowledge of the citizens about the issues of nuclear energy, nuclear applications, radioactivity and their consequences In this work we present the first results of an ongoing study which aims to evaluate the knowledge and the views of Greek undergraduate students on the above issues. A web based survey was conducted and 131 students from TEI Piraeus answered a multiple choice questionnaire with questions of general interest on nuclear energy, nuclear applications, radioactivity and their consequences. The survey showed that students, like the general population, have a series of faulty views on general interest nuclear issues. Furthermore, the first results indicate that our educational system is not so effective as source of information on these issues in comparison to the media and internet

  13. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, Tetsuo; Serot, B.D.

    1991-12-03

    In the period covered by this report (April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992), work focused on six main areas: (1) Relativistic Theories of Nuclear Structure and Saturation, (2) Relativistic Descriptions of Proton-Nucleus and Electron-Nucleus Scattering, (3) Nonrelativistic Theory of Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions, (4) Relativistic Many-Body Theory at Finite Temperature and Density, (5) Neutrino Interactions in Dense Matter, (6) Quark Models of Nuclear and Quark Matter.

  14. Three-Dimensional Nuclear Chart--Understanding Nuclear Physics and Nucleosynthesis in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) nuclear charts were created using toy blocks, which represent the atomic masses per nucleon number and the total half-lives for each nucleus in the entire region of the nuclear mass. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Subsequently, these charts were used in outreach activities…

  15. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics]. Technical progress report, [October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities.

  16. Tom W. Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics Lecture: The limits of nuclear landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarewicz, Witold

    2012-03-01

    Understanding nuclei is a quantum many-body problem of incredible richness and diversity and studies of nuclei address some of the great challenges that are common throughout modern science. Nuclear structure research strives to build a unified and comprehensive microscopic framework in which bulk nuclear properties, nuclear excitations, and nuclear reactions can all be described. A new and exciting focus in this endeavor lies in the description of exotic and short-lived nuclei at the limits of proton-to-neutron asymmetry, mass, and angular momentum. In this talk, advances in the nuclear density functional theory will be reviewed in the context of the main scientific questions, experimental developments, and the advent of extreme-scale computing platforms.

  17. Mass Defect from Nuclear Physics to Mass Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourshahian, Soheil

    2017-09-01

    Mass defect is associated with the binding energy of the nucleus. It is a fundamental property of the nucleus and the principle behind nuclear energy. Mass defect has also entered into the mass spectrometry terminology with the availability of high resolution mass spectrometry and has found application in mass spectral analysis. In this application, isobaric masses are differentiated and identified by their mass defect. What is the relationship between nuclear mass defect and mass defect used in mass spectral analysis, and are they the same? [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Accelerating Ab Initio Nuclear Physics Calculations with GPUs

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Hugh; Maris, Pieter; Sosonkina, Masha; Vary, James; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Çatalyürek, Ümit; Saule, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes some applications of GPU acceleration in ab initio nuclear structure calculations. Specifically, we discuss GPU acceleration of the software package MFDn, a parallel nuclear structure eigensolver. We modify the matrix construction stage to run partly on the GPU. On the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, this produces a speedup of approximately 2.2x - 2.7x for the matrix construction stage and 1.2x - 1.4x for the entire run.

  19. Particle physics contribution to the elimination of nuclear waste

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    2000-01-01

    Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to eliminate nuclear waste efficiently. The Energy Amplifier (EA) proposed by C. Rubbia and his group is a subcritical system driven by a proton accelerator. It is particularly attractive for destroying, through fission, transuranic elements produced by present nuclear reactors. The EA could also transform efficiently and at minimal cost long-lived fission fragments using the concept of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) recently tested at CERN with the TARC experiment. The ARC concept can be extended to several other application domains (radioactive isotopes production for medicine and industry, neutron research applications, etc.).

  20. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formicola, Alba [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, INFN, L' Aquila (Italy); Corvisiero, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Genova (Italy); Gervino, Gianpiero [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed. (orig.)

  1. The nuclear physics of the hydrogen burning in the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Alba; Corvisiero, Pietro; Gervino, Gianpiero

    2016-04-01

    Underground nuclear astrophysics focuses its efforts towards a deeper knowledge of the nuclear reactions that rule stellar evolution processes and enable the synthesis of the elements of the periodic table. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory, the cross-sections of the key reactions of the hydrogen burning have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The main results obtained by the LUNA Collaboration are reviewed, and their contributions to the solution of the solar neutrino problem and to the age of the globular cluster are discussed.

  2. PREFACE: 11th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics: Shell Model and Nuclear Structure - achievements of the past two decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The 11th International Seminar on Nuclear Physics was held in Ischia from May 12 to May 16, 2014. This Seminar was dedicated to Aldo Covello, who has been the promoter of this series of meetings, which started in Sorrento in 1986 and continued with meetings held every two or three years in the Naples area. Aldo's idea was to offer to a group of researchers, actively working in selected fields of Nuclear Physics, the opportunity to confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. The choice for the period of the year, Spring, as well as the sites chosen reflected this intent. The first meeting was of a purely theoretical nature, but it was immediately clear that the scope of these conferences needed to be enlarged calling into play the experimental community. Then, starting from the second meeting, all the following ones have been characterized by fruitful discussion between theoretical and experimental researchers on current achievements and future developments of nuclear structure. This may be read, in fact, as one of the motivating factors for Aldo's election as Fellow of the American Physical Society in 2008 "... for his outstanding contributions to the international nuclear physics community by providing, for over two decades, a venue for theorists and experimentalists to share their latest ideas." The present meeting, organized by Aldo's former students and with the benefit of his suggestions, has maintained this tradition. The title "Shell model and nuclear structure: achievements of the past two decades" recalls that of the 2nd International Spring Seminar "Shell Model and Nuclear Structure: where do we stand?". The main aim of this 11th Seminar was, in fact, to discuss the changes of the past two decades on our view of nuclei in terms of shell structure as well as the perspectives of the shell model, which has been one of the key points in Aldo's research. This point is well accounted by the Opening Speech of Igal Talmi, one of the fathers of the

  3. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow, Poland

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Festival of Science "Theory-knowledge-experience...". Fest will be located on the traditional Main Square, which is visited by thousands of citizens and tourists. Institute of Nuclear Physics as usual participates in this annual event. Our visitors will learn the secrets of the CERN experiments on the Large Hadron Collider - ATLAS, LHCb, ALICE, CMS, find out more about the Higgs particles, antimatter quark-gluon plasma (beeing guided by our scientists and PhD students). One of the attractions will be ATLAS Control Room Virtual Visit. Visiting people will have an opportunity to see how ATLAS is controlled and operated to collect its exciting data and ask questions to scientists and engineers involved in LHC program at CERN. Institute of Nuclear Physics has prepared also several interactive demonstrations of Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Resonance, Hadron Therapy and Crystal Physics. The Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences carries out basic and applied research in physics, ...

  4. Perspectives for photonuclear research at the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipescu, D.; Balabanski, D.L.; Constantin, P.; Gales, S.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C.A.; Ursu, I.; Zamfir, N.V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Anzalone, A.; La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Belyshev, S.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation); Camera, F. [Departement of Physics, University of Milano, Milano (Italy); INFN section of Milano, Milano (Italy); Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki), Institute of Nuclear Research, Post Office Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Cuong, P.V. [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Centre of Nuclear Physics, Institute of Physics, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Mazzocchi, C. [University of Warsaw, Warszawa (Poland); Derya, V.; Zilges, A. [University of Cologne, Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cologne (Germany); Gai, M. [University of Connecticut, LNS at Avery Point, Connecticut, Groton (United States); Gheorghe, I. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for R and D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Nuclear Physics Department, Post Office Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ishkhanov, B.S. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, A.A.; Orlin, V.N.; Stopani, K.A.; Varlamov, V.V. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pietralla, N. [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Institut fur Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Sin, M. [University of Bucharest, Nuclear Physics Department, Post Office Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Utsunomiya, H. [Konan University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan); University of Tokyo, Center for Nuclear Study, Saitama (Japan); Weller, H.R. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, North Carolina, Durham (United States); Duke University, Department of Physics, North Carolina, Durham (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The perspectives for photonuclear experiments at the new Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility are discussed in view of the need to accumulate novel and more precise nuclear data. The parameters of the ELI-NP gamma beam system are presented. The emerging experimental program, which will be realized at ELI-NP, is presented. Examples of day-one experiments with the nuclear resonance fluorescence technique, photonuclear reaction measurements, photofission experiments and studies of nuclear collective excitation modes and competition between various decay channels are discussed. The advantages which ELI-NP provides for all these experiments compared to the existing facilities are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Report from IPNS research plan committee on particle and nuclear physics studies at JHF 50-GeV proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Enyo, H; Okada, Y

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the evaluations and suggestions of IPNS research programs for JHF 50-GeV proton synchrotron. The following subjects are described: the role of JHF for particle and nuclear physics, neutrino oscillation experiment, physics of rare decay K(+) and high intense muon sources, strangeness nuclear physics, experiments of hadron physics and antiproton science experiments. (J.P.N.)

  6. Overview of Nuclear Physics Data: Databases, Web Applications and Teaching Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The mission of the United States Nuclear Data Program (USNDP) is to provide current, accurate, and authoritative data for use in pure and applied areas of nuclear science and engineering. This is accomplished by compiling, evaluating, and disseminating extensive datasets. Our main products include the Evaluated Nuclear Structure File (ENSDF) containing information on nuclear structure and decay properties and the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) containing information on neutron-induced reactions. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), through the website www.nndc.bnl.gov, provides web-based retrieval systems for these and many other databases. In addition, the NNDC hosts several on-line physics tools, useful for calculating various quantities relating to basic nuclear physics. In this talk, I will first introduce the quantities which are evaluated and recommended in our databases. I will then outline the searching capabilities which allow one to quickly and efficiently retrieve data. Finally, I will demonstrate how the database searches and web applications can provide effective teaching tools concerning the structure of nuclei and how they interact. Work supported by the Office of Nuclear Physics, Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  7. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur, Călin A.; Filipescu, Dan; Gheorghe, Ioana; Iancu, Violeta; Suliman, Gabriel; Teşileanu, Ovidiu

    2016-01-01

    The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce intense, quasi-monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI-NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  8. Nuclear physics with advanced brilliant gamma beams at ELI–NP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ur Călin A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility is dedicated to nuclear physics studies with the use of extreme electromagnetic radiation. One of the main research system to be installed and operated in the facility is an outstanding high brilliance gamma beam system. The Gamma Beam System of ELI–NP will produce intense, quasi–monochromatic gamma beams via inverse Compton scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The gamma beams available at ELI–NP will allow for the performance of photo-nuclear reactions aiming to reveal the intimate structure of the atomic nucleus. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence, photo-fission, photo-disintegration reactions above the particle threshold will be used to study the dipole response of nuclei, the structure of the Pygmy resonances, nuclear processes relevant for astrophysics, production and study of exotic neutron–rich nuclei.

  9. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  10. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, J. S.

    2005-04-01

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975 . This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century. to Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson for their work on models of nuclear structure. This author would argue, however, that the 2004 prize was also for nuclear physics: to Gross, Politzer and Wilczek for "the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction".

  11. [Explicit and implicit attitudes toward standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect language use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takumi; Karasawa, Kaori

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the effects of language use on explicit and implicit attitudes. We employed the matched-guise technique to measure participants' impressions of standard-Japanese and Osaka-dialect speakers. Implicit attitudes were assessed by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The Osaka-dialect speaker was evaluated as warmer than the standard-Japanese speaker, suggesting that explicit attitudes toward the Osaka dialect have changed positively. On the other hand, the results for the impression of intelligence were consistent with the previous literature that the standard-Japanese speaker was seen as more intelligent than the Osaka-dialect speaker. Compared with explicit attitudes, the analyses of implicit attitudes revealed that participants showed a consistent implicit bias favoring standard-Japanese language use. The changing processes and relationships of explicit and implicit attitudes were discussed.

  12. The management for tuberculosis control in Greater London in comparison with that in Osaka City: lessons for improvement of TB control management in Osaka City urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkado, Akihiro; Williams, Gini; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu; Shimouchi, Akira; Simon, Carter

    2005-07-01

    The tuberculosis (TB) notification in Osaka City has been persistently high compared with other urban areas in Japan. Although the TB notification in Greater London has kept much lower level compared with that in Osaka City, it has been also persistently high compared with other urban areas in the UK. Nonetheless, the contexts of the two cities relating TB control programme as well as the epidemiological situation greatly vary; there must be some lessons to be learnt from each other to improve each TB control programme to tackle against TB more effectively. Comparing the epidemiological situation of TB in both cities, it is obvious that Osaka City suffers TB more than Greater London in terms of the TB notification rate. Concerning the context of the TB control programme, Osaka City has centralised approach with strong local government commitment; Greater London, on the other hand, has an approach that is greatly fragmented but coordinated through voluntary TB Networks. This paper aims to draw some constructive and practical lessons from Greater London TB control management for further improvement of Osaka City TB control management through literature review and interview to health professionals. TB epidemiology in Greater London shows distinct features in the extent of TB in new entrants and TB co-infected with HIV in comparison with those in Osaka City. TB epidemiology in Osaka City is to a great extent specifically related to homeless people whereas in Greater London, this relationship occurs to a lesser extent. Both areas have relatively high TB-notification rates compared with national figures, and they have "TB hot spots" where remarkably high TB-notification rates exist. TB control in Greater London is characterised with decentralised and devolved services to local government health authorities supplemented with co-ordinating bodies across sectors as well as across Greater London. Sector-wide TB Network as well as London TB Group (LTBG) and London TB Nurses

  13. Many Facets of Strangeness Nuclear Physics with Stored Antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Lorente, Alicia Sanchez; Rojo, Marta Martinez; Steinen, Marcell; Gerl, Jürgen; Kojouharova, Jasmina; Kojouharova, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Stored antiprotons beams in the GeV range represent a unparalleled factory for hyperon-antihyperon pairs. Their outstanding large production probability in antiproton collisions will open the floodgates for a series of new studies of strange hadronic systems with unprecedented precision. The behavior of hyperons and -- for the first time -- of antihyperons in nuclear systems can be studied under well controlled conditions. The exclusive production of $\\Lambda\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $\\Sigma^-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ pairs in antiproton-nucleus interactions probe the neutron and proton distribution in the nuclear periphery and will help to sample the neutron skin. For the first time, high resolution $\\gamma$-spectroscopy of doubly strange nuclei will be performed, thus complementing measurements of ground state decays of double hypernuclei with mesons beams at J-PARC or possible decays of particle unstable hypernuclei in heavy ion reactions. High resolution spectroscopy of multistrange $\\Xi$-atoms are feasible and even the pr...

  14. The Pontecorvo Affair A Cold War Defection and Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1950, newspapers around the world reported that the Italian-born nuclear physicist Bruno Pontecorvo and his family had mysteriously disappeared while returning to Britain from a holiday trip. Because Pontecorvo was known to be an expert working for the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment, this raised immediate concern for the safety of atomic secrets, especially when it became known in the following months that he had defected to the Soviet Union. Was Pontecorvo a spy? Did he know and pass sensitive information about the bomb to Soviet experts? At the time, nuclear scientist , security personnel, Western government officials, and journalists assessed the case, but their efforts were inconclusive and speculations quickly turned to silence. In the years since, some have downplayed Pontecorvo’s knowledge of atomic weaponry, while others have claimed him as part of a spy ring that infiltrated the Manhattan Project.

  15. JINA Workshop Nuclear Physics in Hot Dense Dynamic Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Cerjan, C; Landen, O; Libby, S; Chen, M; Wilson, B; Knauer, J; Mcnabb, D; Caggiano, J; Bleauel, D; Weideking, M; Kozhuharov, C; Brandau, C; Stoehlker, T; Meot, V; Gosselin, G; Morel, P; Schneider, D; Bernstein, L A

    2011-03-07

    Measuring NEET and NEEC is relevant for probing stellar cross-sections and testing atomic models in hot plasmas. Using NEEC and NEET we can excite nuclear levels in laboratory plasmas: (1) NIF: Measure effect of excited nuclear levels on (n,{gamma}) cross-sections, 60% and never been measured; (2) Omega, Test cross-sections for creating these excited levels via NEEC and NEET. Will allow us to test models that estimate resonance overlap of atomic states with the nucleus: (1) Average Atom model (AA) (CEA&LLNL), single average wave-function potential; (2) Super Transition Array (STA) model (LLNL), More realistic individual configuration potentials NEET experimental data is scarce and not in a plasma environment, NEEC has not yet been observed.

  16. Tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Myo, Takayuki; Ikeda, Kiyomi; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Suhara, Tadahiro

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to treat nuclear many-body systems using bare nucleon-nucleon interaction. It has become evident that the tensor interaction plays important role in nuclear many-body systems due to the role of the pion in strongly interacting system. We take the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) as a basic framework and add a tensor correlation operator acting on the AMD wave function using the concept of the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM). We demonstrate a systematical and straightforward formulation utilizing the Gaussian integration and differentiation method and the antisymmetrization technique to calculate all the matrix elements of the many-body Hamiltonian. We can include the three-body interaction naturally and calculate the matrix elements systematically in the progressive order of the tensor correlation operator. We call the new formalism "tensor-optimized antisymmetrized molecular dynamics".

  17. X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoranjan Sarkar

    2011-02-01

    This paper covers different aspects related to X-ray fluorescence activities at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, India. In its first part, experiments on basic physical problems are illustrated and in the second part, some applications related to X-ray fluorescence are discussed.

  18. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  19. Nuclear Level Mixing: From a Curiosity to Applications in Nuclear Physics, Solid State Physics and Gamma Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyens, Gerda [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica (Belgium)

    2001-07-15

    The history of 'Nuclear Level Mixing' is closely related to the research that Prof. Coussement performed during the last 25 years. In particular, the impact of this quantum mechanical concept on different research fields will be discussed. Without going in detail, we aim to give the reader an idea of how one single concept may lead to different discoveries.

  20. Progress in research, January 1, 1976--December 31, 1976. [Theoretical Nuclear Physics Group, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Texas at Austin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The accomplishments in basic research in nuclear physics carried out by the theoretical nuclear physics group of the Department of Physics of the University of Texas at Austin during the period January 1, 1976, to December 31, 1976, are described. Most of the work has already been published, or soon will be. 26 figures. (RWR)

  1. Particle and nuclear physics instrumentation and its broad connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarteau, M.; Lipton, R.; Nicholson, H.; Shipsey, I.

    2016-10-01

    Subatomic physics shares with other basic sciences the need to innovate, invent, and develop tools, techniques, and technologies to carry out its mission to explore the nature of matter, energy, space, and time. In some cases, entire detectors or technologies developed specifically for particle physics research have been adopted by other fields of research or in commercial applications. In most cases, however, the development of new devices and technologies by particle physics for its own research has added value to other fields of research or to applications beneficial to society by integrating them in the existing technologies. Thus, detector research and development has not only advanced the current state of technology for particle physics, but has often advanced research in other fields of science and has underpinned progress in numerous applications in medicine and national security. At the same time particle physics has profited immensely from developments in industry and applied them to great benefit for the use of particle physics detectors. This symbiotic relationship has seen strong mutual benefits with sometimes unexpected far reach.

  2. New frontiers in nuclear physics with high-power lasers and brilliant monochromatic gamma beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, S.; Balabanski, D. L.; Negoita, F.; Tesileanu, O.; Ur, C. A.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    The development of high power lasers and the combination of such novel devices with accelerator technology has enlarged the science reach of many research fields, in particular particle and nuclear physics, astrophysics as well as societal applications in material science, nuclear energy and applications for medicine. The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures has selected a proposal based on these new premises called the Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI). The ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for nuclear physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense low-energy gamma beam, a combination of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. This unique combination of beams that are unique worldwide allows us to develop an experimental program in nuclear physics at the frontiers of present-day knowledge as well as society driven applications. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility as well as the new perspectives in nuclear structure, nuclear reactions and nuclear astrophysics will be presented.

  3. Charged particle assisted nuclear reactions in solid state environment: renaissance of low energy nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    The features of electron assisted neutron exchange processes in crystalline solids are survayed. It is stated that, contrary to expectations, the cross section of these processes may reach an observable magnitude even in the very low energy case because of the extremely huge increment caused by the Coulomb factor of the electron assisted processes and by the effect of the crystal-lattice. The features of electron assisted heavy charged particle exchange processes, electron assisted nuclear capure processes and heavy charged particle assisted nuclear processes are also overviewed. Experimental observations, which may be related to our theoretical findings, are dealt with. The anomalous screening phenomenon is related to electron assisted neutron and proton exchange processes in crystalline solids. A possible explanation of observations by Fleischmann and Pons is presented. The possibility of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation is qualitatively explained with the aid of usual and charged particle assisted r...

  4. Physical Security Modeling for the Shipboard Nuclear Weapons Security Program,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    STATISTICS 3-11 NSWC TR 82-50 REFERENCES 3-1) Chapman, L.D., and Engi, D.,"Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (Snap)-Overview," NUREG /CR-0960, SAND79...34 NUREG /CR-0725, SAND79-0617, Sandia Laboratories, March 1979. 3-3) Grant III, F.H., Engi, D., and Chapman, L.D.,"User’s Guide for SNAP," NUREG /CR...34 Science Applications, Inc., SAI-78-995-LJ, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report NUREG /CR-0532, December 1978 4-5) McDaniel, T. and Huszar, L

  5. Research in theoretical nuclear and neutrino physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarcevic, Ina [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2014-06-14

    The main focus of the research supported by the nuclear theory grant DE-FG02-04ER41319 was on studying parton dynamics in high-energy heavy ion collisions, perturbative approach to charm production and its contribution to atmospheric neutrinos, application of AdS/CFT approach to QCD, neutrino signals of dark mattter annihilation in the Sun and on novel processes that take place in dense stellar medium and their role in stellar collapse, in particular the effect of new neutrino interactions on neutrino flavor conversion in Supernovae. We present final technical report on projects completed under the grant.

  6. La Rábida 2015 International Scientific Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Clara; Andrés, María; Pérez-Bernal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This volume covers invited papers presented during the La Rábida 2015 International Scientific Meeting on Nuclear Physics, which can be considered heir of a well known series of triennial international summer schools on Nuclear Physics organized from 1982 till 2003 by the Basic Nuclear Physics group in the University of Sevilla. The La Rábida 2015 meeting offered to graduate students and young researchers a broad view of the field of Nuclear Physics. The first invited speaker presented the state-of-the-art of Relativistic Mean Field calculations. The second set of notes covers selected topics in gamma ray spectroscopy with exotic nuclei. The third speaker presented an introduction to the subject of severe accidents in nuclear power plants. In the forth set of notes, the author illustrated how to use laser spectroscopy to determine very important observables of atomic nuclei. The fifth speaker devoted its notes to explain several aspects of neutrino physics. Finally, the sixth speaker presented an overview o...

  7. Research Progress of Nuclear Astrophysics Physics:Study of Key Scientific Problems in Nuclear Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Bing; LIU; Wei-ping; LI; Zhi-hong; WANG; You-bao; HE; Jian-jun; SHI; Jian-rong; TANG; Xiao-dong; YAN; Sheng-quan; SU; Jun; LI; Yun-ju; ZENG; Sheng; LIAN; Gang; BAI; Xi-xiang; CHEN; Yong-shou; PANG; Dan-yang; GU; Jian-zhong; HAN; Zhi-yu; LI; Xin-yue

    2015-01-01

    1 Summary A systematic study of the key scientific problems in nuclear synthesis has been conducted.Significant research achievements from several important subjects such as direct measurement of astrophysical reaction,observation of abundances of elements,studies on decay properties of nuclei and reaction rates of primordial nucleosynthesis have been made utilizing large scientific facilities from China

  8. Modernization of physical protection educational laboratories in the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraskin, N. I.; Krasnoborodko, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-proliferation of nuclear materials includes, in addition to accounting and control, the Physical Protection (PP) of one. The paper considers the experience by MEPhI in application the practical educational in the area of PP technical systems. The following aspects are discussed in the paper: specific features graduate program in nuclear security area; overview of the practical course curricula in the special laboratory.

  9. Beyond detection: nuclear physics with a webcam in an educational setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, A.; Barnes, P.

    2016-09-01

    Basic understanding of nuclear science enhances our daily-life experience in many areas, such as the environment, medicine, electric power generation, and even politics. Yet typical school curricula do not provide for experiments that explore the topic. We present a means by which educators can use the ubiquitous webcam and inexpensive sources of radiation to lead their students in a quantitative exploration of radioactivity, radiation, and the applications of nuclear physics.

  10. Nuclear Physics Meets the Sources of the Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncioli, Denise; Fedynitch, Anatoli; Winter, Walter

    2017-07-07

    The determination of the injection composition of cosmic ray nuclei within astrophysical sources requires sufficiently accurate descriptions of the source physics and the propagation - apart from controlling astrophysical uncertainties. We therefore study the implications of nuclear data and models for cosmic ray astrophysics, which involves the photo-disintegration of nuclei up to iron in astrophysical environments. We demonstrate that the impact of nuclear model uncertainties is potentially larger in environments with non-thermal radiation fields than in the cosmic microwave background. We also study the impact of nuclear models on the nuclear cascade in a gamma-ray burst radiation field, simulated at a level of complexity comparable to the most precise cosmic ray propagation code. We conclude with an isotope chart describing which information is in principle necessary to describe nuclear interactions in cosmic ray sources and propagation.

  11. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  12. Computational Nuclear Physics and Post Hartree-Fock Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Lietz, Justin; Jansen, Gustav R; Hagen, Gaute; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    We present a computational approach to infinite nuclear matter employing Hartree-Fock theory, many-body perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory. These lectures are closely linked with those of chapters 9, 10 and 11 and serve as input for the correlation functions employed in Monte Carlo calculations in chapter 9, the in-medium similarity renormalization group theory of dense fermionic systems of chapter 10 and the Green's function approach in chapter 11. We provide extensive code examples and benchmark calculations, allowing thereby an eventual reader to start writing her/his own codes. We start with an object-oriented serial code and end with discussions on strategies for porting the code to present and planned high-performance computing facilities.

  13. Review of Nuclear Physics Experiments for Space Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Miller, Jack; Adamczyk, Anne M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.; Guetersloh, Stephen B.; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human space flight requires protecting astronauts from the harmful effects of space radiation. The availability of measured nuclear cross section data needed for these studies is reviewed in the present paper. The energy range of interest for radiation protection is approximately 100 MeV/n to 10 GeV/n. The majority of data are for projectile fragmentation partial and total cross sections, including both charge changing and isotopic cross sections. The cross section data are organized into categories which include charge changing, elemental, isotopic for total, single and double differential with respect to momentum, energy and angle. Gaps in the data relevant to space radiation protection are discussed and recommendations for future experiments are made.

  14. Studies in High Energy Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gerald W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Markert, Christina [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This close-out report covers the period 1994 - 2015 for DOE grant DE-FG02-94ER40845 with the University of Texas at Austin. The research was concerned with studies of the strong nuclear force and properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density which far exceed that in atomic nuclei. Such extreme conditions are briefly created (for about 10 trillionths of a trillionth of a second) during head-on collisions of large atomic nuclei (e.g. gold) colliding at speeds very close to the speed-of-light. The collisions produce thousands of subatomic particles, many of which are detected in our experiment called STAR at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Lab in New York. The goal of our research is to learn how the strong nuclear force and its fundamental particles (quarks and gluons) behave in extreme conditions similar to that of the early Universe when it was about 1 micro-second old, and in the cores of very dense neutron stars. To learn anything new about the matter which exists for such a very short amount of time requires carefully designed probes. In our research we focused on two such probes, one being short-lived resonance particles and the other using correlations between pairs of the detected particles. Resonances are short-lived particles created in the collision, which interact with the surrounding matter, and which break apart, or "decay" into more stable particles which survive long enough to be seen in our detectors. The dependence of resonance properties on the conditions in the collision system permit tests of theoretical models and improve our understanding. Dynamical interactions in the matter also leave imprints on the final, outgoing particle distributions measured in the experiment. In particular, angular correlations between pairs of particles can be related to the fundamental strong force as it behaves in the hot, dense matter. Studying correlations as a function of experimentally controlled

  15. Nuclear and particle physics in the early universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.

    1981-01-01

    Basic principles and implications of Big Bang cosmology are reviewed, noting the physical evidence of a previous universe temperature of 10,000 K and theoretical arguments such as grand unification decoupling indicating a primal temperature of 10 to the 15th eV. The Planck time of 10 to the -43rd sec after the Big Bang is set as the limit before which gravity was quantized and nothing is known. Gauge theories of elementary particle physics are reviewed for successful predictions of similarity in weak and electromagnetic interactions and quantum chromodynamic predictions for strong interactions. The large number of photons in the universe relative to the baryons is considered and the grand unified theories are cited as showing the existence of baryon nonconservation as an explanation. Further attention is given to quark-hadron phase transition, the decoupling for the weak interaction and relic neutrinos, and Big Bang nucleosynthesis.

  16. A STUDY OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS PROCESSES AT MIDDLE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Sadovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the problem of new technology usage for the physics’ experiment in the quantum physics modeling. Currency of investigation consists in the need of physics experiment organization and realization in high energy physics with the consistent usage of activity method in middle education institutions. This kind of method considerably stirs up the process of model usage and modeling, abstracting, idealization and analogy. Idealized objects’ creation, elementary part transmutation, in particular, that does not exist in the objective reality, but possesses definite prototypes in the real world that help in their first approximation to the truth. The program Macromedia Flesh has been used in the article. This program has a range of advantages comparing to other possible software according to their possibilities and usage simplicity. The program uses all kinds of computer graph (raster, vectorial, which gives great opportunities for graphic objects’ creation, and prepared files take minimum of the constant memory. A part of developed experiments of the modeling character is given in the article. Demonstrations are done in dynamic rate.

  17. LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR PHYSICS NATIONAL HPC INITIATIVE: BUILDING A UNIVERSAL NUCLEAR ENERGY DENSITY FUNCTIONAL (UNEDF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgac, A

    2013-03-27

    This document is a summary of the physics research carried out by the University of Washington centered group. Attached are reports for the previous years as well as the full exit report of the entire UNEDF collaboration.

  18. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  19. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Only 1% of the 18,000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use /sup 99m/Tc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20,000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a...

  20. r-Java 2.0: the nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kostka, M; Shand, Z; Ouyed, R; Jaikumar, P

    2014-01-01

    [Aims:] We present r-Java 2.0, a nucleosynthesis code for open use that performs r-process calculations as well as a suite of other analysis tools. [Methods:] Equipped with a straightforward graphical user interface, r-Java 2.0 is capable of; simulating nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE), calculating r-process abundances for a wide range of input parameters and astrophysical environments, computing the mass fragmentation from neutron-induced fission as well as the study of individual nucleosynthesis processes. [Results:] In this paper we discuss enhancements made to this version of r-Java, paramount of which is the ability to solve the full reaction network. The sophisticated fission methodology incorporated into r-Java 2.0 which includes three fission channels (beta-delayed, neutron-induced and spontaneous fission) as well as computation of the mass fragmentation is compared to the upper limit on mass fission approximation. The effects of including beta-delayed neutron emission on r-process yield is studi...

  1. Mixed-Symmetry Shell-Model Calculations in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gueorguiev, V G

    2010-01-01

    We consider a novel approach to the nuclear shell model. The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in a box is used to introduce the concept of an oblique-basis shell-model theory. By implementing the Lanczos method for diagonalization of large matrices, and the Cholesky algorithm for solving generalized eigenvalue problems, the method is applied to nuclei. The mixed-symmetry basis combines traditional spherical shell-model states with SU(3) collective configurations. We test the validity of this mixed-symmetry scheme on 24Mg and 44Ti. Results for 24Mg, obtained using the Wilthental USD intersection in a space that spans less than 10% of the full-space, reproduce the binding energy within 2% as well as an accurate reproduction of the low-energy spectrum and the structure of the states - 90% overlap with the exact eigenstates. In contrast, for an m-scheme calculation, one needs about 60% of the full space to obtain compatible results. Calculations for 44Ti support the mixed-mode scheme although the pure SU(3) ca...

  2. Database design for Physical Access Control System for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathishkumar, T., E-mail: satishkumart@igcar.gov.in; Rao, G. Prabhakara, E-mail: prg@igcar.gov.in; Arumugam, P., E-mail: aarmu@igcar.gov.in

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Database design needs to be optimized and highly efficient for real time operation. • It requires a many-to-many mapping between Employee table and Doors table. • This mapping typically contain thousands of records and redundant data. • Proposed novel database design reduces the redundancy and provides abstraction. • This design is incorporated with the access control system developed in-house. - Abstract: A (Radio Frequency IDentification) RFID cum Biometric based two level Access Control System (ACS) was designed and developed for providing access to vital areas of nuclear facilities. The system has got both hardware [Access controller] and software components [server application, the database and the web client software]. The database design proposed, enables grouping of the employees based on the hierarchy of the organization and the grouping of the doors based on Access Zones (AZ). This design also illustrates the mapping between the Employee Groups (EG) and AZ. By following this approach in database design, a higher level view can be presented to the system administrator abstracting the inner details of the individual entities and doors. This paper describes the novel approach carried out in designing the database of the ACS.

  3. Geological structure of Osaka basin and characteristic distributions of structural damage caused by earthquake; Osaka bonchi kozo to shingai tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, K.; Shiono, K.; Inoue, N.; Senda, S. [Osaka City University, Osaka (JP. Faculty of Science); Ryoki, K. [Osaka Polytechnic Collage, Osaka (Japan); Shichi, R. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1996-05-01

    The paper investigates relations between the damage caused by the Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake and the deep underground structures. A characteristic of the earthquake damage distribution is that the damage concentrated near faults. Most of the damages were seen on the side of faults` relatively falling rather than right above the faults and of their slightly slanting to the seaside. Distribution like this seems to be closely related to underground structures. Therefore, a distribution map of the depth of basement granite in Osaka sedimentary basin was drawn, referring to the data on basement rock depth obtained from the distribution map of gravity anomaly and the result of the survey using the air gun reflection method. Moreover, cubic underground structures were determined by 3-D gravity analysis. The result was concluded as follows: when observing the M7 zone of the low land, in particular, where the damage was great from an aspect of gravity anomaly, the basement rock below the zone declined near the cliff toward the sea, which indicates a great possibility of its being a fault. There is a high possibility that the zone suffered mostly from the damage caused by focusing by refraction and total reflection of seismic wave rays. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  4. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  5. Multilayer Scintillation Detector for Nuclear Physics Monitoring of Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrin, Sergey; Mayorov, Andrey; Koldashov, Sergey; Batischev, Alexey; Lapushkin, Sergey; Gurov, Yury

    The physical characteristics of the multilayer scintillation spectrometer for identification and energy measurement of cosmic electrons, positrons and nuclei are considered in this presentation. The nuclei energy measurement range is 3-100 MeV/nucleon. This spectrometer is planning for space weather monitoring and investigation of solar-magnetospheric and geophysics effects on satellite. These characteristics were estimated by means of computer simulation. The ionization loss fluctuations, ion charge exchange during pass through detector and, especially, scintillation quenching effect (Bircs effect) were taken into account in calculations. The main results are: 1.) Ions mass identification is possible for hydrogen and helium isotopes 2.) Ions charge identification without mass identification is possible for nuclei from lithium to oxygen The preliminary estimation indicate, that including to spectrometer of thin semiconductor detector (SCD) as first layer makes possible charge identification for Z>8. This may be done by means of comparison of ion range in spectrometer with its energy loss in SCD.

  6. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  7. Nuclear physics applications in diagnostics and cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2005-04-01

    Only 1% of the 18'000 world accelerators are devoted to the production of radioisotopes for medical diagnostics. In fact at present about 85% of all the medical examinations use 99mTc produced in nuclear reactors. But the development of Positron Emission Tomography and of its combination with Computer Tomography will boost the hospital use of cyclotrons. Much more general is the use of electron linacs in cancer therapy about 40% of the world accelerators are used for this so called "conventional" radiotherapy. In the developed countries every 10 million inhabitants about 20'000 oncological patients are irradiated every year with high-energy photons (called X-rays by radiotherapists) produced by electron linacs. Much less used is "hadrontherapy", the radiotherapy technique that employs protons, neutrons or carbon ions. Protons and ions are 'heavy' charged particles: they assure a more 'conformal' treatment than X-rays and thus spare better the surrounding healthy tissues allowing a larger dose and thus a larger control rate. By now about 40'000 patients have been treated worldwide with protons and 15 hospital based centres are either running or under construction. The frontier of radiotherapy is now the use of beams of carbon ions having energies up to 400 MeV/u. They deliver the dose as precisely as protons and have a larger biological effectiveness than X-rays and protons so to be particularly suited to treat radio resistant tumours, as proven by the very encouraging results obtained on about 2'000 patients in HIMAC (Chiba, Japan) and on about 250 patients at GSI (Darmstadt). A second Japanese centre is running in Hyogo and two Centres are under construction in Europe: one in Heidelberg (Germany) and the other in Pave (Italy). The Italian Centre, designed by TERA, is based on the optimised medical synchrotron designed in the framework of the 'Proton Ion Medical Machine Study' (PIMMS) carried out at CERN from 1996 to 1999. In fall 2004 the MedAustron project has

  8. Quantifying statistical uncertainties in ab initio nuclear physics using Lagrange multipliers

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, B D

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical predictions need quantified uncertainties for a meaningful comparison to experimental results. This is an idea which presently permeates the field of theoretical nuclear physics. In light of the recent progress in estimating theoretical uncertainties in ab initio nuclear physics, we here present and compare methods for evaluating the statistical part of the uncertainties. A special focus is put on the (for the field) novel method of Lagrange multipliers (LM). Uncertainties from the fit of the nuclear interaction to experimental data are propagated to a few observables in light-mass nuclei to highlight any differences between the presented methods. The main conclusion is that the LM method is more robust, while covariance based methods are less demanding in their evaluation.

  9. Enrico Fermi and the Physics and Engineering of a nuclear pile: the retrieval of novel documents

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, S

    2008-01-01

    We give a detailed account of the recent retrieval of a consistent amount (about 600 pages) of documents written by Enrico Fermi and/or his collaborators, coming from different sources previously unexplored. These documents include articles, patents, reports, notes on scientific and technical meetings and other papers, mainly testifying Fermi's activity in the 1940s about nuclear pile physics and engineering. All of them have been carefully described, pointing out the relevance of the given papers for their scientific or even historical content. From the analysis of these papers, a number of important scientific and technical points comes out, putting a truly new light on the Fermi's (and others') scientific activity about nuclear piles and their applications. Quite unexpectedly intriguing historical remarks, such as those regarding the relationships between U.S. and Britain, just after the end of the war, about nuclear power for pacific and/or military use, or even regarding long term physics research and po...

  10. The hottest superfluid and superconductor in the Universe: Discovery and nuclear physics implications

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Wynn C G; Espinoza, Cristobal M; Glampedakis, Kostas; Haskell, Brynmor; Heinke, Craig O

    2013-01-01

    We present recent work on using astronomical observations of neutron stars to reveal unique insights into nuclear matter that cannot be obtained from laboratories on Earth. First, we discuss our measurement of the rapid cooling of the youngest neutron star in the Galaxy; this provides the first direct evidence for superfluidity and superconductivity in the supra-nuclear core of neutron stars. We show that observations of thermonuclear X-ray bursts on neutron stars can be used to constrain properties of neutron superfluidity and neutrino emission. We describe the implications of rapid neutron star rotation rates on aspects of nuclear and superfluid physics. Finally, we show that entrainment coupling between the neutron superfluid and the nuclear lattice leads to a less mobile crust superfluid; this result puts into question the conventional picture of pulsar glitches as being solely due to the crust superfluid and suggests that the core superfluid also participates.

  11. Joliot-Curie School of Nuclear Physics, 1997; Ecole Joliot-Curie de Physique Nucleaire, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abgrall, Y. [L`Institut National de Physique Nucleaire et de Physique des Particules du CNRS (India2P3), 75 - Paris (France); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the lectures of the Joliot-Curie International School of Nuclear Physics held at Maubuisson, France on 8-13 September 1997. The following lectures of nuclear interest were given: The N-body problem (relativistic and non-relativistic approaches); The shell model (towards a unified of the nuclear structure); Pairing correlations in extreme conditions; Collective excitations in nuclei; Exotic nuclei (production, properties and specificities); Exotic nuclei (halos); Super and hyper deformation (from discrete to continuum, from EUROGAM to EUROBALL); and The spectroscopy of fission fragments. Important new facts are reported and discussed theoretically, concerning the nuclei in high excitation and high states and of the nuclei far off stability. Important technical achievements are reported among which the production of radioactive beams, sophisticated multi-detectors as well as significant advances in the nuclear theoretical methods. The double goal of training of young researchers and of permanent formation and information of the older ones seems to have been reached

  12. Physical protection of nuclear facilities. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, L.D. (ed.)

    1977-07-01

    The physical protection of nuclear facilities program consists of four major areas--evaluation methodology development, path generation/selection methodology, facility characterization, and component functional performance characterization. Activities in each of these areas for the second quarter of FY 77 are summarized.

  13. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lansberg J.P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  14. Students' Assessment of Interactive Distance Experimentation in Nuclear Reactor Physics Laboratory Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Araidah, Omar

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory experiments develop students' skills in dealing with laboratory instruments and physical processes with the objective of reinforcing the understanding of the investigated subject. In nuclear engineering, where research reactors play a vital role in the practical education of students, the high cost and long construction time of research…

  15. UCTM: A User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Derome, L

    2011-01-01

    A configurable trigger scaler and delay NIM module has been designed to equip nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes. It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. The design, performances and typical applications are presented.

  16. The Thrill of Discovery: Nuclear Physics Research in the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Khalili, J.S. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-18

    To many people outside our field, both scientists and the general public, nuclear physics is no longer regarded as being at the forefront of scientific endeavour. Indeed it is often met with outright hostility. Other physicists will point out that the last time a Nobel Prize was awarded in the field was in 1975. This paper, based on a lecture delivered during an Open Plenary Session of the recent International Nuclear Physics Conference INPC2004, which was aimed at a non-specialist audience, will seek to dispel this myth. Nuclear physics is currently enjoying a period of rapid advances. Many new discoveries have been made in the past few years, from neutron halos and nuclear molecules to a new form of radioactive decay via two protons; from hints of a new particle consisting of five quarks to new 'superheavy' elements. This talk will give a personal perspective on why, far from looking with envy at our neighbours in areas of physics that currently enjoy a higher media profile, we have more than enough to keep us busy and excited in the 21st century.

  17. AFTER@LHC: a precision machine to study the interface between particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P; Brodsky, S J; Chambert, V; Didelez, J P; Genolini, B; Ferreiro, E G; Fleuret, F; Hadjidakis, C; Lorce, C; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Rosier, P; Schienbein, I; Scomparin, E; Uggerhoj, U I

    2014-01-01

    We outline the opportunities to study with high precision the interface between nuclear and particle physics, which are offered by a next generation and multi-purpose fixed-target experiment exploiting the proton and ion LHC beams extracted by a bent crystal.

  18. 3rd International Conference on High-energy Physics and Nuclear Structure

    CERN Document Server

    High energy physics and nuclear structure

    1970-01-01

    In preparing the program for this Conference, the third in the series, it soon became evident that it was not possible to in­ clude in a conference of reasonable duration all the topics that might be subsumed under the broad title, "High Energy Physics and Nuclear Structure. " From their initiation, in 1963, it has been as much the aim of these Conferences to provide some bridges between the steadily separating domains of particle and nuclear physics, as to explore thoroughly the borderline territory between the two -­ the sort of no-man's-land that lies unclaimed, or claimed by both sides. The past few years have witnessed the rapid development of many new routes connecting the two major areas of 'elementary par­ ticles' and 'nuclear structure', and these now spread over a great expanse of physics, logically perhaps including the whole of both subjects. (As recently as 1954, an International Conference on 'Nuclear and Meson Physics' did, in fact, embrace both fields!) Since it is not now possibl...

  19. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  20. Measuring Radon in Air, Soil and Water: An Introduction to Nuclear Physics for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Nilsson, Ch.; Wachtmeister, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the radon measurement activities at Stockholm House of Science, nuclear and experimental physics is introduced in a way that attracts the attention and interest of the students. These projects give the students the opportunity to use mobile detectors, either in their school, in the House of Science or in their homes. During 2006, 34 radon…

  1. Nuclear physics experiments with in-beam fast-timing and plunger techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotty, C.

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear lifetime and g factor are crucial observables in nuclear physics, as they give access to the excited states nuclear wave functions using the well-known electromagnetic transition operators. Thus, they are benchmarks to validate or discard nuclear structure theories. During the last decades, the evolution of the nuclear instruments and methods gave birth to several techniques used to measure lifetimes and moments. Among them, the in-beam Fast Electronic Scintillation Timing (FEST) technique is used to measure lifetimes of nuclear states in the picosecond to nanosecond range. Plunger devices originally developed to perform lifetime measurements of excited states in the picosecond range using the Recoil Distance Doppler Shift (RDDS) are now also employed to measure g factor using the new Time-Differential Recoil-In-Vacuum (TDRIV) technique. Recently commissioned, the ROmanian array for SPectroscopy in HEavy ion REactions (ROSPHERE) is dedicated to perform γ-ray spectroscopy, specially suited for lifetime measurements using the RDDS and in-beam fast-timing techniques at the 9 MV Bucharest-Tandem accelerator facility of the Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH). An introduction of above-mentioned techniques is provided and selected results are illustrating them with physics cases. The in-beam fast-timing and RDDS techniques are described using lifetime measurements respectively in 67Cu and 120Te measured at the 9 MV Bucharest-Tandem accelerator. Finally, the precise g factor measurement of the first-excited state in 24Mg using by the new TDRIV technique at the ALTO-Tandem Orsay facility is presented.

  2. UCLA Intermediate Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Research: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M.K. [Principal Investigator, ed.; Goetz, J; Lapik, A; Korolija, M; Prakhov, S; Starostin, A [ed.

    2011-05-18

    the "neutron skin" of {sup 208}Pb, which is of great interest to astroparticle physics for determining the properties of neutron stars. Processes of study are coherent and noncoherent 0 photoproduction. The Crystal Ball is uniquely suited for these studies because of the large acceptance, good direction and energy resolution and it is an inclusive detector for the {pi}{sup 0} final state and exclusive for background such as 2 {pi}{sup 0}.

  3. Current status and prospects of nuclear physics research based on tracking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. A.; Alexandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavskiy, M. M.; Goncharova, L. A.; Gorbunov, S. A.; Kalinina, G. V.; Konovalova, N. S.; Okatyeva, N. M.; Pavlova, T. A.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymirov, M. S.; Volkov, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of nuclear physics research made using track detectors are briefly reviewed. Advantages and prospects of the track detection technique in particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and other fields are discussed on the example of the results of the search for direct origination of tau neutrino in a muon neutrino beam within the framework of the international experiment OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) and works on search for superheavy nuclei in nature on base of their tracks in meteoritic olivine crystals. The spectra of superheavy elements in galactic cosmic rays are presented. Prospects of using the track detection technique in fundamental and applied research are reported.

  4. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; D'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  5. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-09-20

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications.

  6. A physical zero-knowledge object-comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sébastien; Goldston, Robert J.; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention, especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. Such a technique could form the basis of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information. More broadly, by demonstrating a physical zero-knowledge proof that can compare physical properties of objects, this experiment opens the door to developing other such secure proof-systems for other applications. PMID:27649477

  7. Analytic study for physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho, E-mail: thw@snu.ac.kr

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The physical protection system (PPS) is investigated. • General NPPs are modeled in the study. • Possible terror cases, likelihood, and consequence are studied. • PPS is constructed by analytical methods. - Abstract: The nuclear safeguard is analyzed in the aspect of the physical protection system (PPS) in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The PPS is reviewed and its related terror scenarios are investigated. The PPS is developed using analytical methods. In the terror scenarios, there are 8 possible cases for the terror attacks to the NPPs. Then, the likelihood of terror is classified by the general terror incidents. The consequence of terror is classified by Design Basis Threat (DBT) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) scale. The physical protection method is suggested by defense-in-depth constraints and severe accident countermeasures. Finally, the advanced PPS is constructed, which could be used for the preparation for the possible terror attacks in the NPPs.

  8. Experimental studies of keV energy neutron-induced reactions relevant to astrophysics and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, T.; Kii, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Okazaki, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Baba, T.; Nagai, Y. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Igashira, M.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear reactions induced by keV energy neutrons provide a plenty of informations for studies of both astrophysics and nuclear physics. In this paper we will show our experimental studies of neutron- induced reactions of light nuclei in the keV energy region by means of a pulsed keV neutron beam and high-sensitivity detectors. Also we will discuss astrophysical and nuclear-physical consequences by using the obtained results. (author)

  9. WE-D-213-00: Preparing for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medicine Physics Exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  10. Report of the Community Review of EIC Accelerator R&D for the Office of Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-02-13

    The Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) recommended in the 2015 Long Range Plan (LRP) for Nuclear Science that the proposed Electron Ion Collider (EIC) be the highest priority for new construction. This report noted that, at that time, two independent designs for such a facility had evolved in the United States, each of which proposed using infrastructure already available in the U.S. nuclear science community.

  11. Tests of Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors for active target time projection chambers in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pancin, J., E-mail: pancin@ganil.fr [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Damoy, S.; Perez Loureiro, D. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Chambert, V.; Dorangeville, F. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Druillole, F. [CEA, DSM/Irfu/SEDI, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Grinyer, G.F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Lermitage, A.; Maroni, A.; Noël, G. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Porte, C.; Roger, T. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France); Rosier, P. [IPNO, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Suen, L. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd H. Becquerel, Caen (France)

    2014-01-21

    Active target detection systems, where the gas used as the detection medium is also a target for nuclear reactions, have been used for a wide variety of nuclear physics applications since the eighties. Improvements in Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs) and in micro-electronics achieved in the last decade permit the development of a new generation of active targets with higher granularity pad planes that allow spatial and time information to be determined with unprecedented accuracy. A novel active target and time projection chamber (ACTAR TPC), that will be used to study reactions and decays of exotic nuclei at facilities such as SPIRAL2, is presently under development and will be based on MPGD technology. Several MPGDs (Micromegas and Thick GEM) coupled to a 2×2 mm{sup 2} pixelated pad plane have been tested and their performances have been determined with different gases over a wide range of pressures. Of particular interest for nuclear physics experiments are the angular and energy resolutions. The angular resolution has been determined to be better than 1° FWHM for short traces of about 4 cm in length and the energy resolution deduced from the particle range was found to be better than 5% for 5.5 MeV α particles. These performances have been compared to Geant4 simulations. These experimental results validate the use of these detectors for several applications in nuclear physics.

  12. Nuclear physics with laser-electron-photons. Developments and perspectives at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1998-03-01

    By the Compton scattering with ultraviolet laser beam using the 8 GeV electron beam of the SPring-8, the photon beam which is polarized by nearly 100% is obtained in 1-3.5 GeV region. The quark nuclear physics research at this facility is unique in the world, and it is expected that in the experiment at the SPring-8, the collision phenomena of polarized, high energy gamma-ray and the quarks in nucleons and the knockout phenomena of quarks are observed. Also the polarization experiment for clarifying ``the origin of nucleon spin`` has been proposed. Japan can stand at the top in the world in the research of quark nuclear physics with leptons. In the inverse Compton scattering using far infrared laser, the gamma-ray with good directionality of MeV range is obtained, and it will be applied widely to the research on E1 resonance and M1 excitation of atomic nuclei. In this report, the medium energy quark nuclear physics developed at the SPring-8 is outlined, and the nuclear physics which is expected to be developed when the high intensity, high polarization gamma-ray of about 10 MeV is generated is discussed. The detection of s, anti-s components in nucleons, research on baryon deformation and baryon spectra, verification of the Gerasimov, Drell-Hearn law of sum, meson structure, test of quark model by the photolysis of deuterons, dual Ginzburg Landau theory exploration, research on the mass and behavior of mesons in nuclear media are discussed. (K.I.)

  13. Nuclear physics with laser-electron-photons. Developments and perspectives at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Mamoru [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1998-03-01

    By the Compton scattering with ultraviolet laser beam using the 8 GeV electron beam of the SPring-8, the photon beam which is polarized by nearly 100% is obtained in 1-3.5 GeV region. The quark nuclear physics research at this facility is unique in the world, and it is expected that in the experiment at the SPring-8, the collision phenomena of polarized, high energy gamma-ray and the quarks in nucleons and the knockout phenomena of quarks are observed. Also the polarization experiment for clarifying ``the origin of nucleon spin`` has been proposed. Japan can stand at the top in the world in the research of quark nuclear physics with leptons. In the inverse Compton scattering using far infrared laser, the gamma-ray with good directionality of MeV range is obtained, and it will be applied widely to the research on E1 resonance and M1 excitation of atomic nuclei. In this report, the medium energy quark nuclear physics developed at the SPring-8 is outlined, and the nuclear physics which is expected to be developed when the high intensity, high polarization gamma-ray of about 10 MeV is generated is discussed. The detection of s, anti-s components in nucleons, research on baryon deformation and baryon spectra, verification of the Gerasimov, Drell-Hearn law of sum, meson structure, test of quark model by the photolysis of deuterons, dual Ginzburg Landau theory exploration, research on the mass and behavior of mesons in nuclear media are discussed. (K.I.)

  14. Can visco-elastic phase separation, macromolecular crowding and colloidal physics explain nuclear organisation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iborra Francisco J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell nucleus is highly compartmentalized with well-defined domains, it is not well understood how this nuclear order is maintained. Many scientists are fascinated by the different set of structures observed in the nucleus to attribute functions to them. In order to distinguish functional compartments from non-functional aggregates, I believe is important to investigate the biophysical nature of nuclear organisation. Results The various nuclear compartments can be divided broadly as chromatin or protein and/or RNA based, and they have very different dynamic properties. The chromatin compartment displays a slow, constrained diffusional motion. On the other hand, the protein/RNA compartment is very dynamic. Physical systems with dynamical asymmetry go to viscoelastic phase separation. This phase separation phenomenon leads to the formation of a long-lived interaction network of slow components (chromatin scattered within domains rich in fast components (protein/RNA. Moreover, the nucleus is packed with macromolecules in the order of 300 mg/ml. This high concentration of macromolecules produces volume exclusion effects that enhance attractive interactions between macromolecules, known as macromolecular crowding, which favours the formation of compartments. In this paper I hypothesise that nuclear compartmentalization can be explained by viscoelastic phase separation of the dynamically different nuclear components, in combination with macromolecular crowding and the properties of colloidal particles. Conclusion I demonstrate that nuclear structure can satisfy the predictions of this hypothesis. I discuss the functional implications of this phenomenon.

  15. Symposium on Highlights from 14 years of LEAR Physics : "Nuclear Physics" by T. von Egidy

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    Symposium on Highlights from 145 years of LEAR Physics hold at CERN, commemorating the closure of LEAR and giving a topical review of the impact of experiments with low energy antiprotons in their respective fields

  16. University of Colorado, Nuclear Physics Laboratory technical progress report, November 1, 1978-October 31, 1979. Report NPL-845. [Nuclear Physics Lab. , Univ. of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report summarizes work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado from November 1, 1978 to October 31, 1979, under contract EY-76-C-02-0535.A003 between the University of Colorado and the United States Department of Energy. Experimental studies of light ion-induced reactions were performed with the AVF cyclotron, which continues each year to produce beams of yet higher quality. Charged-particle studies continued to emphasize use of the high-resolution spectrometer system, but some return to broad-range spectroscopic studies using solid state detectors also occurred. Neutron time-of-flight experiments used 9-meter and 30-meter flight paths. Neutron-gamma ray coincidence studies developed into a new and promising field. The new PDP 11/34 data acquisition system was of great value in allowing such multiparameter experiments. Smaller programs in nuclear astrophysics, plasma diagnostic development, and medical physics were also undertaken. Research activities based at other accelerators grew. Studies of future directions for light-ion accelerators, including work on intense pulsed ion sources, orbit dynamics, and storage rings, were greatly enlarged. 19 of the articles in this report were abstracted and indexed individually. Lists of publications and personnel conclude this report. (RWR)

  17. Can nuclear physics explain the anomaly observed in the internal pair creation in Beryllium-8 nucleus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xilin; Miller, Gerald A.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the experimentalists in [Phys.Rev.Lett.116.042501(2016)] claimed seeing unexpected enhancement of the internal electron-positron pair (e+-e-) production in the large e+-e- relative angle region in the EM transition from the Beryllium-8 nucleus's second lowest 1+ state to its ground state. According to the experimentalists, the signal can be explained by a new neutral boson weighted around 17 MeV. This has stipulated significant interests in the particle physics community [e.g. Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 071803 (2016)]. In this talk, I will present our latest study of the underlying nuclear physics, and emphasize several pieces of physics that haven't been well studied theoretically and not been included in the current experimental analysis, including the interferences between the dominant E1 and M1 transitions, two extra angular dependences, possible impact of E2 transition and its interferences with E1 and M1, and nuclear form factor. I will also point out that the previously measured on-shell photon production constrains the ratio between E1 and M1 contributions in the pair production, which however haven't been checked in the current experimental analysis. In the end, I will discuss the possibility of nuclear physics being the origin of the observed anomaly. The work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-97ER-41014.

  18. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  19. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  20. Nuclear physics teaching for Japanese teachers from a Hungarian physics teacher with love and respect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, Eszter [Lauder School and RAD Lauder Laboratory, Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    I intend to give belief to science teachers living in an efficient society where entrance examinations and evening schools, making money and art of advertisement seems to be the emperor of the children's mind. If a nation does not want to import creative people from abroad, it will change the education any way. The changes should come from genuine teachers who work on the field, who meet the young people day by day. Nuclear literacy is only an example to show how we can catch the attention of the open minded young people. The teachers who love their students will find further possibilities. (author)

  1. Nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, U.; Reviol, W. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kaczarowski, R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Several groups from the University of Notre Dame are playing an important role in developing the research program at ATLAS. One of their main interests is the study, in collaboration with ANL staff members, of the behavior of nuclei at high spin in the transitional region near A=180 (i.e. the Hg-Pt-Os nuclei), and A=100 (i.e. the Ru-Tc nuclei) with emphasis on shape coexistence and configuration mixing. This group has also participated in many other experiments performed with the BGO gamma-ray facility, especially in the investigation of superdeformation. The {gamma}-ray groups at ANL and Notre Dame have also had collaborative experiments at Gammasphere. The Notre Dame group has built, tested and extensively used a state-of-the-art plunger device for lifetime measurements in conjunction with the ATLAS {gamma}-ray facility. An adapted version of this device is now under construction at Notre Dame, under contract with ANL, for use at the Gammasphere facility.

  2. Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics 2003 Relativistic Heavy Ion Parallel Session Summary

    CERN Document Server

    Nagle, J L

    2003-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) came online in 2000, and the last three years have provided a wealth of new experimental data and theoretical work in this new energy frontier for nuclear physics. The transition from quarks and gluons bound into hadrons to a deconfined quark-gluon plasma is expected to occur at these energies, and the effort to understand the time evolution of these complex systems has been significantly advanced. The heavy ion parallel session talks from the Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics (CIPANP) 2003 are posted at: http://www.phenix.bnl.gov/WWW/publish/nagle/CIPANP/. We provide a brief summary of these sessions here.

  3. A Transferrable Belief Model Representation for Physical Security of Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gerts

    2010-07-01

    This work analyzed various probabilistic methods such as classic statistics, Bayesian inference, possibilistic theory, and Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions for the potential insight offered into the physical security of nuclear materials as well as more broad application to nuclear non-proliferation automated decision making theory. A review of the fundamental heuristic and basic limitations of each of these methods suggested that the Dempster-Shafer theory of belief functions may offer significant capability. Further examination of the various interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, such as random set, generalized Bayesian, and upper/lower probability demonstrate some limitations. Compared to the other heuristics, the transferrable belief model (TBM), one of the leading interpretations of Dempster-Shafer theory, can improve the automated detection of the violation of physical security using sensors and human judgment. The improvement is shown to give a significant heuristic advantage over other probabilistic options by demonstrating significant successes for several classic gedanken experiments.

  4. A 12-bit multichannel ADC for pixel detectors in particle physics and nuclear imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors in nuclear and particle physics experiments and also in nuclear imaging,starve for highly integrated application specified integrated circuit(ASIC),whereas in China the study of ASIC still stays far away from practical application.The lack of ASIC strictly limits the research and development of domestic high energy physics field.A 12-bit multichannel ADC designed for high density readout is introduced as a major candidate for solution.A precise model is discussed and the simulation fully agrees with the model,which indicates a key principle of design.Design is performed according to the given rule,and novel layout techniques are carried out.Measurement results in all aspects are also obtained,showing an excellent real performance,which satisfies the practical requirement.

  5. NPTool: a simulation and analysis framework for low-energy nuclear physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, A.; Morfouace, P.; de Séréville, N.; Flavigny, F.; Labiche, M.; Shearman, R.

    2016-08-01

    The Nuclear Physics Tool (NPTool) is an open source data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation framework that has been developed for low-energy nuclear physics experiments with an emphasis on radioactive beam experiments. The NPTool offers a unified framework for designing, preparing and analyzing complex experiments employing multiple detectors, each of which may comprise some hundreds of channels. The framework has been successfully used for the analysis and simulation of experiments at facilities including GANIL, RIKEN, ALTO and TRIUMF, using both stable and radioactive beams. This paper details the NPTool philosophy together with an overview of the workflow. The framework has been benchmarked through the comparison of simulated and experimental data for a variety of detectors used in charged particle and gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  6. Manufacturing of calcium, lithium and molybdenum targets for use in nuclear physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheswa, N.Y., E-mail: kheswa@tlabs.ac.z [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129, Western Cape (South Africa); Papka, P.; Buthelezi, E.Z.; Lieder, R.M.; Neveling, R.; Newman, R.T. [iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Science, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2010-02-11

    This paper describes methods used in the manufacturing of chemically reactive targets such as calcium ({sup nat}Ca), lithium-6 ({sup 6}Li) and molybdenum-97 ({sup 97}Mo) for nuclear physics experiments at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility (Faure, South Africa). Due to the chemical properties of these materials a suitable and controlled environment was established in order to minimize oxygen contamination of targets. Calcium was prepared by means of vacuum evaporation while lithium was cold rolled to a desired thickness. In the case of molybdenum, the metallic powder was melted under vacuum using an e-gun followed by cold rolling of the metal bead to a desired thickness. In addition, latest developments toward the establishment of a dedicated nuclear physics target laboratory are discussed.

  7. MADNESS applied to density functional theory in chemistry and nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fann, G I [Computational Mathematics Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Harrison, R J [Computational Chemical Sciences Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 and Department of Chemistry, University of Tennessee at Knoxville (United States); Beylkin, G [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 526 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0526 (United States); Jia, J [Computational Mathematics Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Hartman-Baker, R [Computational Mathematics Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Shelton, W A [Computational Chemical Sciences Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Sugiki, S [Computational Chemical Sciences Group, Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    We describe some recent mathematical results in constructing computational methods that lead to the development of fast and accurate multiresolution numerical methods for solving quantum chemistry and nuclear physics problems based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Using low separation rank representations of functions and operators in conjunction with representations in multiwavelet bases, we developed a multiscale solution method for integral and differential equations and integral transforms. The Poisson equation, the Schrodinger equation, and the projector on the divergence free functions provide important examples with a wide range of applications in computational chemistry, nuclear physics, computational electromagnetic and fluid dynamics. We have implemented this approach along with adaptive representations of operators and functions in the multiwavelet basis and low separation rank (LSR) approximation of operators and functions. These methods have been realized and implemented in a software package called Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Evaluation for Scientific Simulation (MADNESS)

  8. A physical zero-knowledge object comparison system for nuclear warhead verification

    CERN Document Server

    Philippe, Sébastien; Glaser, Alexander; d'Errico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Zero-knowledge proofs are mathematical cryptographic methods to demonstrate the validity of a claim while providing no further information beyond the claim itself. The possibility of using such proofs to process classified and other sensitive physical data has attracted attention especially in the field of nuclear arms control. Here we demonstrate a non-electronic fast neutron differential radiography technique using superheated emulsion detectors that can confirm that two objects are identical without revealing their geometry or composition. In addition to the use of such a technique as part of a verification system that could confirm the authenticity of nuclear weapons without sharing any secret design information, we provide definitive evidence that measuring sensitive data is not required to perform comparisons of physical properties.

  9. The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.

    2003-09-01

    The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis is aimed at explaining the production of the stable neutron-deficient nuclides heavier than iron that are observed up to now in the solar system exclusively. Various scenarios have been proposed to account for the bulk p-nuclide content of the solar system, as well as for deviations (`anomalies') with respect to the bulk p-isotope composition of some elements discovered in primitive meteorites. The astrophysics of these models is reviewed, and the involved nuclear physics is discussed, including a brief account of recent experimental efforts. Already published results are complemented with new ones. A specific attention is paid to the very rare odd-odd nuclides 138La and 180Tam, as well as to the puzzling case of the light Mo and Ru isotopes. Astrophysics and nuclear physics prospects of improvements in the p-process modeling are presented.

  10. The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: astrophysics and nuclear physics status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S

    2003-09-01

    The p-process of stellar nucleosynthesis is aimed at explaining the production of the stable neutron-deficient nuclides heavier than iron that are observed up to now in the solar system exclusively. Various scenarios have been proposed to account for the bulk p-nuclide content of the solar system, as well as for deviations ('anomalies') with respect to the bulk p-isotope composition of some elements discovered in primitive meteorites. The astrophysics of these models is reviewed, and the involved nuclear physics is discussed, including a brief account of recent experimental efforts. Already published results are complemented with new ones. A specific attention is paid to the very rare odd-odd nuclides {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta{sup m}, as well as to the puzzling case of the light Mo and Ru isotopes. Astrophysics and nuclear physics prospects of improvements in the p-process modeling are presented.

  11. Manufacturing of calcium, lithium and molybdenum targets for use in nuclear physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheswa, N. Y.; Papka, P.; Buthelezi, E. Z.; Lieder, R. M.; Neveling, R.; Newman, R. T.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes methods used in the manufacturing of chemically reactive targets such as calcium ( natCa), lithium-6 ( 6Li) and molybdenum-97 ( 97Mo) for nuclear physics experiments at the iThemba LABS cyclotron facility (Faure, South Africa). Due to the chemical properties of these materials a suitable and controlled environment was established in order to minimize oxygen contamination of targets. Calcium was prepared by means of vacuum evaporation while lithium was cold rolled to a desired thickness. In the case of molybdenum, the metallic powder was melted under vacuum using an e-gun followed by cold rolling of the metal bead to a desired thickness. In addition, latest developments toward the establishment of a dedicated nuclear physics target laboratory are discussed.

  12. On the use of the Discrete Variable Representation Basis in Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulgac, Aurel

    2013-01-01

    The discrete variable representation (DVR) basis is nearly optimal for numerically representing wave functions in nuclear physics: Suitable problems enjoy exponential convergence, yet the Hamiltonian remains sparse. We show that one can often use smaller basis sets than with the traditional harmonic oscillator basis, and still benefit from the simple analytic properties of the DVR basis which requires no overlap integrals, simply permit using various Jacobi coordinates, and admit straightforward analyses of the UV and IR convergence properties.

  13. High energy-density physics: From nuclear testing to the superlasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, E.M.; Holmes, N.C.; Libby, S.B.; Remington, B.A.; Teller, E.

    1995-10-20

    We describe the role for the next-generation ``superlasers`` in the study of matter under extremely high energy density conditions, in comparison to previous uses of nuclear explosives for this purpose. As examples, we focus on three important areas of physics that have unresolved issues which must be addressed by experiment: Equations of state, hydrodynamic mixing, and the transport of radiation. We will describe the advantages the large lasers will have in a comprehensive experimental program.

  14. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D.; Arnold, R.; Balantekin, A.; Barabash, A.; Barnabe, H.; Baroni, S.; Baussan, E.; Bellini, F.; Bobisut, F.; Bongrand, M.; Brofferio, Ch.; Capolupo, A.; Carrara Enrico; Caurier, E.; Cermak, P.; Chardin, G.; Civitarese, O.; Couchot, F.; Kerret, H. de; Heros, C. de los; Detwiler, J.; Dracos, M.; Drexlin, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Falchini, E.; Fatemi-Ghomi, N.; Finger, M.Ch.; Finger Miroslav, Ch.; Fiorillo, G.; Fiorini, E.; Fracasso, S.; Frekers, D.; Fushimi, K.I.; Gascon, J.; Genest, M.H.; Georgadze, A.; Giuliani, A.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Greenfield, M.; H de Jesus, J.; Hallin, A.; Hannestad, St.; Hirai, Sh.; Hoessl, J.; Ianni, A.; Ieva, M.B.; Ishihara, N.; Jullian, S.; Kaim, S.; Kajino, T.; Kayser, B.; Kochetov, O.; Kopylov, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kroeninger, K.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lalanne, D.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazauskas, R.; Lemrani, A.R.; Li, J.; Mansoulie, B.; Marquet, Ch.; Martinez, J.; Mirizzi, A.; Morfin Jorge, G.; Motz, H.; Murphy, A.; Navas, S.; Niedermeier, L.; Nishiura, H.; Nomachi, M.; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, I.; Ohsumi, H.; Palladino, V.; Paniccia, M.; Perotto, L.; Petcov, S.; Pfister, S.; Piquemal, F.; Poves, A.; Praet, Ch.; Raffelt, G.; Ramberg, E.; Rashba, T.; Regnault, N.; Ricol, J.St.; Rodejohann, W.; Rodin, V.; Ruz, J.; Sander, Ch.; Sarazin, X.; Scholberg, K.; Sigl, G.; Simkovic, F.; Sousa, A.; Stanev, T.; Strolger, L.; Suekane, F.; Thomas, J.; Titov, N.; Toivanen, J.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Tytler, D.; Vala, L.; Vignaud, D.; Vitiello, G.; Vogel, P.; Volkov, G.; Volpe, C.; Wong, H.; Yilmazer, A

    2006-07-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  15. Inverse Compton γ-ray source for nuclear physics and related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, P. G.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Madey, J. M. J.; Roberson, N. R.; Schreiber, E. C.; Straub, K. D.; Weeks, K. J.; Weller, H. R.; Wu, Y.

    1996-02-01

    The development of intense, short-wavelength FEL light sources has opened opportunities for new applications of high-energy Compton-backscattered photons. These applications range from medical imaging with X-rays to high energy physics with photon colliders. In this paper we discuss the practical aspects applications using polarized Compton backscattered γ-rays in the 5-150 MeV range from the Duke storage-ring-driven FEL. Such applications include: nuclear physics, cancer therapy, radiographic imaging, radiation effects testing, and positron production for material science studies.

  16. Large-x connections of nuclear and high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Accardi, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    I discuss how global QCD fits of parton distribution functions can make the somewhat separated fields of high-energy particle physics and lower energy hadronic and nuclear physics interact to the benefit of both. I review specific examples of this interplay from recent works of the CTEQ-Jefferson Lab collaboration, including hadron structure at large parton momentum and gauge boson production at colliders. I devote particular attention to quantifying theoretical uncertainties arising in the treatment of large partonic momentum contributions to deep inelastic scattering observables, and to discussing the experimental progress needed to reduce these.

  17. Testing the Nuclear Will of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    better to continue to develop Japan’s economy . If Japan were to develop nuclear weapons, the fear was that it would damage trade relations with more...Tokyo, Kure, and Osaka universities.24 The knowledge gained from the Japanese scientists was invaluable as they had either studied nuclear technology...rested on the United States; and (4) Japan’s economy could not support the development of nuclear weapons. The main point of this chapter draws out

  18. Exploring Stochastic Sampling in Nuclear Data Uncertainties Assessment for Reactor Physics Applications and Validation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasiliev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of uncertainties of various calculation results, caused by the uncertainties associated with the input nuclear data, is a common task in nuclear reactor physics applications. Modern computation resources and improved knowledge on nuclear data allow nowadays to significantly advance the capabilities for practical investigations. Stochastic sampling is the method which has received recently a high momentum for its use and exploration in the domain of reactor design and safety analysis. An application of a stochastic sampling based tool towards nuclear reactor dosimetry studies is considered in the given paper with certain exemplary test evaluations. The stochastic sampling not only allows the input nuclear data uncertainties propagation through the calculations, but also an associated correlation analysis performance with no additional computation costs and for any parameters of interest can be done. Thus, an example of assessment of the Pearson correlation coefficients for several models, used in practical validation studies, is shown here. As a next step, the analysis of the obtained information is proposed for discussion, with focus on the systems similarities assessment. The benefits of the employed method and tools with respect to practical reactor dosimetry studies are consequently outlined.

  19. The CCR4-NOT complex physically and functionally interacts with TRAMP and the nuclear exosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowel Azzouz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ccr4-Not is a highly conserved multi-protein complex consisting in yeast of 9 subunits, including Not5 and the major yeast deadenylase Ccr4. It has been connected functionally in the nucleus to transcription by RNA polymerase II and in the cytoplasm to mRNA degradation. However, there has been no evidence so far that this complex is important for RNA degradation in the nucleus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work we point to a new role for the Ccr4-Not complex in nuclear RNA metabolism. We determine the importance of the Ccr4-Not complex for the levels of non-coding nuclear RNAs, such as mis-processed and polyadenylated snoRNAs, whose turnover depends upon the nuclear exosome and TRAMP. Consistently, mutation of both the Ccr4-Not complex and the nuclear exosome results in synthetic slow growth phenotypes. We demonstrate physical interactions between the Ccr4-Not complex and the exosome. First, Not5 co-purifies with the exosome. Second, several exosome subunits co-purify with the Ccr4-Not complex. Third, the Ccr4-Not complex is important for the integrity of large exosome-containing complexes. Finally, we reveal a connection between the Ccr4-Not complex and TRAMP through the association of the Mtr4 helicase with the Ccr4-Not complex and the importance of specific subunits of Ccr4-Not for the association of Mtr4 with the nuclear exosome subunit Rrp6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose a model in which the Ccr4-Not complex may provide a platform contributing to dynamic interactions between the nuclear exosome and its co-factor TRAMP. Our findings connect for the first time the different players involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA degradation.

  20. Distribution of perfluoroalkyl compounds in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beškoski, Vladimir P; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Okamura, Hideo; Hayashi, Mitsuru; Nakano, Takeshi; Matsumura, Chisato; Fukushi, Keiichi; Wada, Shinpei; Inui, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) including perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) were analyzed in sediment samples taken from Ajifu Waterway in Osaka city, from Osaka Bay, and from Kagoshima Bay, as well as in fifteen seawater samples collected from Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan. In all sediment samples, only PFCAs were detected, and the highest concentration was determined in Ajifu Waterway, where ΣPFAA was 58990 ng kg(-1) dry weight. The total concentrations of PFAAs in sea water samples ranged between the limit of quantification and 53.4 ng L(-1), and perfluorohexanoic acid was the most prevalent and had the highest concentration of 37 ng L(-1). The changes in the patterns and concentrations of PFAAs in Osaka Bay and coastal waters of Western Japan indicate that the PFAAs in surface waters are influenced by sources from Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, mainly the Yodo River basin, and the dilution effect which naturally occurs during their transport to the Pacific Ocean.

  1. The Role and Challenges of School Social Work: An Examination from Practice in Osaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development of school social work in the Osaka Prefecture of Japan. The article focuses on micro, mezzo, and macro levels of school social work and documents the growth and development of school social work since 2005. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  2. The wisdom of sages: nuclear physics education, knowledge-inquiry, and wisdom-inquiry

    CERN Document Server

    Cottey, A Alan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I address the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry (concepts introduced by N. Maxwell) in nuclear physics education, specifically in senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students. Following on from an earlier study of 57 such textbooks, I focus here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one of them. The nuclear physics textbook Particles and Nuclei: an Introduction to the Physical Concepts, by B. Povh et al opens with a (German) quotation from Max und Moritz which has been rendered, in the celebrated translation by C. T. Brooks, as "Not alone to solve the double/ Rule of Three shall man take trouble;/ But must hear with pleasure Sages/ Teach the wisdom of the ages." What the student gets however is technical material followed abruptly at the very end by the advice (from The Book of Jeremiah) "And it shall be, when thou hast made an end of reading this book, that thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast it into the midst of Euphrates". From a study of these an...

  3. A nuclear physics program at the Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Bum Moon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the new physics possibilities that fall within the field of nuclear structure and astrophysics based on experiments with radioactive ion beams at the future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility in Korea. This ambitious multi-beam facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL and fragmentation capability to produce rare isotopes beams (RIBs and will be capable of producing and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. The large dynamic range of reaccelerated RIBs will allow the optimization in each nuclear reaction case with respect to cross section and channel opening. The low energy RIBs around Coulomb barrier offer nuclear reactions such as elastic resonance scatterings, one or two particle transfers, Coulomb multiple-excitations, fusion-evaporations, and direct capture reactions for the study of the very neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclides. In contrast, the high energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with reaccelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the study of neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The proposed studies aim at investigating the exotic nuclei near and beyond the nucleon drip lines, and to explore how nuclear many-body systems change in such extreme regions by addressing the following topics: the evolution of shell structure in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; the study of the weak interaction in exotic decay schemes such as beta-delayed two-neutron or two-proton emission; the change of isospin symmetry in isobaric mirror nuclei at the drip lines; two protons or two neutrons radioactivity beyond the drip lines; the role of the continuum states including resonant states above the particle-decay threshold in exotic nuclei; and the effects of nuclear reaction rates triggered by the unbound proton-rich nuclei on nuclear astrophysical processes.

  4. The transition from silicon to gas detection media in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollacco, Emanuel C., E-mail: epollacco@cea.fr

    2016-06-01

    Emerging radioactive beams and multi petawatt laser facilities are sturdily transforming our base concepts in instruments in nuclear physics. The changes are fuelled by studies of nuclei close to the drip-line or exotic reactions. This physics demands high luminosity, wide phase space cover with good resolution in energy, time, position and sampled waveform. By judiciously modifying the micro-world of the particle or space physics instruments (Double Sided Strip Si Detectors, Micro-Pattern Gas Amplifiers, microelectronics), we are on the path to initiate dream experiments. In the following a brief status in the domain is reported for selected instruments that highlight the present trends with silicon and the growing shift towards gas media for charged particle detection.

  5. Nuclear Physics Programs for the Future Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator Facility in Korea

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Chang-Bum

    2016-01-01

    We present nuclear physics programs based on the planned experiments using rare isotope beams (RIBs) for the future Korean Rare Isotope Beams Accelerator facility; RAON. This ambitious facility has both an Isotope Separation On Line (ISOL) and fragmentation capability for producing RIBs and accelerating beams of wide range mass of nuclides with energies of a few to hundreds MeV per nucleon. Low energy RIBs at Elab = 5 to 20 MeV per nucleon are for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics toward and beyond the drip lines while higher energy RIBs produced by in-flight fragmentation with the re-accelerated ions from the ISOL enable to explore the neutron drip lines in intermediate mass regions. The planned programs have goals for investigating nuclear structures of the exotic nuclei toward and beyond the nucleon drip lines by addressing the following issues: how the shell structure evolves in areas of extreme proton to neutron imbalance; whether the isospin symmetry maintains in isobaric mirror nu...

  6. REACTOR AND SHIELD PHYSICS. Comprehensive Technical Report, General Electric Direct-Air-Cycle, Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, W.E.; Simpson, J.D.

    1962-01-01

    This volume is one of twenty-one summarizing the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion Program of the General Electric Company. This volume describes the experimental and theoretical work accomplished in the areas of reactor and shield physics.

  7. 10 CFR 73.55 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary based upon site-specific analyses, assessments, or other performance indicators. (iii) By... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage. 73.55 Section 73.55 Energy NUCLEAR...

  8. Thermal and neutron-physical features of the nuclear reactor for a power pulsation plant for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, É. G.; Kaminskii, A. S.; Konyukhov, G. V.; Pavshuk, V. A.; Turbina, T. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have explored the possibility of creating small-size reactors with a high power output with the provision of thermal stability and nuclear safety under standard operating conditions and in emergency situations. The neutron-physical features of such a reactor have been considered and variants of its designs preserving the main principles and approaches of nuclear rocket engine technology are presented.

  9. Enhancement of the physical protection of waste storages. A step to maintain the nuclear security regime in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmyak, Ihor; Kravtsov, Valery [State Scientific and Technical Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kushka, Victor [State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2013-07-01

    Radioactive wastes are unavoidable by-products in the use of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources and concurrently pose the threat to radiation safety. Ukraine has an advanced infrastructure of nuclear power engineering and is attaching great importance to nuclear security and particularly physical protection of not only nuclear facilities and nuclear materials but radioactive wastes as well. Furthermore, Ukraine has unique practices of ensuring nuclear safety and security of radioactive wastes and fuel-containing materials generated after the accident at Chornobyl NPP and during its decommissioning. To this end, the continuous improvement of physical protection systems for storages of radioactive wastes of industrial, medical and scientific origin, Chornobyl facilities containing radioactive materials, including the Shelter, takes place in our country. Such activities in synergy with nuclear and radiation safety measures are of great significance for implementation and maintenance of nuclear security regime in Ukraine. This paper is dedicated to activities on modernization of physical protection systems for radioactive wastes and some other radioactive materials and concise review of nuclear security regime status in Ukraine. (orig.)

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'09)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntorad, Jan; Lokajicek, Milos

    2010-11-01

    The 17th International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held on 21-27 March 2009 in Prague, Czech Republic. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the worldwide High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science, and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing experience and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing and future activities. Recent conferences were held in Victoria, Canada 2007, Mumbai, India in 2006, Interlaken, Switzerland in 2004, San Diego, USA in 2003, Beijing, China in 2001, Padua, Italy in 2000. The CHEP'09 conference had 600 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited oral presentations, a number of parallel sessions comprising 200 oral and 300 poster presentations, and an industrial exhibition. We thanks all the presenters, for the excellent scientific content of their contributions to the conference. Conference tracks covered topics on Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Components, Tools and Databases, Hardware and Computing Fabrics, Grid Middleware and Networking Technologies, Distributed Processing and Analysis and Collaborative Tools. The conference included excursions to Prague and other Czech cities and castles and a banquet held at the Zofin palace in Prague. The next CHEP conference will be held in Taipei, Taiwan on 18-22 October 2010. We would like thank the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic and the EU ACEOLE project for the conference support, further to commercial sponsors, the International Advisory Committee, the Local Organizing Committee members representing the five collaborating Czech institutions Jan Gruntorad (co-chair), CESNET, z.s.p.o., Prague Andrej Kugler, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR v.v.i., Rez Rupert Leitner, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and

  11. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The nuclear shield in the 'thirty-year war' of physicists against ignorant criticism of modern physical theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizgin, Vladimir P.

    1999-12-01

    This article deals with the almost 'thirty-year war' led by physicists against the authorities' incompetent philosophical and ideological interference with science. The 'war' is shown to have been related to the history of Soviet nuclear weapons. Theoretical milestones of 20th century physics, to wit, theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, suffered endless 'attacks on philosophical grounds'. The theories were proclaimed idealistic as well as unduly abstract and out of touch with practice; their authors and followers were labelled 'physical idealists', and later, in the 1940s and 1950s, even 'cosmopolitans without kith or kin'. Meanwhile, quantum and relativistic theories, as is widely known, had become the basis of nuclear physics and of the means of studying the atomic nucleus (charged particle accelerators, for instance). The two theories thus served, to a great extent, as a basis for both peaceful and military uses of nuclear energy, made possible by the discovery of uranium nuclear fission under the action of neutrons. In the first part, the article recounts how prominent physicists led the way to resisting philosophical and ideological pressure and standing up for relativity, quantum theories and nuclear physics, thus enabling the launch of the atomic project. The second part contains extensive material proving the point that physicists effectively used the 'nuclear shield' in the 1940s and 1950s against the 'philosophical-cosmopolitan' pressure, indeed saving physics from a tragic fate as that of biology at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VASKhNIL) session in 1948.

  12. Professor Andrzej Budzanowski, Director General, Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (HNINP) Poland. Dr. Grzegorz Polok, Deputy Director

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Andrzej Budzanowski, Director-General of the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics (HNINP) and Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader, signing the collaboration agreement. In the background, from leftto right : Grzegorz Polok, Deputy Director-General of the Cracow Institute of Nuclear Physics, Blazej Skoczen, in charge of the LHC cryomagnet interconnections, Claude Détraz, Director for Fixed Target and Future Programmes, Alain Poncet, AT/CRI Group Leader.

  13. An assessment of coupling algorithms for nuclear reactor core physics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven; Berrill, Mark; Clarno, Kevin; Pawlowski, Roger; Toth, Alex; Kelley, C. T.; Evans, Thomas; Philip, Bobby

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of multiphysics coupling algorithms applied to a light water nuclear reactor core simulation. The simulation couples the k-eigenvalue form of the neutron transport equation with heat conduction and subchannel flow equations. We compare Picard iteration (block Gauss-Seidel) to Anderson acceleration and multiple variants of preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK). The performance of the methods are evaluated over a range of energy group structures and core power levels. A novel physics-based approximation to a Jacobian-vector product has been developed to mitigate the impact of expensive on-line cross section processing steps. Numerical simulations demonstrating the efficiency of JFNK and Anderson acceleration relative to standard Picard iteration are performed on a 3D model of a nuclear fuel assembly. Both criticality (k-eigenvalue) and critical boron search problems are considered.

  14. The Physics and Nuclear Nonproliferation Goals of WATCHMAN: A WAter CHerenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Askins, M; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Dye, S T; Handler, T; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hellfeld, D; Jaffke, P; Kamyshkov, Y; Land, B J; Learned, J G; Marleau, P; Mauger, C; Gann, G D Orebi; Roecker, C; Rountree, S D; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the physics and nonproliferation goals of WATCHMAN, the WAter Cherenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos. The baseline WATCHMAN design is a kiloton scale gadolinium-doped (Gd) light water Cherenkov detector, placed 13 kilometers from a civil nuclear reactor in the United States. In its first deployment phase, WATCHMAN will be used to remotely detect a change in the operational status of the reactor, providing a first- ever demonstration of the potential of large Gd-doped water detectors for remote reactor monitoring for future international nuclear nonproliferation applications. During its first phase, the detector will provide a critical large-scale test of the ability to tag neutrons and thus distinguish low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos. This would make WATCHMAN the only detector capable of providing both direction and flavor identification of supernova neutrinos. It would also be the third largest supernova detector, and the largest underground in the western hemisphere. In a...

  15. Propagation of Cosmic Rays: Nuclear Physics in Cosmic-ray Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclei fraction in cosmic rays (CR) far exceeds the fraction of other CR species, such as antiprotons, electrons, and positrons. Thus the majority of information obtained from CR studies is based on interpretation of isotopic abundances using CR propagation models where the nuclear data and isotopic production cross sections in p- and alpha-induced reactions are the key elements. This paper presents an introduction to the astrophysics of CR and diffuse gamma-rays and dimsses some of the puzzles that have emerged recently due to more precise data and improved propagation models. Merging with cosmology and particle physics, astrophysics of CR has become a very dynamic field with a large potential of breakthrough and discoveries in the near fume. Exploiting the data collected by the CR experiments to the fullest requires accurate nuclear cross sections.

  16. Construction of the Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) at Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jacob; Bardayan, Dan; Blankstein, Drew; Hall, Matthew; Hall, Oscar; Kolata, James; O'Malley, Patrick; Becchetti, Frederick; Blackmon, Jeffery; Pain, Steven

    2016-09-01

    The study of nucleon transfer reactions gives information about many nuclei involved in astrophysical processes. The design and use of new detector systems improves our ability to accurately characterize these nuclei. The Solenoid Spectrometer for Nuclear AstroPhysics (SSNAP) is a new helical orbit spectrometer being designed at the University of Notre Dame to study transfer reactions with high-energy light ion beams from the FN tandem accelerator. SSNAP incorporates a series of position-sensitive silicon detectors to be set on-axis inside the second TwinSol solenoid. SSNAP will be sensitive to light ions produced in different reactions and the charged-particle decay products from the exotic nuclei produced. Results of initial testing and future plans with this detector system will be shown in this presentation. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.

  17. Class notes from the first international training course on the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, P.B. (ed.)

    1979-05-01

    The International Training Course on Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities and Materials was intended for representatives from the developing countries who are responsible for preparing regulations and designing and assessing physical protection systems. The first part of the course consists of lectures on the objectives, organizational characteristics, and licensing and regulations requirements of a state system of physical protection. Since the participants may have little experience in nuclear energy, background information is provided on the topics of nuclear materials, radiation hazards, reactor systems, and reactor operations. Transportation of nuclear materials is addressed and emphasis is placed on regulations. Included in these discussions are presentations by guest speakers from countries outside the United States of America who present their countries' threat to nuclear facilities. Effectiveness evaluation methodology is introduced to the participants by means of instructions which teach them how to use logic trees and the EASI (Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption) program. The following elements of a physical protection system are discussed: barriers, protective force, intrusion detection systems, communications, and entry-control systems. Total systems concepts of physical protection system design are emphasized throughout the course. Costs, manpower/technology trade-offs, and other practical considerations are discussed. Approximately one-third of the course is devoted to practical exercises during which the attendees participatein problem solving. A hypothetical nuclear facility is introduced, and the attendees participate in the conceptual design of a physical protection system for the facility.

  18. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado technical progress report, 1976 and proposal for continuation of contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-11-01

    This report summarizes the work carried out at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado during the period November 1, 1975 to November 1, 1976. The low energy nuclear physics section is dominated by light-ion reaction studies which span a wide range. These include both two-neutron and two-proton transfer reactions, charge exchange and inelastic scattering, as well as single nucleon transfer reactions. The nuclei studied vary widely in their mass and characteristics. These reaction studies have been aided by the multi-use scattering chamber which now allows the energy-loss-spectrometer beam preparation system (beam swinger) to shift from charged particle studies to neutron time-of-flight studies with a minimum loss of time. The intermediate energy section reflects the increase in activity accompanying the arrival of LAMPF data and the initiation of (p,d) studies at the Indiana separated-sector cyclotron. The nucleon removal results provided by the ..pi.. beam at EPICS previous to completion of the spectrometer have shown that nuclear effects dominate this process, so that the widely used free interaction picture is inadequate. The section entitled ''Other Activities'' reveals continuing activities in new applications of nuclear techniques to problems in medicine and biology. Reactions important to astrophysics continue to be investigated and our trace-element program remains at a high level of activity. The theoretical section reports new progress in understanding magnitudes of two-step reactions by inclusion of finite-range effects. A new finite-range program which is fast and economical has been completed. Intermediate energy results include calculations of ..pi..-..gamma.. angular correlations, low energy ..pi..-nucleus interactions, as well as (p,d) and nucleon scattering calculations for intermediate energies.

  19. [Research in theoretical nuclear physics]. [Annual progress report, July 1992--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, J.I.

    1993-12-31

    The main subject of research was the physics of matter at energy densities greater than 0.15 GeV/fm{sup 3}. Theory encompasses the relativistic many-body/quantum field theory aspects of QCD and the electroweak interactions at these high energy densities, both in and out of thermal equilibrium. Applications range from neutron stars/pulsars to QCD and electroweak phase transitions in the early universe, from baryon number violation in cosmology to the description of nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and at Brookhaven. Recent activity to understand the properties of matter at energy densities where the electroweak W and Z boson degrees of freedom are important is reported. This problem has applications to cosmology and has the potential to explain the baryon asymmetry produced in the big bang at energies where the particle degrees of freedom will soon be experimentally, probed. This problem is interesting for nuclear physics because of the techniques used in many-body, physics of nuclei and the quark-gluon plasma may be extended to this new problem. The was also interested in problems related to multiparticle production. This includes work on production of particles in heavy-ion collisions, the small x part, of the nuclear and hadron wave function, and multiparticle production induced by instantons in weakly coupled theories. These problems have applications in the heavy ion program at RHIC and the deep inelastic scattering experiments at HERA.

  20. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wasserman, Harvey [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-04-30

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  1. The neutron a tool and an object in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Börner, Hans G

    2012-01-01

    The reactor-based laboratory at the Institut Laue-Langevin is recognized as the world's most productive and reliable source of slow neutrons for the study of low energy particle and nuclear physics. The book highlightsthe impact of about 600 very diverse publications about work performedin these fields during the pastmore than 30 years of reactor operation at this institute.On one hand neutronsare used as a tool to generate nuclei in excited states for studying their structure and decay, in particular fission. Uniquely sensitive experiments can tell us a great deal about the symmetry character

  2. High Performance Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics: Target 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard; Wasserman, Harvey

    2015-01-20

    In April 2014, NERSC, ASCR, and the DOE Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a review to characterize high performance computing (HPC) and storage requirements for NP research through 2017. This review is the 12th in a series of reviews held by NERSC and Office of Science program offices that began in 2009. It is the second for NP, and the final in the second round of reviews that covered the six Office of Science program offices. This report is the result of that review

  3. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasao, Mamiko [Organization for Research Initiatives and Development, Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public’s interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  4. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  5. Public dialogue on physics and related technology after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasao, Mamiko

    2015-12-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the importance of bottom-up and two-way dialogue between scientists and the public has been recognized. In such dialogue, information provided must accurately match the public's interest and ability regarding science and technology. We have started to investigate what people want to know about physics. Some were interested in energy security (a particular concern in Japan), but others were concerned about radioactivity in food and natural radiation background. The conversations revealed that physicists often give insufficient explanations of the biological effects of radiation and highlighted key points for physicists to make when talking with the public.

  6. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  7. Applications of FLUKA Monte Carlo code for nuclear and accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Brugger, Markus; Campanella, Mauro; Carboni, Massimo; Empl, Anton; Fasso, Alberto; Gadioli, Ettore; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ferrari, Anna; Lantz, Matthias; Mairani, Andrea; Margiotta, M; Morone, Christina; Muraro, Silvia; Parodi, Katerina; Patera, Vincenzo; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Pinsky, Lawrence; Ranft, Johannes; Roesler, Stefan; Rollet, Sofia; Sala, Paola R; Santana, Mario; Sarchiapone, Lucia; Sioli, Maximiliano; Smirnov, George; Sommerer, Florian; Theis, Christian; Trovati, Stefania; Villari, R; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut; Vlachoudis, Vasilis; Vollaire, Joachim; Zapp, Neil

    2011-01-01

    FLUKA is a general purpose Monte Carlo code capable of handling all radiation components from thermal energies (for neutrons) or 1keV (for all other particles) to cosmic ray energies and can be applied in many different fields. Presently the code is maintained on Linux. The validity of the physical models implemented in FLUKA has been benchmarked against a variety of experimental data over a wide energy range, from accelerator data to cosmic ray showers in the Earth atmosphere. FLUKA is widely used for studies related both to basic research and to applications in particle accelerators, radiation protection and dosimetry, including the specific issue of radiation damage in space missions, radiobiology (including radiotherapy) and cosmic ray calculations. After a short description of the main features that make FLUKA valuable for these topics, the present paper summarizes some of the recent applications of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code in the nuclear as well high energy physics. In particular it addresses such top...

  8. Light-Quark Baryon Spectroscopy within ANL-Osaka Dynamical Coupled-Channels Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamano, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Recent results on the study of light-quark baryons with the ANL-Osaka dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) approach are presented, which contain the N^* and Δ ^* spectroscopy via the analysis of π N and γ N reactions and the Λ ^* and Σ ^* spectroscopy via the analysis of K^- p reactions. A recent application of our DCC approach to neutrino-nucleon reactions in the resonance region is also presented.

  9. Prediction of long-period ground motions from huge subduction earthquakes in Osaka, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, H.; Kamae, K.

    2008-04-01

    There is a high possibility of reoccurrence of the Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes along the Nankai Trough in Japan. It is very important to predict the long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 8.1 and 8.4, respectively, to mitigate their disastrous effects. In this study, long-period (>2.5 s) ground motions were predicted using an earthquake scenario proposed by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion in Japan. The calculations were performed using a fourth-order finite difference method with a variable spacing staggered-grid in the frequency range 0.05 0.4 Hz. The attenuation characteristics ( Q) in the finite difference simulations were assumed to be proportional to frequency ( f) and S-wave velocity ( V s) represented by Q = f · V s / 2. Such optimum attenuation characteristic for the sedimentary layers in the Osaka basin was obtained empirically by comparing the observed motions during the actual M5.5 event with the modeling results. We used the velocity structure model of the Osaka basin consisting of three sedimentary layers on bedrock. The characteristics of the predicted long-period ground motions from the next Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes depend significantly on the complex thickness distribution of the sediments inside the basin. The duration of the predicted long-period ground motions in the city of Osaka is more than 4 min, and the largest peak ground velocities (PGVs) exceed 80 cm/s. The predominant period is 5 to 6 s. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of earthquake damage because of future subduction earthquakes in large-scale constructions such as tall buildings, long-span bridges, and oil storage tanks in the Osaka area.

  10. Virtual dosimetry applied to the physical security of a nuclear installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santo, Andre Cotelli do E.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Machado, Daniel M.; Chelles, Daniel R.; Goncalves, Deise G.S., E-mail: cotelli.andre@gmail.com, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: machado.mol@gmail.com, E-mail: daniel.chelles@gmail.com, E-mail: deise.galvao@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An important activity to be held in radiation protection is the location of radioactive sources. The present work was devoted to the development of a virtual dosimetry tool for locating and detecting such sources. To this end, was created a three-dimensional virtual model of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN, endowed with virtual characters (avatars), capable of move and interact with the environment, radiation detectors (fixed and mobile) and radioactive sources. Aiming to assist in planning physical security of nuclear installations, the tool developed allows the detection simulation of individuals carrying radioactive sources through detectors installed at strategic points of the site. In addition, it is possible to detect and locate sources by handling portable detectors, operated by characters within the virtual environment. The results obtained show the behavior of the radiation detectors on continuous profile of radioactive sources, allowing calculate the dose rate at any position of the virtual environment. Thus, this work can assist in the training of security officers, as well as in evaluating the radiological safety of the nuclear site. (author)

  11. Anomalous Nuclear Reaction in Earth's Interior: a New Field in Physics Science?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋崧生; 何明

    2012-01-01

    Tritium (3^H) in excess of the atmospheric values was found at volcanic Lakes Pavin (France), Laacher (Germany) and Nemrut (Turkey), as well as Kilauea Volcano at Hawaii (USA) and other volcanoes. Because 3^H has a short half-life of 12.3 years, the tritium and the resulting 3^He must have formed recently in the Earth. The result suggests that nuclear reactions may generate a significant amount of tritium in the interior of the Earth, although we have not yet learned what the reaction mechanism may be responsible. The nuclear reaction that can be responsible for tritium production in the Earth is probably a new research field in physics science. Nuclear reactions that generate tritium might be a source of "missing" energy (heat) in the interior of the Earth. Finding in-situ 3^H in the mantle may exhibit an alternative explanation of 3^He origin in the deep Earth.

  12. Hans A. Bethe Prize: Astrophysical, observational and nuclear-physics aspects of r-process nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Karl-Ludwig

    2014-03-01

    Guided by the Solar System (S.S.) abundance peaks at A ~= 130 and A ~= 195, the basic mechanisms for the rapid neutron-capture process (the r-process) have been known for over 50 years. However, even today, all proposed scenarios and sites face problems with astrophysical conditions as well as with the necessary nuclear-physics input. In my talk, I will describe efforts in experimental and theoretical nuclear-structure data for modeling today's three groups of r-process ``observables'', i.e. the bulk S.S. isotopic abundances, the elemental abundances in metal-poor halo stars, and peculiar isotopic patterns measured in certain cosmic stardust grains. To set a historical basis, I will briefly recall our site-independent ``waiting-point'' model, with superpositions of neutron-density components and the use of the first global, unified nuclear input based on the mass model FRDM(1992). This approach provided a considerable leap forward in the basic understanding of the required astrophysical conditions, as well as of specific shell-structure properties far from stability. Starting in the early millenium, the above simple model has been replaced by more realistic, dynamical parameter studies within the high-entropy wind scenario of core-collapse supernovae, now with superpositions of entropy (S) and electron-fraction (Ye) components. Furthermore, an improved, global set of nuclear-physics data is used today, based on the new mass model FRDM(2012). With this nuclear and astrophysics parameter combination, a new fit to the S.S. r-abundances will be shown, and its improvements and remaining deficiencies in terms of underlying shell structure will be discussed. Concerning the abundance patterns in metal-poor halo stars, an interpretation of the production of ``r-rich'' (e.g. CS 22892-052) and ``r-poor'' (e.g. HD 122563) stars in terms of different (Ye), S combinations will be presented. Finally, for the third group of ``r-observables'', a possible origin of the anomalous Xe

  13. [A survey on nosocomial tuberculosis infection control in hospitals in Osaka City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, Akira; Konishi, Shozaburo; Tanaka, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    To ascertain nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) infection control practice in hospitals in Osaka City. A questionnaire was distributed in the orientation meeting and collected at the occasion of medical inspection in all 196 hospitals in Osaka City in 2003. TB patients were diagnosed in about half of hospitals in the past 3 years. Basic TB infection control measures were taken in the majority of hospitals; such as chest X-ray screening for all inpatients, health check for employees, tuberculin skin test (TST) for newly employed staff, and nomination of a person in charge of TB infection control. Control measures were practiced more often in hospitals where TB patients were diagnosed, such as "fiberoptic bronchoscopy is to be conducted last in the working hours to avoid contamination of TB bacilli in a room," "TST (including two-step method) for all newly employed staff," "Staff wear N95 mask when they deal with TB patients/suspects," and the differences were statistically significant. It is necessary in hospitals in Osaka City to strengthen nosocomial TB infection control as TB patients were diagnosed in about half of hospitals in the past 3 years. Low cost infection control measures were undertaken more often among hospitals where TB patients were diagnosed. Introduction of high cost equipment or improvement of facilities should be considered in hospitals of high TB risk. Guidelines formulated based on analysis of the survey should facilitate all hospitals to introduce at least low cost effective tuberculosis infection control measures.

  14. A STUDY ON THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF DOWNTOWN IN THE CASTLETOWN OF OSAKA AND EDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Shinohara, Osamu

    Castle towns in the modern era had unique urban fabric composed of well-developed infrastructure, such as streets, waterways and drainage. These elements have long interested researchers in the fields of urban history, architectural history and others. However, the principles of the design of the castle town have not been fully understood. Therefore, there has been a growing request to perform research on it in the field of history of civil engineering from the viewpoint of the infrastructure alignment of streets, waterways, drainage and others. The purpose of this study was to understand the design principles of downtown in the castle town of Osaka and Edo. In this study, first of all, the new methodology of the quantitative analysis to understand the design principles by using modern surveying maps has been shown. Then, based on the authors' previous research achievements, the design principles of downtown in Osaka and Edo have been reconsidered. Furthermore, characteristics of each design principles have been clarified by comparing Osaka with Edo.

  15. Numerical Evaluation of the Impact of Urbanization on Summertime Precipitation in Osaka, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikari Shimadera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model version 3.5.1 to evaluate the impact of urbanization on summertime precipitation in Osaka, Japan. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the WRF simulations with the present land use and no-urban land use (replacing “Urban” with “Paddy” for August from 2006 to 2010. The urbanization increased mean air temperature by 2.1°C in urban areas because of increased sensible heat flux and decreased mean humidity by 0.8 g kg−1 because of decreased latent heat flux. In addition, the urbanization increased duration of the southwesterly sea breeze. The urbanization increased precipitation in urban areas and decreased in the surrounding areas. The mean precipitation in urban areas was increased by 20 mm month−1 (27% of the total amount without the synoptic-scale precipitation. The precipitation increase was generally due to the enhancement of the formation and development of convective clouds by the increase in sensible heat flux during afternoon and evening time periods. The urbanization in Osaka changes spatial and temporal distribution patterns of precipitation and evaporation, and consequently it substantially affects the water cycle in and around the urban areas of Osaka.

  16. Effects of socioeconomic factors on suicide from 1980 through 1999 in Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hirokuni; Iki, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    Suicide rate in Japan surged in 1998. Although the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of suicide in Osaka Prefecture, Japan had been mostly lower than the national SMRs of suicide between 1980 and 1997, they surpassed the increased national SMR of suicide in 1998 and 1999. We investigated whether the suicide rates for 1980-97 and the recent increased suicide rates in Osaka Prefecture were associated with socioeconomic factors. Time-series regression analyses of the suicide rate and socioeconomic factors were performed on respective data for five sub-areas in Osaka Prefecture. The suicide rates of young people and middle-aged men were more strongly associated with the job application and divorce rates for 1980-99 than for 1980-97. Some relations between the suicide rate and public assistance rate were found. The suicide rate was negatively associated with the marriage rate in some areas. The suicide rate of elderly women was strongly associated with the number of persons per household. The notable relation was found between the suicide rate of middle-aged men and the job application rate for 1980-99. The inverse relation between the suicide rate of elderly women and the number of persons per household was noteworthy.

  17. PREFACE: International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP'07)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobie, Randall; Tafirout, Reda; Thomson, Jana

    2007-07-01

    The 2007 International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) was held on 2-7 September 2007 in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. CHEP is a major series of international conferences for physicists and computing professionals from the High Energy and Nuclear Physics community, Computer Science and Information Technology. The CHEP conference provides an international forum to exchange information on computing experience and needs for the community, and to review recent, ongoing, and future activities. The CHEP'07 conference had close to 500 attendees with a program that included plenary sessions of invited oral presentations, a number of parallel sessions comprising oral and poster presentations, and an industrial exhibition. Conference tracks covered topics in Online Computing, Event Processing, Software Components, Tools and Databases, Software Tools and Information Systems, Computing Facilities, Production Grids and Networking, Grid Middleware and Tools, Distributed Data Analysis and Information Management and Collaborative Tools. The conference included a successful whale-watching excursion involving over 200 participants and a banquet at the Royal British Columbia Museum. The next CHEP conference will be held in Prague in March 2009. We would like thank the sponsors of the conference and the staff at the TRIUMF Laboratory and the University of Victoria who made the CHEP'07 a success. Randall Sobie and Reda Tafirout CHEP'07 Conference Chairs

  18. The Neutron, a Tool and an Object for Fundamental and Nuclear Physics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research institute which operates the currently most powerful source of neutrons in the world, a 58 MW reactor. The neutron beams provided by the reactor feed a broad range of instruments which are dedicated to a wide variety of research activities. The majority of instruments are dedicated to the study of solid-state physics, materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, and earth sciences. However, nuclear and low energy particle physics studies are also vigorously pursued with the aid of neutrons. The talk will mainly concentrate on this latter aspect. We make use of hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons with velocities of between a few kilometers and a few meters per second, corresponding to kinetic energies in the electronvolt-to-nanoelectronvolt range. It will be briefly discussed how thermal neutrons can be used to investigate the structure and behavior of nuclei by generating excited nuclear states. The main part of the talk will be dedicated...

  19. Physical aspects of quality assurance in nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, regulatory approach of the National Nuclear Safety Center; Aspectos fisicos de garantia de calidad en medicina nuclear y radioterapia. Enfoque regulatorio del centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez C, D.; Fuente P, A. de la; Quevedo G, J.R.; Lopez F, Y. [CNSN, Calle 28 No. 504 e/5 y 7, Ave. Miramar, La Habana (Cuba); Varela C, C. [CCEEM, Calle 4 No. 455 e/19 y 21, Ave. Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: cruz@orasen.co.cu

    2006-07-01

    The physical aspects of the quality guarantee in Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy its are of cardinal importance to guarantee the quality of the diagnoses and treatments that are carried out to the patients in this type of services. The OIEA, the OMS and other scientific and professional organizations have contributed significantly to the elaboration of recommendations, Protocols, etc. applicable in the quality control programs and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. In spite of the great effort developed in this sense the Installation of the programs of quality control and safety of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments can fail if the same ones are not based in three decisive elements that are: the existence of national regulations, the existence of the infrastructure required for it and the existence of enough qualified personnel to develop this programs. The present work shows the regulatory focus that on this topic, it has followed the National Center of Nuclear Safety of Cuba (CNSN). The same left of strengthen all the existent Synergies in the different organizations of the country and it went in two fundamental directions: installation of the regulatory requirements that govern this activity and the Authorization of a Cuban Entity, specialized in carrying out audits to the quality control and safety programs of the Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy departments. After 4 work years in this direction, the results confirm the validity of the experience developed by the CNSN, at the moment all the services of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy of Cuba possess quality control and safety programs, these programs are annually Auditing by an Authorized entity by the CNSN and the Inspectors of the Regulatory Authority, control, during the inspections, the one execution of the established requirements in the national regulations. The work developed so far can serve, modestly, of reference to others countries of Latin America that

  20. Final Report: 06-LW-013, Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, W E

    2009-03-01

    This is document reports the progress and accomplishments achieved in 2006-2007 with LDRD funding under the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. The project was a theoretical study to explore a novel approach to dealing with a persistent problem in Monte Carlo approaches to quantum many-body systems. The goal was to implement a solution to the notorious 'sign-problem', which if successful, would permit, for the first time, exact solutions to quantum many-body systems that cannot be addressed with other methods. In this document, we outline the progress and accomplishments achieved during FY2006-2007 with LDRD funding in the proposal 06-LW-013, 'Nuclear Physics the Monte Carlo Way'. This project was funded under the Lab Wide LDRD competition at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary objective of this project was to test the feasibility of implementing a novel approach to solving the generic quantum many-body problem, which is one of the most important problems being addressed in theoretical physics today. Instead of traditional methods based matrix diagonalization, this proposal focused a Monte Carlo method. The principal difficulty with Monte Carlo methods, is the so-called 'sign problem'. The sign problem, which will discussed in some detail later, is endemic to Monte Carlo approaches to the quantum many-body problem, and is the principal reason that they have not been completely successful in the past. Here, we outline our research in the 'shifted-contour method' applied the Auxiliary Field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method.

  1. Influence of the 2009 financial crisis on detection of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city, Japan: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Danno, Katsura; Komukai, Jun; Yoshida, Hideki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Koda, Shinichi; Terakawa, Kazuhiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between the economic recession and the detection of advanced cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Osaka city from 2007 to 2009. Design A repeated cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka city has been the highest tuberculosis burden area in Japan. After the previous global financial crisis, the unemployment rate in Osaka prefecture has deteriorated from 5.3% in 2008 to 6.6% in 2009. Participants During the study period, 3406 pulmonary tuberculosis cases were...

  2. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.; Goriely, S.; Takahashi, K.

    2007-09-01

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. Fission probabilities of very neutron-rich actinides have also to be known in order to determine the most massive nuclei that have a chance to be involved in the r-process. Even the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter may enter the problem. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. The ultimate goal of r-process studies is clearly to identify realistic sites for the development of the r-process. Here too, the challenge is enormous, and the solution still eludes us. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envisioned as the privileged r-process location. We present a brief summary of the one- or multidimensional spherical or non-spherical explosion simulations available to-date. Their predictions are confronted with the requirements imposed to obtain an r-process. The possibility of r-nuclide synthesis during the decompression of the matter of neutron stars following their merging is also discussed. Given the uncertainties remaining on the astrophysical r-process site and on the involved nuclear physics, any confrontation between predicted r

  3. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnould, M. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: marnould@astro.ulb.ac.be; Goriely, S.; Takahashi, K. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP226, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-09-15

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. Fission probabilities of very neutron-rich actinides have also to be known in order to determine the most massive nuclei that have a chance to be involved in the r-process. Even the properties of asymmetric nuclear matter may enter the problem. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. The ultimate goal of r-process studies is clearly to identify realistic sites for the development of the r-process. Here too, the challenge is enormous, and the solution still eludes us. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envisioned as the privileged r-process location. We present a brief summary of the one- or multidimensional spherical or non-spherical explosion simulations available to-date. Their predictions are confronted with the requirements imposed to obtain an r-process. The possibility of r-nuclide synthesis during the decompression of the matter of neutron stars following their merging is also discussed. Given the uncertainties remaining on the astrophysical r-process site and on the involved nuclear physics, any confrontation between predicted r

  4. M and c'99 : Mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications, Madrid, September 27-30, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragones, J. M.; Ahnert, C.; Cabellos, O.

    1999-07-01

    The international conference on mathematics and computation, reactor physics and environmental analysis in nuclear applications in the biennial topical meeting of the mathematics and computation division of the American Nuclear Society. (Author)

  5. Highly excited states in nuclear reactions. [Osaka Univ. , Japan, May 12-16, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. (eds.)

    1980-07-01

    Three of the 62 papers in this volume have already been processed for inclusion in the energy data base; these may be found by reference to the entry CONF-800540-- in the Report Number Index. The remaining papers will be entered into the data base as they are received from INIS. (RWR)

  6. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  7. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  8. Thermal-hydraulics, physical chemistry, and technology at nuclear power stations equipped with fast-neutron sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Efanov, A. D.; Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2007-12-01

    Main results of investigations aimed at developing a verified system of computer codes that take into account the interrelation among nuclear-physical, thermal-hydraulic, physicochemical, thermal-mechanical, mass-transfer, and technological processes in nuclear power installations and at substantiating the models used as the core of these codes are presented together with the results of tests carried out to obtain data for verifying the codes.

  9. Development of a High- Brightness, Quasi- Monoenergetic Neutron Source at LLNL for Nuclear Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Anderson, S. G.; Bleuel, D.; Fitsos, P. J.; Gibson, D.; Hall, J. M.; Marsh, R.; Rusnak, B.

    2016-09-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing a high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic neutron source. The intensity of the neutron source is expected to be 1011 n/s/sr with energies between 7 MeV and 10 MeV at 5% bandwidth at 0-degrees. This energy region is important for the study of neutron-induced reactions, nuclear astrophysics, and nuclear structure. For example, for neutrons between 1 and 10 MeV, the capturing states are below the GDR in many nuclei and the dominant reactions are compound and direct capture. The intensity and energy selection of the source makes it appealing for measurements of sparse targets at specific energies. We will present an array of nuclear physics measurements that will benefit from this source. The source is also of interest to generating activated targets for decay-out studies or for target production for other reaction-based measurements, e.g. fusion-evaporation reactions. Other usage examples include practical applications for imaging of very dense objects such as machine parts. For this presentation, we will discuss our method to use (d,n) production reaction on deuterium in a windowless gas target system. This approach is required because of the large power of the 7 MeV, 300 μA deuteron beams. We will discuss our facility and its capabilities. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Implementation status of the extreme light infrastructure - nuclear physics (ELI-NP) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gales, S., E-mail: sydney.gales@eli-np.ro; Zamfir, N. V., E-mail: sydney.gales@eli-np.ro [ELI-NP, Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, 30 Reactorului Street, RO-077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    The Project Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) is part of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) Roadmap. ELI will be built as a network of three complementary pillars at the frontier of laser technologies. The ELI-NP pillar (NP for Nuclear Physics) is under construction near Bucharest (Romania) and will develop a scientific program using two 10 PW lasers and a Compton back-scattering high-brilliance and intense gamma beam, a marriage of laser and accelerator technology at the frontier of knowledge. In the present paper, the technical description of the facility, the present status of the project as well as the science, applications and future perspectives will be discussed.

  13. Designing a Modern Low Cost Muon Detector to Teach Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Carly; Kotler, Julia

    2016-09-01

    In an effort to make it possible for small institutions to train students in nuclear physics, an attempt is made to design a low cost cosmic ray muon detector (perhaps under 600 dollars) capable of measuring flux vs. solid angle and muon lifetime. In order to expose students to current particle detection technologies, silicon photomultipliers will be coupled with plastic scintillator to provide the signals, and an Arduino, Raspberry Pi, or National Instruments device will interface with the detector. Once designed and built, prototypes of the detector will be used in outreach to K-12 students in the Allentown, PA area. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1507841.

  14. An R-matrix package for coupled-channel problems in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Descouvemont, P

    2015-01-01

    We present an $R$-matrix Fortran package to solve coupled-channel problems in nuclear physics. The basis functions are chosen as Lagrange functions, which permits simple calculations of the matrix elements. The main input are the coupling potentials at some nucleus-nucleus distances, specified by the program. The program provides the collision matrix and, optionally, the associated wave function. The present method deals with open and closed channels simultaneously, without numerical instability associated with closed channels. It can also solve coupled-channel problems for non-local potentials. Long-range potentials can be treated with propagation techniques, which significantly speed up the calculations. We first present an overview of the $R$-matrix theory, and of the Lagrange-mesh method. A description of the package and its installation on a UNIX machine is then provided. Finally, five typical examples are discussed.

  15. AMS at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan-Sion, C.; Ivascu, M.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Marinescu, L.; Radulescu, M.; Nolte, E.

    2000-10-01

    A new beam line and injector deck for AMS measurements have been built at the 8 MV tandem accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania. The main components on the low-energy side are a high-current cesium sputter source, a 90° injection magnet and a pre-acceleration stage. At the high-energy side the beam line is achromatic, consisting of two 90° analysing magnets with mass energy product 120 MeV amu and a gas-filled ionization chamber. The system will be complete with a Wien filter and a multi-anode gas detector with time-of-flight discrimination. Presently, the AMS facility is undergoing tests and routine measurements are expected to start soon.

  16. AMS at the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering in Bucharest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stan-Sion, C. E-mail: stansion@ifin.nipne.ro; Ivascu, M.; Plostinaru, D.; Catana, D.; Marinescu, L.; Radulescu, M.; Nolte, E

    2000-10-01

    A new beam line and injector deck for AMS measurements have been built at the 8 MV tandem accelerator of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania. The main components on the low-energy side are a high-current cesium sputter source, a 90 deg. injection magnet and a pre-acceleration stage. At the high-energy side the beam line is achromatic, consisting of two 90 deg. analysing magnets with mass energy product 120 MeV amu and a gas-filled ionization chamber. The system will be complete with a Wien filter and a multi-anode gas detector with time-of-flight discrimination. Presently, the AMS facility is undergoing tests and routine measurements are expected to start soon.

  17. Continuous wave superconducting radio frequency electron linac for nuclear physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Charles E.

    2016-12-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, has been actively serving the nuclear physics research community as a unique forefront international resource since 1995. This cw electron linear accelerator (linac) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has continued to evolve as a precision tool for discerning the structure and dynamics within nuclei. Superconducting rf (SRF) technology has been the essential foundation for CEBAF, first as a 4 GeV machine, then 6 GeV, and currently capable of 12 GeV. We review the development, implementation, and performance of SRF systems for CEBAF from its early beginnings to the commissioning of the 12 GeV era.

  18. Associative memories in nuclear physics; Les memoires associatives en physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca, E.; Carriere, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire necessitent l'emploi de 'memoires' de grandes dimensions. Apres avoir montre les inconvenients que presente l'utilisation de telles memoires, les auteurs exposent les principes des diverses methodes de programmation qui permettent d'assurer un fonctionnement des memoires sur le mode associatif donc une reduction de leurs dimensions et un meilleur usage. Ils tentent d'evaluer le format d'une memoire associative cablee qui, contrairement a celles qui existent actuellement, serait prevue specialement pour l'experimentation nucleaire. (auteurs)

  19. A new physics-based method for detecting weak nuclear signals via spectral decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Kung-Sik, E-mail: kung-sik-chan@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Li, Jinzheng, E-mail: jinzheng-li@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Eichinger, William, E-mail: william-eichinger@uiowa.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Bai, Erwei, E-mail: er-wei-bai@uiowa.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new physics-based method to determine the presence of the spectral signature of one or more nuclides from a poorly resolved spectra with weak signatures. The method is different from traditional methods that rely primarily on peak finding algorithms. The new approach considers each of the signatures in the library to be a linear combination of subspectra. These subspectra are obtained by assuming a signature consisting of just one of the unique gamma rays emitted by the nuclei. We propose a Poisson regression model for deducing which nuclei are present in the observed spectrum. In recognition that a radiation source generally comprises few nuclear materials, the underlying Poisson model is sparse, i.e. most of the regression coefficients are zero (positive coefficients correspond to the presence of nuclear materials). We develop an iterative algorithm for a penalized likelihood estimation that prompts sparsity. We illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method by simulations using a variety of poorly resolved, low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations, which show that the proposed approach enjoys excellent empirical performance even with SNR as low as to -15 db.

  20. The r-process of stellar nucleosynthesis: Astrophysics and nuclear physics achievements and mysteries

    CERN Document Server

    Arnould, M; Takahashi, K

    2007-01-01

    The r-process, or the rapid neutron-capture process, of stellar nucleosynthesis is called for to explain the production of the stable (and some long-lived radioactive) neutron-rich nuclides heavier than iron that are observed in stars of various metallicities, as well as in the solar system. A very large amount of nuclear information is necessary in order to model the r-process. This concerns the static characteristics of a large variety of light to heavy nuclei between the valley of stability and the vicinity of the neutron-drip line, as well as their beta-decay branches or their reactivity. The enormously challenging experimental and theoretical task imposed by all these requirements is reviewed, and the state-of-the-art development in the field is presented. Nuclear-physics-based and astrophysics-free r-process models of different levels of sophistication have been constructed over the years. We review their merits and their shortcomings. For long, the core collapse supernova of massive stars has been envi...

  1. The design of high-speed data transmission method for a small nuclear physics DAQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenxiong; Nan, Gangyang; Zhang, Jianchuan

    2013-01-01

    A large number of data need to be transmitted in high-speed between Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Advanced RISC Machines 11 micro-controller (ARM11) when we design a small data acquisition (DAQ) system for nuclear experiments. However, it is a complex problem to beat the target. In this paper, we will introduce a method which can realize the high-speed data transmission. By this way, FPGA is designed to acquire massive data from Front-end electronics (FEE) and send it to ARM11, which will transmit the data to other computer through the TCP/IP protocol. This paper mainly introduces the interface design of the high-speed transmission between FPGA and ARM11, the transmission logic of FPGA and the driver program of ARM11. The research shows that the maximal transmission speed between FPGA and ARM11 by this way can reach 50MB/s theoretically, while in nuclear physics experiment, the system can acquire data with the speed of 2.2MB/s.

  2. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O; Derome, L; Pignol, G

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  3. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourrion, O.; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-01

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  4. Physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project; La physique de la fusion thermonucleaire et le projet ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garin, P. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee - DRFC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the 6 contributions to the workshop 'the physics of thermo-nuclear fusion and the ITER project': 1) the feasibility of magnetic confinement and the issue of heat recovery, 2) heating and current generation in tokamaks, 3) the physics of wall-plasma interaction, 4) recent results at JET, 5) inertial confinement and fast ignition, and 6) the technology of fusion machines based on magnetic confinement. This document presents the principles of thermo-nuclear fusion machines and gives a lot of technical information about JET, Tore-Supra and ITER.

  5. UCTM2: An updated User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourrion, O., E-mail: olivier.bourrion@lpsc.in2p3.fr; Boyer, B.; Derome, L.; Pignol, G.

    2016-06-11

    We developed a highly integrated and versatile electronic module to equip small nuclear physics experiments and lab teaching classes: the User friendly Configurable Trigger, scaler and delay Module for nuclear and particle physics (UCTM). It is configurable through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and provides a large number of possible trigger conditions without any Hardware Description Language (HDL) required knowledge. This new version significantly enhances the previous capabilities by providing two additional features: signal digitization and time measurements. The design, performances and a typical application are presented.

  6. Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic-power engineering and nuclear technologies : LXIV international conference «Nucleus 2014», July 1-4, 2014, Minsk, Belarus (LXIV meeting on nuclear spectroscopy and nuclear structure) : Book of abstracts / Editor А.К. Vlasnikov.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonou and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spui and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, reactions with radioactive nuclear beams, heavy ions, nucleons and elementary particles, fusion and fission of nuclei, manybody problem in nuclear physics, m...

  7. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, H., E-mail: baba@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ota, S.; Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

    2015-03-21

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  8. Time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments at RIKEN RIBF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, H.; Ichihara, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Yoshida, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ota, S.; Shimoura, S.; Yoshinaga, K.

    2015-03-01

    A time-stamping system for nuclear physics experiments has been introduced at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Individual trigger signals can be applied for separate data acquisition (DAQ) systems. After the measurements are complete, separately taken data are merged based on the time-stamp information. In a typical experiment, coincidence trigger signals are formed from multiple detectors to take desired events only. The time-stamping system allows the use of minimum bias triggers. Since coincidence conditions are given by software, a variety of physics events can be flexibly identified. The live time for a DAQ system is important when attempting to determine reaction cross-sections. However, the combined live time for separate DAQ systems is not clearly known because it depends not only on the DAQ dead time but also on the coincidence conditions. Using the proposed time-stamping system, all trigger timings can be acquired, so that the combined live time can be easily determined. The combined live time is also estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the results are compared with the directly measured values in order to assess the accuracy of the simulation.

  9. Trends and Progress in Nuclear and Hadron Physics: A Straight or Winding Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, James P.; Adhikari, Lekha; Chen, Guangyao; Li, Meijian; Li, Yang; Maris, Pieter; Qian, Wenyang; Spence, John R.; Tang, Shuo; Tuchin, Kirill; Zhao, Xingbo

    2017-03-01

    Quantitative calculations of the properties of hadrons and nuclei, with assessed uncertainties, have emerged as competitive with experimental measurements in a number of major cases. We may well be entering an era where theoretical predictions are critical for experimental progress. Cross-fertilization between the fields of relativistic hadronic structure and non-relativistic nuclear structure is readily apparent. Non-perturbative renormalization methods such as similarity renormalization group and Okubo-Lee-Suzuki schemes as well as many-body methods such as coupled cluster, configuration interaction and lattice simulation methods are now employed and advancing in both major areas of physics. New algorithms to apply these approaches on supercomputers are shared among these areas of physics. The roads to success have intertwined with each community taking the lead at various times in the recent past. We briefly sketch these fascinating paths and comment on some symbiotic relationships. We also overview some recent results from the Hamiltonian basis light-front quantization approach.

  10. Particle Physics Models for the 17 MeV Anomaly in Beryllium Nuclear Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Jonathan L; Galon, Iftah; Gardner, Susan; Smolinsky, Jordan; Tait, Tim M P; Tanedo, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The 6.8$\\sigma$ anomaly in excited 8Be nuclear decays via internal pair creation is fit well by a new particle interpretation. In a previous analysis, we showed that a 17 MeV protophobic gauge boson provides a particle physics explanation of the anomaly consistent with all existing constraints. Here we begin with a review of the physics of internal pair creation in 8Be decays and the characteristics of the observed anomaly. To develop its particle interpretation, we provide an effective operator analysis for excited 8Be decays to particles with a variety of spins and parities and show that these considerations exclude simple models with scalar or pseudoscalar particles. We discuss the required couplings for a gauge boson to give the observed signal, highlighting the significant dependence on the precise mass of the boson and isospin mixing and breaking effects. We present anomaly-free extensions of the Standard Model that contain protophobic gauge bosons with the desired couplings to explain the 8Be anomaly. ...

  11. Detecting urbanization effects on surface and subsurface thermal environment--a case study of Osaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaopeng; Taniguchi, Makoto; Yamano, Makoto; Wang, Chung-ho

    2009-04-15

    Tremendous efforts have been devoted to improve our understanding of the anthropogenic effects on the atmospheric temperature change. In comparison, little has been done in the study of the human impacts on the subsurface thermal environment. The objective of this study is to analyze surface air temperature records and borehole subsurface temperature records for a better understanding of the urban heat island effects across the ground surface. The annual surface air temperature time series from six meteorological stations and six deep borehole temperature profiles of high qualities show that Osaka has been undergoing excess warming since late 19th century. The mean warming rate in Osaka surface air temperature is about 2.0 degrees C/100a over the period from 1883 to 2006, at least half of which can be attributed to the urban heat island effects. However, this surface air temperature warming is not as strong as the ground warming recorded in the subsurface temperature profiles. The surface temperature anomaly from the Osaka meteorological record can only account for part of the temperature anomaly recorded in the borehole temperature profiles. Surface air temperature is conventionally measured around 1.5 m above the ground; whereas borehole temperatures are measured from rocks in the subsurface. Heat conduction in the subsurface is much less efficient than the heat convection of the air above the ground surface. Therefore, the anthropogenic thermal impacts on the subsurface can be more persistent and profound than the impacts on the atmosphere. This study suggests that the surface air temperature records alone might underestimate the full extent of urban heat island effects on the subsurface environment.

  12. The Spanish system of Physical Security of the facilities, activities and radioactive nuclear fuels; El sistema Espanol de Seguridad Fisica de las instalaciones, actividades y materiales nucleares radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, E.; Gutierrez, M.

    2008-07-01

    The use of nuclear and radioactive materials has, from the very beginning, been characterized by the implementation of significant safety measures that are developed in parallel to the technology itself. The two facets of nuclear safety technological and physical have evolved at the same time as the technological advances, and also in terms of the social environment and awareness. Thus, the TMI and Chernobyl accidents were an important incentive for the evolution of technological safety, and the new context of the need for overall safety is providing the impetus for the evolution of physical security around the world. In Spain this impetus has materialized in the design and implementation of a physical security system for nuclear and radioactive installations, activities and materials, and putting it into practice has required the joint efforts of the public authorities and the private sector. The system is developed on the basis of three main components: installation protection, crime prevention, and preparation of the response to emergency situations caused by criminals acts. It is complemented by a series of horizontal actions aimed at improving institutional coordination, international collaboration, training of the agents involved in its implementation, and updating of the applicable regulatory framework. (Author)

  13. 78 FR 79017 - Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Zion Solutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Physical... shut down facility and responsibility for its decommissioning was transferred to ZionSolutions (ZS), a subsidiary of EnergySolutions. ZS was established solely for the purpose of acquiring and decommissioning...

  14. Nuclear fuel cycle: estimation of physical impacts and monetary valuation for priority pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-02-01

    The decision-making process for setting future energy policy requires a large range of information. An important component in this process is the comparison of the various costs incurred by the different types of energy systems. Among these costs are those that the production and consumption of energy impose on society as a whole. Some of which are borne by the producers and consumers of the energy. However, other social costs have not been internalized in the costing structure of the various fuel cycle, and therefore have not been fully considered in the past. These costs are referred to as external costs. The aim of the ExternE project is the computation of these external costs using a common methodology and the design of a unified framework for the presentation of the results. For direct comparison to be made between energy options, it is necessary that a common approach is taken. Two important categories of physical impacts that potentially fall into the classification of external costs are human health effects and environmental impacts. This report presents a methodology for an assessment of the nuclear fuel cycle that could be applied anywhere in Europe, however in this report, whenever possible, site-specific information for France has been used. The first phase of this project was a joint European Community/U.S. Department of Energy effort and the final results for the priority pathways of the nuclear fuel cycle presented in this document have been compared to the preliminary results reported by the US team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Physics for future Presidents - nuclear power, terrorism, global warming; La physique expliquee a notre futur president - Nucleaire, terrorisme, rechauffement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.

    2011-04-26

    This book explains the science behind the concerns that our nation faces in the immediate future. It outlines the tools of terrorists, the dangers of nuclear power, and the reality of global warming. As citizens who will elect future presidents of the most powerful and influential countries in the world, we need to know-truly understand if Iran's nascent nuclear capability is a genuine threat to the West, if biochemical weapons are likely to be developed by terrorists, if there are viable alternatives to fossil fuels that should be nurtured and supported by the government, if nuclear power should be encouraged, and if global warming is actually happening. This book is written in everyday, nontechnical language on the science behind the concerns that our nations faces in the immediate future. This book is translated from 'Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines', published by W. W. Norton and Company in August 2008. Contents: 1 - Terrorism: Nine-eleven, Terrorist nukes, The next terrorist attack, Biological terrorism; 2 - Energy: Key energy surprises, Solar Power, The end of oil; 3 - Nukes: Radioactivity and death, Radioactive decay, Nuclear weapons, Nuclear madness, Nuclear power, Nuclear waste, Controlled fusion; 4 - Space: Space and satellites, Gravity applications, Humans in space, Spying with invisible light; 5 - Global Warming: A brief history of climate, The greenhouse effect, A very likely cause, Evidence, Non-solutions, The fruit on the ground, New technologies

  16. Internet end-to-end performance monitoring for the High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-02-22

    Modern High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics (HENP) experiments at Laboratories around the world present a significant challenge to wide area networks. Petabytes (1015) or exabytes (1018) of data will be generated during the lifetime of the experiment. Much of this data will be distributed via the Internet to the experiment's collaborators at Universities and Institutes throughout the world for analysis. In order to assess the feasibility of the computing goals of these and future experiments, the HENP networking community is actively monitoring performance across a large part of the Internet used by its collaborators. Since 1995, the pingER project has been collecting data on ping packet loss and round trip times. In January 2000, there are 28 monitoring sites in 15 countries gathering data on over 2,000 end-to-end pairs. HENP labs such as SLAC, Fermi Lab and CERN are using Advanced Network's Surveyor project and monitoring performance from one-way delay of UDP packets. More recently several HENP sites have become involved with NLANR's active measurement program (AMP). In addition SLAC and CERN are part of the RIPE test-traffic project and SLAC is home for a NIMI machine. The large End-to-end performance monitoring infrastructure allows the HENP networking community to chart long term trends and closely examine short term glitches across a wide range of networks and connections. The different methodologies provide opportunities to compare results based on different protocols and statistical samples. Understanding agreement and discrepancies between results provides particular insight into the nature of the network. This paper will highlight the practical side of monitoring by reviewing the special needs of High Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics experiments and provide an overview of the experience of measuring performance across a large number of interconnected networks throughout the world with various methodologies. In particular, results

  17. Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle Power Conversion Design, Physical Performance Estimation and Economic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreades, Charalampos

    The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The

  18. Reactor physics analysis for the design of nuclear fuel lattices with burnable poisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa-Paredes, G. [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Guzman, Juan R., E-mail: maestro_juan_rafael@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Adolfo Lopez Mateos, San Pedro Zacatenco, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A fuel rod optimization for the coupled bundle-core design in a BWR is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An algorithm to minimize the rod power peaking factor is used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fissile content is divided in two factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reactor physics analysis of these factors is performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The algorithm is applied to a typical BWR fuel lattice. - Abstract: The main goals in nuclear fuel lattice design are: (1) minimizing the rod power peaking factor (PPF) in order that the power level distribution is the most uniform; (2) obtaining a prescribed target value for the multiplication factor (k) at the end of the irradiation in order that the fuel lattice reaches the desired reactivity; and (3) obtaining a prescribed target value for the k at the beginning of the irradiation in order that the reactivity excess is neither a high value (to ease the maneuvering of the control systems) nor a low value (to avoid the penalization of the high cost of the burnable poison content). In this work a simple algorithm to design the burnable poison bearing nuclear fuel lattice is presented. This algorithm is based on a reactor physics analysis. The algorithm is focused on finding the radial distribution of the fuel rods having different fissile and burnable poison contents in order to obtain: (1) an adequate minimum PPF; (2) a prescribed target value of the k at the end of the irradiation; and (3) a prescribed target value of the k at the beginning of the irradiation. This algorithm is based on the factorization of the fissile and burnable poison contents of each fuel rod and on the application of the first-order perturbation theory. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated with the design of a fuel lattice composed of uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) and gadolinium dioxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for boiling water reactors (BWR). This algorithm has been accomplished

  19. Nanocommunication design in graduate-level education and research training programs at Osaka University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Mizuki; An, SoonHwa; Ata, Masafumi

    2014-09-01

    After more than ten years of strategic investment research and development supported by government policies on science and technology, nanotechnology in Japan is making a transition from the knowledge creation stage of exploratory research to the stage of making the outcomes available for the benefit of society as a whole. Osaka University has been proactive in discussions about the relationship between nanotechnology and society as part of graduate and continuing education programs. These programs are intended to fulfill the social accountability obligation of scientists and corporations involved in R&D, and to deepen their understanding of the relationship between science and society. To meet those aims, the program has covered themes relating to overall public engagement relating to nanotechnology governance, such as risk management of nanomaterials, international standardization for nanotechnology, nanomeasurement, intellectual property management in an open innovation environment, and interactive communication with society. Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science and technology. This paper reports and comments on initiatives for public engagement on nanotechnology at Osaka University's Institute for NanoScience Design, which aims to create new technologies based on nanotechnology that can help realize a sustainable society.

  20. Centro comercial Daiei Nakamozu Sakal Osaka – Japón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Komuten Co., Ltd., Arquitectos e ingenieros

    1974-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a brief description of the lay out and essential characteristics of this Shopping Centre in Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. It consists of two storeys and basement for the part to be used as a supermarket, shops and swimmingpool and of three storeys and basement in the bank section. The basement is used as a parking lot which together with the space above ground accommodates 1,200 units. A great contrasting effect is achieved by using reinforced concrete for the structure and glass for the roofs and the large vertical surfaces.Se describen brevemente en este artículo la distribución y características esenciales de este Centro Comercial, situado en Nakamozu-cho, Sakai, Osaka. Está constituido por dos plantas y sótano en la parte de supermercado, tiendas y piscina, y por tres plantas y sótano en la zona destinada a banco. El sótano está ocupado por un aparcamiento que, con las plazas de superficie, alcanza las 1.200 unidades. La construcción se ha realizado con estructuras de hormigón armado, contrastando con cubiertas y grandes superficies verticales acristaladas.

  1. The MaPLE device of Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics: construction and its plasma aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rabindranath; Biswas, Subir; Basu, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Monobir; Basu, Debjyoti; Chaudhuri, Manis; Chowdhuri, Manis

    2010-07-01

    The Magnetized Plasma Linear Experimental (MaPLE) device is a low cost laboratory plasma device at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics fabricated in-house with the primary aim of studying basic plasma physics phenomena such as plasma instabilities, wave propagation, and their nonlinear behavior in magnetized plasma regime in a controlled manner. The machine is specially designed to be a versatile laboratory device that can provide a number of magnetic and electric scenario to facilitate such studies. A total of 36 number of 20-turn magnet coils, designed such as to allow easy handling, is capable of producing a uniform, dc magnetic field of about 0.35 T inside the plasma chamber of diameter 0.30 m. Support structure of the coils is planned in an innovative way facilitating straightforward fabrication and easy positioning of the coils. Further special feature lies in the arrangement of the spacers between the coils that can be maneuvered rather easily to create different magnetic configurations. Various methods of plasma production can be suitably utilized according to the experimental needs at either end of the vacuum vessel. In the present paper, characteristics of a steady state plasma generated by electron cyclotron resonance method using 2.45 GHz microwave power are presented. Scans using simple probe drives revealed that a uniform and long plasma column having electron density approximately 3-5x10(10) cm(-3) and temperature approximately 7-10 eV, is formed in the center of the plasma chamber which is suitable for wave launching experiments.

  2. PREFACE: 21st International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, H.; Bonacorsi, D.; Ueda, I.; Lyon, A.

    2015-12-01

    The International Conference on Computing in High Energy and Nuclear Physics (CHEP) is a major series of international conferences intended to attract physicists and computing professionals to discuss on recent developments and trends in software and computing for their research communities. Experts from the high energy and nuclear physics, computer science, and information technology communities attend CHEP events. This conference series provides an international forum to exchange experiences and the needs of a wide community, and to present and discuss recent, ongoing, and future activities. At the beginning of the successful series of CHEP conferences in 1985, the latest developments in embedded systems, networking, vector and parallel processing were presented in Amsterdam. The software and computing ecosystem massively evolved since then, and along this path each CHEP event has marked a step further. A vibrant community of experts on a wide range of different high-energy and nuclear physics experiments, as well as technology explorer and industry contacts, attend and discuss the present and future challenges, and shape the future of an entire community. In such a rapidly evolving area, aiming to capture the state-of-the-art on software and computing through a collection of proceedings papers on a journal is a big challenge. Due to the large attendance, the final papers appear on the journal a few months after the conference is over. Additionally, the contributions often report about studies at very heterogeneous statuses, namely studies that are completed, or are just started, or yet to be done. It is not uncommon that by the time a specific paper appears on the journal some of the work is over a year old, or the investigation actually happened in different directions and with different methodologies than originally presented at the conference just a few months before. And by the time the proceedings appear in journal form, new ideas and explorations have

  3. WE-D-213-04: Preparing for Parts 2 & 3 of the ABR Nuclear Medicine Physics Exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDougall, R. [Children’s Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Adequate, efficient preparation for the ABR Diagnostic and Nuclear Medical Physics exams is key to successfully obtain ABR professional certification. Each part of the ABR exam presents its own challenges: Part I: Determine the scope of basic medical physics study material, efficiently review this material, and solve related written questions/problems. Part II: Understand imaging principles, modalities, and systems, including image acquisition, processing, and display. Understand the relationship between imaging techniques, image quality, patient dose and safety, and solve related written questions/problems. Part III: Gain crucial, practical, clinical medical physics experience. Effectively communicate and explain the practice, performance, and significance of all aspects of clinical medical physics. All three parts of the ABR exam require specific skill sets and preparation: mastery of basic physics and imaging principles; written problem solving often involving rapid calculation; responding clearly and succinctly to oral questions about the practice, methods, and significance of clinical medical physics. This symposium focuses on the preparation and skill sets necessary for each part of the ABR exam. Although there is some overlap, the nuclear exam covers a different body of knowledge than the diagnostic exam. A separate speaker will address those aspects that are unique to the nuclear exam. Medical physicists who have recently completed each of part of the ABR exam will share their experiences, insights, and preparation methods to help attendees best prepare for the challenges of each part of the ABR exam. In accordance with ABR exam security policy, no recalls or exam questions will be discussed. Learning Objectives: How to prepare for Part 1 of the ABR exam by determining the scope of basic medical physics study material and related problem solving/calculations How to Prepare for Part 2 of the ABR exam by understanding diagnostic and/or nuclear imaging physics

  4. Intense, brilliant micro γ-beams in nuclear physics and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Gasilov, S.; Lang, C.; Thirolf, P. G.; Jentschel, M.; Diehl, R.; Schroer, C.; Barty, C. P. J.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2011-06-01

    900, we can obtain small spots for each of the beamlets. While focusing the beamlets to a much smaller spot size, we can bend them effectively with micro wedges to e.g. parallel beamlets. We can monochromatize these γ beamlets within the rocking curve of a common Laue crystal, using an additional angle selection by a collimator to reach a strongly reduced band width of 10-4 - 10-6. We propose the use of a further lens/wedge arrays or Bragg reflection to superimpose the beamlets to a very small total γ beam spot. Many experiments gain much from the high beam resolution and the smaller focal spot. This new γ optics requires high resolution diagnostics, where we want to optimize the focusing, using very thin target wires of a specific nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) isotope to monitor the focusing for the resonance energy. With such beams we can explore new nuclear physics of higher excited states with larger level densities. New phenomena, like the transition from chaotic to regular nuclear motion, weakly-bound halo states or states decaying by tunneling can be studied. The higher level density also allows to probe parity violating nuclear forces more sensitively. This γ optics improves many applications, like a more brilliant positron source, a more brilliant neutron source, higher specific activity of medical radioisotopes or NRF micro-imaging.

  5. Chemical and physical considerations of the use of nuclear fuel spikants for deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selle, J. E.

    1978-10-01

    One proposed method of inhibiting the diversion of nuclear fuel for clandestine purposes is to add to the fuel a highly gamma-active material of such intensity that remote handling equipment is necessary in all stages of handling and reprocessing. This is called spiking for deterrence. The present work sought to identify candidate spikants and identify potential materials problems that might occur as the result of incorporation of these spikants with the fuel. Potential spikants were identified and thermodynamic analysis was performed to determine their chemical and physical states. Phase relationships between spikants (and their decay products) and the fuel constituents were surveyed. According to criteria defined in this report, /sup 60/Co, /sup 106/Ru, and /sup 144/Ce appear to have the greatest potential as spikants. Cerium should be present as the oxide, soluble in the fuel, while cobalt and ruthenium should be present in the metallic state with very low solubility in the fuel. Experimental work on the distribution of fission products and their interactions with cladding was also surveyed to provide information on the distribution of spikants in the fuel and describe the probable effects of spikants on the fuel. Cobalt, ruthenium, and cerium should not present any problems due to reaction with stainless steel cladding.

  6. PREFACE: HITES 2012: 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments, and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, K. T.

    2012-12-01

    This volume contains the contributions of the speakers of an international conference in honor of Jerry Draayer's 70th birthday, entitled 'Horizons of Innovative Theories, Experiments and Supercomputing in Nuclear Physics'. The list of contributors includes not only international experts in these fields, but also many former collaborators, former graduate students, and former postdoctoral fellows of Jerry Draayer, stressing innovative theories such as special symmetries and supercomputing, both of particular interest to Jerry. The organizers of the conference intended to honor Jerry Draayer not only for his seminal contributions in these fields, but also for his administrative skills at departmental, university, national and international level. Signed: Ted Hecht University of Michigan Conference photograph Scientific Advisory Committee Ani AprahamianUniversity of Notre Dame Baha BalantekinUniversity of Wisconsin Bruce BarrettUniversity of Arizona Umit CatalyurekOhio State Unversity David DeanOak Ridge National Laboratory Jutta Escher (Chair)Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Jorge HirschUNAM, Mexico David RoweUniversity of Toronto Brad Sherill & Michigan State University Joel TohlineLouisiana State University Edward ZganjarLousiana State University Organizing Committee Jeff BlackmonLouisiana State University Mark CaprioUniversity of Notre Dame Tomas DytrychLouisiana State University Ana GeorgievaINRNE, Bulgaria Kristina Launey (Co-chair)Louisiana State University Gabriella PopaOhio University Zanesville James Vary (Co-chair)Iowa State University Local Organizing Committee Laura LinhardtLouisiana State University Charlie RascoLouisiana State University Karen Richard (Coordinator)Louisiana State University

  7. Thermocathode radio-frequency gun for the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V.; Getmanov, Ya.; Kenjebulatov, E.; Kolobanov, E.; Krutikhin, S.; Kurkin, G.; Ovchar, V.; Petrov, V. M.; Sedlyarov, I.

    2016-12-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) gun for a race-track microtron-recuperator injector driving the free-electron laser (FEL) (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics) is being tested at a special stand. Electron bunches of the RF gun have an energy of up to 300 keV and a repetition rate of up to 90 MHz. The average electro-beam current can reach 100 mA in the continuous operation regime. The advantages of the new injector are as follows: long lifetime of the cathode for high average beam current; simple scheme of longitudinal beam bunching, which does not require an additional bunching resonator in the injector; absence of dark-current contamination of the injector beam; and comfortable RF gun operation due to the absence of a high potential of 300 kV at the cathode control circuits. In this study we describe the RF gun design, present the main characteristics of the injector with the RF gun, and give the results of testing.

  8. Physical aspects of scintigraphy-based dosimetry for nuclear medicine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geworski, L.; Knoop, B.O. [Dept. of Radiation Protection and Medical Physics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Schaefer, A.; Kirsch, C.M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Saarland Univ. Medical Center, Homburg (Germany); Pinkert, J. [Bayer Vital GmbH, Leverkusen (Germany); Plotkin, M. [Clinic for Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Charitee, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In nuclear medicine therapy the treatment of tumours by radiation exposure from internally deposited labelled antibodies or labelled peptides is currently an active field of investigation. To permit the efficient delivery of high amounts of radiation dose to tumours while limiting the radiation dose to critical organs dosimetry calculations have to be performed. These are relying on scintigraphic data being input to the well known MIRD formalism. This paper focuses on the methods and the difficulties associated with the scintigraphic determination of organ kinetics. The physical properties of the well-known scintigraphic imaging modalities, PET, SPECT and planar scintigraphy, are discussed thereby taking into account the properties of the appropriate radionuclides currently being available for therapy and dosimetry. Several arguments are given and disputed for the limited clinical use of PET and SPECT in dosimetry and the ongoing preference of planar whole-body imaging as the method of choice. The quantitative restrictions still inherent to this method are also discussed in detail. Procedural recommendations are proposed covering all processes related to data acquisition, data correction and data analysis which finally lead to reliable estimations of organ dose. (orig.)

  9. The radioisotope complex project “RIC-80” at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panteleev, V. N., E-mail: vnp@pnpi.spb.ru; Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Molkanov, P. L.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M. [NRC “Kurchatov Institute” PNPI, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes {sup 82}Sr and {sup 223,224}Ra are also presented.

  10. John H. Williams Laboratory of Nuclear Physics, University of Minnesota annual report, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done at the Williams Laboratory of the University of Minnesota during the period from August 1975 through 1976. The major part of this report describes recent results and work in progress in the nuclear physics research program. Work involving beams of light ions and light element targets is followed by work using heavier targets and then the experiments using beams of oxygen and fluorine ions. This heavy ion work occupies a larger portion of our program than in previous reports. The investigation of L-subshell ionization cross sections for heavy element targets and the studies of hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts are briefly described. The improved operation of the tandem Van de Graaff resulting from the installation of a new set of acceleration tubes and other modifications is discussed. The current state of the testing of an on-line mass spectrometer and the installation of a source producing a beam of tritons is described. The final sections of this report list personnel, degrees granted, and publications of the staff. Separate indexing has been prepared for 10 sections of this report for appearance in ERA.

  11. XV and XVI SERC Main Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics held at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics and Harish-Chandra Research Institute

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Current research in High Energy Physics focuses on a number of enigmatic issues that go beyond the very successful Standard Model of particle physics. Among these are the problem of neutrino mass, the (as yet) unobserved Higgs particle, the quark-gluon plasma, quantum aspects of gravity, and the so--called hierarchy problem. Satisfactory resolution of these important questions will take much research effort in both theory and experiment. The Science & Engineering Research Council, Department of Science & Technology has sponsored a series of SERC Schools in Theoretical High Energy Physics over the past several years, to provide instruction and training to graduate students working for research degrees. This book is an outcome of the schools held at the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata in 2000, and at the Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad in 2001. Based on lectures by active researchers in the field---Rajiv Gavai, Debashis Ghoshal, Dileep Jatkar, Anjan Joshipura, Biswarup Mukhopadhy...

  12. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  13. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuri; Nakaya, Tomoki; Ioka, Akiko; Nakayama, Tomio; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Uehara, Shinichiro; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Endo, Ginji; Hayashi, Tomoshige

    2016-09-05

    In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004-2007. There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents.

  14. Investigation of Spatial Clustering of Biliary Tract Cancer Incidence in Osaka, Japan: Neighborhood Effect of a Printing Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Ito

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2013, an unusually high incidence of biliary tract cancer among current or former workers of the offset color proof printing department of a printing company in Osaka, Japan, was reported. The purpose of this study was to examine whether distance from the printing factory was associated with incidence of biliary tract cancer and whether incident biliary tract cancer cases clustered around the printing factory in Osaka using population-based cancer registry data. Methods: We estimated the age-standardized incidence ratio of biliary tract cancer according to distance from this printing factory. We also searched for clusters of biliary tract cancer incidence using spatial scan statistics. Results: We did not observe statistically significantly high or low standardized incidence ratios for residents in each area categorized by distance from the printing factory for the entire sample or for either sex. The scan statistics did not show any statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence anywhere in Osaka prefecture in 2004–2007. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant clustering of biliary tract cancer incidence around the printing factory or in any other areas in Osaka, Japan, between 2004 and 2007. To date, even if some substances have diffused outside this source factory, they do not appear to have influenced the incidence of biliary tract cancer in neighboring residents.

  15. Difficulties in Probing Nuclear Physics: A Study of $^{44}$Ti and $^{56}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Hungerford, Aimee; Timmes, Francis X; Young, Patrick; Bennett, Michael; Diehl, Steven; Herwig, Falk; Hirschi, Raphael; Pignatari, Marco; Magkotsios, Georgios; Rockefeller, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    The nucleosynthetic yield from a supernova explosion depends upon a variety of effects: progenitor evolution, explosion process, details of the nuclear network, and nuclear rates. Especially in studies of integrated stellar yields, simplifications reduce these uncertainties. But nature is much more complex, and to actually study nuclear rates, we will have to understand the full, complex set of processes involved in nucleosynthesis. Here we discuss a few of these complexities and detail how the NuGrid collaboration will address them.

  16. Safeguards-by-Design: Early Integration of Physical Protection and Safeguardability into Design of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bean; S. DeMuth; P. Durst; M. Ehinger; M. Golay; D. Hebditch; J. Hockert; J. Morgan

    2009-09-01

    The application of a Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process for new nuclear facilities has the potential to minimize proliferation and security risks as the use of nuclear energy expands worldwide. This paper defines a generic SBD process and its incorporation from early design phases into existing design / construction processes and develops a framework that can guide its institutionalization. SBD could be a basis for a new international norm and standard process for nuclear facility design. This work is part of the U.S. DOE’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), and is jointly sponsored by the Offices of Non-proliferation and Nuclear Energy.

  17. The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Paysics.Nuclear Paysic8and Cosmology was held on July 22-27,2007 in Lijiang,Yunan Province.Over 70 scientists who were activelv working in the fields attended the conference and 42 physicists gave talks.9 papers have been selected to be published in the proceedings.

  18. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  19. Program for upgrading nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting at all facilities within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuferev, V.; Zhikharev, S.; Yakimov, Y. [All-Russian Inst. of Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Department of Energy-Russian program for strengthening nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A), plans have now been formulated to install an integrated MPC and A system at all facilities containing large quantities of weapons-usable nuclear material within the All-Russian Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF, Arzamas-16) complex. In addition to storage facilities, the complex houses a number of critical facilities used to conduct nuclear physics research and facilities for developing procedures for disassembly of nuclear weapons.

  20. The nuclear physics input to astrophysics modelling, and the r- and p-processes: Where do we stand 50 years after B^2FH and Cameron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, M.

    2008-11-01

    This is a brief review of the progress made since the seminal contributions to the foundations of the theory of nucleosynthesis by M. Burbidge, G. Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, and by Cameron. The reviewed topics are (1) the nuclear physics input to the nucleosynthesis models (nuclear masses, fission, rates of β-decays, neutrino reactions, photoreactions, and nuclear charged particle-induced or neutron-induced reactions), (2) the nuclear physics and astrophysics aspects of the r-process, and (3) the same items for the p-process.